WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcontractors completed tasks

  1. Improving Closing Task Completion in a Drugstore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Rhiannon; Davis, Ora L.; Kempt, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    A within-subject ABAB reversal design was utilized to investigate the effects of graphic feedback and goal setting on employee closing task completion. Goal setting was contingent upon baseline performance and graphic feedback was posted weekly. It was found that goal setting and graphic feedback improved employee closing task completion.…

  2. Minimizing Project Cost by Integrating Subcontractor Selection Decisions with Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Subcontracting has been a worldwide practice in the construction industry. It enables the construction enterprises to focus on their core competences and, at the same time, it makes complex project possible to be delivered. Since general contractors bear full responsibility for the works carried out by their subcontractors, it is their task and their risk to select a right subcontractor for a particular work. Although subcontractor management has been admitted to significantly affect the construction project’s performance, current practices and past research deal with subcontractor management and scheduling separately. The proposed model aims to support subcontracting decisions by integrating subcontractor selection with scheduling to enable the general contractor to select the optimal combination of subcontractors and own crews for all work packages of the project. The model allows for the interactions between the subcontractors and their impacts on the overall project performance in terms of cost and, indirectly, time and quality. The model is intended to be used at the general contractor’s bid preparation stage. The authors claim that the subcontracting decisions should be taken in a two-stage process. The first stage is a prequalification – provision of a short list of capable and reliable subcontractors; this stage is not the focus of the paper. The resulting pool of available resources is divided into two subsets: subcontractors, and general contractor’s in-house crews. Once it has been defined, the next stage is to assign them to the work packages that, bound by fixed precedence constraints, form the project’s network diagram. Each package is possible to be delivered by the general contractor’s crew or some of the potential subcontractors, at a specific time and cost. Particular crews and subcontractors can be contracted more than one package, but not at the same time. Other constraints include the predefined project completion date (the project

  3. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, María J; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming.

  4. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Soler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates priming in an implicit Word Stem Completion (WSC task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test. The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. After confirming the presence of priming (mean = 0.22, analysis revealed that it was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that the stems were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. The correlations between priming and a set of conceptual (familiarity, frequency of use, number of meanings and non-conceptual (letters/blanks ratio and difficulty of completed variables showed significant relationships between two conceptual variables (familiarity and frequency and priming. Difficulty was also significantly correlated with priming. The most familiar and frequent words were those that produced a greater magnitude of priming. At the same time, the most difficult stems were those generating more priming. A regression analysis showed that the difficulty of completing a stem was the strongest predictor of priming. When difficulty was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and letters-blanks ratio. Finally, a comparison was made between these results and those obtained in a previous study of WFC by Soler et al. (2009 in which the same words and procedure were employed. A comparison of results from these two sets of data suggested that the only relevant difference between the two tasks was the influence of the variable letters-blanks ratio. This perceptual variable had a significant correlation with priming only in the WFC task. These results highlight the importance of controlling the characteristics (conceptual and non-conceptual of stimuli used in WFC and WSC tasks when exploring the nature of priming.

  5. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  6. Dynamics of Cooperation in a Task Completion Social Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Giraldo

    Full Text Available We study the situation where the members of a community have the choice to participate in the completion of a common task. The process of completing the task involves only costs and no benefits to the individuals that participate in this process. However, completing the task results in changes that significantly benefit the community and that exceed the participation efforts. A task completion social dilemma arises when the short-term participation costs dissipate any interest in the community members to contribute to the task completion process and therefore to obtain the benefits that result from completing the task. In this work, we model the task completion problem using a dynamical system that characterizes the participation dynamics in the community and the task completion process. We show how this model naturally allows for the incorporation of several mechanisms that facilitate the emergence of cooperation and that have been studied in previous research on social dilemmas, including communication across a network, and indirect reciprocity through relative reputation. We provide mathematical analyses and computer simulations to study the qualitative properties of the participation dynamics in the community for different scenarios.

  7. Does Degree of Work Task Completion Influence Retrieval Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine; Lykke, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    their perception of task completion. Also, with the exception of full text records and across all document types, both measured at rank 10, no statistically significant correlation is observed with respect to retrieval performance influenced by degrees of perceived work task completion or individual types......In this contribution we investigate the potential influence between assessors’ perceived completion of their work task at hand and their actual assessment of usefulness of the retrieved information. The results indicate that the number of useful documents found by assessors does not influence...

  8. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  9. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Interspersal Research Evidence, Implications, and Applications of the Discrete Task Completion Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher H.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have posited that when students work on assignments with many discrete tasks, that each completed discrete task may be a conditioned reinforcer. If the discrete task completion hypothesis is accurate, then relative task completion rates should influence choice behavior in the same manner as relative rates of reinforcement. Results of a…

  11. Considering Subcontractors in Distributed Scrum Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Jakub; Hammouda, Imed; Mikkola, Tuomas; Mustonen, Karri; Systä, Tarja

    In this chapter we present our experiences with working with subcontractors in distributed Scrum teams. The context of our experiences is a medium size software service provider company. We present the way the subcontractors are selected and how Scrum practices can be used in real-life projects. We discuss team arrangements and tools used in distributed development teams highlighting aspects that are important when working with subcontractors. We also present an illustrative example where different phases of a project working with subcontractors are described. The example also provides practical tips on work in such projects. Finally, we present a summary of our data that was collected from Scrum and non-Scrum projects implemented over a few years. This chapter should provide a practical point of view on working with subcontractors in Scrum teams for those who are considering such cooperation.

  12. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed in FY2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Project 0-6581-TI, TxDOT Administration : Research, encompasses multiple tasks that explore and support administrative aspects of : transportation research. : The project term began in October 2008 and has b...

  13. Using the speeded word fragment completion task to examine semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Tom; De Deyne, Simon; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert

    2015-06-01

    The present research investigates semantic priming with an adapted version of the word fragment completion task. In this task, which we refer to as the speeded word fragment completion task, participants need to complete words such as lett_ce (lettuce), from which one letter was omitted, as quickly as possible. This paradigm has some interesting qualities in comparison with the traditionally used lexical decision task. That is, it requires no pseudowords, it is more engaging for participants, and most importantly, it allows for a more fine-grained investigation of semantic activation. In two studies, we found that words were completed faster when the preceding trial comprised a semantically related fragment such as tom_to (tomato) than when it comprised an unrelated fragment such as guit_r (guitar). A third experiment involved a lexical decision task, to compare both paradigms. The results showed that the magnitude of the priming effect was similar, but item-level priming effects were inconsistent over tasks. Crucially, the speeded word fragment completion task obtained strong priming effects for highly frequent, central words, such as work, money, and warm, whereas the lexical decision task did not. In a final experiment featuring only short, highly frequent words, the lexical decision task failed to find a priming effect, whereas the fragment completion task did obtain a robust effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the speeded word fragment completion task may prove a viable alternative for examining semantic priming.

  14. Simultaneity, Sequentiality, and Speed: Organizational Messages about Multiple-Task Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keri K.; Cho, Jaehee K.; Ballard, Dawna I.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace norms for task completion increasingly value speed and the ability to accomplish multiple tasks at once. This study situates this popularized issue of multitasking within the context of chronemics scholarship by addressing related issues of simultaneity, sequentiality, and speed. Ultimately, we consider 2 multiple-task completion…

  15. Reducing Escape Behavior and Increasing Task Completion with Functional Communication Training, Extinction, and Response Chaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining decreased escape-maintained aberrant behavior and increased task participation of 3 youth, ages 10 through 15, with moderate mental retardation, 2 of whom also had autism. Task escape was contingent on verbally responding and completing task steps. Behavior chaining also…

  16. Completing the Task Procedure or Focusing on Form: Contextualizing Grammar Instruction via Task-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Hatice Sezgi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare two distinct methodologies of grammar instruction: task-based and form-focused teaching. Within the application procedure, which lasted for one academic term, two groups of tertiary level learners (N = 53) were exposed to the same sequence of target structures, extensive writing activities and evaluation…

  17. An Attempt to Raise Japanese EFL Learners' Pragmatic Awareness Using Online Discourse Completion Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Oki, Nanaho

    2015-01-01

    This practical paper discusses the effect of explicit instruction to raise Japanese EFL learners' pragmatic awareness using online discourse completion tasks. The five-part tasks developed by the authors use American TV drama scenes depicting particular speech acts and include explicit instruction in these speech acts. 46 Japanese EFL college…

  18. Older adults experience difficulty completing the lines and dots tasks of the Motor Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettrick-Janes, Michelle; McCluskey, Annie; Lannin, Natasha A; Scanlan, Justin Newton

    2017-09-01

    The advanced hand activities item of the Motor Assessment Scale (Upper Limb items, UL-MAS) includes the 'lines' and 'dots' tasks, which require skilful pencil use. Prior Rasch analysis studies identify these two tasks as the most difficult to achieve for stroke survivors compared with the other advanced hand activities. Yet it is unknown if healthy, older adults can perform these two tasks. To describe the performance of older adults' without stroke on the 'lines' and 'dots' tasks, relationship between age and task performance, and relationship between writing speed and performance on the 'lines' task. Cross-sectional study design. A sample of healthy older Australians (n = 120) aged between 60 and 99 years completed the UL-MAS 'lines' and 'dots' tasks and wrote two sentences using pencil. Fifty-four participants (45%) failed the UL-MAS 'lines' task. Differences in line drawing performance across age groups were statistically significant (chi-square = 9.02, df = 3, p = .03). Eleven participants (9%) failed the 'dots' task, mostly from the 90 to 99 year age group. Participants who passed the 'lines' task wrote sentences faster than participants who failed (p<.001). Older adults may not pass the UL-MAS 'lines' and 'dots' tasks due to age and individual skill level.

  19. 48 CFR 32.112-2 - Subcontractor requests for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor requests for... Subcontractor requests for information. (a) In accordance with Section 806(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102-190, as amended by Sections 2091 and 8105 of Pub. L. 103-355, upon the request of a subcontractor or supplier under a...

  20. Relative importance of subcontractor selection criteria: evidence from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, Florence Yean Yng; Tan, Jane S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Subcontractors carry out a large portion of the work done in construction projects. Thus, selecting the right subcontractor essentially contributes to the project's success. We designed a choice-based conjoint experiment to examine the relative importance of four criteria in the subcontractor

  1. Children Age 7 Complete Complex Gait and Postural Tasks Differently Than Adults Under Dual-Task Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    Healthy children (7 years old) and adults (20 years old) completed a simultaneous balancing, reaching, and cognitive task while standing and during gait. Cognitive accuracy rate for children and adults was similar for both postures; however, response latency was greater for children than adults. While standing, trunk, upper arm, and forearm segments moved as individual segments in adults; however, articulated control of the upper arm and forearm in children was not evident. Adults and children showed evidence of articulated segmental control during gait. Absolute gait velocity (m/s) was significantly slower for children; however, there was no effect of age on step length. Children 7 years old can perform a simultaneous motor and cognitive task but their performance strategies do not yet match young adults.

  2. Where Is It? How Deaf Adolescents Complete Fact-Based Internet Search Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…

  3. Using Tablet Computers as Instructional Tools to Increase Task Completion by Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patricia; Lewis, M. E. B.; Donehower, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This single subject design study (ABAB) investigated the effects of using iPads[R] in a classwide academic intervention to increase independent task completion and basic math skills of seven students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a special education school for students with moderate to severe disabilities. An…

  4. Effectiveness of Using iPads to Increase Academic Task Completion by Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patricia; Lewis, M. E. B.; Donehower, Claire; Stone, David

    2014-01-01

    This single subject design study (ABAB) investigated the effects of using iPads in a classwide academic intervention to increase independent task completion and basic math skills of seven students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a special education school. The study also examined the advantages of and challenges to using…

  5. Reverse Discourse Completion Task as an Assessment Tool for Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a prototypic assessment tool for intercultural communicative competence. Because traditional discourse completion tasks (DCTs) focus on illocutionary competence rather than sociolinguistic competence, a modified version of a DCT was created to target sociolinguistic competence. The modified DCT employs speech acts as prompts…

  6. Closed-Loop Communication Improves Task Completion in Pediatric Trauma Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafy, Ibrahim Abd; Delgado, Jennifer; Akerman, Meredith; Bullaro, Francesca; Christopherson, Nathan A M; Prince, Jose M

    2017-08-02

    Pediatric trauma care requires effective and clear communication in a time-sensitive manner amongst a variety of disciplines. Programs such as Crew Resource Management in aviation have been developed to systematically prevent errors. Similarly, teamSTEPPS has been promoted in healthcare with a strong focus on communication. We aim to evaluate the ability of closed-loop communication to improve time-to-task completion in pediatric trauma activations. All pediatric trauma activations from January to September, 2016 at an American College of Surgeons verified level I pediatric trauma center were video recorded and included in the study. Two independent reviewers identified and classified all verbal orders issued by the trauma team leader for order audibility, directed responsibility, check-back, and time-to-task-completion. The impact of pre-notification and level of activation on time-to-task-completion was also evaluated. All analyses were performed using SAS® version 9.4(SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). In total, 89 trauma activation videos were reviewed, with 387 verbal orders identified. Of those, 126(32.6%) were directed, 372(96.1%) audible, and 101(26.1%) closed-loop. On average each order required 3.85 minutes to be completed. There was a significant reduction in time-to-task-completion when closed-loop communication was utilized (p communication were completed 3.6 times sooner as compared to orders with an open-loop [HR = 3.6 (95% CI: 2.5, 5.3)]. There was not a significant difference in time-to-task-completion with respect to pre-notification by emergency service providers (p communication prevents medical errors, our study highlights the potential to increase the speed and efficiency with which tasks are completed in the setting of pediatric trauma resuscitation. Trauma drills and systems of communication that emphasize the use of closed-loop communication should be incorporated into the training of trauma team leaders. This is a prospective observational

  7. Electronic reminding technology following traumatic brain injury: effects on timely task completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowds, Murdo M; Lee, Patricia H; Sheer, Jeffrey B; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Xenopoulos-Oddsson, Annette; Goldstein, Richard; Zainea, Kathryn L; Glenn, Mel B

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether automated reminders from 2 contemporary personal digital assistant (PDA) devices produce higher rates of timely task completion in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Outpatient and community rehabilitation settings. Thirty-six adults aged 18 to 66 years with TBI and self-determined complaints of memory impairment. Timely completion rates for assigned memory tasks under 4 randomly assigned memory aid conditions. Significantly, higher completion rates were found when using either PDA device when compared with a combined baseline and paper memory aid condition (for Palm OS device, Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] = 2.14, P Microsoft Pocket PC OS device, IRR = 1.47, P < .001, CI = 1.18-1.82). A significant difference in completion rates was also found between the 2 PDA devices (IRR = 1.46, P < .0005, CI = 1.26-1.70), with the Palm version producing the better scores. Substantially higher rates of task completion (more than double in some cases) when using either PDA device suggest that rehabilitation clinicians can make productive use of PDA-based memory aids in their TBI patient populations. The strength of the effects of PDA device usage argues for further investigation of the impact of device usage on quality-of-life and costs of care, and of personal and caregiver factors predictive of successful and sustained device usage.

  8. Reverse discourse completion task as an assessment tool for intercultural competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kanik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a prototypic assessment tool for intercultural communicative competence. Because traditional discourse completion tasks (DCTs focus on illocutionary competence rather than sociolinguistic competence, a modified version of a DCT was created to target sociolinguistic competence. The modified DCT employs speech acts as prompts and asks respondents to write about a situation in which a given speech act would be appropriate. This new tool is named a reverse discourse completion task (R-DCT. The task was given to learners of Turkish as a second language. Data from 12 participants were analyzed for their provision of sociopragmatic factors such as power, distance and imposition and also with respect to whether the situation was relevant to a given speech act. Responses from the participants show that R-DCTs can be used to assess intercultural competence as they help reveal respondents’ knowledge of sociolinguistic context in which a given speech act may be appropriate. By removing the need for comparison with native speaker data and the limitations that emerge from the lack of linguistic formula at respondents’ disposal, R-DCT is a promising elicitation task to assess sociolinguistic competence, an integral part of Byram’s (1997 model of intercultural communicative competence.

