WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcontractors hasqard requirements

  1. Hanford analytical services quality assurance requirements documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1997-09-25

    Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD) is issued by the Analytical Services, Program of the Waste Management Division, US Department of Energy (US DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The HASQARD establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700.6C (DOE 1991b). The HASQARD is designed to meet the needs of DOE-RL for maintaining a consistent level of quality for sampling and field and laboratory analytical services provided by contractor and commercial field and laboratory analytical operations. The HASQARD serves as the quality basis for all sampling and field/laboratory analytical services provided to DOE-RL through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Management Division in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup efforts. This includes work performed by contractor and commercial laboratories and covers radiological and nonradiological analyses. The HASQARD applies to field sampling, field analysis, and research and development activities that support work conducted under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement and regulatory permit applications and applicable permit requirements described in subsections of this volume. The HASQARD applies to work done to support process chemistry analysis (e.g., ongoing site waste treatment and characterization operations) and research and development projects related to Hanford Site environmental cleanup activities. This ensures a uniform quality umbrella to analytical site activities predicated on the concepts contained in the HASQARD. Using HASQARD will ensure data of known quality and technical defensibility of the methods used to obtain that data. The HASQARD is made up of four volumes: Volume 1, Administrative Requirements; Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements; Volume 3, Field Analytical Technical Requirements; and Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements. Volume 1 describes the administrative requirements

  2. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  3. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  4. Considering Subcontractors in Distributed Scrum Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Jakub; Hammouda, Imed; Mikkola, Tuomas; Mustonen, Karri; Systä, Tarja

    In this chapter we present our experiences with working with subcontractors in distributed Scrum teams. The context of our experiences is a medium size software service provider company. We present the way the subcontractors are selected and how Scrum practices can be used in real-life projects. We discuss team arrangements and tools used in distributed development teams highlighting aspects that are important when working with subcontractors. We also present an illustrative example where different phases of a project working with subcontractors are described. The example also provides practical tips on work in such projects. Finally, we present a summary of our data that was collected from Scrum and non-Scrum projects implemented over a few years. This chapter should provide a practical point of view on working with subcontractors in Scrum teams for those who are considering such cooperation.

  5. Audit of controls over Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory subcontractor expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-22

    In January 1989 the Department of Energy contracted with Universities Research Association, Inc. to design, construct, manage, operate, and maintain the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. Through Fiscal Year 1992, costs for subcontractor goods and services accounted for about 75 percent of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory expenditures. The Office of Inspector General evaluated the adequacy of controls in place to ensure that subcontractor costs were reasonable, as required by the contract. The following conclusions were drawn from the audit. The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory did not consistently exercise prudent business judgment in making subcontractor expenditures. As a result, $60 million in expenditures already made and $128 million planned with commercial subcontractors were, in the authors opinion, unnecessary, excessive, or represented uncontrolled growth. The audit also found inadequate justifications, accountability, and cost controls over $143 million in expenditures made and $47 million planned with other Department of Energy laboratories. Improvements were needed in subcontract administration and internal controls, including appropriate audit coverage of the subcontracts. In addition, Department of Energy guidance concerning procurement actions between the laboratories needed to be established.

  6. Predicting subcontractor performance using web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Subcontractor performance directly affects project success. The use of inappropriate subcontractors may result in individual work delays, cost overruns, and quality defects throughout the project. This study develops web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks (EFNNs) to predict subcontractor performance. EFNNs are a fusion of Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Fuzzy Logic (FL), and Neural Networks (NNs). FL is primarily used to mimic high level of decision-making processes and deal with uncertainty in the construction industry. NNs are used to identify the association between previous performance and future status when predicting subcontractor performance. GAs are optimizing parameters required in FL and NNs. EFNNs encode FL and NNs using floating numbers to shorten the length of a string. A multi-cut-point crossover operator is used to explore the parameter and retain solution legality. Finally, the applicability of the proposed EFNNs is validated using real subcontractors. The EFNNs are evolved using 22 historical patterns and tested using 12 unseen cases. Application results show that the proposed EFNNs surpass FL and NNs in predicting subcontractor performance. The proposed approach improves prediction accuracy and reduces the effort required to predict subcontractor performance, providing field operators with web-based remote access to a reliable, scientific prediction mechanism.

  7. Predicting Subcontractor Performance Using Web-Based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractor performance directly affects project success. The use of inappropriate subcontractors may result in individual work delays, cost overruns, and quality defects throughout the project. This study develops web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks (EFNNs to predict subcontractor performance. EFNNs are a fusion of Genetic Algorithms (GAs, Fuzzy Logic (FL, and Neural Networks (NNs. FL is primarily used to mimic high level of decision-making processes and deal with uncertainty in the construction industry. NNs are used to identify the association between previous performance and future status when predicting subcontractor performance. GAs are optimizing parameters required in FL and NNs. EFNNs encode FL and NNs using floating numbers to shorten the length of a string. A multi-cut-point crossover operator is used to explore the parameter and retain solution legality. Finally, the applicability of the proposed EFNNs is validated using real subcontractors. The EFNNs are evolved using 22 historical patterns and tested using 12 unseen cases. Application results show that the proposed EFNNs surpass FL and NNs in predicting subcontractor performance. The proposed approach improves prediction accuracy and reduces the effort required to predict subcontractor performance, providing field operators with web-based remote access to a reliable, scientific prediction mechanism.

  8. 48 CFR 32.112-2 - Subcontractor requests for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor requests for... Subcontractor requests for information. (a) In accordance with Section 806(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102-190, as amended by Sections 2091 and 8105 of Pub. L. 103-355, upon the request of a subcontractor or supplier under a...

  9. Relative importance of subcontractor selection criteria: evidence from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, Florence Yean Yng; Tan, Jane S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Subcontractors carry out a large portion of the work done in construction projects. Thus, selecting the right subcontractor essentially contributes to the project's success. We designed a choice-based conjoint experiment to examine the relative importance of four criteria in the subcontractor

  10. 48 CFR 227.7203-15 - Subcontractor rights in computer software or computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-15 Subcontractor rights in computer software or computer software documentation. (a... computer software or computer software documentation. 227.7203-15 Section 227.7203-15 Federal Acquisition...

  11. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data...

  12. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and their workers if new workers are trained well in the work site and they are informed about dangerous places, and if a workable safety plan is well preplanned. The results also showed that reported accident rates increased among subcontractors when using old, unsafe equipment and due to the complexity or difficulty in the construction sites features. Owners and general contractors need to stipulate strict clauses for safety in the contract for improving safety record of subcontractors. Construction workers must receive proper job related safety and health training with a safety logbook. It is recommended that the subcontractors and workers should attend continuing safety programs on regular basis as part of their perquisite to work in construction sites.

  13. Minimizing Project Cost by Integrating Subcontractor Selection Decisions with Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Subcontracting has been a worldwide practice in the construction industry. It enables the construction enterprises to focus on their core competences and, at the same time, it makes complex project possible to be delivered. Since general contractors bear full responsibility for the works carried out by their subcontractors, it is their task and their risk to select a right subcontractor for a particular work. Although subcontractor management has been admitted to significantly affect the construction project’s performance, current practices and past research deal with subcontractor management and scheduling separately. The proposed model aims to support subcontracting decisions by integrating subcontractor selection with scheduling to enable the general contractor to select the optimal combination of subcontractors and own crews for all work packages of the project. The model allows for the interactions between the subcontractors and their impacts on the overall project performance in terms of cost and, indirectly, time and quality. The model is intended to be used at the general contractor’s bid preparation stage. The authors claim that the subcontracting decisions should be taken in a two-stage process. The first stage is a prequalification – provision of a short list of capable and reliable subcontractors; this stage is not the focus of the paper. The resulting pool of available resources is divided into two subsets: subcontractors, and general contractor’s in-house crews. Once it has been defined, the next stage is to assign them to the work packages that, bound by fixed precedence constraints, form the project’s network diagram. Each package is possible to be delivered by the general contractor’s crew or some of the potential subcontractors, at a specific time and cost. Particular crews and subcontractors can be contracted more than one package, but not at the same time. Other constraints include the predefined project completion date (the project

  14. Legal Nature of the Investor’s Consent to the Conclusion of the Agreement with Sub-contractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Szejna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of present article presents and comments on the divergent views of doctrine and judicature concerning the legal nature of the investor’s consent to the conclusion of the agreement for subcontracting, arose from the introduction of the provisions of Article 6471 § 2 and 3 to the Polish Civil Code with Act dated 14 February 2003 amending the Act – the Civil Code and other acts. Author refers also to the joint responsibility of the investor and the contractor towards further subcontractor and to the formal requirements of giving the investor’s consent to the conclusion of the agreement between the contractor and the subcontractor. The institution of joint and several liability for the payment of salaries investor subcontractors, is in the Polish private law remedy important because it protects the interests of subcontractors by the insolvency of construction contractors. Thus, the test makers institution may use other countries to protect the interests of subcontractors against the insolvency of contractors through the introduction of these regulations into their legal systems.

  15. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  16. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUBCONTRACTOR INTEGRATION IN ALLIANCE CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilasini, Nimesha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Project alliancing involves the active collaboration of construction project owners and non-owner participants (designer, contractors, and suppliers to deliver projects in an atmosphere of shared responsibilities and liabilities. Alliancing connotes integration but in real practice, it fails to create a true alliance environment since only part of the value chain (owner, designer, main contractor is considered for integration. Consequently subcontractors are very often left out of the key alliance. Therefore this study identifies improvement areas to current alliance practice and suggests changes that will permit critical sub-contracting processes to be integrated into a project’s main alliance. To achieve this objective the research follows a comparative study approach. Information obtained from relevant literature is used to identify current subcontractor management practices and best practices for subcontractor integration in alliances. A case study of an alliance project is used to identify improvement areas in subcontractor management practices in an alliance environment. From these findings, the study proposes a revised alliance framework that integrates subcontractors from the early stages in alliance contracts, thus enabling the realisation of benefits accruable to projects through early contractor involvement.

  17. 48 CFR 3.502-2 - Subcontractor kickbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and detect violations of the Act in its own operations and direct business relationships (e.g., company ethics rules prohibiting kickbacks by employees, agents, or subcontractors; education programs for... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.502-2...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.278 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? 1000.278 Section 1000.278 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? No, subcontractors or subgrantees providing services to a Pub. L. 93-638...

  19. 25 CFR 900.189 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts? No. Subcontractors or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts? 900.189 Section 900.189 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  20. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUBCONTRACTOR INTEGRATION IN ALLIANCE CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vilasini, Nimesha; Neitzert, Thomas R.; Rotimi, James O. B.; Abimbola O. Windapo

    2012-01-01

    Project alliancing involves the active collaboration of construction project owners and non-owner participants (designer, contractors, and suppliers) to deliver projects in an atmosphere of shared responsibilities and liabilities. Alliancing connotes integration but in real practice, it fails to create a true alliance environment since only part of the value chain (owner, designer, main contractor) is considered for integration. Consequently subcontractors are very often left out of the key a...

  1. Key drivers for informal project coordination among sub-contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Eskerod, Pernille; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    power energy sector were involved in co-creation of findings through 8 network meetings on top of individual interviews. The offshore wind power energy sector was chosen because effective coordination within its projects is critical as costs of mistakes and subsequent adjustments to offshore deliveries...... are massive. Six drivers which enhance informal coordination and three drivers which inhibit informal coordination among sub-contractors in projects were identified. The findings imply that management in project-oriented organizations can enhance informal coordination across project sub...

  2. The impact of globalisation on SME-subcontractors'supply chain strategies: a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and competition have impacted on not only large firms but also Small and Medium sizes Enterprises (SME) and these enterprises often act as subcontractors to larger firms operating in international markets. The impact of globalisation is severe on the SME-subcontractors due to supply...... chain linkages between large and SMEs through growing base of international customers. The new conditions impact on SME-subcontractors owing to supply chain connections and this paper using Danish case studies explores these conditions. The results of the study show that the SME-subcontractors are met...

  3. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before awarding...

  4. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where requests for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the subcontractor is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must ...

  5. 48 CFR 52.244-4 - Subcontractors and outside associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services). 52.244-4 Section 52.244-4 Federal Acquisition... consultants (Architect-engineer services). As prescribed in 44.204(b), insert the following clause: Subcontractors and Outside Associates and Consultants (Architect-Engineer Services) (AUG 1998) Any subcontractors...

  6. 75 FR 43162 - Tetrahedron, Inc., with Subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation; Tox Path, Inc; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, have been awarded a contract to perform work for OPP... AGENCY Tetrahedron, Inc., with Subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation; Tox Path, Inc; and... subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, in accordance with 40...

  7. The Impact of Globalisation on SME-Subcontractors' Supply Chain Strategies: A Danish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and competition have impacted on not only large firms but also Small and Medium sizes Enterprises (SME) and these enterprises often act as subcontractors to larger firms operating in international markets. The impact of globalisation is severe on the SME-subcontractors due to supply chain linkages between large and SMEs through…

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Management & Integration Perspective Subcontractors as Partners in Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A.; Eidam, G.

    2002-02-26

    In 1997, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of their Oak Ridge Operations facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC). This paper will focus on the success and challenges of several of the M&I projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The initial goals for BJC were to transition up to 93% of their staff to the subcontract community as they moved away from operations to ''integration.'' The perspectives of BJC and one of their Remedial Action/Decontamination & Decommissioning (RADD) subcontractors will be combined in this paper to share with others how ''partnering'' together was essential for success. Projects completed by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) under their RADD subcontract will be used to illustrate the process and the challenges/successes to completion. These projects will include pond remediation, tank remediation, and building cleanup for reuse. All these projects were ''fixed price'' with defined milestones keyed into award fee for BJC and regulatory milestones for DOE. By working together to form integrated teams focused on site remediation without sacrificing safety, all milestones were met. This paper will discuss the following items associated with the M&I environmental restoration projects at ORNL: overview of the M&I Contract; challenges in transitioning from ''operations'' to ''integration''; subcontracting strategies; subcontractor pre-qualification process; overview of ORNL Projects; and integrated team effort required to achieve site restoration goals.

  9. A game theory approach for competition and cooperation among project’s subcontractors with interaction activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some projects are often performed by many subcontractors that cooperate with each other and some of them are conducted by outsourcing them to several firms; so subcontractors carry out activities in competition. Appropriate trade-off between time and cost and achieving more benefit and cost saving are objectives of both models. In this paper, it is investigated that how different subcontractors of a project can cooperate to achieve more advantages if possible and how sub-contractors can compete to make the results better and find the optimum cost to minimize the time for each of them. The competition here does not mean eliminating a competitor, but the aim is to challenge the contractors in order to choose the best decision. The purpose of this study is to address the challenges in time and cost management and to find more profit allocation among subcontractors and fair competition for fair allocation as well. A model based on cooperative game theory in time/cost trade-off problem of projects is suggested and then a competition model among subcontractors based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. A case study is rep-resented to comprehensively illustrate the problem, the cooperative techniques of cooperative game theory, and the payoff matrix of non-cooperative model among subcontractors. Results of the proposed model reveal that subcontractors can obtain higher profit from cooperation if pos-sible. When they outsource the project and compete with each other, they must consider the in-teraction activities and choose the best strategies for cost saving and gain more reward from the client. Moreover, it is found that some techniques such as Shapley value, Core, Max-Min Core, or Equal Profit Method (EPM are able to fairly assign extra profit of cooperation, and using the payoff matrix, Nash equilibrium, and Nash bargaining helps to find the optimum point to mini-mize time and cost for interaction activities state.

  10. Security of payment regime in construction industry: are Malaysian sub-contractors ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah; Mohammad, Mohammad Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the particularly small sized sub-contractors are definitely benefited from payment provisions in the proposed Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication Act (CIPA Act), but need to enhance their knowledge in order to improve their awareness of the benefits of the Act. Accordingly, this on-going research attempts to introduce proper guidelines to the sub-contractors, in giving the knowledge, to claim for payment. Firstly, the research explored the problems and legal issues rel...

  11. Improving the Collaboration between Main Contractors and Subcontractors within Traditional Construction Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obafemi A. Akintan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inability of subcontractors/specialist contractors to contribute meaningfully to the construction process under the traditional construction procurement hampers the possibilities of improving value on projects and their integration with the rest of the supply chain. In particular, the main contractors and subcontractors in traditional construction procurement projects pursue their self-interests to such an extent that collaborative working has been impossible to achieve. In this research, qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect data to explore the problems at the root of the main contractor-subcontractor relationship. Intending to derive innovative ideas to reinvent the delivery process of traditional construction procurement, the principles of integrated project delivery (IPD and the last planner system (LPS were studied to seek useful ideas that can be employed to improve collaboration between main contractors and subcontractors. A high point of contention is the debate on the managerial competence of subcontractors; nevertheless, hope is expressed at the possibility of improving collaboration between the main contractor and subcontractor within traditional construction procurement work environment.