  9. Exploring how individuals complete the choice tasks in a discrete choice experiment: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Veldwijk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To be able to make valid inferences on stated preference data from a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE it is essential that researchers know if participants were actively involved, understood and interpreted the provided information correctly and whether they used complex decision strategies to make their choices and thereby acted in accordance with the continuity axiom. Methods During structured interviews, we explored how 70 participants evaluated and completed four discrete choice tasks aloud. Hereafter, additional questions were asked to further explore if participants understood the information that was provided to them and whether they used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom when making their choices. Two existing DCE questionnaires on rotavirus vaccination and prostate cancer-screening served as case studies. Results A large proportion of the participants was not able to repeat the exact definition of the risk attributes as explained to them in the introduction of the questionnaire. The majority of the participants preferred more optimal over less optimal risk attribute levels. Most participants (66 % mentioned three or more attributes when motivating their decisions, thereby acting in accordance with the continuity axiom. However, 16 out of 70 participants continuously mentioned less than three attributes when motivating their decision. Lower educated and less literate participants tended to mention less than three attributes when motivating their decision and used trading off between attributes less often as a decision-making strategy. Conclusion The majority of the participants seemed to have understood the provided information about the choice tasks, the attributes, and the levels. They used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom and are therefore capable to adequately complete a DCE. However, based on the participants’ age, educational level and health literacy additional, actions should be

  10. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and their workers if new workers are trained well in the work site and they are informed about dangerous places, and if a workable safety plan is well preplanned. The results also showed that reported accident rates increased among subcontractors when using old, unsafe equipment and due to the complexity or difficulty in the construction sites features. Owners and general contractors need to stipulate strict clauses for safety in the contract for improving safety record of subcontractors. Construction workers must receive proper job related safety and health training with a safety logbook. It is recommended that the subcontractors and workers should attend continuing safety programs on regular basis as part of their perquisite to work in construction sites.

  11. How do children complete a seated combined cognitive and motor multi-tasking paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2015-06-01

    Healthy children (n=12, age 7years) and young adults (n=11, age 21years) were asked to perform a bimanual balance and reaching protocol in a seated posture. Subjects balanced a ball on a Frisbee on the non-dominant palm of the hand while reaching with the dominant hand to pick up a toy off the ground. During half of the trials, an auditory Stroop task was administered simultaneous to onset of the participants' reach. All children (CH) and adults (AD) successfully completed both motor and cognitive tasks when combined: the ball and Frisbee were not dropped and cognitive accuracy rate for both groups was 77%. Angular range of motion (ROM) measures indicated that the trunk, upper arm (UA) and forearm (FA) segments were moving as articulated individual segments in both adults and children (ROM for trunk≠UA≠FA; p<.001). However, differences between CH and AD upper body segmental control were evident: greater variability existed between trials and between subjects for segmental ROM in CH compared to AD (p<.001), suggesting that adult-like control is still developing in this age group. Results indicate children aged 7years can successfully perform a simultaneous upper body motor and cognitive task in a seated posture, however motor performance control is not yet at the same level as adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain potentials measured during a Go/NoGo task predict completion of substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Vaughn R; Fink, Brandi C; Maurer, J Michael; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Wilber, Charles H; Jaffe, Adam J; Sidz, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-07-01

    U.S. nationwide estimates indicate that 50% to 80% of prisoners have a history of substance abuse or dependence. Tailoring substance abuse treatment to specific needs of incarcerated individuals could improve effectiveness of treating substance dependence and preventing drug abuse relapse. We tested whether pretreatment neural measures of a response inhibition (Go/NoGo) task would predict which individuals would or would not complete a 12-week cognitive behavioral substance abuse treatment program. Adult incarcerated participants (n = 89; women n = 55) who volunteered for substance abuse treatment performed a Go/NoGo task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were compared between participants who completed (n = 68; women = 45) and discontinued (n = 21; women = 10) treatment. As predicted, stimulus-locked P2, response-locked error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), and response-locked error positivity (Pe), measured with windowed time-domain and principal component analysis, differed between groups. Using logistic regression and support-vector machine (i.e., pattern classifiers) models, P2 and Pe predicted treatment completion above and beyond other measures (i.e., N2, P300, ERN/Ne, age, sex, IQ, impulsivity, depression, anxiety, motivation for change, and years of drug abuse). Participants who discontinued treatment exhibited deficiencies in sensory gating, as indexed by smaller P2; error-monitoring, as indexed by smaller ERN/Ne; and adjusting response strategy posterror, as indexed by larger Pe. The combination of P2 and Pe reliably predicted 83.33% of individuals who discontinued treatment. These results may help in the development of individualized therapies, which could lead to more favorable, long-term outcomes. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  13. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUBCONTRACTOR INTEGRATION IN ALLIANCE CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilasini, Nimesha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Project alliancing involves the active collaboration of construction project owners and non-owner participants (designer, contractors, and suppliers to deliver projects in an atmosphere of shared responsibilities and liabilities. Alliancing connotes integration but in real practice, it fails to create a true alliance environment since only part of the value chain (owner, designer, main contractor is considered for integration. Consequently subcontractors are very often left out of the key alliance. Therefore this study identifies improvement areas to current alliance practice and suggests changes that will permit critical sub-contracting processes to be integrated into a project’s main alliance. To achieve this objective the research follows a comparative study approach. Information obtained from relevant literature is used to identify current subcontractor management practices and best practices for subcontractor integration in alliances. A case study of an alliance project is used to identify improvement areas in subcontractor management practices in an alliance environment. From these findings, the study proposes a revised alliance framework that integrates subcontractors from the early stages in alliance contracts, thus enabling the realisation of benefits accruable to projects through early contractor involvement.

  14. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.N.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  15. 48 CFR 3.502-2 - Subcontractor kickbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and detect violations of the Act in its own operations and direct business relationships (e.g., company ethics rules prohibiting kickbacks by employees, agents, or subcontractors; education programs for... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.502-2...

  16. Audit of controls over Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory subcontractor expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-22

    In January 1989 the Department of Energy contracted with Universities Research Association, Inc. to design, construct, manage, operate, and maintain the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. Through Fiscal Year 1992, costs for subcontractor goods and services accounted for about 75 percent of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory expenditures. The Office of Inspector General evaluated the adequacy of controls in place to ensure that subcontractor costs were reasonable, as required by the contract. The following conclusions were drawn from the audit. The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory did not consistently exercise prudent business judgment in making subcontractor expenditures. As a result, $60 million in expenditures already made and $128 million planned with commercial subcontractors were, in the authors opinion, unnecessary, excessive, or represented uncontrolled growth. The audit also found inadequate justifications, accountability, and cost controls over $143 million in expenditures made and $47 million planned with other Department of Energy laboratories. Improvements were needed in subcontract administration and internal controls, including appropriate audit coverage of the subcontracts. In addition, Department of Energy guidance concerning procurement actions between the laboratories needed to be established.

  17. [The interval between encoding and retrieval influences the environmental context dependency for a word-fragment completion task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyoko; Chujo, Kazumitsu

    2010-04-01

    The effect of environmental context on performance on a word-fragment completion task, as an implicit memory task, was investigated by varying the retention interval between the encoding and retrieval sessions. In two experiments, 40 to-be-remembered items were presented incidentally to participants before they engaged in a word fragment task. The retention interval was one week in Experiment 1 and 10 minutes in Experiment 2. Except for an environmental context cue of odor, the environmental contexts of the encoding and retrieval sessions in both experiments were different. Reinstatement of the environmental context cue of odor facilitated performance in Experiment 1 only. This result suggests that when the effectiveness of item cues such as word fragments is reduced by a long retention interval, the environmental cues can facilitate performance in word-fragment task.

  18. Evaluating Augmented Reality to Complete a Chain Task for Elementary Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Moore, Eric J.; Wright, Rachel E.; McMahon, Don D.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Smith, Cate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of augmented reality to teach a chain task to three elementary-age students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Augmented reality blends digital information within the real world. This study used a marker-based augmented reality picture prompt to trigger a video model clip of a student…

  19. 25 CFR 1000.278 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? 1000.278 Section 1000.278 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... subcontractors of self-governance AFAs? No, subcontractors or subgrantees providing services to a Pub. L. 93-638...

  20. 25 CFR 900.189 - Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts? No. Subcontractors or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this coverage extend to subcontractors of self-determination contracts? 900.189 Section 900.189 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  1. The analysis of probability task completion; Taxonomy of probabilistic thinking-based across gender in elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    Formulation of mathematical learning goals now is not only oriented on cognitive product, but also leads to cognitive process, which is probabilistic thinking. Probabilistic thinking is needed by students to make a decision. Elementary school students are required to develop probabilistic thinking as foundation to learn probability at higher level. A framework of probabilistic thinking of students had been developed by using SOLO taxonomy, which consists of prestructural probabilistic thinking, unistructural probabilistic thinking, multistructural probabilistic thinking and relational probabilistic thinking. This study aimed to analyze of probability task completion based on taxonomy of probabilistic thinking. The subjects were two students of fifth grade; boy and girl. Subjects were selected by giving test of mathematical ability and then based on high math ability. Subjects were given probability tasks consisting of sample space, probability of an event and probability comparison. The data analysis consisted of categorization, reduction, interpretation and conclusion. Credibility of data used time triangulation. The results was level of boy's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated multistructural probabilistic thinking, while level of girl's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated unistructural probabilistic thinking. The results indicated that level of boy's probabilistic thinking was higher than level of girl's probabilistic thinking. The results could contribute to curriculum developer in developing probability learning goals for elementary school students. Indeed, teachers could teach probability with regarding gender difference.

  2. Applying Herrnstein's Matching Law To Influence Students' Choice To Complete Difficult Academic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies applying the matching law of R. Herrnstein (1961) to college students' choice (n=55 and 31) to complete difficult problems suggest that interspersing problems requiring less time to complete into an assignment may increase rates of reinforcement that can alter students' choice behavior and improve their perceptions of assignments. (SLD)

  3. Virtual Human Analogs to Rodent Spatial Pattern Separation and Completion Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleja, Meera; Girard, Todd A.; Christensen, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial pattern separation (SPS) and spatial pattern completion (SPC) have played an increasingly important role in computational and rodent literatures as processes underlying associative memory. SPS and SPC are complementary processes, allowing the formation of unique representations and the reconstruction of complete spatial environments based…

  4. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUBCONTRACTOR INTEGRATION IN ALLIANCE CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vilasini, Nimesha; Neitzert, Thomas R.; Rotimi, James O. B.; Abimbola O. Windapo

    2012-01-01

    Project alliancing involves the active collaboration of construction project owners and non-owner participants (designer, contractors, and suppliers) to deliver projects in an atmosphere of shared responsibilities and liabilities. Alliancing connotes integration but in real practice, it fails to create a true alliance environment since only part of the value chain (owner, designer, main contractor) is considered for integration. Consequently subcontractors are very often left out of the key a...

  5. A Case Study of the Online Interactions among ESL Students to Complete Their Narrative Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nagaletchimee

    2018-01-01

    The study is a qualitative case study that investigated the patterns of interactions among ESL students during their online interactions to complete their narrative essays. The study found that students were engaged in interactions related to language related assistance, using partner as a resource and providing encouragement as suggested by…

  6. Five-year-olds' cortisol reactions to an attachment story completion task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van; Weerth, C. de

    2010-01-01

    An earlier study showed that negative parent–child interactions elicit cortisol increases in 5-year-old children (Smeekens et al., 2007a). In the present study, we examined whether an “imaginary” parent–child interaction situation, in which the child used a parent and child doll to complete a set of

  7. Video Completion in Digital Stabilization Task Using Pseudo-Panoramic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorskaya, M. N.; Buryachenko, V. V.; Zotin, A. G.; Pakhirka, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    Video completion is a necessary stage after stabilization of a non-stationary video sequence, if it is desirable to make the resolution of the stabilized frames equalled the resolution of the original frames. Usually the cropped stabilized frames lose 10-20% of area that means the worse visibility of the reconstructed scenes. The extension of a view of field may appear due to the pan-tilt-zoom unwanted camera movement. Our approach deals with a preparing of pseudo-panoramic key frame during a stabilization stage as a pre-processing step for the following inpainting. It is based on a multi-layered representation of each frame including the background and objects, moving differently. The proposed algorithm involves four steps, such as the background completion, local motion inpainting, local warping, and seamless blending. Our experiments show that a necessity of a seamless stitching occurs often than a local warping step. Therefore, a seamless blending was investigated in details including four main categories, such as feathering-based, pyramid-based, gradient-based, and optimal seam-based blending.

  8. Accuracy of Tympanic Temperature Measurement in Firefighters Completing a Simulated Structural Firefighting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Toby; Brearley, Matt; Bowen, Beth; Walker, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    In the course of their duties, firefighters risk heat stroke and other medical conditions due to exertion in high-temperature environments. Infrared tympanic temperature measurement (TTym) is often used by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to assess the core body temperature of firefighters. The accuracy of TTym in this setting has been called into question. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to examine the accuracy of TTym for core body temperature assessment at emergency firefighting events compared with gastrointestinal temperature measurement (TGI) as measured by ingestible thermometers. Forty-five (42 male, three female) professional urban firefighters from an Australian fire service completed two 20-minute work periods in a 100°C (± 5°C) heat chamber while wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and breathing apparatus (weighing approximately 22 kg). Measurements were taken immediately before entering, and on exiting, the heat chamber. Tympanic temperature was assessed by an infrared tympanic thermometer and TGI was measured by ingestible sensor and radio receiver. Complete data were available for 37 participants. Participant temperatures were higher on exiting the heat chamber than at baseline (TTym: 35.9°C (SD=0.7) vs 37.5°C (SD=0.8); TGI: 37.2°C (SD=0.4) vs 38.6°C (SD=0.5)). Tympanic temperature underestimated TGI on average by 1.3°C (SD=0.5) before entering the chamber and by 1.0°C (SD=0.8) following the exercise. Using pooled data, the average underestimation was 1.2°C (SD=0.7). Tympanic thermometers cause an unreliable measure of core body temperature for firefighters engaged in fire suppression activities. Accurate and practical measures of core body temperature are required urgently.

  9. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  10. Key drivers for informal project coordination among sub-contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Eskerod, Pernille; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    power energy sector were involved in co-creation of findings through 8 network meetings on top of individual interviews. The offshore wind power energy sector was chosen because effective coordination within its projects is critical as costs of mistakes and subsequent adjustments to offshore deliveries...... are massive. Six drivers which enhance informal coordination and three drivers which inhibit informal coordination among sub-contractors in projects were identified. The findings imply that management in project-oriented organizations can enhance informal coordination across project sub...

  11. The impact of globalisation on SME-subcontractors'supply chain strategies: a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and competition have impacted on not only large firms but also Small and Medium sizes Enterprises (SME) and these enterprises often act as subcontractors to larger firms operating in international markets. The impact of globalisation is severe on the SME-subcontractors due to supply...... chain linkages between large and SMEs through growing base of international customers. The new conditions impact on SME-subcontractors owing to supply chain connections and this paper using Danish case studies explores these conditions. The results of the study show that the SME-subcontractors are met...

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Management & Integration Perspective Subcontractors as Partners in Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A.; Eidam, G.

    2002-02-26

    In 1997, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of their Oak Ridge Operations facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC). This paper will focus on the success and challenges of several of the M&I projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The initial goals for BJC were to transition up to 93% of their staff to the subcontract community as they moved away from operations to ''integration.'' The perspectives of BJC and one of their Remedial Action/Decontamination & Decommissioning (RADD) subcontractors will be combined in this paper to share with others how ''partnering'' together was essential for success. Projects completed by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) under their RADD subcontract will be used to illustrate the process and the challenges/successes to completion. These projects will include pond remediation, tank remediation, and building cleanup for reuse. All these projects were ''fixed price'' with defined milestones keyed into award fee for BJC and regulatory milestones for DOE. By working together to form integrated teams focused on site remediation without sacrificing safety, all milestones were met. This paper will discuss the following items associated with the M&I environmental restoration projects at ORNL: overview of the M&I Contract; challenges in transitioning from ''operations'' to ''integration''; subcontracting strategies; subcontractor pre-qualification process; overview of ORNL Projects; and integrated team effort required to achieve site restoration goals.

  13. What can errors tell us about specific language impairment deficits? Semantic and morphological cuing in a sentence completion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novogrodsky, Rama; Kreiser, Varda

    2015-01-01

    The lexical retrieval ability of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development was compared. Fifty Hebrew-speaking children participated: 15 school-age with SLI, 20 typically developing, matched on age to the SLI group and 15 younger, typically developing matched on naming performance to the SLI group. Participants were tested in a sentence completion task with semantic cuing and with morphological cuing. SLI children performed poorer than the chronological-age group and similarly to the naming-matched group. Error patterns showed a qualitative difference between the SLI and naming-matched groups. The results suggest that lexical retrieval of children with SLI is delayed and qualitatively different from that of typically developing children.

  14. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before awarding...

  15. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where requests for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the subcontractor is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must ...

  16. 48 CFR 52.244-4 - Subcontractors and outside associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services). 52.244-4 Section 52.244-4 Federal Acquisition... consultants (Architect-engineer services). As prescribed in 44.204(b), insert the following clause: Subcontractors and Outside Associates and Consultants (Architect-Engineer Services) (AUG 1998) Any subcontractors...

  17. 75 FR 43162 - Tetrahedron, Inc., with Subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation; Tox Path, Inc; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, have been awarded a contract to perform work for OPP... AGENCY Tetrahedron, Inc., with Subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation; Tox Path, Inc; and... subcontractors: Syracuse Research Corporation, Tox Path, Inc., and Pathology Associates, in accordance with 40...

  18. The Impact of Globalisation on SME-Subcontractors' Supply Chain Strategies: A Danish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and competition have impacted on not only large firms but also Small and Medium sizes Enterprises (SME) and these enterprises often act as subcontractors to larger firms operating in international markets. The impact of globalisation is severe on the SME-subcontractors due to supply chain linkages between large and SMEs through…

  19. Using Function-Based Choice-Making Interventions to Increase Task Completion and Accuracy and to Reduce Problem Behaviors for Students with E/BD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Two choice-making interventions (task sequence and where) were implemented by a classroom teacher to determine the effects on the percentage of task completion, accuracy, and classroom disruption for ten sixth through eighth grade students with E/BD in a residential math classroom using a reversal design. An FBA was conducted to determine the…

  20. Predicting subcontractor performance using web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Subcontractor performance directly affects project success. The use of inappropriate subcontractors may result in individual work delays, cost overruns, and quality defects throughout the project. This study develops web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks (EFNNs) to predict subcontractor performance. EFNNs are a fusion of Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Fuzzy Logic (FL), and Neural Networks (NNs). FL is primarily used to mimic high level of decision-making processes and deal with uncertainty in the construction industry. NNs are used to identify the association between previous performance and future status when predicting subcontractor performance. GAs are optimizing parameters required in FL and NNs. EFNNs encode FL and NNs using floating numbers to shorten the length of a string. A multi-cut-point crossover operator is used to explore the parameter and retain solution legality. Finally, the applicability of the proposed EFNNs is validated using real subcontractors. The EFNNs are evolved using 22 historical patterns and tested using 12 unseen cases. Application results show that the proposed EFNNs surpass FL and NNs in predicting subcontractor performance. The proposed approach improves prediction accuracy and reduces the effort required to predict subcontractor performance, providing field operators with web-based remote access to a reliable, scientific prediction mechanism.

  1. Predicting Subcontractor Performance Using Web-Based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractor performance directly affects project success. The use of inappropriate subcontractors may result in individual work delays, cost overruns, and quality defects throughout the project. This study develops web-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Networks (EFNNs to predict subcontractor performance. EFNNs are a fusion of Genetic Algorithms (GAs, Fuzzy Logic (FL, and Neural Networks (NNs. FL is primarily used to mimic high level of decision-making processes and deal with uncertainty in the construction industry. NNs are used to identify the association between previous performance and future status when predicting subcontractor performance. GAs are optimizing parameters required in FL and NNs. EFNNs encode FL and NNs using floating numbers to shorten the length of a string. A multi-cut-point crossover operator is used to explore the parameter and retain solution legality. Finally, the applicability of the proposed EFNNs is validated using real subcontractors. The EFNNs are evolved using 22 historical patterns and tested using 12 unseen cases. Application results show that the proposed EFNNs surpass FL and NNs in predicting subcontractor performance. The proposed approach improves prediction accuracy and reduces the effort required to predict subcontractor performance, providing field operators with web-based remote access to a reliable, scientific prediction mechanism.

  2. Vestibular Loss in Older Adults Is Associated with Impaired Spatial Navigation: Data from the Triangle Completion Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT.Materials and methodsWe recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder. We performed the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to evaluate saccular function and video head impulse testing to quantify horizontal semicircular canal vestibulo-ocular reflex gain. To assess spatial navigation ability, we administered the TCT, in which participants were conveyed along two segments of a pre-drawn triangular path and instructed to complete the final segment independently. We measured the angle (degrees and distance (centimeters of deviation from the correct trajectory. We evaluated the influence of vestibular inputs on TCT performance.ResultsForty-eight adults participated in the study (mean age: 62.0 years; 52.1% females, including 9 young controls, 15 older controls, and 24 clinic patients. Clinic patients had the greatest distance of deviation (67.7 cm, followed by older controls (45.4 cm, then young controls (27.8 cm; p < 0.01. Similarly, clinic patients had greater rotational angles (22.1° compared to older (13.3° and younger controls (12.4°; p < 0.01. Following multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic variables, loss of otolith function was associated with an 18.2 cm increase in distance of deviation (95% CI: 15.2–47.4 and a 9.2° increase in rotational angle (95% CI: 3.0–15.5. Abnormal semicircular canal function was associated with a 26.0 cm increase in distance of deviation (95% CI: 0.2–51.8 and a 10.8° increase in rotational angle

  3. A game theory approach for competition and cooperation among project’s subcontractors with interaction activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some projects are often performed by many subcontractors that cooperate with each other and some of them are conducted by outsourcing them to several firms; so subcontractors carry out activities in competition. Appropriate trade-off between time and cost and achieving more benefit and cost saving are objectives of both models. In this paper, it is investigated that how different subcontractors of a project can cooperate to achieve more advantages if possible and how sub-contractors can compete to make the results better and find the optimum cost to minimize the time for each of them. The competition here does not mean eliminating a competitor, but the aim is to challenge the contractors in order to choose the best decision. The purpose of this study is to address the challenges in time and cost management and to find more profit allocation among subcontractors and fair competition for fair allocation as well. A model based on cooperative game theory in time/cost trade-off problem of projects is suggested and then a competition model among subcontractors based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. A case study is rep-resented to comprehensively illustrate the problem, the cooperative techniques of cooperative game theory, and the payoff matrix of non-cooperative model among subcontractors. Results of the proposed model reveal that subcontractors can obtain higher profit from cooperation if pos-sible. When they outsource the project and compete with each other, they must consider the in-teraction activities and choose the best strategies for cost saving and gain more reward from the client. Moreover, it is found that some techniques such as Shapley value, Core, Max-Min Core, or Equal Profit Method (EPM are able to fairly assign extra profit of cooperation, and using the payoff matrix, Nash equilibrium, and Nash bargaining helps to find the optimum point to mini-mize time and cost for interaction activities state.

  4. Security of payment regime in construction industry: are Malaysian sub-contractors ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah; Mohammad, Mohammad Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the particularly small sized sub-contractors are definitely benefited from payment provisions in the proposed Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication Act (CIPA Act), but need to enhance their knowledge in order to improve their awareness of the benefits of the Act. Accordingly, this on-going research attempts to introduce proper guidelines to the sub-contractors, in giving the knowledge, to claim for payment. Firstly, the research explored the problems and legal issues rel...

  5. Improving the Collaboration between Main Contractors and Subcontractors within Traditional Construction Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obafemi A. Akintan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inability of subcontractors/specialist contractors to contribute meaningfully to the construction process under the traditional construction procurement hampers the possibilities of improving value on projects and their integration with the rest of the supply chain. In particular, the main contractors and subcontractors in traditional construction procurement projects pursue their self-interests to such an extent that collaborative working has been impossible to achieve. In this research, qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect data to explore the problems at the root of the main contractor-subcontractor relationship. Intending to derive innovative ideas to reinvent the delivery process of traditional construction procurement, the principles of integrated project delivery (IPD and the last planner system (LPS were studied to seek useful ideas that can be employed to improve collaboration between main contractors and subcontractors. A high point of contention is the debate on the managerial competence of subcontractors; nevertheless, hope is expressed at the possibility of improving collaboration between the main contractor and subcontractor within traditional construction procurement work environment.

  6. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  7. The Effects of a Picture Activity Schedule for Students with Intellectual Disability to Complete a Sequence of Tasks Following Verbal Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttlinger, Cari; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bevill-Davis, Alicia; Douglas, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated instruction of independent creation of picture activity schedules (PASs) and how four middle school students with intellectual disability used them to complete tasks independently. A withdrawal design (A-BC-B-A-B) was used to evaluate whether the intervention had an effect on the dependent variable and to test for generalization to…

  8. Management of Interface between Main Contractor and Subcontractors for Successful Project Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increased dependence on subcontracting within the construction industry, the operational relationship between the Main Contractor (MC and Subcontractor (SC plays a significant role in successful delivery of projects. Through the literature review this paper argues that despite SCs bring added value to construction projects, the increased reliance on SCs has strained relationships between the MC and SC. Also MCs are more concerned with risk and price reduction which undermine the relationship heavily. Current practices in the construction industry in managing SCs were evaluated through a case study and semi-structured interviews. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the ways of facilitating the interface between the MC and SC in general. The study highlighted that prevailing adverse relationships and culture in the industry are influencing the success of construction projects. The lack of trust is a key factor affecting the relationships between MC and SCs. However, the proactive involvement of the MC with SCs in maintaining continuity of the team from procurement to construction stage and transparency in the processes were key success factors for successful completion of the project.

  9. The institutional dynamics at the origin of a new method of local administration: The relationship between AEROSPATIALE and its subcontractors

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Talbot

    1998-01-01

    The Institutional Dynamics at the Origin of a New Method of ?Local? Administration: the Relationship between AEROSPATIALE and its Subcontractors DAMIEN TALBOT LEREP In the last twenty years, interactions between the Aeronautical Branch of AEROSPATIALE and its subcontractors have evolved radically. From a system of fragmented regional subcontractors centered around AEROSPATIALE establishments, a network of businesses, much reduced in number and characterised by stronger links and a withdrawal ...

  10. Subcontractors and increased risk for work-related diseases and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung B; Park, Shin G; Song, Jae S; Yi, Kwan H; Jang, Tae W; Min, Jin Y

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing reliance on subcontracting in many economic sectors, there is little information available on occupational health and safety issues among subcontractor employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of subcontracting on self-reported health problems and absences due to occupational accidents and sickness using a nationally representative sample from South Korea. The data used were sampled from the second wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey [2010]. Information on 3,282 parent firm employees and 728 subcontractor employees was obtained. For the logistic regression model, the outcomes were work-related health problems and absenteeism. The independent variables were personal and occupational characteristics, job aspects, and working hazards. Subcontractor employees were significantly more likely to experience health problems than the employee at parent firms. In particular, subcontractors' risk of injuries and anxiety/depression increased twofold (odd ratios, OR=2.01, 95% confidence interval, CIs, 1.24-3.26) and threefold (OR=2.95, 95% CIs 1.52-5.73), respectively, after controlling for potential variables. In addition, subcontractor employees were three times more likely than employees at parent firms to miss work due to illness (OR=3.56; 95% CIs 2.02-6.26). Working conditions, especially those related to job aspects and workplace exposures, attenuated these risks. Subcontracting workers were found to have a higher risk of work-related diseases and a higher absenteeism rate than parent firm workers. Our study highlights the need to protect and improve the occupational health and safety of subcontractor employees. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Parent Cardiac Response in the Context of Their Child’s Completion of the Cold Pressor Task: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlin Constantin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ ability to regulate their emotions is essential to providing supportive caregiving behaviours when their child is in pain. Extant research focuses on parent self-reported experience or observable behavioural responses. Physiological responding, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, is critical to the experience and regulation of emotions and provides a complementary perspective on parent experience; yet, it is scarcely assessed. This pilot study examined parent (n = 25 cardiac response (HR, HRV at rest (neutral film clip, immediately before the cold pressor task (pre-CPT, and following the CPT (post-CPT. Further, variables that may influence changes in HR and HRV in the context of pediatric pain were investigated, including (1 initial HRV, and (2 parent perception of their child’s typical response to needle procedures. Time-domain (root mean square of successive differences; RMSSD and frequency-domain (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV parameters of HRV were computed. HR and HF-HRV varied as a function of time block. Typical negative responses to needle pain related to higher parental HR and lower HRV at rest. Parents with higher HRV at baseline experienced the greatest decreases in HRV after the CPT. Consequently, considering previous experience with pain and resting HRV levels are relevant to understanding parent physiological responses before and after child pain.

  12. Computer Breakdown as a Stress Factor during Task Completion under Time Pressure: Identifying Gender Differences Based on Skin Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Riedl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, as computers, the Internet, and mobile phones pervade almost every corner of life, the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on humans is dramatic. The use of ICT, however, may also have a negative side. Human interaction with technology may lead to notable stress perceptions, a phenomenon referred to as technostress. An investigation of the literature reveals that computer users’ gender has largely been ignored in technostress research, treating users as “gender-neutral.” To close this significant research gap, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which we investigated users’ physiological reaction to the malfunctioning of technology. Based on theories which explain that men, in contrast to women, are more sensitive to “achievement stress,” we predicted that male users would exhibit higher levels of stress than women in cases of system breakdown during the execution of a human-computer interaction task under time pressure, if compared to a breakdown situation without time pressure. Using skin conductance as a stress indicator, the hypothesis was confirmed. Thus, this study shows that user gender is crucial to better understanding the influence of stress factors such as computer malfunctions on physiological stress reactions.

  13. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay fo...

  14. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queuing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay for...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7203-15 - Subcontractor rights in computer software or computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-15 Subcontractor rights in computer software or computer software documentation. (a... computer software or computer software documentation. 227.7203-15 Section 227.7203-15 Federal Acquisition...

  16. 78 FR 58613 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... set forth in the NPRM, particularly with regard to the creation and maintenance of certain records and... of veterans by Federal Government contractors and subcontractors. The universe of protected veterans..., meaningful and effective efforts to recruit and employ veterans protected under VEVRAA, creation and...