  12. The institutional dynamics at the origin of a new method of local administration: The relationship between AEROSPATIALE and its subcontractors

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Talbot

    1998-01-01

    The Institutional Dynamics at the Origin of a New Method of ?Local? Administration: the Relationship between AEROSPATIALE and its Subcontractors DAMIEN TALBOT LEREP In the last twenty years, interactions between the Aeronautical Branch of AEROSPATIALE and its subcontractors have evolved radically. From a system of fragmented regional subcontractors centered around AEROSPATIALE establishments, a network of businesses, much reduced in number and characterised by stronger links and a withdrawal ...

  13. Subcontractors and increased risk for work-related diseases and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung B; Park, Shin G; Song, Jae S; Yi, Kwan H; Jang, Tae W; Min, Jin Y

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing reliance on subcontracting in many economic sectors, there is little information available on occupational health and safety issues among subcontractor employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of subcontracting on self-reported health problems and absences due to occupational accidents and sickness using a nationally representative sample from South Korea. The data used were sampled from the second wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey [2010]. Information on 3,282 parent firm employees and 728 subcontractor employees was obtained. For the logistic regression model, the outcomes were work-related health problems and absenteeism. The independent variables were personal and occupational characteristics, job aspects, and working hazards. Subcontractor employees were significantly more likely to experience health problems than the employee at parent firms. In particular, subcontractors' risk of injuries and anxiety/depression increased twofold (odd ratios, OR=2.01, 95% confidence interval, CIs, 1.24-3.26) and threefold (OR=2.95, 95% CIs 1.52-5.73), respectively, after controlling for potential variables. In addition, subcontractor employees were three times more likely than employees at parent firms to miss work due to illness (OR=3.56; 95% CIs 2.02-6.26). Working conditions, especially those related to job aspects and workplace exposures, attenuated these risks. Subcontracting workers were found to have a higher risk of work-related diseases and a higher absenteeism rate than parent firm workers. Our study highlights the need to protect and improve the occupational health and safety of subcontractor employees. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay fo...

  15. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queuing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay for...

  16. 78 FR 58613 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... set forth in the NPRM, particularly with regard to the creation and maintenance of certain records and... of veterans by Federal Government contractors and subcontractors. The universe of protected veterans..., meaningful and effective efforts to recruit and employ veterans protected under VEVRAA, creation and...

  17. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO2 emissions and to implement CO2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several

  18. 76 FR 77055 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... disabilities. Prior to publishing this NPRM, OFCCP conducted multiple town hall meetings, webinars, and... Individuals With Disabilities; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 237 / Friday, December 9... Subcontractors Regarding Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs...

  19. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  20. Using Electromagnetic Algorithm for Total Costs of Sub-contractor Optimization in the Cellular Manufacturing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahriari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.

  1. The Intercultural Marketing Competence of Software Subcontractors: Toward a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    As part of a research project on cooperation between Nordic software development subcontractors and their foreign customers, the dynamics of intercultural marketing competence are being examined. This paper builds a conceptual bridge by developing a definition of a software subcontracting firm......'s intercultural marketing competence on the basis of (a) socio-psychological and human resource management definitions of intercultural competence at the level of individuals and (b) definitions of organizational competence from the resource-based perspective. Furthermore a model of the dynamics...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? 102....205 May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? No, your agency may only pay the TSP with whom it has a contract. The...

  3. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  4. 25 CFR 900.233 - When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? 900.233 Section 900.233 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  5. Management of Interface between Main Contractor and Subcontractors for Successful Project Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increased dependence on subcontracting within the construction industry, the operational relationship between the Main Contractor (MC and Subcontractor (SC plays a significant role in successful delivery of projects. Through the literature review this paper argues that despite SCs bring added value to construction projects, the increased reliance on SCs has strained relationships between the MC and SC. Also MCs are more concerned with risk and price reduction which undermine the relationship heavily. Current practices in the construction industry in managing SCs were evaluated through a case study and semi-structured interviews. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the ways of facilitating the interface between the MC and SC in general. The study highlighted that prevailing adverse relationships and culture in the industry are influencing the success of construction projects. The lack of trust is a key factor affecting the relationships between MC and SCs. However, the proactive involvement of the MC with SCs in maintaining continuity of the team from procurement to construction stage and transparency in the processes were key success factors for successful completion of the project.

  6. The Internationalization of Software Development Subcontractors: A Nordic Perspective on What We Know and What We Need to Know

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2003-01-01

    As part of a research project, which will encompass in-depth case studies of small Nordic software development subcontractors' work for large, foreign software corporations, the dynamics of the initial phases of the subcontractors' internationalization will be examined. Because high-tech firms from...... small domestic markets are "pulled" abroad to "hub software nations" more quickly and also more often subject to the hegemony of major foreign software corporations, the issues covered are especially relevant to software firms and policymakers in smaller nations. This paper presents the initial...... framework for the study. It starts with a look at the Nordic perspective on this issue as well as a brief review of existing literature on service firms', software firms' and SMEs' internationalization, before going on to elucidate and justify the study's eleven research questions. Thereafter relevant...

  7. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2007-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  8. 48 CFR 227.7103-15 - Subcontractor rights in technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS... Computer Software Previously Delivered to the Government; and (4) 252.227-7037, Validation of Restrictive...

  9. 32 CFR 728.79 - Employees of Federal contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nervous, mental, or contagious diseases or those requiring domiciliary care. Routine dental care, other than dental prosthesis and orthodontia, is authorized on a space available basis provided facilities... PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Other Persons...

  10. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules, Module 10 - Environmental Training for Subcontractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, nematicides, acaricides , as well as disinfectants, fumigants, and plant growth regulators. FIFRA requires...fact that shipyards have a high potential for pollution, and can discharge pollutants easily to the land, water and air, shipyards operators and...discharge facilities which pose a potential harm to navigable waters. This Act amended the Clean Water Act to augment federal authority, increase fines

  11. Contract Types: An Overview of the Legal Requirements and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    erformed by the subcontractors; or (3) [t] ransferred between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of the contractor under a common control.” 48...for FY2011, H.R. 5136, § 408 (same); id. at § 832 (requiring contractors submitting proposals for energy -savings contracts to use firm-fixed-price

  12. 2 CFR 176.190 - Award term-Wage rate requirements under Section 1606 of the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applications for Recovery Act programs or activities that may involve construction, alteration, maintenance, or... Recovery Act requires that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors on... are in excess of $2,000 for construction, alteration or repair (including painting and decorating). (b...

  13. Reliability program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    The objectives of the reliability program requirements described in this report are (1) to provide contractors with an outline of the reliability requirements established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in the areas of design, development, production, testing, and acceptance of space and terrestrial nuclear systems hardware, and (2) to guide the contractor in meeting these requirements. This publication or particular portions of it is applicable as specified in the contract. Whether the contractors/subcontractors are subject to all the requirements or only to part of them will be specified by contract, program letter, or by the contract statement-of-work.

  14. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  15. 40 CFR 80.92 - Baseline auditor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Independence. The auditor, its contractors, subcontractors and their organizations shall be independent of the... subcontractors and their organizations do not meet the independence criteria described in paragraph (b) of this...

  16. Generic routes to subcontractors' internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Blenker, Per

    1997-01-01

    Underleverandørers internationaliseringsproces adskiller sig fra gennemsnittet. I artiklen opstilles en række årsager til dette og fire internationaliseringsveje for underleverandører udvikles....

  17. 48 CFR 970.4402-2 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance risks associated with subcontractors, and facilitation of quality relationships which can include... disadvantaged business, and woman-owned small business concerns to participate in contract performance. ...

  18. Government - Prime Contractor - Subcontractor Relationships: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Government risks through diversification to commercial ventures, which serves to reduce capacity for Government projects. However, Government and...August 1979 5. Creech, Dr. J.L., Financial Services Director, Defense Logistics Agency, Interview granted September 1979 6. Delles , R.W., Executive

  19. 48 CFR 1804.470-3 - IT security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470-3 IT... Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, is stored, generated, processed, or exchanged by... resides on a NASA or a contractor/subcontractor's information system. ...

  20. Integration plan required by performance agreement SM 7.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, L.P.

    1997-03-28

    Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. and its major subcontractors are in agreement that environmental monitoring performed under the Project Hanford Management Contract is to be done in accordance with a single, integrated program. The purpose of this Integration Plan for Environmental Monitoring is to document the policies, systems, and processes being put in place to meet one key objective: manage and integrate a technically competent, multi-media ambient environmental monitoring program, in an efficient, cost effective manner. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. and its major subcontractors also commit to conducting business in a manner consistent with the International Standards Organization 14000 Environmental Management System concepts. Because the integration of sitewide groundwater monitoring activities is managed by the Environmental Restoration Contractor, groundwater monitoring it is outside the scope of this document. Therefore, for the purpose of this Integration Plan for Environmental Monitoring, the Integrated Environmental Monitoring Program is defined as applicable to all environmental media except groundwater. This document provides recommendations on future activities to better integrate the overall environmental monitoring program, with emphasis on the near-field program. In addition, included is the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. team review of the environmental monitoring activities on the Hanford Site, with concurrence of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (The narrative provided later in the Discussion Section describes the review and consideration given to each topic.) This document was developed to meet the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract performance agreement (SM7.2) and the tenets of the U.S. Department of Energy's Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Planning Process. This Plan is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Assurance, Permits, and Policy

  1. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  2. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  3. 10 CFR 850 Implementation of Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-01-05

    10 CFR 850 defines a contractor as any entity, including affiliated entities, such as a parent corporation, under contract with DOE, including a subcontractor at any tier, with responsibility for performing work at a DOE site in furtherance of a DOE mission. The Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) applies to beryllium-related activities that are performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CBDPP or Beryllium Safety Program is integrated into the LLNL Worker Safety and Health Program and, thus, implementation documents and responsibilities are integrated in various documents and organizational structures. Program development and management of the CBDPP is delegated to the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Directorate, Worker Safety and Health Functional Area. As per 10 CFR 850, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) periodically submits a CBDPP to the National Nuclear Security Administration/Livermore Site Office (NNSA/LSO). The requirements of this plan are communicated to LLNS workers through ES&H Manual Document 14.4, 'Working Safely with Beryllium.' 10 CFR 850 is implemented by the LLNL CBDPP, which integrates the safety and health standards required by the regulation, components of the LLNL Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and incorporates other components of the LLNL ES&H Program. As described in the regulation, and to fully comply with the regulation, specific portions of existing programs and additional requirements are identified in the CBDPP. The CBDPP is implemented by documents that interface with the workers, principally through ES&H Manual Document 14.4. This document contains information on how the management practices prescribed by the LLNL ISMS are implemented, how beryllium hazards that are associated with LLNL work activities are controlled, and who is responsible for implementing the controls. Adherence to the requirements and processes described in the ES&H Manual ensures

  4. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Akdeniz Üniversitesi’nde taşeron sağlık işçilerinin işçi sağlığı ve iş güvenliği durum tespiti/Due diligence of occupational health and safety of subcontractor health workers in Akdeniz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cumhur İzgi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Neoliberal politikaların Türkiye’deki yansımalarından biri olan Sağlıkta Dönüşüm Projesi taşeronlaşmayı içeren bir programdır. Sağlıkta taşeronlaşma, çalışanın sağlığını ve ürettiği hizmetin niteliği nedeniyle toplum sağlığını etkilemektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversite hastanesinde taşeronlaşma sonrası çalışanların işçi sağlığı ve iş güvenliği açısından durumlarını değerlendirmek, konuya yönelik farkındalık yaratmak ve geniş çaplı çalışmaların planlanıp gerekli önlemlerin alınmasına katkı sağlamaktır. Yöntem: Akdeniz Üniversitesi Hastanesi’nde taşeron olarak çalışan 1175 işçiden, meslek grupları temel alınarak tanımlayıcı araştırmanın 153 kişilik örneği belirlenmiş ve araştırmaya katılmayı kabul eden 128 çalışana iki bölümden oluşan anket uygulanmıştır. Anketin ilk bölümünde sosyodemografik veriler ve araştırmaya ilişkin açık uçlu sorular, ikinci bölümünde ise beşli Likert tipi soru kökleri yer almaktadır. Bulgular: Katılımcıların %62.5’i iş öncesi sağlık risk eğitimi almadığını, %82.8’i riskler konusunda işveren tarafından bilgilendirilmediğini, %85.2’si aşı yapılmadığını, %57.0’si koruyucu donanımın yetersiz olduğunu, %73.4’ü yaptıkları işin sağlık riski yarattığını, %71.1’i taşeron çalışmanın sağlığı olumsuz etkilediğini, %94.6’sı kadrolu çalışmanın güvenceli olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Sonuç: Çalışma ortamının sağlık risklerinden arındırılması, iş güvencesinin sağlanması ve sağlık hizmet üretiminde insan haklarının yaşama geçirilmesi için taşeronlaşmaya son verilmesi gerekir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Taşeronlaşma, sağlık hakkı, işçi sağlığı, iş güvenliği Due diligence of occupational health and safety of subcontractor health workers in Akdeniz University Objective: The Health Transformation Project

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  8. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility Appendix A: Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-01-14

    These rules apply to all LLNL employees, non-LLNL employees (including contract labor, supplemental labor, vendors, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, visitors and students) and construction contractors/subcontractors. The General Safety and Health rules shall be used by management to promote accident prevention through indoctrination, safety and health training and on-the-job application. As a condition for contracts award, all contractors and subcontractors and their employees must certify on Form S & H A-1 that they have read and understand, or have been briefed and understand, the National Ignition Facility OCIP Project General Safety Rules.

  9. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  10. Required Information Release

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Stephen N

    2010-01-01

    Many computer systems have a functional requirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system’s information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about permitted information flows, but not required information flows. In this paper, we introduce and explore the specification and enforcement of required information release in a language-based setting. We define semantic security conditions that express both what i...

  11. Required Information Release

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Stephen N

    2012-01-01

    Many computer systems have a functional requirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system's information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about permitted information flows, but not required information flows. In this paper, we introduce and explore the specification and enforcement of required information release in a language-based setting. We define semantic security conditions that express both wha...

  12. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  13. Capturing Context Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, T.H.F.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2007-01-01

    Context-aware applications require context information to adapt their behaviour to the current situation. When developing context-aware applications, application developers need to transform specific application context requirements into application logic to discover, select and bind to suitable

  14. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  15. Effective Requirements Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wanganga, George

    2004-01-01

    In many smaller companies, requirements management is a daunting challenge. Smaller groups mean fewer resources, and many organizations focus their efforts on design, development and testing not on managing requirements. Some small organizations may perceive requirements management as an activity only for large organizations that have complex products and large staffs to support the effort. Poor and uncontrolled requirement engineering processes yield low quality, highly expensive software pr...

  16. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  17. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  18. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an empirical investigation of requirements evolution for groupware systems in use by means of case studies. Its goal is to contribute to the development of a theory of requirements evolution. A conceptual framework offering an integrated view of requirements as a collection of domains

  19. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  20. 48 CFR 52.204-11 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... description of the types of jobs created and jobs retained in the United States and outlying areas (see definition in FAR 2.101). This description may rely on job titles, broader labor categories, or the... subcontractor shall provide— (A) A brief description of the types of jobs created and jobs retained in the...

  1. 7 CFR 1924.13 - Supplemental requirements for more complex construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... studies consisting of drawings and other documents illustrating the scale and relationship of project... suppliers, equipment lessors, or any of their members, directors, officers, stockholders, partners, or... subcontractor, material supplier or equipment lessor sharing an identity of interest must provide the applicant...

  2. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  3. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  4. Integrating total quality management principles with the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, D. [Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy has recently required its field offices, contractors, and subcontractors to implement DOE Order 5700.6C, ``Quality Assurance,`` for all work on waste management contracts. The order restructures the 18 criteria of NQA-1 and focuses on the role of management in achieving and assuring quality, performance of activities to achieve and assure quality, and management`s assessment of its performance for the purpose of identifying improvements to be made. The DOE order also introduces elements of the total quality management (TQM) philosophy, which were not present in DOE Order 5700.6B. The research community within DOE has recently issued a document entitled DOE Order 5700.6C Implementation Guide, which is more explicit about the integration of TQM principles with the implementation of DOE Order 5700.6C in research facilities. The Environmental Protection Agency is sponsoring a quality assurance standard (ANSI/ASQC E-4) to replace EPA`s QAMS 005/80. The new standard is consistent with DOE Order 5700.6C, and it also stresses the integration of TQM principles within the quality assurance process. This paper discusses the intent and philosophy of the 10 criteria of the new DOE order, the status of ANSI/ASQC E-4, and how to effectively integrate TQM principles into the quality assurance process as the conversion is made from NQA-1 to DOE Order 5700.6C. The purpose and value of DOE Order 5700.6C Implementation Guide for research will also be discussed.