  17. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO2 emissions and to implement CO2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several

  18. 76 FR 77055 - Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... disabilities. Prior to publishing this NPRM, OFCCP conducted multiple town hall meetings, webinars, and... Individuals With Disabilities; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 237 / Friday, December 9... Subcontractors Regarding Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs...

  19. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding (OCT 2010) (a) The requirements of paragraphs (b) and... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data...

  20. Inefficient stimulus processing at encoding affects formation of high-order general representation: A study on cross-modal word-stem completion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Laura; Castellani, Eleonora; Gemignani, Angelo; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Menicucci, Danilo

    2015-10-05

    Priming is an implicit memory effect in which previous exposure to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus. The main characteristic of priming is that it occurs without awareness. Priming takes place also when the physical attributes of previously studied and test stimuli do not match; in fact, it greatly refers to a general stimulus representation activated at encoding independently of the sensory modality engaged. Our aim was to evaluate whether, in a cross-modal word-stem completion task, negative priming scores could depend on inefficient word processing at study and therefore on an altered stimulus representation. Words were presented in the auditory modality, and word-stems to be completed in the visual modality. At study, we recorded auditory ERPs, and compared the P300 (attention/memory) and N400 (meaning processing) of individuals with positive and negative priming. Besides classical averaging-based ERPs analysis, we used an ICA-based method (ErpICASSO) to separate the potentials related to different processes contributing to ERPs. Classical analysis yielded significant difference between the two waves across the whole scalp. ErpICASSO allowed separating the novelty-related P3a and the top-down control-related P3b sub-components of P300. Specifically, in the component C3, the positive deflection identifiable as P3b, was significantly greater in the positive than in the negative priming group, while the late negative deflection corresponding to the parietal N400, was reduced in the positive priming group. In conclusion, inadequacy of specific processes at encoding, such as attention and/or meaning retrieval, could generate weak semantic representations, making words less accessible in subsequent implicit retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the specificity of autobiographical memory in individuals at a trait-based vulnerability to bipolar disorder using a sentence completion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Robert C; Gooding, Patricia A; Jones, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory recall has been associated with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, but the role of overgenerality in the vulnerability to bipolar disorder remains under-researched. While a previous study suggested that high-risk individuals for bipolar disorder recall emotionally negative memories in specific detail, this is in contrast to memory recall patterns noted in bipolar samples. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) used in previous non-clinical studies has also been criticised for not being sensitive to overgenerality due to its repetition of specificity instructions and practice trials. The traditional AMT format may allow some individuals to override their trait-based tendencies to be overgeneral. The current study used a sentence completion task to assess memory specificity in groups of students at a low and high trait-based vulnerability for bipolar disorder. In contrast to previous research, high-risk individuals recalled fewer specific positive memories and greater numbers of overgeneral negative memories than low-risk individuals. These results support the notion that the vulnerability for bipolar disorder might be associated with similar recall biases as demonstrated in bipolar samples, and that the AMT might not be sufficiently sensitive to detect overgenerality in non-clinical groups. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Using Electromagnetic Algorithm for Total Costs of Sub-contractor Optimization in the Cellular Manufacturing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahriari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.

  3. The Intercultural Marketing Competence of Software Subcontractors: Toward a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    As part of a research project on cooperation between Nordic software development subcontractors and their foreign customers, the dynamics of intercultural marketing competence are being examined. This paper builds a conceptual bridge by developing a definition of a software subcontracting firm......'s intercultural marketing competence on the basis of (a) socio-psychological and human resource management definitions of intercultural competence at the level of individuals and (b) definitions of organizational competence from the resource-based perspective. Furthermore a model of the dynamics...

  4. Legal Nature of the Investor’s Consent to the Conclusion of the Agreement with Sub-contractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Szejna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of present article presents and comments on the divergent views of doctrine and judicature concerning the legal nature of the investor’s consent to the conclusion of the agreement for subcontracting, arose from the introduction of the provisions of Article 6471 § 2 and 3 to the Polish Civil Code with Act dated 14 February 2003 amending the Act – the Civil Code and other acts. Author refers also to the joint responsibility of the investor and the contractor towards further subcontractor and to the formal requirements of giving the investor’s consent to the conclusion of the agreement between the contractor and the subcontractor. The institution of joint and several liability for the payment of salaries investor subcontractors, is in the Polish private law remedy important because it protects the interests of subcontractors by the insolvency of construction contractors. Thus, the test makers institution may use other countries to protect the interests of subcontractors against the insolvency of contractors through the introduction of these regulations into their legal systems.

  5. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? 102....205 May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? No, your agency may only pay the TSP with whom it has a contract. The...

  7. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  8. 25 CFR 900.233 - When must an Indian tribe or tribal organization regulate its employees or subcontractors to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? 900.233 Section 900.233 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  9. Completing lists of entities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fissaha Adafre, S.; de Rijke, M.; Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the list completion task, an entity retrieval task where, in return to a topic statement and a number of example entities, systems have to return further examples. For this task, we propose and evaluate several algorithms. One of the core challenges is to overcome the very limited amount

  10. The Internationalization of Software Development Subcontractors: A Nordic Perspective on What We Know and What We Need to Know

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2003-01-01

    As part of a research project, which will encompass in-depth case studies of small Nordic software development subcontractors' work for large, foreign software corporations, the dynamics of the initial phases of the subcontractors' internationalization will be examined. Because high-tech firms from...... small domestic markets are "pulled" abroad to "hub software nations" more quickly and also more often subject to the hegemony of major foreign software corporations, the issues covered are especially relevant to software firms and policymakers in smaller nations. This paper presents the initial...... framework for the study. It starts with a look at the Nordic perspective on this issue as well as a brief review of existing literature on service firms', software firms' and SMEs' internationalization, before going on to elucidate and justify the study's eleven research questions. Thereafter relevant...

  11. Task completion report for update SUMNMULN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-08-29

    New ``Sum N`` and ``Multiply N`` control blocks have been programmed by update SUMNMULN in TRAC-P Version 5.4.28. They define N signal variables and/or control blocks whose values are to be summed with optional weighting factors or multiplied, respectively.

  12. ATLAS Award for Difficult Task

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Two Russian companies were honoured with an ATLAS Award, for supply of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure elements, last week. On 23 March the Russian company ORPE Technologiya and its subcontractor, RSP Khrunitchev, were jointly presented with an ATLAS Supplier Award. Since 1998, ORPE Technologiya has been actively involved in the development of the carbon-fibre reinforced plastic elements of the ATLAS Inner Detector barrel support structure. After three years of joint research and development, CERN and ORPE Technologiya launched the manufacturing contract. It had a tight delivery schedule and very demanding specifications in terms of mechanical tolerance and stability. The contract was successfully completed with the arrival of the last element of the structure at CERN on 8 January 2004. The delivery of this key component of the Inner Detector deserves an ATLAS Award given the difficulty of manufacturing the end-frames, which very few companies in the world would have been able to do at an ...

  13. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  14. Final report on the Pathway Analysis Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The Pathway Analysis Task constituted one of several multi-laboratory efforts to estimate radiation doses to people, considering all important pathways of exposure, from the testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary goal of the Pathway Analysis Task was to predict radionuclide ingestion by residents of Utah, Nevada, and portions of seven other adjoining western states following radioactive fallout deposition from individual events at the NTS. This report provides comprehensive documentation of the activities and accomplishments of Colorado State University`s Pathway Analysis Task during the entire period of support (1979--91). The history of the project will be summarized, indicating the principal dates and milestones, personnel involved, subcontractors, and budget information. Accomplishments, both primary and auxiliary, will be summarized with general results rather than technical details being emphasized. This will also serve as a guide to the reports and open literature publications produced, where the methodological details and specific results are documented. Selected examples of results on internal dose estimates are provided in this report because the data have not been published elsewhere.

  15. Do Task Complexity Demands Influence the Learners’ Perception of Task Difficulty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sanajou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of cognitive task complexity on EFL learners’ perception of task difficulty. Learners’ perception of task difficulty is measured by a five-item task difficulty questionnaire (as in Robinson, 2001a. The participants were 76 intermediate learners which were divided into two groups. One group performed a simple task (single task and the other group performed a complex task (dual task. Having performed the tasks, the participants completed the task difficulty questionnaire. In order to see how the participants evaluated task difficulty, their ratings for each question of the questionnaire in the simple and complex tasks was compared using Mann-Whitney U. The results indicate that the complex task significantly affected learners’ perception of task difficulty in three items of difficulty, stress and interest. The results of task difficulty studies can help language educators in designing and employing more effective language teaching materials.

  16. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  17. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  18. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...

  19. SUPPORT FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE ARM PROJECT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE GWIS MODEL FOR A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. DAVID MARTIN; MARK B. MURPHY - STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES, LLC

    1999-12-31

    Strategic Technology Resources, L.L.C. (STR) provided work for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in response to Request for Proposal 005BZ0019-35. The objectives of the work in this project were to: (1) support the completion of the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) LA9502037, and (2) support the development of a field demonstration of the LANL-developed Global Weapons Information System (GWIS) model for virtual enterprises. The second objective was contingent upon DOE approval of the Advanced Information Management (AIM) CRADA. At the request of the LANL Technical Representative, the project was granted a no-cost extension to November 30, 1999. As part of the project, STR provided managerial support for the ARM CRADA by: (1) assessing the data resources of the participating companies, (2) facilitating the transfer of technical data to LANL, (3) preparing reports, (4) managing communications between the parties to the ARM CRADA, and (5) assisting with the dissemination of information between the parties to technical professional societies and trade associations. The first phase of the current project was to continue to engage subcontractors to perform tasks in the ARM CRADA for which LANL expertise was lacking. All of the ARM field studies required of the project were completed, and final reports for all of the project studies are appended to this final report. The second phase of the current project was to support the field demonstration of the GWIS model for virtual enterprises in an oilfield setting. STR developed a hypertext Webpage that describes the concept and implementation of a virtual enterprise for reservoir management in the petroleum industry. Contents of the hypertext document are included in this report on the project.

  20. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, and unique considerations related to transportat...

  1. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, and unique considerations related to transportat...

  2. TxDOT administration research : tasks completed FY2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This research project evaluates numerous transportation issues and develops findings and/or : recommendations based on results. This project has been structured to address some of the emerging, critical, : and unique considerations related to transpo...

  3. CompTIA A+ complete lab manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pyles, James

    2012-01-01

    Boost your understanding of CompTIA A+ exam principles with practical, real-world exercises Designed to complement CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide, this hands-on companion book takes you step by step through the tasks a PC technician is likely to face on any given day. It supports the theory explained in the test-prep guide with additional practical application, increasing a new PC technician's confidence and marketability. Various scenarios incorporate roadblocks that may occur on the job and explain ways to successfully complete the task at hand. In addition, each task is mapped to a specif

  4. Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group Report

    OpenAIRE

    Baskauf, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This was a presentation at the TDWG Annual Meeting in Costa Rica, 2016-12-08 in a Task Group report session.  Abstract: The Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group has completed drafts of a Standards Documentation Specification and a Vocabulary Management Specification (https://github.com/tdwg/vocab). This session will outline the important aspects of the specifications and answer questions about their content and implementation.

  5. Backwards Fading to Speed Task Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Kalakoski, V. (2008). Effect of skill level on recall of visually presented patterns of musical patterns. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 87...task steps). Recall that task complexity was based upon SME judgment regarding features of existing Army tasks, including number of steps, the...instructors feel Soldiers would benefit from learning, and these tasks are serial in nature (they must be completed in a specific sequence

  6. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Task 4. Third contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Contractor Information Meeting (October 14 to 17, 1979) was part of the FY-1979 effort of Task 4 of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP): Sorption/Desorption Analysis. The objectives of this task are to: evaluate sorption/desorption measurement methods and develop a standardized measurement procedure; produce a generic data bank of nuclide-geologic interactions using a wide variety of geologic media and groundwaters; perform statistical analysis and synthesis of these data; perform validation studies to compare short-term laboratory studies to long-term in situ behavior; develop a fundamental understanding of sorption/desorption processes; produce x-ray and gamma-emitting isotopes suitable for the study of actinides at tracer concentrations; disseminate resulting information to the international technical community; and provide input data support for repository safety assessment. Conference participants included those subcontracted to WISAP Task 4, representatives and independent subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, representatives from other waste disposal programs, and experts in the area of waste/geologic media interaction. Since the meeting, WISAP has been divided into two programs: Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) (modeling efforts) and Waste/Rock Interactions Technology (WRIT) (experimental work). The WRIT program encompasses the work conducted under Task 4. This report contains the information presented at the Task 4, Third Contractor Information Meeting. Technical Reports from the subcontractors, as well as Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), are provided along with transcripts of the question-and-answer sessions. The agenda and abstracts of the presentations are also included. Appendix A is a list of the participants. Appendix B gives an overview of the WRIT program and details the WRIT work breakdown structure for 1980.

  7. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  8. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sanbonmatsu

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  9. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  10. A task scheduler for ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Pradalier, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Developing a complete robotic system often requires combining multiple behaviours into a complexdecision grid, with elements running in sequence or in parallel, eventually interrupting each others.To solve this “age-old” problem, ROS provides two main tools:Actionlib: a client-server architecture that provides a way to specify results to be achieved.While the server works on these results, it should report progresses and ultimately reportwhen the task is completed.Smach: a python API to defin...

  11. Meeting the Challenges of Completing a Counseling Doctoral Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Susan R.; Ullery, Elizabeth K.; Millner, Vaughn S.; Cobia, Debra C.

    1999-01-01

    Tasks of a doctoral program are discussed, including selecting a program, maneuvering through initial experiences, making adjustments, completing coursework, preparing for comprehensive examinations, choosing an internship, and completing the dissertation. (Author)

  12. Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M; Gade, Miriam

    2006-04-01

    In a study of the formation of representations of task sequences and its influence on task inhibition, participants first performed tasks in a predictable sequence (e.g., ABACBC) and then performed the tasks in a random sequence. Half of the participants were explicitly instructed about the predictable sequence, whereas the other participants did not receive these instructions. Task-sequence learning was inferred from shorter reaction times (RTs) in predictable relative to random sequences. Persisting inhibition of competing tasks was indicated by increased RTs in n- 2 task repetitions (e.g., ABA) compared with n- 2 nonrepetitions (e.g., CBA). The results show task-sequence learning for both groups. However, task inhibition was reduced in predictable relative to random sequences among instructed-learning participants who formed an explicit representation of the task sequence, whereas sequence learning and task inhibition were independent in the noninstructed group. We hypothesize that the explicit instructions led to chunking of the task sequence, and that n- 2 repetitions served as chunk points (ABA-CBC), so that within-chunk facilitation modulated the inhibition effect.

  13. Task Difficulty from the Learner's Perspective: Perceptions and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David; Keobke, Ken

    1995-01-01

    This paper explored task difficulty from the perspective of the learner. It investigated the relationship between student perception of task difficulty and actual difficulty as measured by successful completion of a task. The study also collected information on those factors identified by students themselves as implicated in task difficulty.…

  14. Generic routes to subcontractors' internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Blenker, Per

    1997-01-01

    Underleverandørers internationaliseringsproces adskiller sig fra gennemsnittet. I artiklen opstilles en række årsager til dette og fire internationaliseringsveje for underleverandører udvikles....