  5. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  6. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  7. Army Sociocultural Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    practice elsewhere. Therefore, pre-deployment training can serve to raise awareness of specific issues that may be encountered by Soldiers, as...L., Crafts, J. L., & Brooks, J. E. (July 1995). Intercultural communication requirements for Special Forces teams. (Study Report 1683). Arlington... five years. Cultural performance requirements are the actions Soldiers must take on their jobs to work effectively with people from different

  8. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  9. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  10. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  11. Requirements management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Requirements have always been acknowledged as the backbone of any system. However, in many past development efforts, requirements were paid little heed. At NASA, in recent years, the hue and cry for project development has been "Faster, Better, Cheaper and Safer". This has impacted the way we develop software; it has increased the risks to quality, safety and reliability. At NASA, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working with projects to emphasize the criticality of requirements throughout development, not just in the initial phases. This emphasis is on requirements relationship to all aspects of quality, including reliability and safety. In this presentation, we will look at some of these relationships through the eyes of quality.

  12. Requirements management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  13. Science in Requirements Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suhaimi Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the articles about methodological principles, and some research classifications, in this work an overview of the nature and status of science in Requirements Engineering is done...

  14. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  15. BRD usability requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.

  16. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) continues that the re- quirements analyst uses the products of domain analysis when implementing a new system [Kang 90, p...5]. Therefore, FODA does have applicability to requirements elicitation, and will be overviewed in this section. All requirements originate with the...information. For example, with FODA both an entity relationship model and features model are created. The entity relationship model is particularly useful

  17. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  18. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  19. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    frequency signature? 14. Have any electro -optical or optical components on the system been hardened to reduce optical cross- sectional measurements...measures: • Electrocardiography ( EKG ) • Infrared (IR) facial flush • Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) • Eye tracking 45 HSI REQUIREMENTS GUIDE...E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects EA Evolutionary Acquisition EA Electronic Attack ECU Environmental Conditioning Unit EKG Electrocardiogram

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  1. Meeting water requirements system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Roy

    2007-05-01

    There is a plethora of legislation and guidelines relating to the control and supply of water in healthcare establishments. Here, Roy Minett, marketing manager of Rada in the UK, provides some advice on making sense of what is expected and required.

  2. Turning Desirements into Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    carrier op- erations now leads to the two additional requirements to limit aircraft weight and limit aircraft size. A vivid example involves a missile...with worthy performance. None of these communications steps are easy. The abilities to innovate and to imagine often begin tortuous processes to turn

  3. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  4. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  5. WFIRST WFI Calibration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnic, Daniel; Casertano, Stephano; WFIRST Calibration Group

    2018-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST), with a planned launch in the mid-2020’s, will enable multiple generation-defining measurements in astrophysics and cosmology. One of the key goals of the mission is to limit calibration uncertainties in order to enable a wide range of experiments. Here we present the work of the WFIRST WFI Calibration Working Group, which has compiled a comprehensive set of calibration needs derived from the Mission science requirements, and has outlined a plan toachieve them. In many areas, the accuracy required has yet to be reached in any comparable mission or project. We present here the various plans of on-ground characterization, pre-launch data; internal measurements and observations in orbit; and external observations.

  6. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  7. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  8. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  9. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  10. Energy requirements of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    To describe issues related to energy requirements of free living adults and discuss the importance of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and their relationships to total energy expenditure (TEE ) and physical activity level (PAL, derived as TEE/BMR) and to determine the influence of body weight, height, age and sex. Based on a review of the literature, this paper examines the variability in BMR due to methodology, ethnicity, migration and adaptation (both metabolic and behavioural) due to changes in nutritional status. Collates and compiles data on measurements of TEE in free living healthy adults, to arrive at limits and to compare TEE of populations with different life-styles. The constancy of BMR and its validity as a reliable predictor of TEE in adults as well as the validity of PAL as an index of TEE adjusted for BMR and thus its use to categorise the physical activity pattern and lifestyle of an individual was confirmed. The limits of human daily energy expenditure at around 1.2 x BMR and 4.5 x BMR based on measurements made in free living adults have been reported in the literature. A large and robust database now exists of energy expenditure measurements obtained by the doubly labelled water method in the scientific literature and the data shows that, in general, levels of energy expenditure are similar to the recommendations for energy requirements adopted by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). The review also confirms that metabolic adaptation to energy restriction is not an important factor that needs to be considered when recommending energy requirements for adults in developing countries.

  11. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs....... In one case, the data were delivered in Excel spreadsheets; in the other case, the authors of this paper together with the manufacturer disassembled a TV and collected the data manually. Results and discussion When applying the consequential approach, the production phase has the highest environmental...

  12. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  13. Importance of Requirement Management : A Requirement Engineering Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Dhirendra Pandey; Vandana Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Requirement engineering is first phase of software development processes and it is most important phase for every software development model. In requirement engineering phase we can gather the requirements from user and use this requirement to software development and produce software product that satisfy the user needs. In this research paper we describe the fundamental description of requirement engineering and present the basics dimensions of requirement engineering. Also, in this research...

  14. Finding Incorrect and Missing Quality Requirements Definitions Using Requirements Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Defining quality requirements completely and correctly is more difficult than defining functional requirements because stakeholders do not state most of quality requirements explicitly. We thus propose a method to measure a requirements specification for identifying the amount of quality requirements in the specification. We also propose another method to recommend quality requirements to be defined in such a specification. We expect stakeholders can identify missing and unnecessary quality r...

  15. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowing requires data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  17. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  18. Consolidated Ground Segment Requirements for a UHF Radar for the ESSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Florent; Vera, Juan

    2009-03-01

    ESA has launched a nine months long study to define the requirements associated to the ground segment of a UHF (300-3000 MHz) radar system. The study has been awarded in open competition to a consortium led by Onera, associated to the Spanish companies Indra and its sub-contractor Deimos. After a phase of consolidation of the requirements, different monostatic and bistatic concepts of radars will be proposed and evaluated. Two concepts will be selected for further design studies. ESA will then select the best one, for detailed design as well as cost and performance evaluation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first phase of the study concerning the consolidation of the radar system requirements. The main mission for the system is to be able to build and maintain a catalogue of the objects in low Earth orbit (apogee lower than 2000km) in an autonomous way, for different sizes of objects, depending on the future successive development phases of the project. The final step must give the capability of detecting and tracking 10cm objects, with a possible upgrade to 5 cm objects. A demonstration phase must be defined for 1 m objects. These different steps will be considered during all the phases of the study. Taking this mission and the different steps of the study as a starting point, the first phase will define a set of requirements for the radar system. It was finished at the end of January 2009. First part will describe the constraints derived from the targets and their environment. Orbiting objects have a given distribution in space, and their observability and detectability are based on it. It is also related to the location of the radar system But they are also dependant on the natural propagation phenomenon, especially ionospheric issues, and the characteristics of the objects. Second part will focus on the mission itself. To carry out the mission, objects must be detected and tracked regularly to refresh the associated orbital parameters

  19. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  20. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  1. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  2. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  3. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  4. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering

  5. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required and... use pattern in order to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern under any... with a given use pattern are required by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that...

  6. An Investigation of Online Homework: Required or Not Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tommy; Dillard-Eggers, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In our research we investigate the use of online homework in principles of accounting classes where some classes required online homework while other classes did not. Users of online homework, compared to nonusers, had a higher grade point average and earned a higher grade in class. On average, both required and not-required users rated the online…

  7. Architecture-Driven Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; Franken, H.M.; Franken, Henry M.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Proper, Erik; Harmsen, Frank; Dietz, Jan L.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture driven requirements engineering method. We will demonstrate how to integrate requirements engineering in architecture design and we will demonstrate how to use enterprise architectures during solution realization projects. We will demonstrate how architecture can

  8. Imperfect Requirements in Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet; Sawyer, Pete; Paech, Barbara; Heymans, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Requirement Specifications are very difficult to define. Due to lack of information and differences in interpretation, software engineers are faced with the necessity to redesign and iterate. This imperfection in software requirement specifications is commonly addressed by incremental design. In

  9. Physical Property Analysis and Report for Sediments at 100-BC-5 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7505, C7506, C7507, and C7665

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2010-09-28

    Between October 14, 2009 and February 22, 2010 sediment samples were received from 100-BC Decision Unit for geochemical studies. This is an analytical data report for sediments received from CHPRC at the 100 BC 5 OU. The analyses for this project were performed at the 325 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  10. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7790, C7791, and C7792

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for CHPRC for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. Between August 15, 2010 and December 2, 2010 sediment samples were received from the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 325 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  11. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-KR-4 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7684, C7688, and C7695

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for sediment samples received by CHPRC from the 100-KR-4 OU. Between December 17, 2010 and February 17, 2011 sediment samples were received from 100-KR-4 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  12. Data Package of Samples Collected for Hydrogeologic and Geochemical Characterization: 300 Area RI/FS Sediment Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Benjamin D.

    2011-05-01

    This is a data package for sediment samples received from the 300 FF 5 OU. This report was prepared for CHPRC. Between August 16, 2010 and April 25, 2011 sediment samples were received from 300-FF-5 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  13. 100-BC-5 Operable Unit, Batch Leach Analyses and Report for Sediments at RI/FS Wells C7508, C7783, C7784, C7785, and C7787

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-04-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples from the 100 BC Operable unit. This report contains the updated dates for samples associated with Hexavalent Chromium/Soil analysis. Between August 24, 2010 and March 3, 2011 sediment samples were received from 100-BC Decision Unit Soil for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  14. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  15. Requirement Development Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Requirements capture the system-level capabilities in a set of complete, necessary, clear, attainable, traceable, and verifiable statements of need. Requirements should not be unduly restrictive, but should set limits that eliminate items outside the boundaries drawn, encourage competition (or alternatives), and capture source and reason of requirement. If it is not needed by the customer, it is not a requirement. They establish the verification methods that will lead to product acceptance. These must be reproducible assessment methods.

  16. Architecture-driven requirements prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Koziolek, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Quality requirements are main drivers for architectural decisions of software systems. However, in practice they are often dismissed during development, because of initially unknown dependencies and consequences that complicate implementation. To decide for meaningful, feasible quality requirements and trade them off with functional requirements, tighter integration of software architecture evaluation and requirements prioritization is necessary. In this position paper, we propose a tool-supp...

  17. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  18. Guide to requirements SL-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren

    IT developers and consultants often ask for an exemplary requirements specification as a starting point for their specific project. This document is the guide to such a specification, Requirements Template SL-07. The specification itself is a template filled out with a complex example: requirements...

  19. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Manual Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... final rule established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport... Register on July 27, 2004 (69 FR 44772). That final rule established new requirements for the certification...

  20. Automating Requirements Refinement with Cross-Domain Requirements Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Cybulski

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of software reuse into the development process significantly alters the life-cycle model, and has a tremendous impact on all of its software development phases. This also includes the phase of requirements engineering, its activities and the tools used in the process. To deal with the consequences of incorporating reuse in the early phases of software development, we suggest the use of a special process model, capable of simultaneously meeting the goals of software reuse and the goals of requirements engineering. The RARE (Reuse Assisted Requirements Engineering method proposes such a model. RARE places a particular emphasis on two aspects of requirements processing, i.e. requirements classification and domain mapping. Both of these aspects are especially helpful in the automation of requirements refinement into reusable designs.

  1. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  2. Athena Pile-Up Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Luehring, F C

    2001-01-01

    Requirements for the pile-up algorithm in Athena are derived from experiences of simulating pile-up for the Physics TDR and from user requirements. Simulating pile-up is one of the most demanding jobs that the Athena framework will be required to do. Care must be taken to make sure that the implemented algorithm will meet the diverse requirements of the various subdetectors and still be able to generate events efficiently. This document looks at how ATLSIM and a special algorithm implemented by LAr subdetector were used during the Physics TDR studies to generate pile-up and also at how ATLSIM has been modified since then to be more robust while doing pile-up. Based on these experiences and detailed requirements put forth by the subdetector groups, a list of requirements on the Athena pile-up algorithm is developed.

  3. Recommender Systems in Requirements Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasher, Bamshad; Cleland-Huang, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Requirements engineering in large-scaled industrial, government, and international projects can be a highly complex process involving thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of potentially distributed stakeholders. The process can result in massive amounts of noisy and semistructured data that must be analyzed and distilled in order to extract useful requirements. As a result, many human intensive tasks in requirements elicitation, analysis, and management processes can be augmented and supp...

  4. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  5. Requirements for medical modeling languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, A A; ter Hofstede, A H; ten Hoopen, A J

    2001-01-01

    The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be "formal" with regard to syntax and semantics, "conceptual," "expressive," "comprehensible," "suitable," and "executable." The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones.

  6. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  7. Crowd-Centric Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Remco; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Hosseini, Mahmood; Shahri, Alimohammad; Ali, Raian

    2014-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a preliminary and crucial phase for the correctness and quality of software systems. Despite the agreement on the positive correlation between user involvement in requirements engineering and software success, current development methods employ a too narrow concept of

  8. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  9. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  10. Puberty menorrhagia requiring inpatient admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, A H; Devi, L; Goel, P; Saha, P K

    2010-01-01

    Puberty menorrhagia is a significant health problem in adolescent age group and severe cases may require admission and blood transfusion. Aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, associated complications and management of puberty menorrhagia. Hospital records of all patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring admission were analyzed for etiology, duration since menarche, duration of bleeding, investigation profile and management. There were 18 patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring hospital admission. Etiology was anovulatory bleeding in 11 patients, bleeding disorders in five which included idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura in three and one each with Von-Willebrand disease and leukemia. Two patients had hypothyroidism as the cause. Fourteen patients presented with severe anaemia and required blood transfusion. All except one responded to oral hormonal therapy. Puberty menorrhagia can be associated with severe complications and requiring blood transfusion. Although most common cause is anovulation but bleeding disorder, other medical condition and other organic causes must be ruled out in any patient of Puberty menorrhagia.

  11. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  12. 75 FR 3232 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Versar Inc. and Its Identified Subcontractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... technical information contact: Scott Sherlock, Environmental Assistance Division (7408M), Office of..., DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (202) 564-8257; fax number: (202) 564-8251; e-mail address: sherlock...

  13. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  14. 77 FR 75089 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Secretariat (MVCB), ATTN: Hada Flowers, 1275 First Street NE., 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20417. Instructions... and contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. This proposed rule does not provide any new...(c); and 51 U.S.C. 20113. PART 12--ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS 2. Amend section 12.301 by adding...

  15. 78 FR 70477 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Comment: One respondent noted the current budgetary crisis and recommended a delay in the implementation... select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental...

  16. 78 FR 58681 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Disability at Work, and U.S. Chamber of Commerce, ``Leading Practices on Disability Inclusion,'' http://www.usbln.org/pdf-docs/Leading_Practices_on_Disability_Inclusion.pdf (last accessed Aug. 9, 2013). The USBLN... of disabled veterans hired will be proportional to their share of the disabled labor force, then we...

  17. 76 FR 23357 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Opportunity Tax Credit established for employers who hire unemployed disabled veterans as part of the American... ``covered veterans'' is amended to read ``protected veterans,'' due to the inclusion of a definition for... Section 4212 prior to the enactment of the JVA and are as follows: (1) Special disabled veterans; (2...

  18. 75 FR 43116 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... does workplace flexibility, including flexibility in work schedules, as well as job-protected leave... by Federal contractors? 15. Regulatory Flexibility Act--Consistent with the Regulatory Flexibility...

  19. 76 FR 77816 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies, Inc. and Subcontractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... are listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index.... The EPA/DC Public Reading Room hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number of the EPA/DC Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the...

  20. Mass Customization as Innovation Driver of International Competitiveness in Peripheral Regional SME Subcontractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taps, Stig B.; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing literature has for long been occupied with the linking of manufacturing capabilities with the competitive advantages of the company. The dominant manufacturing content approach is concerned with the consistent set of decisions about process technology design and organizational p...... process consisting of practical tools on many different company levels will comply with the challenges the international competition charts.......The manufacturing literature has for long been occupied with the linking of manufacturing capabilities with the competitive advantages of the company. The dominant manufacturing content approach is concerned with the consistent set of decisions about process technology design and organizational...

  1. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  2. Industrial requirements in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P M

    1990-01-01

    The principles of establishing industrial requirements in food safety are described, taking risk potentials all along the food chain into their respective account. Regulations will, in the future, lead to increased autocontrol in production. The rapid changes in food technology require constant adaptation to new problems, to keep the global quality of food at a high level. Regulatory authorities will, in the new European market, concentrate on enforcement of 'essential requirements' while industrialists will follow good manufacturing practices. Open dialogue between the latter, the former and the scientific community is highly desirable since mutual knowledge of the problem will help maintain a high level of food safety, for the benefit of everybody.

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Requirements for Scenarios and Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravcik, Milos; De Lange, Peter; Koren, Istvan; Klamma, Ralf; Helin, Kaj; Kuula, Timo; Rasool, Jazz; Smith, Carl; Zics, Brigitta; Klemke, Roland

    2017-01-01

    In WP1 the WEKIT consortium develops a framework for wearable experience, specifies a corresponding methodology for vocational training, creates suitable application scenarios, and derives requirements for the technological platform accordingly. The first findings are documented in the

  5. Coactivator Requirements for Serm Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeton, Erika K

    2005-01-01

    .... To determine if these corepressors are required for tamoxifen- mediated repression, their expression levels were reduced by RNA interference and the effects on tamoxifen action in breast cancer cells were measured...

  6. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  7. PFP requirements development planning guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-05-03

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline.

  8. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  9. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  10. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  11. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... in the presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...

  12. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    ) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task....... Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over...... of leaning over the side of the yacht to increase righting moment) is the primary requirement. Other than the ability to sustain prolonged quasi-isometric contractions, hiking seems to require significant maximal muscle strength especially in knee extensors, hip flexors and abdominal and lower back muscles...

  13. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  14. Respirators: Air Purifying, Self-Study, Course 40723

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Respirators: Air Purifying Self-Study (COURSE 40723) is designed for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) workers, support services subcontractors, and other LANL subcontractors who work under the LANL Respiratory Protection Program (RPP). This course also meets the air-purifying respirators (APRs) retraining requirement.

  15. 30 CFR 881.6 - Project contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advised of the time and place of the opening of bids on a proposed project contract and may have a... mechanics employed by the contractor or subcontractors on the project shall be paid wages at rates not less..., mechanics, and other employees may be required. (iii) Every such contractor and subcontractor shall furnish...

  16. 5 CFR 1315.14 - Payments under construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Certification by the prime vendor is required, to the best of the vendor's knowledge and belief, that: (i) The... the contract; (ii) Payments to subcontractors and suppliers have been made from previous payments... withhold or retain from a subcontractor or supplier, in accordance with the terms and conditions of their...

  17. Partial Automation of Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jane; Dekhtyar, Alex; Sundaram, Senthil; Vadlamudi, Sravanthi

    2006-01-01

    Requirements Tracing on Target (RETRO) is software for after-the-fact tracing of textual requirements to support independent verification and validation of software. RETRO applies one of three user-selectable information-retrieval techniques: (1) term frequency/inverse document frequency (TF/IDF) vector retrieval, (2) TF/IDF vector retrieval with simple thesaurus, or (3) keyword extraction. One component of RETRO is the graphical user interface (GUI) for use in initiating a requirements-tracing project (a pair of artifacts to be traced to each other, such as a requirements spec and a design spec). Once the artifacts have been specified and the IR technique chosen, another component constructs a representation of the artifact elements and stores it on disk. Next, the IR technique is used to produce a first list of candidate links (potential matches between the two artifact levels). This list, encoded in Extensible Markup Language (XML), is optionally processed by a filtering component designed to make the list somewhat smaller without sacrificing accuracy. Through the GUI, the user examines a number of links and returns decisions (yes, these are links; no, these are not links). Coded in XML, these decisions are provided to a "feedback processor" component that prepares the data for the next application of the IR technique. The feedback reduces the incidence of erroneous candidate links. Unlike related prior software, RETRO does not require the user to assign keywords, and automatically builds a document index.

  18. A emergência da empresa virtual e os requisitos para os sistemas de informação The emergency of virtual enterprise and the requirements for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo L. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vantagem competitiva das empresas passa cada vez mais pelo desenvolvimento de novas estruturas organizacionais, nomeadamente pelo estabelecimento de redes de cooperação com todas as entidades intervenientes na cadeia de fornecimento, e novas metodologias de gestão e planejamento, apoiadas fortemente por tecnologias de informação e de comunicação. Este artigo tem como principal finalidade apresentar o conceito de Empresa Virtual como o paradigma organizacional das empresas emergentes, e explorar a sua estreita relação com as tecnologias de informação e comunicação. Após caracterizar o conceito de Empresa Virtual e de caracterizar o mercado dos sistemas de informação empresarial, é identificado um conjunto de requisitos base para as tecnologias de informação e de comunicação, de suporte a este tipo de organização, nomeadamente para o processo de planejamento e negociação de novas encomendas.Globalisation together with technological advances have dramatically changed the process of value creation at the end of this century. Nowadays, more and more companies are being organised as networks of different units and are therefore becoming global businesses covering multiple manufacturing sites consisting of different shop floors, subcontractors and suppliers. The concept of Virtual Enterprise was born in this environment. The aim of this paper is to present the Virtual Enterprise as a new organisational paradigm and to explore the tight relationship with the information and communication technologies. Our research has shown that traditional enterprise information systems do not suitably cope with some of the new demanding requirements of a distributed and heterogeneous manufacturing environment. In this context, this paper presents a set of requirements that supports this new organisational paradigm.

  19. 40 CFR 161.101 - Required vs. conditionally required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables... with a given general use pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product... pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern if the...

  20. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  1. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  2. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  3. Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.

  4. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  5. Requirements management: A CSR's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joanie

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: customer service overview of network service request processing; Customer Service Representative (CSR) responsibility matrix; extract from a sample Memorandum of Understanding; Network Service Request Form and its instructions sample notification of receipt; and requirements management in the NASA Science Internet.

  6. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  7. ISEE-3 Microwave Filter Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, J. L.; Marlin, H.; Stanton, P.

    1984-01-01

    The 64 m subnet is committed to support the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) spacecraft. The uplink and one of the downlink frequencies will be respectively, 2090 and 2217 MHz. As these two frequencies fall outside the normal DSN transmit and receive bands, the 64-m antennas present new filter requirements, which are analyzed.

  8. Birch soil-site requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd W. Post; Willard H. Carmean; Robert O. Curtis

    1969-01-01

    Yellow birch is among our more valued hardwood species. Yet only meager information about site requirements is available for this tree and for paper birch. Site studies for yellow birch and paper birch and for other northern hardwood species have been completed for the Green Mountains of Vermont by Curtis and Post (1962a, 1962b). A similar study for northern hardwoods...

  9. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  10. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep lear...

  11. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-08-04

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  12. CSIRT Requirements for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-25

    required at the local or internal organizational level (organizational events such as layoffs , special high profile events, etc.) and also at the...external organizations for this paper and, as such, the content here reflects the insights and opinion of CERT technical staff . 2 For more information

  13. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  14. Requirements for effective modelling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.

    1997-01-01

    As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.

  15. Time Elements May Require Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that school districts may need to use a different time frame to accommodate the varied time requirements of the more flexible outcome-based education. Discusses three "alternate" scheduling methods currently in use and how they affect the teaching of journalism. (SR)

  16. Development of Officer Requirements Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Carmo Duro Substance: The Portuguese Navy has very little similarity to the U.S. Navy in size or mission. It is not concerned with projecting world-wide...re- quest on to the Naval Staff. In general, Commander Carmo Duro felt that officer requirements were primarily driven by inventory. The Navy has been

  17. 75 FR 32237 - Information Collection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Information Collection Requirements AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Requirements (ICRs) abstracted below have been forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... the information collection requirements (ICRs) and the expected burden. The revised requirements are...

  18. Evaluate deaerator steam requirements quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

    1991-02-01

    Steam plant engineers frequently have to perform energy balance calculations around the deaerator to estimate the steam required to preheat and deaerate the make-up water and condensate returns. This calculation involves solving two sets of equations, one for mass and the other for energy balance. Reference to steam tables is also necessary. However, with the help of this program written in BASIC, one can arrive at the make-up water and steam requirements quickly, without referring to steam tables. This paper shows the mass and energy balance equations for the deaerator. This paper gives the program listing. An number of condensate returns can be handled. An example illustrates the use of the program.

  19. DRFM requirements demand innovative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, G.; Culp, J.; Robinson, M.

    1986-02-01

    In the context of the operation of emerging electronic countermeasures (ECM) jamming systems, a coherent means of capturing a received threat waveform is needed. The present paper is concerned with digital RF memory (DRFM) technology, which can be used to satisfy the involved requirements, taking into account high-performance multibit systems currently under development. System-driven requirements are considered along with a DRFM design implementation sampler/digitizer, Mux/Demux and memory, and packaging. It is pointed out that one of the most promising approaches for DRFM packaging involves surface mount technology (SMT). The development of low power and highspeed GaAs memory will provide DRFM designers with alternative options to the solution of power dissipation problems.

  20. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  1. Software requirements: definition and specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevlin, D H; Jorgens, J

    1996-01-01

    The software requirements specification is the single most important document in the software development process. It provides the basis for development as well as for validation. The SRS needs to include adequate definition of all requirements without specifying implementation or project management issues. The SRS should be completed early in the development process. However, it is very likely that changes will occur during the development life cycle. This is not an excuse for approving and releasing the current version of the SRS. When changes occur, the SRS must be revised. In any case, the concept is to deal with the current, approved version of the SRS. Ultimately, the SRS should include all the information needed to proceed into the design phase of software development.

  2. GRID INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Poh Ai Ling; Mukaidono Masao

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid information security. It introduces the conceptual analysis to the methodology with the application ofhermeneutic circle and information security functional requirement identification. Information security for the grid market cover matters includes automation and communications industry that affects the operation of electric power systems and the functioning of the utilities that manage them ...

  3. Water requirements of selected industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Mussey, Orville D.; Conklin, Howard L.; Durfor, Charles N.; Otts, Louis Ethelbert; Walling, Faulkner B.

    1955-01-01

    The early industries in America generally were established when and where demands for the products of industry arose. Most of the early industries were so located that their increasing requirements for transportation, raw materials, market, labor, and water supply could be satisfied economically. Many of these original plant locations have continued as modern industrial centers and their output has increased manyfold in meeting the demands of our growing Nation. The recent and current industrial expansion and the trend toward the growth of chemical industries, many Of which are heavy users of water, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the total withdrawal of water for industrial use as well as a large increase in the per capita use of water. This increase in industrial water requirement has strained the capacity of the developed water supplies in many areas, and in some instances the adequacy of the potential water supplies is questionable. The Geological Survey is engaged in preparing and publishing a series of reports describing the developed and undeveloped water resources of many important industrial areas. This work was started initially at the request of the National Securities Resources Board as a means to insure that water supplies are adequate for our rapidly expanding industrial development. Although many factors contribute to establishing the feasibility or even the limits of future industrial development, the one relating to available water supply is extremely important. A knowledge of the water requirements of various industries is valuable therefore in planning the logical development in any area where water supply is a critical factor. Thus far very little suitable information on the water requirements of our major industries is available for general planning. An inventory of unit water-use values in industry therefore would be generally helpful and also might tend to stimulate water-conservation methods. To obtain such information

  4. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, David; Greenberg, Lev; Lee, Edward A.; Masin, Michael; Tripakis, Stavros; Wetter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines a suite of requirements for future hybrid cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI). A cosimulation standard defines interfaces that enable diverse simulation tools to interoperate. Specifically, one tool defines a component that forms part of a simulation model in another tool. We focus on components with inputs and outputs that are functions of time, and specifically...

  5. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  6. Design requirements for radiology workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M Stella

    2004-06-01

    This article stresses the importance of capturing feedback from representative users in the early stages of product development. We present our solution to producing quality requirement specifications for radiology workstations, specifications that remain valid over time because we successfully anticipated the industry trends and the user's needs. We present the results from a user study performed in December 1999 in a radiology clinic equipped with state-of-the-art Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and imaging scanners. The study involved eight radiologists who answered questions and provided comments on three complementary research topics. First, we asked our subjects to enumerate the advantages and the disadvantages for both softcopy and hardcopy reading. We identified the two major factors for productivity improvement through the use of PACS workstations: workflow re-engineering and process automation. Second, we collected radiologist feedback on the use of hanging protocols (HPs). The results indicated the high importance of automatic image organization through HPs, with the potential effect of reducing the interpretation time by 10-20%. Our subjects estimated that 10-15 HPs would cover about 85%-95% of the regular radiological examinations. Third, we investigated the impact of the display devices on the radiologist's workflow. Our results indicated that the number and the properties of the monitors is a modality-specific requirement. The main results from this study on key functional requirements for softcopy interpretation only recently were incorporated in most of the current, successful PACS workstations.

  7. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  8. Technology Requirements for Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Sara; Knoblock, Craig A.; Lannom, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the results of a panel study conducted into the technology requirements for information management in support of application domains of particular government interest, including digital libraries, mission operations, and scientific research. The panel concluded that it was desirable to have a coordinated program of R&D that pursues a science of information management focused on an environment typified by applications of government interest - highly distributed with very large amounts of data and a high degree of heterogeneity of sources, data, and users.

  9. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  10. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  11. Optimal Accession Requirements (OAR) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    crehenv p~ersoel pl"anningo system.r- Mshr DOptimiza73iSo VO FINO 55~ Goal 7ProgrammingO O se WGS Du Force Managemen FOREWORD The effort described in...between manpower requirements, external manpower supply, and policies controlling the personnel inventory . The scenarios tested have provided...pay grades 5-9. ) W Fraction of the force in the inventory X. (t-1) that is found in pay i’j’k grade k at the end of year t. G. (t) Gains during year

  12. 32 CFR 34.31 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 34.31 Section 34.31 National... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 34.31 Requirements. The following requirements pertain to recipients' procurements...

  13. 48 CFR 6.303-1 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 6.303-1... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-1 Requirements. (a) A contracting officer... required by 6.304. (b) Technical and requirements personnel are responsible for providing and certifying as...

  14. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not ha...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression......Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...

  15. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  16. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER.

  17. Determination of Kicker Vacuum Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Martin E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This note examines the effect of elevated vacuum pressures in the kicker region of the DARHT 2nd Axis which can lead to changes in the beam tune due to the long pulse length. The kicker uses Rexolite as an insulator supporting the electrodes. Rexolite is hygroscopic resulting is a large outgassing rate and prolonged pump down times after exposure to atmospheric conditions. LAMDA [1] is used to simulate the effect of ionization of the residual gas resulting in partial space charge neutralization and changes to the tune between the beginning and end of the pulse. The effect of the ion-hose instability is also examined. The purpose of this note is to establish/validate the required pressure in the downstream transport.

  18. SGA Requirements in Coming Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Stephen J.

    Refineries report various physical and chemical properties of Smelting Grade Alumina, SGA, on Certificate of Analysis data sheets. Without strong understanding of customer needs this data may fall short of meeting the true needs of smelters and downstream customers. For example, improving excess fluoride control with no specification or target for the variability of Na2O content may be a challenge. Downstream customers for aluminum conductor products require excellent conductivity, but this does not always translate itself into alumina shipping limits for Cr2O3, MnO or V2O5. The author presents these and other examples for consideration during the joint sessions between Alumina & Bauxite and Aluminum Reduction Technology.

  19. Requirements engineering for digital health

    CERN Document Server

    Thümmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and well-being have captured the attention of established software companies, start-ups, and investors. Software is starting to play a central role for addressing the problems of the aging society and the escalating cost of healthcare services. Enablers of such digital health are a growing number of sensors for sensing the human body and communication infrastructure for remote meetings, data sharing, and messaging. The challenge that lies in front of us is how to effectively make use of these capabilities, for example to empower patients and to free the scarce resources of medical personnel. Requirements engineering is the process by which the capabilities of a software product are aligned with stakeholder needs and a shared understanding between the stakeholders and development team established. This book provides guide for what to look for and do when inquiring and specifying software that targets healthcare and well-being, helping readers avoid the pitfalls of the highly regulated and sensible h...

  20. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  1. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  2. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  3. The penalty: function and requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legitimacy of criminal sanction is originated on its own purposes pursued in a state governed by the Rule of Law. That legitimacy should include the penalty as well as security measures, bearing in mind that both are imposed to someone breaking a rule of conduct, and therefore, someone capable to do it. Reviewing penal capacity or criminal liability concepts is required because if penal capacity means the capacity to understand the reality and adjust the behavior to it, and if every legitimate criminal sanction have to be imposed to someone who have the capacity of break it, then security measures also have to be imposed only to people responsible, capable to understand rules and act in accordance. With regard to people not subject to criminal liability they are standing outside Criminal Law and punish them would be illegitimate. In this line, criminal liability should be seen not only as a crime assumption but also as a basic statement for any dialogue the state shall have with the citizens: at the level of crime itself, proceedings and sentence execution .