  15. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); Y. Zhang (Yingqian); T.B. Klos (Tomas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some

  16. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Klos, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. In

  17. Redintegration, task difficulty, and immediate serial recall tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Gabrielle; Tolan, Georgina Anne; Tehan, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    While current theoretical models remain somewhat inconclusive in their explanation of short-term memory (STM), many theories suggest at least a contribution of long-term memory (LTM) to the short-term system. A number of researchers refer to this process as redintegration (e.g., Schweickert, 1993). Under short-term recall conditions, the current study investigated the effects of redintegration and task difficulty in order to extend research conducted by Neale and Tehan (2007). Thirty participants in Experiment 1 and 26 participants in Experiment 2 completed a serial recall task in which retention interval, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression were used to modify task difficulty. Redintegration was examined by manipulating the characteristics of the to-be-remembered items; lexicality in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2. Responses were scored based on correct-in-position recall, item scoring, and order accuracy scoring. In line with the Neale and Tehan results, as the difficulty of the task increased so did the effects of redintegration. This was evident in that the advantage for words in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2 decreased as task difficulty increased. This relationship was observed for item but not order memory, and findings were discussed in relation to the theory of redintegration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Latino College Completion: Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Oracle Goldengate 11g complete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    Oracle Goldengate 11g Complete Cookbook follows the Cookbook style. Each recipe provides step by step instructions with various examples and scripts. This book provides the necessary information to successfully complete most of the possible administration tasks.Oracle Goldengate 11g Complete Cookbook is aimed at Database Administrators, Architects, and Middleware Administrators who are keen to know more about Oracle Goldengate. Whether you are handling Goldengate environments on a day-to-day basis, or using it just for migration, this book provides the necessary information required to success

  2. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  4. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  5. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  6. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drucker, Peter Ferdinand

    1974-01-01

    Drucker looks at management from a task orientated point of view. In Part I he looks at management first from the outside and studies the dimensions of the tasks and the requirements to each of them...

  7. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  8. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  9. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  10. Flight deck task management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    This report documents the work undertaken in support of Volpe Task Order No. T0026, Flight Deck Task Management. The objectives of this work effort were to: : 1) Develop a specific and standard definition of task management (TM) : 2) Conduct a ...

  11. Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three instruments were completed by 345 undergraduates: Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES), Self-Esteem Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale. The construct validity of the KTSES was supported, and some relationship was found between career task self-efficacy and self-esteem/career decision-making self-efficacy. (SK)

  12. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  13. IJAAAR 2012 COMPLETE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011

    marketing boards (until their removal) have been responsible for the grading and the quality control of exported cocoa seeds. However, this function was completely out of place after the scrapping of the marketing boards in Nigeria. In the short – run cassava price. (lagged one year) has a positive and significant coefficient ...

  14. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  15. Epispadias with complete prepuce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    Abstract. Epispadias with complete prepuce is a very rare anomaly. It is often associated with late presentation because it is a very rare condition and the penis appears grossly normal, thus, the diagnosis is easily missed during the neonatal period. We report a case of a boy presenting at seven years of age with epispadias.

  16. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  17. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  18. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  19. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  20. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  1. Adoption of Task-Specific Sets of Visual Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Wendt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from behavioral and physiological studies suggests attentional weighting of stimulus information from different sources, according to task demands. We investigated the adoption of task-specific attentional sets by administering a flanker task, which required responding to a centrally presented letter while ignoring two adjacent letters, and a same-different judgment task, which required a homogenous/heterogeneous classification concerning the complete three-letter string. To assess the distribution of attentional weights across the letter locations we intermixed trials of a visual search task, in which a target stimulus occurred randomly in any of these locations. Search task reaction times displayed a stronger center-to periphery gradient, indicating focusing of visual attention on the central location, when the search task was intermixed into blocks of trials of the flanker task than into blocks of trials of the same-different task (Experiment 1 and when a cue indicated the likely occurrence of the flanker task as compared to the likely occurrence the same-different task (Experiment 2. These findings demonstrate flexible adoption of task-specific sets of visual attention that can be implemented during preparation. In addition, responses in the intermixed search task trials were faster and (marginally significantly more error-prone after preparation for a (letter task repetition than for a task switch, suggesting that response caution is reduced during preparation for a task repetition.

  2. Adoption of Task-Specific Sets of Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Kähler, Svantje T.; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from behavioral and physiological studies suggests attentional weighting of stimulus information from different sources, according to task demands. We investigated the adoption of task-specific attentional sets by administering a flanker task, which required responding to a centrally presented letter while ignoring two adjacent letters, and a same-different judgment task, which required a homogenous/heterogeneous classification concerning the complete three-letter string. To assess the distribution of attentional weights across the letter locations we intermixed trials of a visual search task, in which a target stimulus occurred randomly in any of these locations. Search task reaction times displayed a stronger center-to periphery gradient, indicating focusing of visual attention on the central location, when the search task was intermixed into blocks of trials of the flanker task than into blocks of trials of the same-different task (Experiment 1) and when a cue indicated the likely occurrence of the flanker task as compared to the likely occurrence the same-different task (Experiment 2). These findings demonstrate flexible adoption of task-specific sets of visual attention that can be implemented during preparation. In addition, responses in the intermixed search task trials were faster and (marginally significantly) more error-prone after preparation for a (letter) task repetition than for a task switch, suggesting that response caution is reduced during preparation for a task repetition. PMID:28536543

  3. Effects of anxiety on task switching: evidence from the mixed antisaccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Tahereh L; Derakshan, Nazanin; Richards, Anne

    2008-09-01

    According to the attentional control theory of anxiety (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), anxiety impairs performance on cognitive tasks that involve the shifting function of working memory. This hypothesis was tested using a mixed antisaccade paradigm, in which participants performed single-task and mixed-task versions of the paradigm. The single task involved the completion of separate blocks of anti- and prosaccade trials, whereas in the mixed task, participants completed anti- and prosaccade trials in a random order within blocks. Analysis of switch costs showed that high-anxious individuals did not exhibit the commonly reported paradoxical improvement in saccade latency, whereas low-anxious individuals did. The findings are discussed within the framework of attentional control theory.

  4. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Statistics a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  6. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  7. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  8. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas ... The Consortium Approach … What more will it take to obtain Tech ...

  9. Shifting tasks in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    with focus on shifting tasks was undertaken. Furthermore, the method of ‘Interview to double’ was used the analytical ambition being to explore the becoming of tasks and relations. Analytically the study draws predominantly on Stars notion of ‘infrastructure’. Infrastructure is seen as human and non...

  10. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2017-11-03

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  12. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  13. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  14. "Just do it when you get a chance": the effects of a background task on primary task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments investigated multitasking performance with a new "prioritized-processing paradigm" in which participants responded only to a high-priority primary task when this task required some action, responding to a low-priority background task only when no action was required for the primary task. In both experiments, performance was worse on the primary task than on the same task performed in isolation, indicating that this attempt to give absolute priority to the primary task is not sufficient to protect it from multitasking interference. Multitasking interference was present for task-repetition trials as well as task-alternation trials, so the interference could not be completely explained as a task-switching cost. In addition, responses to the primary task were influenced by their compatibility with the responses associated with the stimulus for the background task, indicating that there was some activation of S-R associations within the background task even when this task did not require any response. The findings generalize a number of effects from the psychological refractory period and task-switching paradigms to the prioritized-processing paradigm, thereby providing hints as to the underlying mechanisms responsible for those effects. The "prioritized-processing paradigm" appears to have several desirable features for the study of multitasking interference.

  15. Objective assessment of laparoscopic skills: dual-task approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Adam T; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Panton, Ormond Neely; Qayumi, Karim

    2012-12-01

    Assessment of surgical performance is often accomplished with traditional methods that often provide only subjective data. Trainees who perform well on a simulator in a controlled environment may not perform well in a real operating room environment with distractions. This project uses the ideas of dual-task methodology and applies them to the assessment of performance of laparoscopic surgical skills. The level of performance on distracting secondary tasks while trying to perform a primary task becomes an indirect but objective measure of the surgical skill of the trainee. Nine surgery residents and 6 experienced laparoscopic surgeons performed 3 primary tasks on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator (camera position, grasping, and cholecystectomy) while being distracted by 3 secondary tasks (counting beeps, selective responses, and mental arithmetic). Completion time and error rates were recorded for each combination of tasks. When performed separately, time to completion and error rates for primary and secondary tasks were similar for learners and experts. When performing the tasks simultaneously, learners had more errors than experts. Error rates increased for learners when distracting tasks became more difficult or required more attention. Expert surgeons maintained consistent error rates despite the increasing difficulty of task combinations. The use of dual-task methodology may help trainers to identify which surgical trainees require more preparation before entering the real operating room environment. Expert surgeons are capable of maintaining performance levels on a primary task in the face of distractions that may occur in the operating room.

  16. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  17. Task Based Language Teaching: Development of CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul; Arifani, Yudhi

    2016-01-01

    The dominant complexities of English teaching in Indonesia are about limited development of teaching methods and materials which still cannot optimally reflect students' needs (in particular of how to acquire knowledge and select the most effective learning models). This research is to develop materials with complete task-based activities by using…

  18. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2000-01-01

    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  19. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  20. Quantitative physics tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Snětinová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Title: Quantitative Physics Tasks Author: Mgr. Marie Snětinová Department: Department of Physics Education Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: doc. RNDr. Leoš Dvořák, CSc., Department of Physics Education Abstract: The doctoral thesis concerns with problem solving in physics, especially on students' attitudes to solving of quantitative physics tasks, and various methods how to develop students' problem solving skills in physics. It contains brief overview of the theoretical framework of proble...

  1. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    . Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  2. Teach yourself visually complete WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Take your WordPress skills to the next level with these tips, tricks, and tasks Congratulations on getting your blog up and running with WordPress! Now are you ready to take it to the next level? Teach Yourself VISUALLY Complete WordPress takes you beyond the blogging basics with expanded tips, tricks, and techniques with clear, step-by-step instructions accompanied by screen shots. This visual book shows you how to incorporate forums, use RSS, obtain and review analytics, work with tools like Google AdSense, and much more.Shows you how to use mobile tools to edit a

  3. RECIPE COMPLETION USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, M; Stock, M; De Baets, B; Waegeman, W

    2015-01-01

    Completing a recipe is a non-trivial task, as the success of ingredient combinations depends on a multitude of factors such as taste, smell, texture, etc. The aim of our work is to build a model that adds one or more ingredients to a given number of ingredients. The idea is based on leftover ingredients in a fridge. A person could list the available ingredients in his or her fridge and the model would suggest some additional ingredients to create a full recipe.

  4. An Improved Ant Algorithm for Grid Task Scheduling Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Laizhi; Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Yun; Li, Yujie

    Task scheduling is an important factor that directly influences the performance and efficiency of the system. Grid resources are usually distributed in different geographic locations, belonging to different organizations and resources' properties are vastly different, in order to complete efficiently, intelligently task scheduling, the choice of scheduling strategy is essential. This paper proposes an improved ant algorithm for grid task scheduling strategy, by introducing a new type pheromone and a new node redistribution selection rule. On the one hand, the algorithm can track performances of resources and tag it. On the other hand, add algorithm to deal with task scheduling unsuccessful situations that improve the algorithm's robustness and the successful probability of task allocation and reduce unnecessary overhead of system, shortening the total time to complete tasks. The data obtained from simulation experiment shows that use this algorithm to resolve schedule problem better than traditional ant algorithm.

  5. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  6. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  7. Neural correlates for task switching in the macaque superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason L; Koval, Michael J; Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching. Here, we investigated switch costs in nonhuman primates and their neural correlates in the activity of SC saccade-related neurons in monkeys performing cued, randomly interleaved pro- and anti-saccade trials. We predicted that behavioral switch costs would be associated with differential modulations of SC activity in trials on which the task was switched vs. repeated, with activity on the current trial resembling that associated with the task set of the previous trial when a switch occurred. We observed both error rate and reaction time switch costs and changes in the discharge rate and timing of activity in SC neurons between switch and repeat trials. These changes were present later in the task only after fixation on the cue stimuli but before saccade onset. These results further establish switch costs in macaque monkeys and suggest that SC activity is modulated by task-switching processes in a manner inconsistent with the concept of task set inertia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Task-switching behavior and superior colliculus (SC) activity were investigated in nonhuman primates performing randomly interleaved pro- and anti-saccade tasks. Here, we report error rate and reaction time switch costs in macaque monkeys and associated differences in stimulus-related activity of saccade-related neurons in the SC. These results provide a neural correlate for task switching and suggest that the SC is modulated by task-switching processes and may reflect the completion of task

  8. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  9. Task Specific Tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H

    2015-07-01

    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  10. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  11. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  12. Neural Correlates of Decision Making on a Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Zayas, Vivian; Guthormsen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in affective decision making were examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while 74 typically developing 8-year-olds (38 boys, 36 girls) completed a 4-choice gambling task (Hungry Donkey Task; E. A. Crone & M. W. van der Molen, 2004). ERP results indicated: (a) a robust P300 component in response to feedback…

  13. The cooking task: making a meal of executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Andrew Doherty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current standardised neuropsychological tests may fail to accurately capture real-world executive deficits. We developed a computer-based Cooking Task assessment of executive functions and trialled the measure with a normative group before use with a head-injured population. Forty six participants completed the computerised Cooking Task and subtests from standardised neuropsychological tasks, including the Tower and Sorting Tests of executive function from the D-KEFS, and the CAMPROMPT measure of prospective memory, in order to examine whether standardised executive function tasks, predicted performance on measurement indices from the Cooking Task. Findings showed that verbal comprehension, rule detection and prospective memory contributed to measures of prospective planning accuracy and strategy implementation of the Cooking Task. Results also showed that functions necessary for cooking efficacy differ as an effect of task demands (difficulty levels. Performance on rule detection, strategy implementation and flexible thinking EF measures contributed to accuracy on the Cooking Task Findings raise questions about the functions captured by present standardised tasks particularly at varying levels of difficulty and during dual-task performance. Our preliminary findings also indicate that Cooking Task measures can effectively distinguish between EF and FSIQ abilities. Results of the present study indicate that the Cooking Task shows promise as an ecologically valid measure of executive function for future use with a head-injured population and indexes selective EF’s captured by standardised tests.

  14. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  15. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  16. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Task Engagement and Attentional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Smith, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    Two studies tested multivariate models of relationships between subjective task engagement and vigilance. The second study included a stress factor (cold infection). Modeling tested relationships between latent factors for task engagement and vigilance, and the role of engagement in mediating effects of cold infection. Raja Parasuraman's research on vigilance identified several key issues, including the roles of task factors, arousal processes, and individual differences, within the framework of resource theory. Task engagement is positively correlated with performance on various attentional tasks and may serve as a marker for resource availability. In the first study, 229 participants performed simultaneous and successive vigilance tasks. In the second study, 204 participants performed a vigilance task and a variable-foreperiod simple reaction-time task on two separate days. On the second day, 96 participants performed while infected with a naturally occurring common cold. Task engagement was assessed in both studies. In both studies, vigilance decrement in hit rate was observed, and task performance led to loss of task engagement. Cold infection also depressed both vigilance and engagement. Fitting structural equation models indicated that simultaneous and successive tasks should be represented by separate latent factors (Study 1), and task engagement fully mediated the impact of cold infection on vigilance but not reaction time (Study 2). Modeling individual differences in task engagement elucidates the role of resources in vigilance and underscores the relevance of Parasuraman's vision of the field. Assessment of task engagement may support diagnostic monitoring of operators performing tasks requiring vigilance.

  18. Bias effects in implicit memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, R; McKoon, G

    1996-12-01

    A major focus of recent research in memory has been performance on implicit tasks. The phenomenon of most interest has been repetition priming, the effect that prior exposure to a stimulus has on later perception of the stimulus or on a later decision about the stimulus. Picture naming, word identification, and word production in stem- and fragment-completion tasks all show repetition priming effects. The separation of implicit from explicit memory systems provides one account of this data, but a different theoretical view is proposed here: Repetition-priming effects come about because the processes that perform a task are biased products, temporary modifications of the processes, which influence later processing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential of this view for developing new theories and for prompting new empirical questions.