  4. Water requirements: physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M

    1985-01-01

    This chapter presents information on the distribution of body water, the water balance and water requirements, mechanisms involved in the movements of water at the intestinal level, and the pathology of infectious diarrhea. The total amount of water contained in the body varies from 75% at birth to 60-65% in adults. Diarrhea affects the mechanisms that regulate the movements of water, leading to additional water losses and to clincal signs of the resultant severe suffering of the viscera. Under physiologic conditions, the water balance is at an equilibrium. In the exchanges of fluids between the intestinal lumen and the enterocyte, the water follows the electrolytes and there is absorption of sodium. Diarrhea results from a dysfunctioning of the transferral of water and electrolytes at the intestinal level. The infectious agents may destroy the mucosa. Losses of water and electrolytes may be caused by an exudation from mucosal necrosis, specific inhibition of absorption, abnormal stimulation of secretion, or a mixture of all 3 phenomena. The result of thes dysfunctions is an increased amount of feces and a change in their consistency due to the increased amount of water and electrolytes contained in them. Depending on the micro-organism i.e., toxigenic type, invasive type, combined type, viruses), different mechanisms are involved in diarrhea.

  5. Menorrhagia in adolescents requiring hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Y R; Quint, E H; Hertzberg, R B

    1998-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the causes and treatments of menorrhagia in adolescents hospitalized for this menstrual disorder. A retrospective chart review was performed of all adolescents adolescents with 46 admissions for menorrhagia were identified. The average age of menarche was 12.9 years and the average age at admission was 15.9 years. Nineteen adolescents had significant medical diseases. For the 46 admissions, causes of menorrhagia were anovulation (21), hematologic disease (15), chemotherapy-related (5), and infections (5). Transfusions of blood products were performed in 28 of the admissions. Treatments included oral contraceptive pills or progestins (30), intravenous conjugated estrogens (8), antibiotics (4), immune gammaglobulin (3), DDAVP (3), and prednisone (1). Twelve surgical procedures were performed, including eight dilatation and curettages (D&Cs), three laparoscopies, and one hysterectomy. Sixty-one percent of admissions for adolescent menorrhagia were in adolescents with significant medical problems. The patients with menorrhagia who required admission had severe anemia and were transfused in 63% of cases. The predominant causes for these admissions included anovulation in 46%, hematologic disease in 33%, chemotherapy in 11%, and infection in 11%. Hormonal regulation or suppression of menses should be considered in adolescents with significant medical disease.

  6. 48 CFR 806.570 - Planning requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning requirements. 806... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 806.570 Planning requirements... planning that is required. (3) A description of how to integrate the Competition Plan into advance...

  7. 40 CFR 141.91 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determinations, and any other information required by §§ 141.81 through 141.88. Each water system shall retain... requirements. Any system subject to the requirements of this subpart shall retain on its premises original... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 141.91...

  8. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and related...

  9. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.403 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures...

  10. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory...

  11. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures for proper communications and the hazards of failure to signal properly. (7) Speed management. The... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All...

  12. 16 CFR 1513.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1513.3 Section 1513.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.3 Requirements. (a) Guardrails. (1) Any bunk bed shall provide at least two... bed. This requirement does not prohibit a wall-side guardrail that terminates in a quarter-circle bend...

  13. 40 CFR 63.982 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 63.982 Section 63.982... Process § 63.982 Requirements. (a) General compliance requirements for storage vessels, process vents... routing to a fuel gas system or process shall comply with the applicable requirements of paragraphs (a)(1...

  14. 48 CFR 52.216-21 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 52.216-21... Requirements. As prescribed in 16.506(d), insert the following clause: Requirements (OCT 1995) (a) This is a requirements contract for the supplies or services specified, and effective for the period stated, in the...

  15. 16 CFR 1204.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1204.3 Section 1204.3... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.3 Requirements. All omnidirectional CB base station antennas are required to comply with the following requirements. (a) Field joints...

  16. 48 CFR 926.7103 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 926.7103... 1993. 926.7103 Requirements. (a) Section 3161, 42 U.S.C. 7474h, confers a continuing right to a... requirements, including hiring preference requirements, for displaced workers. ...

  17. 48 CFR 23.1004 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 23.1004... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1004 Requirements. (a) E.O. 13148 requires Federal facilities to comply with the provisions of EPCRA...

  18. 46 CFR 162.039-3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 162.039-3 Section 162.039-3 Shipping COAST... Requirements. (a) General. Every semiportable fire extinguisher shall conform to the requirements for listing... meet the requirements specified in this section. (b) Design. Every semiportable extinguisher shall be...

  19. 16 CFR 1510.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1510.3 Section 1510.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR RATTLES § 1510.3 Requirements. No portion of a rattle, when tested in accordance with the... shall meet this requirement both before and after performing the use and abuse tests of § 1500.51 of...

  20. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151 must...

  1. E-ELT requirements flow down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. C.; Kurlandczyk, H.; Schmid, C.; Schneller, D.

    2016-08-01

    One of the critical activities in the systems engineering scope of work is managing requirements. In line with this, E-ELT devotes a significant effort to this activity, which follows a well-established process. This involves optimally deriving requirements from the user (Top-Level Requirements) through the system Level 1 Requirements and from here down to subsystems procurement specifications. This paper describes the process, which is illustrated with some practical examples, including in particular the role of technical budgets to derive requirements on subsystems. Also, the provisions taken for the requirements verification are discussed.

  2. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    requirements can lead to inappropriate products (Hall, et al., 2002). Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be generated, is critical to before developing methods and processes to support this process. Requirement Engineering research, originated from...... the software development field, highlights the traceability of design requirements e.g. (Grove, et al., 2005), which also implies the significance of recognizing design requirement sources. However, a clear view of the sources for eliciting design requirements is still lacking, especially in the engineering...

  3. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  4. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... persons, on the basis that the tenants have a minor child or children who will be residing with them, for... requirements and with the affirmative marketing requirements and procedures adopted under § 511.13, for the...

  5. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and each...

  6. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  7. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  8. Requirements Engineering for Software Integrity and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements flaws are the most common cause of errors and software-related accidents in operational software. Most aerospace firms list requirements as one of their most important outstanding software development problems and all of the recent, NASA spacecraft losses related to software (including the highly publicized Mars Program failures) can be traced to requirements flaws. In light of these facts, it is surprising that relatively little research is devoted to requirements in contrast with other software engineering topics. The research proposed built on our previous work. including both criteria for determining whether a requirements specification is acceptably complete and a new approach to structuring system specifications called Intent Specifications. This grant was to fund basic research on how these ideas could be extended to leverage innovative approaches to the problems of (1) reducing the impact of changing requirements, (2) finding requirements specification flaws early through formal and informal analysis, and (3) avoiding common flaws entirely through appropriate requirements specification language design.

  9. 29 CFR 99.200 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirements. 99.200 Section 99.200 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.200 Audit requirements. (a) Audit required. Non-Federal entities that expend $300,000 or more in a...

  10. 29 CFR 96.32 - Audit requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audits of Entities Not Covered by Subpart A § 96.32 Audit requirement. The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the survey...

  11. 29 CFR 96.12 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirements. 96.12 Section 96.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-profit Organizations § 96.12 Audit requirements. (a) Organizations covered by this...

  12. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot be...

  13. Gamified Requirements Engineering: Model and Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombriser, Philipp; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Lucassen, Garm; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    2016-01-01

    [Context & Motivation] Engaging stakeholders in requirements engineering (RE) influences the quality of the requirements and ultimately of the system to-be. Unfortunately, stakeholder engagement is often insufficient, leading to too few, low-quality requirements. [Question/problem] We aim to

  14. 48 CFR 231.703 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 231.703 Section 231.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Nonprofit Organizations 231.703 Requirements....

  15. 47 CFR 80.213 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 80.213 Section 80.213... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.213 Modulation requirements. (a) Transmitters must meet the following modulation requirements: (1) When double sideband emission is used the peak modulation...

  16. 47 CFR 87.141 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 87.141 Section 87.141... Technical Requirements § 87.141 Modulation requirements. (a) When A3E emission is used, the modulation... modulation in excess of 100 percent. (c) If any licensed radiotelephone transmitter causes harmful...

  17. 45 CFR 164.105 - Organizational requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational requirements. 164.105 Section 164.105 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY General Provisions § 164.105 Organizational requirements. (a)(1) Standard...

  18. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Receivable, in form and detail as required in Schedule 201 of annual report R-1 for the Class I railroads... and detail as required in Schedule 309 of the annual Report R-1 for Class I railroads in similar form... detail as required in Schedule 200 of the Commission's annual report R-1 or R-2, as appropriate, together...

  19. Academic Requirements for Eligibility. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    There is a lot written about eligibility requirements, but almost all of it is about NCAA first year eligibility requirements and their impact on high schools. Much less is written about high school eligibility requirements and their impact on student performance. Coaches, parents, and educators offer many reasons for there to be lax or no…

  20. 28 CFR 80.12 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting requirements. 80.12 Section 80... PROCEDURE § 80.12 Accounting requirements. Neither the submission of a request for an FCPA Opinion, its... comply with the accounting requirements of 15 U.S.C. 78m(b)(2) and (3). ...

  1. 49 CFR 565.13 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.13 General requirements. (a) Each vehicle manufactured in one stage shall have a VIN that is assigned by the manufacturer. Each vehicle manufactured in more than one stage shall have a VIN assigned by...

  2. Analyzing and Specifying Reusable Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    sections specifying functional requirements. Thus, the functional requirements for an embedded avionics application and an ecommerce website may have...avionics applications and ecommerce applications need to specify levels of identification, authentication, authorization, integrity, privacy, etc. At...consider the following template for specifying integrity requirements: • “The [application / component / data center / business unit] shall protect the

  3. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  4. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.84 Requirements. (a) No later than October 24, 1994, each... requirements and policies of title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671-7671g. Each such regulation shall...

  5. 48 CFR 970.2670-1 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 970.2670-1... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2670-1 Requirements. The goal requirements of section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and the attendant reporting...

  6. 24 CFR 208.108 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements. 208.108 Section 208... MULTIFAMILY SUBSIDIZED PROJECTS § 208.108 Requirements. (a) Projects specified in § 208.104(a) that are... data requirements and in lieu of the hard copy forms. ...

  7. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 544 Insurer Reporting Requirements AGENCY... maintain and enforce the insurer reporting requirements reduced the paperwork burden on the public by 13... from the reporting requirements if the agency finds that such an exemption will not significantly...

  8. 48 CFR 925.7003 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 925.7003... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7003 Requirements. (a) For the... of nuclear waste; or (2) Add these costs to offers of foreign companies. (b) The requirements of this...

  9. 30 CFR 40.2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 40.2 Section 40.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS REPRESENTATIVE OF MINERS § 40.2 Requirements. (a) A representative of miners shall file with the...

  10. 16 CFR 1213.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1213.3 Section 1213.3... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.3 Requirements. (a) Guardrails. (1) Any bunk bed shall... instructions is on the bed. This requirement does not prohibit a wall-side guardrail that terminates in a...

  11. 27 CFR 479.122 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements. 479.122... OTHER FIREARMS Importation and Exportation Arms Export Control Act § 479.122 Requirements. (a) Persons... exporting firearms caliber .22 or larger are subject to the requirements of a license issued by the...

  12. 48 CFR 23.905 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 23.905... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 23.905 Requirements. (a... performance of the contract that are subject to Form R filing and reporting requirements, the offeror will...

  13. 48 CFR 31.303 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 31.303... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Educational Institutions 31.303 Requirements. (a) Contracts that refer to this subpart 31.3 for determining allowable costs under contracts...

  14. 45 CFR 1000.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 1000.3 Section 1000.3 Public Welfare... ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO GRANTS FOR ASSETS FOR INDEPENDENCE § 1000.3 Requirements. (a) A qualified entity... and Human Services' uniform administrative requirements under 45 CFR part 74. (b) Any reserve fund...

  15. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 233 RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY... regulatory requirement that each carrier must file with FRA a signal system status report every five years... Reporting Requirements by updating an outdated statutory citation. DATES: Written comments must be received...

  16. 49 CFR 575.6 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 575.6 Section 575.6 Transportation... National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.6 Requirements. (a)(1) At the time a motor... notation satisfies the requirement. Example 2. Manufacturer Y furnishes a document containing several...

  17. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization and... finalize the interpretation proposed in Docket No. FAA-2010-1259, relating to rest requirements, and...

  18. 49 CFR 569.7 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 569.7 Section 569.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGROOVED TIRES § 569.7 Requirements. (a) Regrooved tires. (1) Except as... requirements: (i) The tire being regrooved shall be a regroovable tire; (ii) After regrooving, cord material...

  19. 46 CFR 194.90-1 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 194.90-1 Section 194.90-1 Shipping COAST...-1 Requirements. (a) Vessels contracted for prior to March 1, 1968, shall meet the following requirements: (1) Existing arrangements, materials, and facilities previously approved but not meeting the...

  20. 44 CFR 206.347 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 206.347 Section... Requirements. (a) Location determination. For each disaster assistance action which is proposed on the Atlantic... requirements of these regulations needs to be met, and the action may be processed under other applicable...

  1. 48 CFR 31.703 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 31.703 Section 31.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Nonprofit Organizations 31.703 Requirements...

  2. 48 CFR 706.303-1 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 706.303-1 Section 706.303-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 706.303-1 Requirements. (a)-(c) (d...

  3. 10 CFR 600.331 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 600.331 Section 600.331 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With For-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.331...

  4. 42 CFR 423.910 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 423.910 Section 423.910 Public Health... for Subsidies and General Payment Provisions § 423.910 Requirements. (a) General rule. Each of the 50.... For States that do not meet the monthly reporting requirement for the monthly enrollment reporting...

  5. 48 CFR 41.301 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 41.301... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Requests for Assistance 41.301 Requirements. (a) Requests for... utility service requirements, the agency shall furnish the information in paragraph (a) of this section...

  6. 49 CFR 630.4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 630.4 Section 630.4 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.4 Requirements. (a) National Transit Database Reporting System... comply with the applicable requirements of 49 U.S.C. 5335, as set forth in the reference documents. State...

  7. 46 CFR 160.016-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 160.016-2 Section 160.016-2 Shipping COAST... Requirements. (a) Flame safety lamps for use on merchant vessels shall comply with the construction requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-1204. (b) ...

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 113.25-3 Section 113.25-3 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-3 Requirements. Each vessel must have a general emergency alarm system that meets the requirements of this subpart. ...

  9. 42 CFR 66.105 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 66.105 Section 66.105 Public Health... NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.105 Requirements. The Secretary shall make an Award to... and manner the Secretary may prescribe, that he or she will satisfy the requirements of § 66.110. (b...

  10. 48 CFR 970.2672-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 970.2672-2... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2672-2 Requirements. The requirements set forth in 48 CFR 926.71, Implementation of Section 3161 of the National Defense Authorization...

  11. 48 CFR 2806.303-1 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Requirements. 2806.303-1 Section 2806.303-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.303-1 Requirements...

  12. 29 CFR 548.200 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 548.200 Section 548.200 Labor Regulations... ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Requirements for A Basic Rate § 548.200 Requirements. The following conditions must be satisfied if a “basic” rate is to be considered proper under...

  13. 42 CFR 66.205 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 66.205 Section 66.205 Public Health... NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.205 Requirements. (a) No Award shall be made to... the form and manner the Secretary may prescribe, that he or she will satisfy the requirements of § 66...

  14. 40 CFR 204.55-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 204.55-2 Section 204.55... NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55-2 Requirements. (a... requirements for purposes of testing by the Administrator and Selective Enforcement Auditing consist of: (1...

  15. 46 CFR 161.006-4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 161.006-4 Section 161.006-4 Shipping COAST... Requirements. (a) Corrosion-resisting materials. Silver, corrosion-resisting steel, copper, brass, bronze and... intensity. (k) Bolts, nuts, and screws. Bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements of Navy Department...

  16. 32 CFR 101.5 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 101.5 Section 101.5 National... PARTICIPATION IN RESERVE TRAINING PROGRAMS § 101.5 Requirements. (a) Reserve participation—(1) Training requirements under 10 U.S.C. 270(a). (i) Each individual inducted, enlisted, or appointed in the U.S. Armed...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1100 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 75.1100 Section 75.1100 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100 Requirements. Each coal mine shall be... Secretary shall establish minimum requirements of the type, quality, and quantity of such equipment. ...

  18. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY: Federal... proposes to interpret the application of 14 CFR 135.263 and the rest requirements of Sec. 135.267(d) to... pilot rest requirements. See Nov. 20, 2000, Letter to Captain Richard D. Rubin from James W. Whitlow...

  19. 46 CFR 113.30-5 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 113.30-5 Section 113.30-5 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Internal Communications § 113.30-5 Requirements. (a) Communication. Each vessel must... finder. Communication to the radio and radio direction finder must meet the following requirements: (1...

  20. 76 FR 26802 - Application Filing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application Filing Requirements AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... Treasury will submit the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Application Filing Requirements. OMB Number: 1550-0056. Form Number: N/A...

  1. 29 CFR 1606.5 - Citizenship requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citizenship requirements. 1606.5 Section 1606.5 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.5 Citizenship requirements. (a) In those circumstances, where citizenship requirements have the purpose or effect of discriminating against an individual on the basis of...

  2. 7 CFR 774.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... categorically excluded from the requirements of an environmental evaluation due to the fact that the loan funds... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 774.9 Section 774.9... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.9 Environmental requirements. The...

  3. 30 CFR 250.189 - Reporting requirements for incidents requiring immediate notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements for incidents requiring... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.189 Reporting requirements for incidents requiring immediate...) Lease number, OCS area, and block; (e) Platform/facility name and number, or pipeline segment number; (f...

  4. 30 CFR 250.190 - Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements for incidents requiring... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.190 Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written... pipeline segment number; (6) Type of incident or injury; (7) Operation or activity at time of incident (i.e...

  5. Training and licensing requirements for blasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippincott, S.L. [Explosives Educational Services, Inc., Granbury, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A number of Federal and State agencies require formal training for blasters. Federal agencies often specify the need for initial training involving all job responsibilities as well as periodic refresher training to assure adherence to current operating procedures. Failure to provide and document such training can result in substantial penalties. State governments vary regarding blaster training and licensing requirements. Many states issue licenses if applicants pay a fee and swear not to be a felon or a drug user. Other states require a written test, which may or may not specify prior formal training. Training and licensing requirements may vary depending on where the blaster works; i.e., construction, metal, non-metal or coal mining. For example, a state may require a written test for blasting in Surface Coal and have no requirements for other explosive consuming industries. This paper will identify and discuss the various regulatory agencies involved in formulating and enforcing blaster training and licensing requirements.

  6. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  7. Impact of the "faster better cheaper" requirements for satellites components/subsystems on SEP organisation and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, X.

    2000-03-01

    In the early 90's, SEP environment in the satellites business quickly evolved from agencies funded programs (ESA, CNES, government) to a situation in which SEP has numerous private customers and where agencies behave as private companies i.e. opening world-wide competition, requesting high involvement of SEP in non recurring funding. SEP quickly reacted to face this challenge by improving not only their products but also the way these products are developed and produced. A new organization of SEP/DPES unit (around 200 people) was set up end 1994, with project oriented guidelines such as streamlining the hierarchical levels in order to increase personals implication and motivation, favoring flexible project organizations to the previous somewhat rigid matrix organization, enforcing commercial/marketing structure to the new customers. Highly motivated slim teams were constituted around each project, picking up expert partners inside SEP/DPES departments. Project partners proved to plead in an efficient manner with their own management on the behalf of the projects they were implied in. Eventually, this organization helped, of course with other progress actions, to a global performance improvement of SEP/DPES. Improved development processes were put into practice in 1995 among which design to cost, carefully decided internal preliminary studies, long term agreements with preferred subcontractors. SEP/DPES ISO.9001 certification (mid-1998) which gives evidence of the satisfactory status of SEP/DPES PA system already helps to avoid to costly comply with numerous project tailored P.A. requirements. New products were developed/qualified since the mid-90's, on SEP funding (at least partial, sometimes total), following the here before described processes and organization. Among SEP/DPES newly developed products, three examples are more thoroughly discussed. In the field of electrical propulsion where SEP/DPES has gained expertise in since the 60's, new developments started

  8. Inspection Report on "Employment Verification at Savannah River Site"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-11-01

    We conducted a review at the Savannah River Site to determine if Site subcontractors verified the employment status of all employees in accordance with Federal requirements and, if unauthorized individuals accessed the site. During our field work, we reviewed 600 I-9 Forms from 21 subcontractors to verify whether Site subcontractors were using the I-9 Forms; and if the forms were accurate and complete. We also conducted a judgmental sample of individuals who accessed the Site during a six-month period to determine if there were any documentation anomalies.

  9. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  10. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...... proxy holders. A thorough knowledge of these requirements is important not only for the listed companies but also for their advisers and investors in Denmark and abroad. This article considers these requirements as well as the additional requirements which will derive from Directive 2007....../36 on the exercise of shareholders' rights in listed companies, which must be implemented by 3 August 2009. It is pointed out that companies may provide with advantage in their articles of association for both the existing and the forthcoming requirements at this early stage....

  11. Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Alison Marie

    2001-05-01

    The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

  12. Requirements for company-wide management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southall, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Computing system requirements were developed for company-wide management of information and computer programs in an engineering data processing environment. The requirements are essential to the successful implementation of a computer-based engineering data management system; they exceed the capabilities provided by the commercially available data base management systems. These requirements were derived from a study entitled The Design Process, which was prepared by design engineers experienced in development of aerospace products.

  13. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION SINAPRA BERBASIS SISTEM INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hadi Waryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana (SINAPRA merupakan bagian dari beberapa sistem informasi yang dipakai oleh Univeristas Negeri Yogyakarta. SINAPRA merupakan salah satu sistem yang akan dikembangkan dalam Sistem Informasi Terpadu (SIPADU. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA merupakan acuan teknis developer dalam mengembangkan sistem untuk tahap selanjutnya. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA dikembangkan menggunakan model WSU-TC CptS 322  dengan berbasis sistem informasi terpadu UNY Kata Kunci : Software Requirements Specification, WSU-TC CptS 322, SINAPRA

  14. Pediatric Nutritional Requirements Determination with Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karlık, Bekir; Ece, Aydın

    1998-01-01

    To calculate daily nutritional requirements of children, a computer program has been developed based upon neural network. Three parameters, daily protein, energy and water requirements, were calculated through trained artificial neural networks using a database of 312 children The results were compared with those of calculated from dietary requirements tables of World Health Organisation. No significant difference was found between two calculations. In conclusion, a simple neural network may ...

  15. On the applicability of requirements determination methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Petrus Wilhelmus Laurentius

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied the field of requirements determination for enterprise information systems. We discovered that in the ERP era that characterizes the information systems in many (large) enterprises at the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of requirements determination is still relevant. We also discovered that the ‘stateof-the-art’ of this field still shows a number of omissions in the definition of requirements specifications modeling constructs and methodology. We have ...

  16. CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey for 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test...with knock sensors. Maximum octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with...three unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane

  17. 1991 CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test...knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum- throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with four unleaded...fuel series of varying sensitivities, one containing 15 percent methyl tertiary butyl ether. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number

  18. CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test...with knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum- throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with three...unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of

  19. 1987 CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle. Requirements are expressed as the...R+M) /2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at...the lowest audible level. The primary analyses used in this report are based upon (R+M)/2 octane number requirements, rather than upon Research octane

  20. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  1. SE Requirements Development Tool User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Faith Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The LANL Systems Engineering Requirements Development Tool (SERDT) is a data collection tool created in InfoPath for use with the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) SharePoint sites. Projects can fail if a clear definition of the final product requirements is not performed. For projects to be successful requirements must be defined early in the project and those requirements must be tracked during execution of the project to ensure the goals of the project are met. Therefore, the focus of this tool is requirements definition. The content of this form is based on International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and Department of Defense (DoD) process standards and allows for single or collaborative input. The “Scoping” section is where project information is entered by the project team prior to requirements development, and includes definitions and examples to assist the user in completing the forms. The data entered will be used to define the requirements and once the form is filled out, a “Requirements List” is automatically generated and a Word document is created and saved to a SharePoint document library. SharePoint also includes the ability to download the requirements data defined in the InfoPath from into an Excel spreadsheet. This User Guide will assist you in navigating through the data entry process.

  2. Bandwidth requirements for fine resolution squinted SAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2000-03-01

    The conventional rule-of-thumb for Synthetic Aperture Radar is that an RF bandwidth of c/(2{rho}{sub r}) is required to image a scene at the desired slant-range resolution {rho}{sub r}, and perhaps a little more to account for window functions and sidelobe control. This formulation is based on the notion that the total bandwidth required is the same bandwidth that is required for a single pulse. What is neglected is that efficient processing of an entire synthetic aperture of pulses will often require different frequency content for each of the different pulses that makeup a synthetic aperture. Consequently, the total RF bandwidth required of a Synthetic Aperture Radar may then be substantially wider than the bandwidth of any single pulse. The actual RF bandwidth required depends strongly on flight geometry, owing to the desire for a radar to maintain a constant projection of the Fourier space collection surface onto the {omega}{sub y} axis. Long apertures required for fine azimuth resolution, and severe squint angles with steep depression angles may require total RF bandwidths well beyond the minimum bandwidth required of any single transmitted pulse, perhaps even by a factor of two or more. Accounting for this is crucial to designing efficient versatile high-performance imaging radars. This paper addresses how a data set conducive to efficient processing might increase the total RF bandwidth, and presents examples of how a fixed RF bandwidth might then limit SAR geometries.

  3. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  4. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set(s) containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set(s). The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements...... set. In this paper the objective is not to present a specific method for requirements reuse but to introduce and discuss the possible dimensions of adjustability when generating a product requirement set by reusing requirements from a reusable set. Six adjustability dimensions have been identified...... highlights the need, not only to understand the effects of each adjustability dimension but also of the dependencies to case specific criterions. The classification of adjustability dimensions in requirements reuse and the options for their implementation has not been outlined by previous research and should...

  5. GPRS Requirements. Dutch Smart Meter Requirements. Version 3.0. Final Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    This document defines the requirements for the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) infrastructure as part of the Dutch Smart Meter Specification. In this document all requirements originating from the NTA 8130, or additionally surveyed by a delegation of the Dutch grid operators, are presented in tables. Each requirement is tightly connected to one or more business use cases presented in the document. The ultimate goal of this procedure is to reduce ambiguity of the requirements due to a better understanding of the requirements.

  6. 16 CFR 1750.5 - Detailed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the closed door, shall not exceed 66.7 newtons (15 pounds); (2) Shall permit the refrigerator door... device shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section after 300,000 cycles of...). (f) Power supply. The device shall operate in accordance with the requirements of this standard with...

  7. 34 CFR 686.32 - Counseling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling requirements. 686.32 Section 686.32...) GRANT PROGRAM Administration of Grant Payments § 686.32 Counseling requirements. (a) Initial counseling. (1) An institution must ensure that initial counseling is conducted with each TEACH Grant recipient...

  8. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her...

  9. NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Mark P.

    1992-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (CM) goes over CM requirements for single mission and multi-mission orientations, CM automation and CALS implementation initiatives, NASA implementation of DOD standards and DID's (data item descriptions), impact of traceability in NASA CM support, NASA's CM efforts in modifying/upgrading equipment, and CM control of multi-vendor hardware.

  10. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,

  11. 24 CFR 201.24 - Security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (c) Recording and perfection of security. The lender shall assure that the legal description... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security requirements. 201.24... TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Eligibility and Disbursement Requirements § 201...

  12. Security Requirements – Analysis of the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs about security are matters little taken into account when managing requirements engineering , and when considered in the life cycle of the system , they tend to become a general list of functions, as password of protection , firewalls , virus detection tools , and other similar. But in fact, they cannot be considered as requirements of security, because they are implementation mechanisms to try to meet unspecified requirements, as an authenticated access. As a result, the security requirements for the system are ignored, which are required to protect essential services and assets, besides, when are specified, is not considered the prospect of future attacks. This paper describes the need for a systematic approach to managing security requirements engineering, in order to help avoid the problem of generic lists and take into account the future perspective. Several related approaches are described and also are provided references additional material that can help requirements engineers to ensure that their products be taken into account, effectively , the security requirements.

  13. 49 CFR 451.25 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 451.25 Section 451.25....25 Required information. (a) The safety approval number appearing on line 1 of the safety approval... safety approval plate on the freight container provided that all the information contained on the...

  14. 50 CFR 15.12 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... CONSERVATION ACT Prohibitions and Requirements § 15.12 Requirements. (a) No person shall import into the United...) Any exotic bird can be imported to the United States if it was legally exported from the United States...

  15. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...

  16. 34 CFR 604.11 - Planning requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning requirements. 604.11 Section 604.11 Education... Planning requirements. (a) The agreement shall contain an assurance by the State that it has a comprehensive planning or policy formulation process which: (1) Considers the relationship between State...

  17. 46 CFR 153.238 - Required materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required materials. 153.238 Section 153.238 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.238 Required materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section is...

  18. 12 CFR 616.6800 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure requirements. 616.6800 Section 616.6800 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6800 Disclosure requirements. (a) Each System institution must give to each lessee a copy of all lease documents signed by the...

  19. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement shall be on a contrasting background. (2) The first two words of the statement required by § 16.21... warning statement may not appear in bold type. (3) The letters and/or words of the statement required by... thay cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. ...

  20. An Online Graduate Requirements Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicay-Ergin, N.; Laplante, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements engineering is one of the fundamental knowledge areas in software and systems engineering graduate curricula. Recent changes in educational delivery and student demographics have created new challenges for requirements engineering education. In particular, there is an increasing demand for online education for working professionals.…

  1. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of § 65.77, pass a written test covering the construction and maintenance of aircraft appropriate to the...

  2. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  3. The Validity of Two Education Requirement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the validity of two education requirement measures. This is important because a key part of the ongoing discussion concerning overeducation is about measurement. Thanks to the Dutch Institute for Labour Studies, we have been given a unique opportunity to compare two education requirement measures: first, Huijgen's…

  4. 5 CFR 792.101 - Statutory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory requirements. 792.101 Section 792.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug...

  5. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  6. 19 CFR 122.27 - Documents required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documents required. 122.27 Section 122.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.27 Documents required. (a) Crewmembers and passengers...

  7. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required documents. 201.52 Section 201.52... TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Payment and Reimbursement § 201.52 Required documents. (a) Commodities and...-related services shall be supported by the documents listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (8) of this...

  8. 30 CFR 815.13 - Required documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents. 815.13 Section 815.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Required documents. Each person who conducts coal exploration which substantially disturbs the natural land...

  9. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is... from the Office of Management and Budget. DATES: As of March 22, 2012, the proposed rule published...

  10. 47 CFR 74.463 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 74.463 Section 74.463....463 Modulation requirements. (a) Each new remote pickup broadcast station authorized to operate with a... modulation in excess of the limits set forth in this subpart. (b) If amplitude modulation is employed...

  11. On the applicability of requirements determination methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Petrus Wilhelmus Laurentius

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied the field of requirements determination for enterprise information systems. We discovered that in the ERP era that characterizes the information systems in many (large) enterprises at the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of requirements determination is still

  12. Decision Support Environment for Concurrent Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    increased acquisition emphasis on customer satisfaction and proper definition of the Voice of the Customer . In weapon system acquisition the combat command’s...requirements are the voice of the customer and it is their needs and requirements that must be captured, defined, and satisfied. To help achieve this

  13. 1981 CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982 model vehicles, including nine select models of special interest. Maximum octane number requirements were determined by testing under part...throttle conditions, as well as at maximum-throttle. Included also in the E-15-82 technique are the octane number requirements as determined by the 50th

  14. 13 CFR 307.4 - Award requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review Strategy Grant proposals to ensure that the proposed activities conform to the CEDS requirements... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Award requirements. 307.4 Section 307.4 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  15. 13 CFR 307.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements. 307.5 Section 307.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... EDA) a CEDS, except that a CEDS is not required when applying for a Strategy Grant; and (2) Explain...

  16. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...

  17. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...

  18. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements. An...

  19. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.79 Section 65.79... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a... cover the applicant's basic skill in performing practical projects on the subjects covered by the...

  20. 14 CFR 63.39 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.39 Section 63.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.39 Skill requirements. (a) An...

  1. 14 CFR 63.57 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.57 Section 63.57 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.57 Skill requirements. (a) An...

  2. 20 CFR 220.133 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skill requirements. 220.133 Section 220.133... DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.133 Skill requirements. (a) General. To evaluate skills and to... claimant does not gain work skills by doing unskilled jobs. For example, jobs are considered unskilled if...

  3. 45 CFR 164.314 - Organizational requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational requirements. 164.314 Section 164.314 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... Information § 164.314 Organizational requirements. (a)(1) Standard: Business associate contracts or other...

  4. 46 CFR 184.100 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirement. 184.100 Section 184.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.100 General requirement...

  5. 48 CFR 706.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 706.501 Requirement. The USAID Administrator delegated the authority to designate the agency competition advocate and a competition advocate for each... Administrator's delegation, has designated the M/OAA Deputy Director for Policy, Evaluation and Support as the...

  6. Cloud computing security requirements: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iankoulova, Iliana; Daneva, Maia; Rolland, C; Castro, J.; Pastor, O

    Many publications have dealt with various types of security requirements in cloud computing but not all types have been explored in sufficient depth. It is also hard to understand which types of requirements have been under-researched and which are most investigated. This paper's goal is to provide

  7. 38 CFR 8.8 - Health requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health requirements. 8.8 Section 8.8 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.8 Health requirements. National Service life insurance on any plan may be reinstated if application and tender of...

  8. Internet technologies and requirements for telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaster, H.; Meylor, J.; Meylor, F.

    1997-01-01

    Internet technologies are briefly introduced and those applicable for telemedicine are reviewed. Multicast internet technologies are described. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 'Telemedicine Space-bridge to Russia' project is described and used to derive requirements for internet telemedicine. Telemedicine privacy and Quality of Service (QoS) requirements are described.