  19. Refinery energy profile. Preparation Task 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.W.

    1977-07-01

    The objective of the effort is to develop a technique for efficiently conducting energy audits on petroleum refineries. Work on the completed Task No. 1 is reported for the Gulf's Alliance Refinery. Background on the contract is presented in Sections II and III; a discussion of the Alliance Refinery is presented in Section IV and a summary of the work under Task I is presented in Section V. A glossary of terms used for this report is found in the Appendix. In Task No. 1, the refinery was separated into 12 processing units, utilities, and offsites; or a total of 14 units in all to be studied individually. This was accomplished through studying the various process flow charts, and then confirming the break-out of units by on-site visits as reasonable for the identification of areas where essential data such as temperature, pressure, and flow rates can be measured. (MCW)

  20. Task conflict in the Stroop task: When Stroop interference decreases as Stroop facilitation increases in a low task conflict context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 3500ms and one in which RSI was 200ms. It was expected that, in line with previous research, the shorter RSI would induce a low Task Conflict context by increasing focus on the colour identification goal in the Stroop task. Based on previous research showing the role of Task Conflict in the presence or absence Stroop facilitation, this was expected to lead to the novel finding of an increase in facilitation and simultaneous decrease in interference. Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem. A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions. As predicted, the shorter RSI resulted in incongruent and congruent trial RTs decreasing relative to a static neutral baseline condition; hence interference decreased as facilitation increased. An explanatory model (expanding on the work of Goldfarb, Henik and colleagues is presented that: 1 Shows how under certain conditions the predictions from single mechanism models hold true (i.e. when Task conflict is held constant; 2 Shows how it is possible that interference can be affected by an experimental manipulation that leaves facilitation apparently untouched and; 3 Predicts that facilitation cannot be independently affected by an experimental manipulation.

  1. Features or tasks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks that the...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them).......In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...

  2. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  3. Behavioral Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    methods included task analysis as a critical phase in developing instruction and training. Mon- temerlo and Tennyson (1976) noted that from 1951 to 1976...designed. The trend in the U.S . Department of Defense toward extensive procedural documentation noted by Montemerlo and Tennyson (1976) has not...M. Gagne’ (Ed.), Psychological principles in system development (pp. 187-228). New York: Holt. Montemerlo, M. D., & Tennyson , M. E. (1975

  4. Task Inventory Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Orientation , Training and Team Performance Research Area 7, Peace Time Task Analysis and Its Relation to War Time Conditions Research Area 8. Worker...January jar jaw jay jelly jellyfish jerk jig job jockey join joke joking jolly journey joy(ful) joyous judge jug juice juicy July...straight swept soil squash strange(r) swift sold squeak strap swim soldier squeeze straw swimming sole squirrel strawberry swing some stable

  5. Operationally Responsive Tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    RESPONSIVE TASKING by Aaron C. Bass September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Alan D. Scott Second Reader: Mark Rhoades THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...September 2011 Author: Aaron C. Bass Approved by: Alan D. Scott Thesis Advisor Mark M. Rhoades Second Reader Rudy...web.cs.gc.cuny.edu/~mjohnson/pubs/algosensors.pdf. [34] D. Pizzocaro, M. Johnson, H. Rowaihy, S. Chalmers , A. Preece, A. Bar- Noy, and T. La Porta, “A Knapsack

  6. IMAGE INTERPRETATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a research requirement of the Department of the Army, an extensive exploratory survey of human factors problems in image in...imagery. (2) How can the Army best utilize its available human resources to cope with ever increasing variety of image types and at the same time...experiments conduct ed to date within each of four subtask areas encompassed by the research program of the Image Interpretation Task.

  7. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  8. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  9. Personality predicts prospective memory task performance: an adult lifespan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Do interindividual differences in prospective memory task performance reflect individual differences in personality and lifestyle? Do the cognitive abilities known to change with age retain their power to predict episodic prospective memory task performance after controlling for personality and lifestyle variables, and do personality and lifestyle variables offer predictive power apart from that provided by cognitive ability measures? To answer these questions, we conducted a study with community-living healthy individuals (n= 141) between 18 and 81 years of age. They completed three different episodic prospective memory tasks--two laboratory tasks and one field task--as well as various measures of personality, lifestyle, and cognitive ability. The results indicated that personality and lifestyle reliably predicted who will succeed and who will fail on all three episodic prospective memory tasks. Conscientiousness predicted performance on two of the prospective memory tasks; socially prescribed perfectionism and neuroticism each predicted performance on one of the prospective memory tasks. Cognitive ability predicted performance on one of the laboratory prospective memory tasks but not on the other two prospective memory tasks. After we controlled for individual differences in personality and lifestyle variables, cognitive ability was no longer able to predict performance on the laboratory prospective memory task. By contrast, controlling for cognitive ability had no influence on the predictive power of the personality and lifestyle variables.

  10. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  11. Job task and psychosocial risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper employees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce Bernard; Steve Sauter; Lawrence Fine; Martin Petersen; Thomas Hales

    1994-01-01

    ... — The study included 1050 randomly selected workers from four departments. The workers were asked to complete questionnaires on symptoms, job tasks, and psychosocial and work organization conditions...

  12. Company profile: Complete Genomics Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Clifford

    2011-02-01

    Complete Genomics Inc. is a life sciences company that focuses on complete human genome sequencing. It is taking a completely different approach to DNA sequencing than other companies in the industry. Rather than building a general-purpose platform for sequencing all organisms and all applications, it has focused on a single application - complete human genome sequencing. The company's Complete Genomics Analysis Platform (CGA™ Platform) comprises an integrated package of biochemistry, instrumentation and software that sequences human genomes at the highest quality, lowest cost and largest scale available. Complete Genomics offers a turnkey service that enables customers to outsource their human genome sequencing to the company's genome sequencing center in Mountain View, CA, USA. Customers send in their DNA samples, the company does all the library preparation, DNA sequencing, assembly and variant analysis, and customers receive research-ready data that they can use for biological discovery.

  13. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Task Dominance Determines Backward Inhibition in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Jost

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Switching between tasks is assumed to be accompanied by inhibiting currently irrelevant, but competing tasks. A dominant task that strongly interferes with performing a weaker task may receive especially strong inhibition. We tested this prediction by letting participants switch among three tasks that differ in dominance: a location discrimination task with strong stimulus–response bindings (responding with left-hand and right-hand button presses to stimuli presented left or right to the fixation cross was combined with a color/pattern and a shape discrimination task, for which stimulus–response mappings were arbitrary (e.g., left-hand button press mapped to a red stimulus. Across three experiments, the dominance of the location task was documented by faster and more accurate responses than in the other tasks. This even held for incompatible stimulus–response mappings (i.e., right-hand response to a left-presented stimulus and vice versa, indicating that set-level compatibility (i.e., “dimension overlap” was sufficient for making this location task dominant. As a behavioral marker for backward inhibition, we utilized n-2 repetition costs that are defined by higher reaction times for a switch back to a just abandoned and thus just inhibited task (ABA sequence than for a switch to a less recently inhibited task (CBA, n-2 non-repetition. Reliable n-2 task repetition costs were obtained for all three tasks. Importantly, these costs were largest for the location task, suggesting that inhibition indeed was stronger for the dominant task. This finding adds to other evidence that the amount of inhibition is adjusted in a context-sensitive way.

  15. The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; Hughes, Matthew L; Miller, Tyler M; De Forrest, Ross L

    2016-01-01

    Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task. In Experiment 2, they successfully completed either a motor task or no task before participating in the free recall experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed that relative to control (no prior task), participants who had prior success, either on a verbal or a visual task, had better subsequent recall performance. Experiment 2 showed that prior success on a motor task, however, did not lead to a later memory advantage relative to control. These findings demonstrate that older adults' memory can be improved by a successful prior task experience so long as that experience is in a cognitive domain.

  16. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  17. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-19

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  20. Complexity of Products of Some Complete and Complete Bipartite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of spanning trees in graphs (networks is an important invariant; it is also an important measure of reliability of a network. In this paper, we derive simple formulas of the complexity, number of spanning trees, of products of some complete and complete bipartite graphs such as cartesian product, normal product, composition product, tensor product, and symmetric product, using linear algebra and matrix analysis techniques.

  1. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Bunting, 2001), antisaccade tasks (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001), and Stroop tasks (Kane & Engle, 2003). These attention-control tasks...departments of hospitals care for individuals who have cancer or who have other medical problems requiring surgery, respectively. Patients may be very...competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 47-70. Lansman, M., Poltrock, S., & Hunt, E. (1983

  2. Effects of white noise on off‐task behavior and academic responding for children with ADHD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley‐Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit...

  3. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  5. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  6. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  7. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  8. Completeness of the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, D W; Raup, D M

    1986-01-01

    The completeness of a sedimentary section of known timespan may be assessed qualitatively by comparing its thickness with the average accumulation for that timespan. Average accumulations may be estimated from sediment volume and continental area data. Quantitative completeness estimation methods based on data compiled from the geological literature have been proposed, but we argue that the literature data are significantly biased and cannot support such methods. Interestingly, however, a comparison of the literature data and accumulation averages computed from sediment volume data suggests that the thickest known sections may be extremely complete.

  9. An essay on Bergman completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Yong

    2013-10-01

    We give first of all a new criterion for Bergman completeness in terms of the pluricomplex Green function. Among several applications, we prove in particular that every Stein subvariety in a complex manifold admits a Bergman complete Stein neighborhood basis, which improves a theorem of Siu. Secondly, we give for hyperbolic Riemann surfaces a sufficient condition for when the Bergman and Poincaré metrics are quasi-isometric. A consequence is an equivalent characterization of uniformly perfect planar domains in terms of growth rates of the Bergman kernel and metric. Finally, we provide a noncompact Bergman complete pseudoconvex manifold without nonconstant negative plurisubharmonic functions.

  10. Government - Prime Contractor - Subcontractor Relationships: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Government risks through diversification to commercial ventures, which serves to reduce capacity for Government projects. However, Government and...August 1979 5. Creech, Dr. J.L., Financial Services Director, Defense Logistics Agency, Interview granted September 1979 6. Delles , R.W., Executive

  11. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  12. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Harnessing Crowdworkers for Engineering Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. Virtual Wind Tunnel We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. Conclusions With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and

  13. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Staffelbach

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations.Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data.We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task.With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex

  14. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffelbach, Matthew; Sempolinski, Peter; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Wei, Daniel; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex problems.

  15. Rigless completion of deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.W. Jr.

    1973-03-01

    The turnkey contract arrangement appears to be the answer to many of the high cost problems associated with drilling and completion of deep gas wells. This arrangement was utilized recently on at least 2 deep Texas Panhandle area gas wells, resulting in substantial dollar savings (and quicker payout) and indirectly enabling completions to be carried out without a rig. Casing and tubing were run before the rig was released. Each of these wells was drilled and completed, and production equipment installed, for some $800,000. Some recent gas contracts in the Panhandle area have been signed in the range of 40 cents/Mcf to 50 cents/Mcf. If the wells live up to promised production rates, they will pay out in less than a year. Described in detail are the following: (1) drilling, protection casing programs; (2) production casing strings; (3) casing testing and inspection; (4) running casing; (5) completion (including perforating); and (6) well stimulation.

  16. Homotopy limits, completions and localizations

    CERN Document Server

    Bousfield, Aldridge K

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of part I of these notes is to develop for a ring R a functional notion of R-completion of a space X. For R=Zp and X subject to usual finiteness condition, the R-completion coincides up to homotopy, with the p-profinite completion of Quillen and Sullivan; for R a subring of the rationals, the R-completion coincides up to homotopy, with the localizations of Quillen, Sullivan and others. In part II of these notes, the authors have assembled some results on towers of fibrations, cosimplicial spaces and homotopy limits which were needed in the discussions of part I, but which are of some interest in themselves.

  17. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  18. Yearbooks Demand Complete Journalistic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses features of recent effective yearbooks that point toward trends of the 1980s: on-the-scene reporting, complete captions, mini-features or featurettes, expressive titles, contemporary graphics, more photographs, photojournalism, and avoidance of gimmicks. (GT)

  19. Scrabble is PSPACE-Complete

    OpenAIRE

    Lampis, Michael; Mitsou, Valia; Sołtys, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the computational complexity of the game of Scrabble. We prove the PSPACE-completeness of a derandomized model of the game, answering an open question of Erik Demaine and Robert Hearn.

  20. Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Messer, David J.; Ebdon, Pippa

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined effects of age and task interruption on children's prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a future task. Age explained a small portion of variance in performance. Children who did not have to interrupt their ongoing activity to complete the PM tasks performed significantly better than children who had to…

  1. Effects of Task Familiarity on Stress Responses of Repressors and Sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Don F.

    1973-01-01

    R.S. Lazarus's theory of coping was used to investigate appraisal and reappraisal of threat in repressors and sensitizers. Two indexes of stress, self-report ratings of affect and palmar skin conductance, were measured prior to performance on a reaction time task, after one-third of the task was completed and after two-thirds of the task was…

  2. Alteration of time perception in young and elderly people during jigsaw puzzle tasks with different complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yuko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between time perception during tasks and subjective feelings in young and elderly people. Simple and complex jigsaw puzzles were given to healthy young and elderly subjects. The subjects were asked to estimate the time they had taken to complete the tasks after performing them. The ratio of the subjective to actual duration of time, the duration judgment ratio (DJR), and the relationship between the DJR and the subjective feelings during the tasks were analysed. The elderly group required a significantly longer time than the younger group for both tasks, and both elderly and young subjects estimated a longer time than the actual time to complete the tasks. The effect of the tasks on the DJR was significant, and the value was higher for the 24-piece than 54-piece task in both groups. The DJR was smaller in subjects with "much interest" than in those with "little interest" in the 24-piece task, but there was no difference in the 54-piece task. The results indicate that time perception was modulated by subjective feelings during the task, as well as by the age and task complexity. Because the goal and the result of the task may modulate time perception during it, time perception while actually performing the task may differ from that after completing it. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. LHCb celebrates completion of its beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments are ready to pop open the champagne bottles and celebrate the complete installation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment’s beam pipe. Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments gather near the newly completed beam pipe in the foreground. All four sections of LHCb’s beam pipe have been installed, interconnected, pumped down and baked out.. Three of the conical tubes are made of beryllium in order to minimize the level of background in the experiment, while the fourth and largest section is composed of stainless steel. The first of the beryllium sections, an important connection to the Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) was installed in August 2006 (see Bulletin No. 37/2006). One of the more challenging tasks was the installation of the longest (6 m) piece of beryllium beam pipe through the 2.4 m long RICH2 detector in January 2006. Deli...

  4. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes.

  5. How different types of participant payments alter task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers typically use incentives (such as money or course credit in order to obtain participants who engage in the specific behaviors of interest to the researcher. There is, however, little understanding or agreement on the effects of different types and levels of incentives used. Some results in the domain of statistical reasoning suggest that performance differences --- previously deemed theoretically important --- may actually be due to differences in incentive types across studies. 704 participants completed one of five variants of a statistical reasoning task, for which they received either course credit, flat fee payment, or performance-based payment incentives. Successful task completion was more frequent with performance-based incentives than with either of the other incentive types. Performance on moderately difficult tasks (compared to very easy and very hard tasks was most sensitive to incentives. These results can help resolve existing debates about inconsistent findings, guide more accurate comparisons across studies, and be applied beyond research settings.