  9. Requirements engineering for human activity systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available requirements engineering and social systems may be unified, the example of an illustrative health care system is used. The paper concludes with the finding that it is a valid approach to use requirements to describe desired characteristics of social systems...

  10. On the Similarity between Requirements and Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.C.; van Vliet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Many would agree that there is a relationship between requirements engineering and software architecture. However, there have always been different opinions about the exact nature of this relationship. Nevertheless, all arguments have been based on one overarching notion: that of requirements as

  11. 30 CFR 7.303 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application requirements. 7.303 Section 7.303... Application requirements. (a) An application for approval of a motor assembly shall include a composite... free volume. (3) Material and quantity for each of the component parts that form the explosion-proof...

  12. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The requirements for the successful rollout of best practices mentioned by the participants in this study concur with the requirements of Edwards and Grinspun: personal alignment and protocol/policy alignment with the best practice; a roll-out plan; leadership; and supporting and reinforcing structures such as: ...

  13. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements. ...

  14. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturer or private labeler, pursuant to § 431.36(f), and applicable to that motor. Such CC number must be... EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1) Required information. The permanent nameplate of an electric motor for which standards are prescribed in § 431.25 must...

  15. 40 CFR 52.224 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County APCD. (xvi) Shasta County APCD. (xvii) Sacramento County APCD. (xviii)-(xix) (xx) Lake County APCD... necessary to fulfill the requirements of 40 CFR 51.116(c). (1) Northcoast intrastate region: (i) Lake County...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.224 General requirements. (a) The...

  16. 49 CFR 565.16 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements... affixing the first VIN using the identifier. Manufacturers whose unique identifier appears in the fourth section of the VIN shall also submit the three characters of the first section that constitutes a part of...

  17. 40 CFR 141.700 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system. (3) The requirements of this subpart for unfiltered systems apply only to unfiltered systems that... Cryptosporidium, if required, as described in § 141.711. All unfiltered systems must provide treatment for Cryptosporidium as described in § 141.712. Filtered and unfiltered systems must implement Cryptosporidium...

  18. 49 CFR 1503.101 - TSA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TSA requirements. 1503.101 Section 1503.101... Scope of Investigative and Enforcement Procedures § 1503.101 TSA requirements. (a) The investigative and enforcement procedures in this part apply to TSA's investigation and enforcement of violations of TSA...

  19. 40 CFR 721.125 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program that ensures compliance with any applicable disposal requirements. (k) Records documenting... the records for 5 years from the date of their creation. In addition to the records specified in § 721.40, the records whose maintenance this section requires may include the following: (a) Records...

  20. 14 CFR 254.5 - Notice requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.5 Notice requirement. In any flight segment using large aircraft... large aircraft, an air carrier shall provide to passengers, by conspicuous written material included on... passengers; or (b) The following notice: “Federal rules require any limit on an airline's baggage liability...

  1. 14 CFR 120.217 - Tests required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or to obtain necessary emergency medical care. (c) Random alcohol testing. (1) Except as provided in... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.217 Tests required. (a) Pre-employment alcohol testing. As an...

  2. Requirements engineering: foundation for software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Pastor, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the 22nd edition of REFSQ: the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering – Foundation for Software Quality! Requirements engineering (RE) has been recognized as a critical factor that impacts the quality of software, systems, and services. Since the

  3. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...

  4. 48 CFR 1344.302 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 1344.302 Section 1344.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews § 1344.302 Requirements. The...

  5. 48 CFR 1426.7103-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 1426.7103-2 Section 1426.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-2 Requirements. The contracting...

  6. 40 CFR 204.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 204.55 Section 204.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55 Requirements. ...

  7. 76 FR 41331 - Application Filing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Application Filing Requirements AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS.... Title of Proposal: Application Filing Requirements. OMB Number: 1550-0056. Form Number: N/A. Description...

  8. 48 CFR 1426.7102-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 1426.7102-2 Section 1426.7102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-2 Requirements. (a) MBDA-91 Plan...

  9. 48 CFR 23.601 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 23.601 Section 23.601 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.601 Requirements. (a) The clause at 52.223-7...

  10. 48 CFR 2944.302 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 2944.302 Section 2944.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 2944.302 Requirements. The...

  11. 32 CFR 154.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 154.55 Section 154.55 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Unfavorable Administrative Actions § 154.55 Requirements. (a) General. For...

  12. 46 CFR 160.061-2 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 160.061-2 Section 160.061-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Requirements. (a) Material. Material shall be as specified in this subpart. (b) Assembly. Emergency fishing...

  13. 46 CFR 164.012-10 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 164.012-10 Section 164.012-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-10 Requirements. (a) For...

  14. 40 CFR 205.168 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.168 Section 205.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.168 Requirements. ...

  15. 48 CFR 44.302 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 44.302 Section 44.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.302 Requirements. (a) The ACO...

  16. 33 CFR 53.7 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 53.7 Section 53.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION § 53.7 Requirements. (a) No person within the Department of Homeland Security may...

  17. 40 CFR 211.210 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 211.210 Section 211.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.210 Requirements. ...

  18. 33 CFR 214.9 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 214.9 Section 214.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.9 Requirements. Providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water...

  19. Requirements for clinical information modelling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Jódar-Sánchez, Francisco; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This study proposes consensus requirements for clinical information modelling tools that can support modelling tasks in medium/large scale institutions. Rather than identify which functionalities are currently available in existing tools, the study has focused on functionalities that should be covered in order to provide guidance about how to evolve the existing tools. After identifying a set of 56 requirements for clinical information modelling tools based on a literature review and interviews with experts, a classical Delphi study methodology was applied to conduct a two round survey in order to classify them as essential or recommended. Essential requirements are those that must be met by any tool that claims to be suitable for clinical information modelling, and if we one day have a certified tools list, any tool that does not meet essential criteria would be excluded. Recommended requirements are those more advanced requirements that may be met by tools offering a superior product or only needed in certain modelling situations. According to the answers provided by 57 experts from 14 different countries, we found a high level of agreement to enable the study to identify 20 essential and 21 recommended requirements for these tools. It is expected that this list of identified requirements will guide developers on the inclusion of new basic and advanced functionalities that have strong support by end users. This list could also guide regulators in order to identify requirements that could be demanded of tools adopted within their institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meeting Ecologists Requirements with Adaptive Data Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Marcus; Bonnet, Philippe

    their potential if they meet the scientists requirements. In an ideal world, an ecologist expresses requirements in terms of a target dataset, which the sensor network then actually collects and stores. In fact, failures occur and interesting events happen making uniform, systematic ecosys- tem sampling neither...

  1. 40 CFR 205.157 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.157 Section 205.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157 Requirements. ...

  2. 5 CFR 2634.802 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 2634.802 Section 2634.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Ethics Agreements § 2634.802 Requirements. (a) Ethics...

  3. 49 CFR 533.5 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 533.5 Section 533.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 533.5 Requirements. (a) Each manufacturer...

  4. 49 CFR 595.5 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 595.5 Section 595.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... § 595.5 Requirements. (a) Beginning January 19, 1998, a dealer or motor vehicle repair business may...

  5. 49 CFR 582.4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 582.4 Section 582.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) INSURANCE COST INFORMATION REGULATION § 582.4 Requirements. (a) Each...

  6. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., placing sod, or seeding completed work. (d) Adequacy of requirements of local cooperation. In determining... furnishing flood fight assistance during an emergency. (b) Areas of minor damage, flood control works... maintenance requirements if apparent inadequacies of protective works indicate maintenance costs will be...

  7. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sensitivity of the monitor to detect sources carried by the product conveyor system as required by § 36.29(a... the pool. (d) Water handling system. For pool irradiators, the licensee shall verify that the design of the water purification system is adequate to meet the requirements of § 36.33(e). The system must...

  8. 45 CFR 164.530 - Administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the notice required by § 164.520. (2) Implementation specification: Personnel designations. A... workforce on the policies and procedures with respect to protected health information required by this...) Implementation specification: Safeguards. A covered entity must reasonably safeguard protected health information...

  9. 16 CFR 1616.3 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 1616.3 Section 1616.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 7 THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) The Standard § 1616.3 General requirements...

  10. 16 CFR 1615.3 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 1615.3 Section 1615.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) The Standard § 1615.3 General requirements...

  11. 49 CFR 172.704 - Training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recurrent training after March 25, 2003, and in no case later than March 24, 2006, each hazmat employee must... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training requirements. 172.704 Section 172.704... PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND...

  12. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  13. Tracing And Control Of Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.; Stoller, Richard L.; Neville, Ted; Boyle, Karen A.

    1991-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is data-base/word-processing software system created to document and maintain order of both requirements and descriptions associated with engineering project. Implemented on IBM PC under PC-DOS. Written with CLIPPER.

  14. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must...

  15. Automatic Identification System (AIS) User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Identification System (AIS) User Requirements December 2000 Final Report This document is available to the U.S. public through...Report Type Final Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Automatic Identification System (AIS) User Requirements Contract Number Grant...The original document contains color images. Abstract Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that should improve situational

  16. 24 CFR 200.620 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of these regulations), the applicant shall meet the following requirements or, if he contracts marketing responsibility to another party, be responsible for that party's carrying out the requirements: (a... rentals, the Department-approved Equal Housing Opportunity logo or slogan or statement. (f) Post in a...

  17. 75 FR 24688 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc.’s Identified Subcontractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... technical information contact: Scott Sherlock, Environmental Assistance Division (7408M), Office of..., DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (202) 564-8257; fax number: (202) 564-8251; e-mail address: sherlock...

  18. Office of Inspector General audit report on Fluor Daniel Fernald`s use of temporary services subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) and Fluor Daniel Fernald (Fluor Daniel) implemented two work force restructurings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project between Fiscal Years (FY) 1994 and 1996. During the restructurings, the Department`s cost for temporary service subcontracts increased from $2.8 million to $9.8 million annually. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Fluor Daniel utilized temporary service agreements in an economical and efficient manner and in accordance with the policy and goals of the Department`s Work Force Restructuring Program.

  19. Technology Modernization for DoD Subcontractors: A Study of Market, Business, Financial, and Capital Investment Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    gathering and analyses used in Phases I (Field Research) and II (Analysis and Identification). Phase I--Field Research Festinger and Katz state that...tions, and summated rating scale (Likert-type) questions. According to Festinger and Katz, fixed-alternative questions offer a choice among two or more...AFB MD, 1 October 1980. 4. Emory, C. William. Business Research Methods. 2d ed. Homewood IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1980. 5. Festinjer, Leon , and

  20. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  1. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  2. Stakeholder Alignment for Requirements in GEOValue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J.; King, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Observation systems that collect information on environmental parameters relevant to biological and physical earth resources provide value. This has been demonstrated so many times in so many ways that it is not worth deliberating. Earlier projects for research (whether it is possible to do this or that), or for "dual use," typically involving defense, have been successful. Wealthy parties have built their own systems. Less wealthy parties seek to sustain the systems they have built. The history of systems suggests that "requirements" will be the next step. The objective is to maximize the "return" on the substantial investment required for construction, deployment, maintenance and renewal of observation systems. Stakeholders and their interests are assessed to construct the requirements from which specifications are built. Specifications drive procurement, and procurement produces built systems. Complicated (e.g. space-based) systems have long times between requirements analysis and deployment. It all depends on getting the requirements right, which depends on understanding stakeholders and requirements. And this is where things get complicated. Stakeholders and interests change, sometimes rapidly, as what is possible is altered. It becomes increasingly difficult to achieve stakeholder alignment required for effective management of constituent politics at the heart of any expensive endeavor. This paper presents results from a major study of stakeholder alignment in the Earth Sciences, focused especially on EarthCube.

  3. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  4. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, J.M.

    1997-09-17

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made.

  5. Managing Requirements-Documents to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Kevin; Hudson, Abe

    2017-01-01

    Managing Requirements on long term projects like International Space Station (ISS) can go thru many phases, from initial product development to almost over 20 years of operations and sustainment. Over that time many authorized changes have been made to the requirement set, that apply to any new systems that would visit the ISS today, like commercial cargo/crew vehicles or payloads. Explore the benefits of managing requirements in a database while satisfying traditional documents needs for contracts and stakeholder/user consumption that are not tied into the database.

  6. Danish Requirements for Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Christensen, H. H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious failure consequences combined with strengthened requirements to efficiency in design and execution as well as increased risk of human errors necessitates requirements for the robustness of new structures, essential....... This paper describes the background of the revised robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures in 2003 [1, 2, 3]. According to the Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures where consequences of failure are serious. This paper...

  7. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  8. Design of a decommissioning procedure requirement management of a nuclear facility based on requirement engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning procedure requires management for a research reactor and a nuclear facility classified through a dismantling strategy, design and planning, decontamination and decommissioning activities, and dismantling management. After collecting a variety of documents such as the ordinance, regulatory requirements, technical requirements, and criteria, the requirements between groups are connected. Based on this, an environment allowing the relationship between the upper-most law to lower-most regulation guide and the technical requirements for dismantling activities to be traced was implemented. Legislation that should be complied with at the decommissioning strategy phase of the decommissioning procedure requirements management during the full-life cycle of the decommissioning was defined. To satisfy the defined legislation at the decommissioning strategy phase, technical requirements and criteria related to the design and planning, the decontamination and decommissioning activities, and the dismantling management were defined. After collecting materials such as the ordinance, regulatory requirements, technical requirements, and criteria related to the decommissioning procedure requirements management, the connectivity of the requirements between four groups was established. Because a database can be managed through a variety of regulatory requirements related to the decommissioning of a nuclear facility from the Nuclear Safety Act to Regulation Guide, the system can utilize the decommissioning plan required by the NSSC when dismantling the research reactor and nuclear power plant.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1304 - Testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1304 Testing requirements... specific piece of equipment for monitoring that piece of equipment. If the monitoring instrument's design...

  10. 38 CFR 36.4704 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4704 Escrow requirement. If... secured by residential improved real estate or a mobile home that is made, increased, extended, or renewed...

  11. New statin labeling requirements: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Megan R; Murphy, Bethany L

    2013-11-01

    As pharmacists advocate for appropriate use of medications to ensure safety and efficacy for patients, labeling requirements for medications should be considered before patients start new therapies or make changes to their current therapies. In early 2012, the Food and Drug Administration released new mandatory labeling requirements for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (more commonly known as "statins") regarding hepatic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and glycemic control. These requirements are based on a combination of studies, adverse-event reporting databases, and literature reviews. Pharmacists should be prepared to advocate for patient safety and be ready to inform patients and other health care providers of the new labeling requirements and the role pharmacists can play in altering current statin therapy.

  12. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS... in § 94.6(a)(2) of this chapter as free of exotic Newcastle disease, shall be quarantined from time...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1165 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1165 Recordkeeping requirements. (a) General recordkeeping... action. (2) The owner or operator of an acid regeneration plant shall also maintain records for 5 years...

  14. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  15. Solar Probe - System concepts and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronroos, H. G.; Hollert, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The design and related constraints relevant to the development of the Solar Probe are examined with reference to the environmental conditions and mission trajectory. The science-related requirements of the Solar Probe mission include instruments with 360-deg sweep on a platform that spins at 60 rpm and carries a magnetometer on a boom. The mission trajectory of a 4-solar-radii perihelion is designed to eliminate angular velocity about the sun, and the unusual requirements of dense interplanetary dust and enhanced gamma-ray radiation are mentioned. A list of specific functional requirements that directly affect the system configuration is given which includes those for the high-gain antenna and the main shield. These requirements are translated into a full-science-scope spacecraft design, and specific mass and power estimates are given. Reduced-scope and baseline configurations are also presented that allow good scientific return with significantly reduced development costs.

  16. Fertilizer effects on attaining vegetation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project was developed to evaluate the effects of varying the substrate and fertilization regimes on the success of complex warm-season grass and forb seedings on recent roadside construction sites. Re-vegetating construction projects is required...

  17. Macroscopic superpositions require tremendous measurement devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Skotiniotis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider fundamental limits on the detectable size of macroscopic quantum superpositions. We argue that a full quantum mechanical treatment of system plus measurement device is required, and that a (classical reference frame for phase or direction needs to be established to certify the quantum state. When taking the size of such a classical reference frame into account, we show that to reliably distinguish a quantum superposition state from an incoherent mixture requires a measurement device that is quadratically bigger than the superposition state. Whereas for moderate system sizes such as generated in previous experiments this is not a stringent restriction, for macroscopic superpositions of the size of a cat the required effort quickly becomes intractable, requiring measurement devices of the size of the Earth. We illustrate our results using macroscopic superposition states of photons, spins, and position. Finally, we also show how this limitation can be circumvented by dealing with superpositions in relative degrees of freedom.