  6. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  7. USB complete the developer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Axelson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Now in its fifth edition, bridges the gap between the technical specifications and the real world of designing and programming devices that connect over the Universal Serial Bus (USB). Readers will learn how to select the appropriate USB speed, device class, and hardware for a device; communicate with devices using Visual C# and Visual Basic; use standard host drivers to access devices, including devices that perform vendor-defined tasks; save power with USB's built-in power-conserving protocols; and create robust designs using testing and debugging tools. This fully revised edition also inclu

  8. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra; Han, Ping; Herbold, Craig; Albertsen, Mads; Jehmlich, Nico; Palatinszky, Marton; Vierheilig, Julia; Bulaev, Alexandr; Kirkegaard, Rasmus H.; von Bergen, Martin; Rattei, Thomas; Bendinger, Bernd; Nielsen, Per H.; Wagner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered as a two-step process catalyzed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetically advantageous. This functional separation has puzzled microbiologists for a century. Here we report on the discovery and cultivation of a completely nitrifying bacterium from the genus Nitrospira, a globally distributed group of nitrite oxidizers. The genome of this chemolithoautotrophic organism encodes both the pathways for ammonia and nitrite oxidation, which are concomitantly expressed during growth by ammonia oxidation to nitrate. Genes affiliated with the phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase genes of Nitrospira are present in many environments and were retrieved on Nitrospira-contigs in new metagenomes from engineered systems. These findings fundamentally change our picture of nitrification and point to completely nitrifying Nitrospira as key components of nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. PMID:26610024

  9. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  10. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  11. Task Manager: an innovative approach to improving hospital communication after hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Mary E; Hay, David

    2010-10-15

    To improve communication between doctors and nurses after hours, by developing a tool to display ward tasks, allowing staff to prioritise their work, without constant interruption from pagers (beepers). Middlemore Hospital, a large metropolitan 800-bed hospital in Auckland, New Zealand. Introduction of computerised system (Task Manager) to identify, allocate and complete after-hours tasks. In the first 6 months 21,000 tasks have been completed in Task Manager. Paging of junior doctors has decreased by over 30% and there is broad acceptance of the tool by both nursing and medical staff. Task Manager has collected real-time data on the type of after hours tasks (nearly 50% are phlebotomy-related tasks), busy times of the day (1600 hours to 2400 hours) and who is performing most of the tasks. Task Manager is a simple yet powerful tool for prioritising routine tasks after hours. It allows staff to quickly create tasks, and communicate effectively with other members of the team. It has reduced the frequency of junior doctors paging so that they can continue their work with fewer interruptions. Whilst it was introduced to improve effective communication after hours, it has become apparent that there are multiple 'tasks' that are ordered in a multitude of ways in our hospital and many could be served by Task Manager.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of Common Behavioral Decision Making Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Barnhart, Wesley R

    2018-02-01

    To examine test-retest reliability of common behavioral decision making tasks. A total of 98 undergraduate students completed two administrations of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Columbia Card Task (CCT), and Game of Dice Task (GDT), three weeks apart. The BART, CCT, and GDT showed moderately strong correlations across time. On the IGT, no correlations were seen between Time 1 Trials 1-40 and Time 2 performance; however, weak correlations were observed between Time 1 Trials 41-100 and Time 2 performance. Paired-samples t-tests indicated participants were riskier at Time 1 than Time 2 on the IGT and GDT, but riskier at Time 2 on the BART. The BART, CCT, and GDT showed moderate test-retest reliability, with the IGT showing weak reliability during the decision making under risk trials only. Implications for repeated test administration in clinical and non-clinical settings are discussed.

  13. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  14. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  15. The Relationships Between Need for Cognition, Boredom Proneness, Task Engagement, and Test Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia A. Diehl; Matthew Wyrick

    2015-01-01

    Participants read a procedural text describing how to make a wind-up spool toy while only reading, reading and watching the experimenter do the task, or reading and doing the task themselves. Afterward, task performance (measured by time to complete the task without the instructions and number of errors) and memory for/understanding of the text (measured with a Multiple Choice Test) were assessed. Participants then com...

  16. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. Reda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  17. Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Van Strien, Johan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.

  18. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  19. Is Semantic Priming (Ir)rational? Insights from the Speeded Word Fragment Completion Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Tom; Hutchison, Keith A.; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Semantic priming, the phenomenon that a target is recognized faster if it is preceded by a semantically related prime, is a well-established effect. However, the mechanisms producing semantic priming are subject of debate. Several theories assume that the underlying processes are controllable and tuned to prime utility. In contrast, purely…

  20. Considerations for the development of task-based search engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petcu, Paula; Dragusin, Radu

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous experience from working on a task-based search engine, we present a list of suggestions and ideas for an Information Retrieval (IR) framework that could inform the development of next generation professional search systems. The specific task that we start from is the clinicians......' information need in finding rare disease diagnostic hypotheses at the time and place where medical decisions are made. Our experience from the development of a search engine focused on supporting clinicians in completing this task has provided us valuable insights in what aspects should be considered...... by the developers of vertical search engines....

  1. Kurodoko is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Kurdoko puzzle,one must colour some squares in a grid black in a way that satisfies non-overlapping, non-adjacency, reachability and numeric constraints specified by the numeric clues in the grid. We show that deciding the solvability of Kurodoko puzzles is NP-complete....

  2. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  3. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetic...

  4. The Completeness Theorem of Godel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Completeness Theorem of Godel. 2. Henkin's Proof for First Order Logic. S M Srivastava is with the. Indian Statistical,. Institute, Calcutta. He received his PhD from the Indian Statistical. Institute in 1980. His research interests are in descriptive set theory. I Part 1. An Introduction to Math- ematical ...

  5. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  6. Spontaneous complete chorioamniotic membrane separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the association with Down syndrome, other complications include preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes, IUGR, fetal malformation and fetal death. Such pregnancies require close fetal surveillance and occasionally inpatient management. Case: We present a case of spontaneous complete CAS and ...

  7. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument. It is being constructed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research, one of the world's largest particle physics laboratories.

  8. Hiroimono is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In a Hiroimono puzzle, one must collect a set of stones from a square grid, moving along grid lines, picking up stones as one encounters them, and changing direction only when one picks up a stone. We show that deciding the solvability of such puzzles is NP-complete....

  9. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  10. Emotional intelligence and stress in medical students performing surgical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Russ, Stephanie; Petrides, K V; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Poor stress management skills can compromise performance in the operating room, particularly in inexperienced trainees. Little is known about individual differences in managing stress. This study aimed to explore the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and objective and subjective measures of stress in medical students faced with unfamiliar surgical tasks. Seventeen medical undergraduates completed an unfamiliar laparoscopic task on a simulator during January to April 2008. Subjective stress before, during (retrospectively), and after the task was measured using the self-report State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Objective stress was measured using continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. Participants also completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire short form (TEIQue-SF). The authors computed scores for global trait EI and the TEIQue-SF four factors and carried out descriptive and correlational analyses. The highest levels of subjective stress were reported during the task and correlated positively with trait EI as well as with the trait EI factors of well-being and emotionality. Objective stress (mean HR) during the task was positively related to the sociability factor of trait EI. Higher trait EI scores were also associated with better after-task recovery from stress experienced during the task. Students with higher trait EI are more likely to experience stress during unfamiliar surgical scenarios but are also more likely to recover better compared with their lower-trait-EI peers. Trait EI has implications for the design of effective stress management training tailored to individual needs and potential applications to surgical trainee selection and development.

  11. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Fleur M; Stein, Dan J; Russell, Vivienne A

    2010-07-08

    It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG) band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical arousal, assessed by P300 amplitude and latency. Forty-six healthy individuals completed tasks that engage the anterior and posterior attention networks (continuous performance task, go/no-go task, and cued target detection task). During completion of the three attentional tasks a continuous record of tonic and phasic arousal was taken. Cortical measures of arousal included frequency band power, theta/beta ratios over frontal and parietal cortices, and P300 amplitude and latency over parietal cortices. Peripheral measures of arousal included skin conductance responses, heart rate and heart rate variance. Participants reported their perceived mental effort during each of the three attentional tasks. First, changes in arousal were seen from rest to completion of the three attentional tasks and between the attentional tasks. Changes seen between the attentional tasks being related to the task design and the attentional network activated. Second, perceived mental effort increased when demands of the task increased and correlated with left parietal beta band power during the three tasks of attention. Third, increased mental effort during the go/no-go task and the cued target detection task was inversely related to theta/beta ratios. These results indicate that perceived mental effort reflects tonic rather than phasic changes in arousal during tasks of attention. We suggest that perceived mental effort may reflect in part tonic activity of the LC-NE system in healthy individuals.

  12. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  13. Improved completion practices yield high productivity wells. [Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    In the mid-1960's, a special in-house task force was assembled in response to a number of sand ups and casing failures in Shell's production complex at the mouth of the Mississippi River. This task force developed concepts and techniques for better completions. The techniques have been modified and adjusted to specific situations, but the concepts remain the fundamental backbone of Shell's high success ratio and excellent response from completions in the shallow unconsolidated sands in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Five major steps leading to high performance producers are identified as the following: clean fluids, adequate perforation, effective perforation cleanup, efficient gravel pack, and proper initiation of production.

  14. Development of geothermal-well-completion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a three year study concerning the completion of geothermal wells, specifically cementing, are reported. The research involved some specific tasks: (1) determination of properties an adequate geothermal well cement must possess; (2) thorough evaluation of current high temperature oilwell cementing technology in a geothermal context; (3) basic research concerning the chemical and physical behavior of cements in a geothermal environment; (4) recommendation of specific cement systems suitable for use in a geothermal well.

  15. Topologically Protected Complete Polarization Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-10-01

    We consider the process of conversion between linear polarizations as light is reflected from a photonic crystal slab. We observe that, over a wide range of frequencies, complete polarization conversion can be found at isolated wave vectors. Moreover, such an effect is topological: the complex reflection coefficients have a nonzero winding number in the wave vector space. We also show that bound states in continuum in this system have their wave vectors lying on the critical coupling curve that defines the condition for complete polarization conversion. Our work points to the use of topological photonics concepts for the control of polarization, and suggests the exploration of topological properties of scattering matrices as a route towards creating robust optical devices.

  16. Complete EOS for PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-10-08

    PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic-bonded explosive based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB). A complete equation of state (EOS) is constructed for unreacted PBX 9502 suitable for reactive burn models, i.e., high pressure regime in which material strength is unimportant. The PBX EOS is composed of two parts: a complete EOS for TATB and a porosity model which allows for variations in the initial PBX density. The TATB EOS is based on a cold curve and a thermal model for lattice vibrations. The heat capacity, and hence thermal model, is determined by the vibrational spectrum from Raman scattering. The cold curve is calibrated to diamond anvil cell data for isothermal compression using a two-piece Keane fitting form. Hugoniot data for PBX 9502 is used as a consistency check.

  17. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  18. Cognitive and Physical Fatigue Tasks Enhance Pain, Cognitive Fatigue and Physical Fatigue in People with Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Keffala, Valerie J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread muscle pain and fatigue. The primary objective of this study was to determine if pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue were enhanced in participants with fibromyalgia compared to healthy controls during a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task and a dual fatigue task. Methods Twenty four people with fibromyalgia and 33 healthy controls completed pain, fatigue and function measures. A cognitive fatigue task (Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and physical fatigue task (Valpar peg test) were done individually and combined for a dual fatigue task. Resting pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue were assessed during each task using visual analogue scales. Function was assessed with shoulder range of motion and grip. Results People with fibromyalgia had significantly higher increases in pain, cognitive fatigue and physical fatigue when compared to healthy controls after completion of a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task, or a dual fatigue task (pfatigue tasks, respectively. Conclusions These data show that people with fibromyalgia show larger increases in pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue to both cognitive and physical fatigue tasks compared to healthy controls. The increases in pain and fatigue during cognitive and physical fatigue tasks could influence subject participation in daily activities and rehabilitation. PMID:25074583

  19. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting......We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  20. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  1. The task of landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Smidt, de J.; Wassen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This final chapter is a personal reflection of the authors on this book. To find an answer to the question what the task is of landscape ecology, we split the question in two parts. The first past of the question is about science for society: what is the task of landscape ecology in a changing

  2. Human-System task integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Defence research programme Human-System Task Integration aims at acquiring knowledge for the optimal cooperation between human and computer, under the following constraints: freedom of choice in decisions to automate and multiple, dynamic task distributions. This paper

  3. Science 102: This Month's Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  4. Learners’ L1 Use in a Task-based Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners......’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use......, but with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types...

  5. Reduction of Dual-task Costs by Noninvasive Modulation of Prefrontal Activity in Healthy Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Brad; Zhou, Junhong; Jor'dan, Azizah; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    Dual tasking (e.g., walking or standing while performing a cognitive task) disrupts performance in one or both tasks, and such dual-task costs increase with aging into senescence. Dual tasking activates a network of brain regions including pFC. We therefore hypothesized that facilitation of prefrontal cortical activity via transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would reduce dual-task costs in older adults. Thirty-seven healthy older adults completed two visits during which dual tasking was assessed before and after 20 min of real or sham tDCS targeting the left pFC. Trials of single-task standing, walking, and verbalized serial subtractions were completed, along with dual-task trials of standing or walking while performing serial subtractions. Dual-task costs were calculated as the percent change in markers of gait and postural control and serial subtraction performance, from single to dual tasking. Significant dual-task costs to standing, walking, and serial subtraction performance were observed before tDCS (p < .01). These dual-task costs were less after real tDCS as compared with sham tDCS as well as compared with either pre-tDCS condition (p < .03). Further analyses indicated that tDCS did not alter single task performance but instead improved performance solely within dual-task conditions (p < .02). These results demonstrate that dual tasking can be improved by modulating prefrontal activity, thus indicating that dual-task decrements are modifiable and may not necessarily reflect an obligatory consequence of aging. Moreover, tDCS may ultimately serve as a novel approach to preserving dual-task capacity into senescence.

  6. Geopressured geothermal drilling and completions technology development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A.B.

    1981-03-01

    Geopressured geothermal formations found in the Texas and Louisiana gulf coast region and elsewhere have the potential to supply large quantities of energy in the form of natural gas and warm brine (200 to 300/sup 0/F). Advances are needed, however, in hardware technology, well design technology, and drilling and completion practices to enable production and testing of exploratory wells and to enable economic production of the resource should further development be warranted. This report identifies needed technology for drilling and completing geopressured geothermal source and reinjection wells to reduce the cost and to accelerate commercial recovery of this resource. A comprehensive prioritized list of tasks to develop necessary technology has been prepared. Tasks listed in this report address a wide range of technology needs including new diagnostic techniques, control technologies, hardware, instrumentation, operational procedure guidelines and further research to define failure modes and control techniques. Tasks are organized into the functional areas of well design, drilling, casing installation, cementing, completions, logging, brine reinjection and workovers.