  18. The Operational Risk – Minimum Capital Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Victoria Anghelache; Ana Cornelia Olteanu

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present how to quantify the minimum capital requirement for operational risk using three approaches proposed by the Basel Committee to identify optimal allocation of capital, given...

  19. 40 CFR 63.181 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information shall be recorded for each dual mechanical seal system: (i) Design criteria required in §§ 63.163... include, but are not limited to, records of chemicals purchased for the process, analyses of process...

  20. State Tier II Reporting Requirements and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, facilities must report on the storage, location, and threshold quantities of hazardous substances on the premises. Each state also has its own requirements regarding submission of forms.

  1. 40 CFR 68.195 - Required corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.195 Required corrections. The owner or... accident history information—For any accidental release meeting the five-year accident history reporting...

  2. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  3. 36 CFR 72.72 - Conversion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remain recreationally viable or be replaced as well. (5) The guidelines for environmental evaluation have... tennis courts to basketball courts, for example, would not require NPS approval. A change from a swimming...

  4. 30 CFR 22.7 - Specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS PORTABLE METHANE DETECTORS § 22.7 Specific requirements. (a) Design. In the... mixtures, and by the general behavior of the equipment during the investigation. (b) Safety against...

  5. 40 CFR 141.70 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for the following contaminants: Giardia lamblia... achieve: (1) At least 99.9 percent (3-log) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts between a...

  6. 48 CFR 203.1003 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1003 Requirements. (b) Notification of possible contractor violation. Upon...

  7. 47 CFR 3.40 - Operational requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.40 Operational requirements. All accounting authorities must conduct their operations in conformance with the provisions...

  8. Iron Requirements of Infants and Toddlers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  9. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  10. 46 CFR 182.410 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... where flexible hoses are permitted to be clamped: (1) Double hose clamping is required where practicable... hose clamp can be used if the pipe ends are expanded or beaded to provide a positive stop against hose...

  11. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  12. 21 CFR 610.40 - Test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (3) Hepatitis B virus; (4) Hepatitis C virus; (5) Human T-lymphotropic virus, type I; and (6) Human T..., you do not have to further test an autologous donation. (f) Testing responsibility. Required testing...

  13. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  14. 16 CFR 310.5 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TELEMARKETING SALES RULE § 310.5 Recordkeeping requirements. (a) Any seller or telemarketer shall keep, for a... telemarketing activities: (1) All substantially different advertising, brochures, telemarketing scripts, and...

  15. 40 CFR 63.807 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.807 Reporting requirements. (a) The... months of wood furniture manufacturing operations: (1) The first report shall be submitted 30 calendar...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agent's requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respective domestic ports, only such items and quantities reflecting past experience of actual requirements... section 3(b) of this order and a copy of all invoices for slop chest purchases showing items by brand or...

  17. On the Minimum Quantum Requirement of Photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuzeir Zeinalov

    2009-01-01

    ...) and quantum requirement is reconsidered. The essential conclusions are: 1) The non-linearity of the light curves cannot be compensated using suspensions of algae or chloroplasts with high (>1.0...

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  19. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus......,a real-time interval logic. Controlling real-time automata arespecified in the same formalism by elementaryconstraints on the plant states for each control state or phase.The Duration Calculus is used to verify that the control design refinesthe requirements.The real-time automata map smoothly...

  20. 27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by which...

  1. 24 CFR 966.4 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tenant, and a copy of the statement shall be retained by the PHA in the tenant's folder. The PHA shall be... otherwise been rehabilitated successfully (42 U.S.C. 13662). For this purpose, the PHA may require the...

  2. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  3. 16 CFR 1616.6 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 7 THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) The Standard § 1616.6 Labeling requirements. (a) All items of children's sleepwear shall be labeled with precautionary instructions to protect the...

  4. 16 CFR 1615.5 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) The Standard § 1615.5 Labeling requirements. (a) Care labels. All items of children's sleepwear shall be labeled with precautionary instructions...

  5. Rationale Management Challenges in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; He, Keqing

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and rationale management have been playing an increasingly prominent role in software system development mainly due to the knowledge demand during system evaluation, maintenance, and evolution, especially for large and complex systems. The rationale management for requirements engineering,

  6. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  7. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  8. Towards standardising building rural clinics: energy requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (brick and mortar) and Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and alternative off-grid services technologies (energy, water, and sanitation). The paper discusses the energy requirements of a conceptual design for a generic, basic rural clinic....

  9. 16 CFR 1702.3 - Substantive requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1702.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES... experimental data (both human and animal), product and packaging specifications, labeling, and marketing...

  10. 21 CFR 11.100 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.100 General requirements. (a) Each electronic...) Before an organization establishes, assigns, certifies, or otherwise sanctions an individual's electronic...

  11. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  12. Smart Grid Information Security (IS) Functional Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Amy Poh Ai; Masao, Mukaidono

    2011-01-01

    It is important to implement safe smart grid environment to enhance people's lives and livelihoods. This paper provides information on smart grid IS functional requirement by illustrating some discussion points to the sixteen identified requirements. This paper introduces the smart grid potential hazards that can be referred as a triggering factor to improve the system and security of the entire grid. The background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid IS is descri...

  13. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  14. A Patentability Requirement For Sequential Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ted O'Donoghue

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates patent protection when there is a long sequence of innovations and firms repeatedly supersede each other. There can be insufficient incentives for R&D if successful firms earn market profit only until competitors achieve something better. To solve this problem, patents must provide protection against future innovators. This paper proposes using a patentability requirement aminimuminnovation size required to get a patent toserve this purpose. I showthat a patentability ...

  15. Controversies in the determination of energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Weekes, C

    2007-08-01

    To avoid any negative outcomes associated with under- or overfeeding it is essential to estimate nutrient requirements before commencing nutrition support. The energy requirements of an individual vary with current and past nutritional status, clinical condition, physical activity and the goals and likely duration of treatment. The evidence-base for prediction methods in current use, however, is poor and the equations are thus open to misinterpretation. In addition, most methods require an accurate measurement of current weight, which is problematic in some clinical situations. The estimation of energy requirements is so challenging in some conditions, e.g. critical illness, obesity and liver disease, that it is recommended that expenditure be measured on an individual basis by indirect calorimetry. Not only is this technique relatively expensive, but in the clinical setting there are several obstacles that may complicate, and thus affect the accuracy of, any such measurements. A review of relevant disease-specific literature may assist in the determination of energy requirements for some patient groups, but the energy requirements for a number of clinical conditions have yet to be established. Regardless of the method used, estimated energy requirements should be interpreted with care and only used as a starting point. Practitioners should regularly review the patient and reassess requirements to take account of any major changes in clinical condition, nutritional status, activity level and goals of treatment. There is a need for large randomised controlled trials that compare the effects of different levels of feeding on clinical outcomes in different disease states and care settings.

  16. Optimization of hydrogen vehicle refuelling requirements

    OpenAIRE

    BOURGEOIS THOMAS; BRACHMANN THOMAS; BARTH FREDERICK; AMMOURI FOUAD; BARALDI DANIELE; MELIDEO DANIELE; ACOSTA IBORRA BEATRIZ; ZAEPFFEL DIDIER; SAURY DIDIER; LEMONNIER DENIS

    2016-01-01

    The requirements regarding the refuelling process in order to prevent over-heating and over-filling significantly influence fuelling station design and have a strong impact on potential fuelling performance. Consequently, refuelling station costs, reliability, and performance can be substantially improved by working on the way these requirements are formulated, in order to achieve shorter fuelling duration with a simpler process and less cooling. Two potential optimization opportunities where...

  17. Vegetation ecological water requirement in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Liu, Yuguo; Guan, Yinghui; Zhou, Jinxing; Cui, Ming

    2017-04-01

    South China covered about 20% of the total area of China, with two big rivers, Yangtze River and the Pearl River get through this area. The karst landform are widely distributed in this area. Intensive vegetation degradation and severe rocky desertification have threatened the local ecological security. Water has been a key factor limiting the eco-restoration and construction of the vegetation. However, we do not know whether the water can satisfy the vegetation ecological water demand in this area. In this study, we explored the minimum and suitable ecological water requirement and the water use efficiency in South China based on the MOD16 datasets. The results indicated that the mean value of the minimum ecological water requirement is 528.9mm in South China, and the suitable water requirement is 686.8mm. In many parts of the Sichuan, Yunnan, Hubei Provinces, water cannot meet the minimum ecological water requirements. There needs about 100-300mm to meet the minimum ecological water requirements in these areas. The ecological water requirements in the karst area and the non-karst area were 520mm and 532mm. Severer Rocky desertification areas need more ecological water than light and potential rocky desertification area. Water requirements are also different for the different land use type. The suitable ecological water requirement lack of 89mm-136mm in the Evergreen Needle-leaf Forest, Mixed Forest, Closed Scrubland and the Croplands. Water use efficiency in the Evergreen Broad-leaf forests, Evergreen Needle-leaf Forest, Mixed Forest, Closed Scrubland were more than 1kg/m3, but in the croplands was 0.9-1kg/m3, and in the grassland was only 0.6-0.8 kg/m3. This research could be helpful for improving water resource management and the rocky desertification management in South China.

  18. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  19. Pulse source requirements for OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted.......A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted....

  20. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  1. WFIRST: Update on the Coronagraph Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Cahoy, Kerri; Carlton, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Kasdin, Jeremy; WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Teams

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph instrument (CGI) will enable direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets in reflected light and imaging polarimetry of circumstellar disks. The CGI science investigation teams were tasked with developing a set of science requirements which advance our knowledge of exoplanet occurrence and atmospheric composition, as well as the composition and morphology of exozodiacal debris disks, cold Kuiper Belt analogs, and protoplanetary systems. We present the initial content, rationales, validation, and verification plans for the WFIRST CGI, informed by detailed and still-evolving instrument and observatory performance models. We also discuss our approach to the requirements development and management process, including the collection and organization of science inputs, open source approach to managing the requirements database, and the range of models used for requirements validation. These tools can be applied to requirements development processes for other astrophysical space missions, and may ease their management and maintenance. These WFIRST CGI science requirements allow the community to learn about and provide insights and feedback on the expected instrument performance and science return.

  2. Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezzar, Ruknet; Sen, Ranjan K.

    1989-01-01

    The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.

  3. Information System Requirements Determination: Factors Impeding Stakeholders from Reaching Common Understandings and Agreements on Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissel, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Information system implementations require developers to first know what they must create and then determine how best to create it. The requirements determination phase of the system development life cycle typically determines what functions a system must perform and how well it must accomplish required functions. Implementation success depends on…

  4. From requirements to Java in a snap model-driven requirements engineering in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Smialek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a coherent methodology for Model-Driven Requirements Engineering which stresses the systematic treatment of requirements within the realm of modelling and model transformations. The underlying basic assumption is that detailed requirements models are used as first-class artefacts playing a direct role in constructing software. To this end, the book presents the Requirements Specification Language (RSL) that allows precision and formality, which eventually permits automation of the process of turning requirements into a working system by applying model transformations and co

  5. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Requirements for a network storage service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Suzanne M.; Haynes, Rena A.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories provides a high performance classified computer network as a core capability in support of its mission of nuclear weapons design and engineering, physical sciences research, and energy research and development. The network, locally known as the Internal Secure Network (ISN), was designed in 1989 and comprises multiple distributed local area networks (LAN's) residing in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California. The TCP/IP protocol suite is used for inner-node communications. Scientific workstations and mid-range computers, running UNIX-based operating systems, compose most LAN's. One LAN, operated by the Sandia Corporate Computing Directorate, is a general purpose resource providing a supercomputer and a file server to the entire ISN. The current file server on the supercomputer LAN is an implementation of the Common File System (CFS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Subsequent to the design of the ISN, Sandia reviewed its mass storage requirements and chose to enter into a competitive procurement to replace the existing file server with one more adaptable to a UNIX/TCP/IP environment. The requirements study for the network was the starting point for the requirements study for the new file server. The file server is called the Network Storage Services (NSS) and is requirements are described in this paper. The next section gives an application or functional description of the NSS. The final section adds performance, capacity, and access constraints to the requirements.

  7. Universal Documentation System Handbook. Volume 2. Requirement Formats and Instructions; Program Introduction, Program Requirements Document/Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    or the Air Force precedence rating. Program Status: State whether the program is proposed or approved and whether the PI is being subitted to obtain...instructions for Format 2CF,,. JT ( TATUOMATION ( ): indicate ’ tetbar each item number sukmitted is a requirement fc: - mort frcm the Support A.-ccy or

  8. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  9. Primary production required to sustain global fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, D.; Christensen, V.

    1995-03-01

    THE mean of reported annual world fisheries catches for 1988-1991 (94.3 million t) was split into 39 species groups, to which fractional trophic levels, ranging from 1.0 (edible algae) to 4.2 (tunas), were assigned, based on 48 published trophic models, providing a global coverage of six major aquatic ecosystem types. The primary production required to sustain each group of species was then computed based on a mean energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels of 10%, a value that was reestimated rather than assumed. The primary production required to sustain the reported catches, plus 27 million t of discarded bycatch, amounted to 8.0% of global aquatic primary production, nearly four times the previous estimate. By ecosystem type, the requirements were only 2% for open ocean systems, but ranged from 24 to 35% in fresh water, upwelling and shelf systems, justifying current concerns for sustainability and biodiversity.

  10. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  11. Using Abduction to Evolve Inconsistent Requirements Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Nuseibeh

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.

  12. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  13. Multi-canister overpack: additional NRC requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established in the K Basin Spent Fuel Project, Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) facilities to achieve ``nuclear safety equivalency`` to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Conditioning Facility or K Basins Path Forward Projects, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNFP facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO.

  14. Designing Law-Compliant Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siena, Alberto; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo

    New laws, such as HIPAA and SOX, are increasingly impacting the design of software systems, as business organisations strive to comply. This paper studies the problem of generating a set of requirements for a new system which comply with a given law. Specifically, the paper proposes a systematic process for generating law-compliant requirements by using a taxonomy of legal concepts and a set of primitives to describe stakeholders and their strategic goals. Given a model of law and a model of stakeholders goals, legal alternatives are identified and explored. Strategic goals that can realise legal prescriptions are systematically analysed, and alternative ways of fulfilling a law are evaluated. The approach is demonstrated by means of a case study. This work is part of the Nomos framework, intended to support the design of law-compliant requirements models.

  15. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  16. Patent disclosure requirements for therapeutic antibody patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carmela; Trifonova, Anastassia

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have grown to become an important product class within the biopharmaceutical market. A prerequisite to their commercialization is adequate patent protection. Disclosure requirements and the types of claims available in different jurisdictions can impact the scope of protection available for antibodies. Areas covered: A comparative review of statutory bases, patent office practices and selected decisions in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom related to disclosure requirements is provided. Expert opinion: Differences in disclosure requirements exist in different jurisdictions which can impact the type of claims obtained and their survival when attacked in litigation. Including a wide variety of claim types is a key strategy to ensuring therapeutic antibodies are adequately protected. Method of use claims may provide advantages and broader protection in some circumstances and should also be considered.

  17. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... communications between consultant and clients for change requests mostly through informal methods i.e. email or memo. In addition it was found that design engineers frequently updating specification document at the end of the design process...... effects of such changes include an increase in lead-time and cost. Thus, support to mitigate change in requirements is essential. A thorough understanding of the nature of changes in requirements is essential before a method or tool to mitigate these changes can be proposed. Therefore, a case study...

  18. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  19. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  20. Hamiltonian gadgets with reduced resource requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yudong; Babbush, Ryan; Biamonte, Jacob; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    Application of the adiabatic model of quantum computation requires efficient encoding of the solution to computational problems into the lowest eigenstate of a Hamiltonian that supports universal adiabatic quantum computation. Experimental systems are typically limited to restricted forms of two-body interactions. Therefore, universal adiabatic quantum computation requires a method for approximating quantum many-body Hamiltonians up to arbitrary spectral error using at most two-body interactions. Hamiltonian gadgets, introduced around a decade ago, offer the only current means to address this requirement. Although the applications of Hamiltonian gadgets have steadily grown since their introduction, little progress has been made in overcoming the limitations of the gadgets themselves. In this experimentally motivated theoretical study, we introduce several gadgets which require significantly more realistic control parameters than similar gadgets in the literature. We employ analytical techniques which result in a reduction of the resource scaling as a function of spectral error for the commonly used subdivision, three- to two-body and k -body gadgets. Accordingly, our improvements reduce the resource requirements of all proofs and experimental proposals making use of these common gadgets. Next, we numerically optimize these gadgets to illustrate the tightness of our analytical bounds. Finally, we introduce a gadget that simulates a Y Y interaction term using Hamiltonians containing only {X ,Z ,X X ,Z Z } terms. Apart from possible implications in a theoretical context, this work could also be useful for a first experimental implementation of these key building blocks by requiring less control precision without introducing extra ancillary qubits.