  7. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  8. Flexible connectivity in the aging brain revealed by task modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Linda; Saliasi, Emi; Renken, Remco J; Maurits, Natasha M; Lorist, Monicque M

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that aging has a large impact on connectivity within and between functional networks. An open question is whether elderly still have the flexibility to adapt functional network connectivity (FNC) to the demands of the task at hand. To study this, we collected fMRI data in younger and older participants during resting state, a selective attention (SA) task and an n-back working memory task with varying levels of difficulty. Spatial independent component (IC) analysis was used to identify functional networks over all participants and all conditions. Dual regression was used to obtain participant and task specific time-courses per IC. Subsequently, functional connectivity was computed between all ICs in each of the tasks. Based on these functional connectivity matrices, a scaled version of the eigenvector centrality (SEC) was used to measure the total influence of each IC in the complete graph of ICs. The results demonstrated that elderly remain able to adapt FNC to task demands. However, there was an age-related shift in the impetus for FNC change. Older participants showed the maximal change in SEC patterns between resting state and the SA task. Young participants, showed the largest shift in SEC patterns between the less demanding SA task and the more demanding 2-back task. Our results suggest that increased FNC changes from resting state to low demanding tasks in elderly reflect recruitment of additional resources, compared with young adults. The lack of change between the low and high demanding tasks suggests that elderly reach a resource ceiling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Critical care nurses' information-seeking behaviour during an unfamiliar patient care task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine M; Doran, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Critical care nurses complete tasks during patient care to promote the recovery or maintain the health of their patients. These tasks can be routine or non-routine to the nurse. Non-routine tasks are characterized by unfamiliarity, requiring nurses to seek additional information from a variety of sources to effectively complete the tasks. Critical care units are dynamic environments where decisions are often made by nurses under stress and time pressure because patient status changes rapidly. A non-routine task (e.g., administration of an unfamiliar medication) to the critical care nurse can impact patient care outcomes (e.g., increased time to complete task has consequences for the patient). In this article, the authors discuss literature reviewed on nurses' information-seeking and explore an information-seeking conceptual model that will be used as a guide to examine the main concepts found through the empirical evidence.

  10. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Time-On-Task During Bodyweight Resistance Training Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 minute cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance or control intervention (video. Data collection sessions were separated by 1 week. Participants rated the fatigue intervention as being significantly more mentally demanding than the control intervention (p .05. There was no statistical difference for heart rate or metabolic expenditure as a function of fatigue intervention during exercise. Cognitively fatigued athletes have decreased time-on-task in bodyweight resistance training exercise tasks.

  11. EFFORTS Sub-task report on task 4.1: Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling.......Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling....

  12. On convergence completeness in symmetric spaces | Moshokoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convergence complete symmetric space. As applications of convergence completeness, we present some fixed point results for self-maps defined on a symmetric space. Keywords: completeness; convergence completeness; fixed points; metric ...

  13. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  14. Robert Zajonc: The Complete Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2010-01-01

    This article joins with others in the same issue to celebrate the career of Robert B. Zajonc who was a broad, as well as deeply talented, psychologist. Beyond his well-known focus in social psychology, the work of Zajonc also involved, at one time or another, forays into nearly every other subfield of psychology. This article focuses specifically on his studies that extended into biopsychology, which deserve special highlighting in order to be recognized alongside his many major achievements in emotion and related social topics. The biopsychological focus is offered here in the hope that all his diverse contributions be savored together when celebrating the complete psychology of Robert Zajonc. PMID:22473376

  15. [Stability of complete dentures. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, U

    1990-01-01

    The Author considers the necessary requisites for the complete denture's stability during masticatory function. This is due to the following anatomic and functional factors: a) Support tissues' morphology. b) Morpho-functional characteristics of the prosthetic tooth: unitary nupolivalent function in the different occlusal sectors. c) Linear arrangement of the teeth with unitary function along the "structural sagittal axis" or "central axis of dinamic and muscolar stabilization" of the mandible. d) Teeth's arrangement in the neutral or muscolar equilibration zone. e) Interalveolar axis' verticality of the teeth with unitary grinding function.

  16. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  17. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Task Oriented Training and Evaluation at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Veronica T; Neville, Marsha

    2018-01-01

    Principles of experience-dependent plasticity, motor learning theory, and the theory of Occupational Adaptation coalesce into a translational model for practice in neurorehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Task Oriented Training and Evaluation at Home (TOTE Home) program completed by people with subacute stroke, and whether effects persisted 1 month after this training. A single-subject design included a maximum of 30, 1hour sessions of training conducted in participants' homes. Repeated target measures of accelerometry and level of confidence were used to assess movement and confidence in weaker arm use through baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases of TOTE Home. Four participants completed TOTE Home and each demonstrated improvement in movement and confidence in function. The degree of improvement varied between participants, but a detectable change was evident in outcome measures. TOTE Home, using client-centered, salient tasks not only improved motor function but also facilitated an adaptive response demonstrated in continued improvement beyond the intervention.

  19. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  20. AEgIS installation completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gravity. Despite first being described over three centuries ago, it remains one of the least understood of the fundamental forces explored by physicists. At CERN’s recently completed AEgIS experiment, a team has set out to examine the effect of gravity on an as-yet-uncharted realm: antimatter.   The complete AEgIS set-up. Located in the AD hall, the AEgIS experiment plans to  make the first direct measurement of Earth’s gravitation effect on antimatter. By sending a beam of antihydrogen atoms through very thin gratings, the experiment will be able to measure how far the antihydrogen atoms fall and in how much time – giving the AEgIS team a measurement of the gravitational coupling. “By the end of 2012, we had finished by putting all the elements of the experiment together,” explains Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. “Now we have to show that they can all work together and, unfortunately, we will have no antiproton beams fo...

  1. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  2. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  3. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...

  4. Unexpected dual task benefits on cycling in Parkinson disease and healthy adults: a neuro-behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Okun, Michael S; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Hass, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    When performing two tasks at once, a dual task, performance on one or both tasks typically suffers. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) usually experience larger dual task decrements on motor tasks than healthy older adults (HOA). Our objective was to investigate the decrements in cycling caused by performing cognitive tasks with a range of difficulty in people with PD and HOAs. Twenty-eight participants with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy older adults completed a baseline cycling task with no secondary tasks and then completed dual task cycling while performing 12 tasks from six cognitive domains representing a wide range of difficulty. Cycling was faster during dual task conditions than at baseline, and was significantly faster for six tasks (all pParkinson's disease cycled slower (pexercise approaches which posits that cognitive arousal during dual tasks increases resources to facilitate motor and cognitive performance, which is subsequently modulated by motor and cognitive task difficulty. This model can explain both the improvement observed on dual tasks in the current study and more typical dual task findings in other studies.

  5. Unexpected dual task benefits on cycling in Parkinson disease and healthy adults: a neuro-behavioral model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J P Altmann

    Full Text Available When performing two tasks at once, a dual task, performance on one or both tasks typically suffers. People with Parkinson's disease (PD usually experience larger dual task decrements on motor tasks than healthy older adults (HOA. Our objective was to investigate the decrements in cycling caused by performing cognitive tasks with a range of difficulty in people with PD and HOAs.Twenty-eight participants with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy older adults completed a baseline cycling task with no secondary tasks and then completed dual task cycling while performing 12 tasks from six cognitive domains representing a wide range of difficulty.Cycling was faster during dual task conditions than at baseline, and was significantly faster for six tasks (all p<.02 across both groups. Cycling speed improved the most during the easiest cognitive tasks, and cognitive performance was largely unaffected. Cycling improvement was predicted by task difficulty (p<.001. People with Parkinson's disease cycled slower (p<.03 and showed reduced dual task benefits (p<.01 than healthy older adults.Unexpectedly, participants' motor performance improved during cognitive dual tasks, which cannot be explained in current models of dual task performance. To account for these findings, we propose a model integrating dual task and acute exercise approaches which posits that cognitive arousal during dual tasks increases resources to facilitate motor and cognitive performance, which is subsequently modulated by motor and cognitive task difficulty. This model can explain both the improvement observed on dual tasks in the current study and more typical dual task findings in other studies.

  6. Dual-task interference between climbing and a simulated communication task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Kathryn A; Helton, William S

    2014-04-01

    Climbers often need to maintain communication with other people. Previous research indicates that climbers remember less of the information communicated to them while climbing than when not climbing. In the present research, we investigated at what stage of memory the source of this impairment occurs. Participants were required to respond to words presented to them by saying out loud an associated word. This enforced encoding of the words, and was completed alone, as well as while climbing. Participants then recalled as many words as possible. A separate single-task condition had participants climb without making word associations. Word recall was reduced in the dual-task compared with the single word association task, but there was no difference in the number of word associations made. This indicates that the reduction in word recall was not a result of reduced encoding in the dual-task condition. Concurrent climbing may have reduced word recall by interfering with rehearsal and maintenance of words in memory.

  7. Employee involvement, technology and job tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Using new job requirements data for Britain I show that there has been a rise in various forms of communication tasks: influencing and literacy tasks have grown especially fast, as have self-planning tasks. External communication tasks, and numerical tasks have also become more important, but physical tasks have largely remained unchanged. Although the classification of tasks as programmable or otherwise is found to be problematic, computer use accounts for much of the changed use of generic ...

  8. Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    of their high peak fields at a distance by the time-domain equivalent of high directivity. That method has the disadvantage of not covering a large...decade of the 1990s, with the demise of the Soviet block, major mergers and buy-outs resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of defense...that brings margin to the operating profit of the contractors. Production is essential to profit and, thus, to shareholder support. Subcontractors

  9. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  10. Stability of geodesically complete cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Pirtskhalava, David [Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa, 56126 (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56100 (Italy)

    2016-11-22

    We study the stability of spatially flat FRW solutions which are geodesically complete, i.e. for which one can follow null (graviton) geodesics both in the past and in the future without ever encountering singularities. This is the case of NEC-violating cosmologies such as smooth bounces or solutions which approach Minkowski in the past. We study the EFT of linear perturbations around a solution of this kind, including the possibility of multiple fields and fluids. One generally faces a gradient instability which can be avoided only if the operator {sup (3)} RδN is present and its coefficient changes sign along the evolution. This operator (typical of beyond-Horndeski theories) does not lead to extra degrees of freedom, but cannot arise starting from any theory with second-order equations of motion. The change of sign of this operator prevents to set it to zero with a generalised disformal transformation.

  11. How Individual Differences Interact with Task Demands in Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Feng, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Reading is affected by both situational requirements and one's cognitive skills. The current study investigated how individual differences interacted with task requirements to determine reading behavior and outcome. We recorded the eye movements of college students, who differed in reading efficiency, while they completed a multiple-choice (MC)…

  12. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  13. Transferring Control Demands Across Incidental Learning Tasks – Stronger Sequence Usage in Serial Reaction Task after Shortcut Option in Letter String Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGaschler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After incidentally learning about a hidden regularity, participants can either continue to solve the task as instructed or, alternatively, apply a shortcut. Past research suggests that the amount of conflict implied by adopting a shortcut seems to bias the decision for vs. against continuing instruction-coherent task processing. We explored whether this decision might transfer from one incidental learning task to the next. Theories that conceptualize strategy change in incidental learning as a learning-plus-decision phenomenon suggest that high demands to adhere to instruction-coherent task processing in Task 1 will impede shortcut usage in Task 2, whereas low control demands will foster it. We sequentially applied two established incidental learning tasks differing in stimuli, responses and hidden regularity (the alphabet verification task followed by the serial reaction task. While some participants experienced a complete redundancy in the task material of the alphabet verification task (low demands to adhere to instructions, for others the redundancy was only partial. Thus, shortcut application would have led to errors (high demands to follow instructions. The low control demand condition showed the strongest usage of the fixed and repeating sequence of responses in the serial reaction task. The transfer results are in line with the learning-plus-decision view of strategy change in incidental learning, rather than with resource theories of self-control.

  14. A Mozart effect for women on a mental rotations task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleta, Karen S; Vrbancic, Mirna I; Elias, Lorin J; Saucier, Deborah M

    2003-06-01

    During the past decade, there have been numerous reports of a brief, but statistically significant, improvement in immediate spatial-temporal performance after listening to 10 min. of Mozart's Sonata K.448, known as the "Mozart effect." The purpose of the present study was to assess whether production of the effect is influenced by length of listening conditions or sex. Each of 52 right-handed participants (26 females, 26 males) completed a paper-folding and cutting task and a Mental Rotations task following a listening condition in which the Mozart sonata was played and a silent condition (no music was played). A significant 3-way interaction among sex, listening condition, and task indicated that an effect was present only for women on the Mental Rotations task. As such, researchers should investigate the role of sex in production of the Mozart effect.

  15. Naval Postgraduate School Support Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide lecturing and curriculum development support, as needed, to the Naval Postgraduate School's Physics Department/Weapons Curriculum in the area of High Energy Laser systems...

  16. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  17. What Do We Really Know about Cognitive Inhibition? Task Demands and Inhibitory Effects across a Range of Memory and Behavioural Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Noreen

    Full Text Available Our study explores inhibitory control across a range of widely recognised memory and behavioural tasks. Eighty-seven never-depressed participants completed a series of tasks designed to measure inhibitory control in memory and behaviour. Specifically, a variant of the selective retrieval-practice and the Think/No-Think tasks were employed as measures of memory inhibition. The Stroop-Colour Naming and the Go/No-Go tasks were used as measures of behavioural inhibition. Participants completed all 4 tasks. Task presentation order was counterbalanced across 3 separate testing sessions for each participant. Standard inhibitory forgetting effects emerged on both memory tasks but the extent of forgetting across these tasks was not correlated. Furthermore, there was no relationship between memory inhibition tasks and either of the main behavioural inhibition measures. At a time when cognitive inhibition continues to gain acceptance as an explanatory mechanism, our study raises fundamental questions about what we actually know about inhibition and how it is affected by the processing demands of particular inhibitory tasks.

  18. The disruptive effects of pain on multitasking in a virtual errands task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Law, Anna S

    2017-07-01

    Pain is known to have a disruptive effect on cognitive performance, but prior studies have used highly constrained laboratory tasks that lack ecological validity. In everyday life people are required to complete more complex sets of tasks, prioritising task completion and recalling lists of tasks which need to be completed, and these tasks continue to be attempted during episodes or states of pain. The present study therefore examined the impact of thermal induced pain on a simulated errand task. Fifty-five healthy adults (36 female) performed the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Task (EVET) either during a painful thermal sensation or with no concurrent pain. Participants also completed the Experience of Cognitive Intrusion of Pain (ECIP) questionnaire to measure their self-reported cognitive impact of pain in general life. Participants who completed the EVET task in pain and who self-reported high intrusion of pain made significantly more errors than those who reported lower intrusion on the ECIP. Findings here support the growing literature that suggests that pain has a significant impact on cognitive performance. Furthermore, these findings support the developing literature suggesting that this relationship is complex when considering real world cognition, and that self-report on the ECIP relates well to performance on a task designed to reflect the complexities of everyday living. If extrapolated to chronic pain populations, these data suggest that pain during complex multitasking performance may have a significant impact on the number of errors made. For people highly vulnerable to cognitive intrusion by pain, this may result in errors such as selecting the wrong location or item to perform tasks, or forgetting to perform these tasks at the correct time. If these findings are shown to extend to chronic pain populations then occupational support to manage complex task performance, using for example diaries/electronic reminders, may help to improve everyday abilities

  19. The Impact of Task Types on Listening Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the difference of five task types applied in Task-Based Instruction (TBI on intermediate-level EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. To this end, 31 intermediate EFL learners were given five task types of matching, selecting, role-playing, note-taking and completing. Their proficiency and listening homogeneity was ensured using an institutional TOEFL test and the listening paper of FCE. Then, they enjoyed TBI through implementing the task types for about ten 20-minute sessions. The results of the different tasks were analyzed to find out what task was the most effective. The results indicated that the learners outperformed in the two tasks of note-taking and completing than in the first three tasks of matching, selecting and role-playing, but there was no significant difference among the three tasks of matching, selecting and role-playing (p > 0.05, neither was there any significant difference between the two tasks of note-taking and completing (p > 0.05.

  20. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  1. Central heating: a complete guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is increasingly important to have a heating system that is economical to install and run. This book is specially written for the layman. After an initial definition of central heating, which will dispel some common misapprehensions, the reader is taken from first principles to detailed cases. The vices and virtues of the different systems--hot water, warm air, or direct radiation--are discussed. There is complete information on how much each system costs to run through a typical winter using any fuel, and--vital for the prospective purchaser trying to find the right system for his long-term budget--further charts and tables show the comparative cost of each system considering both capital costs (including hire purchase), and running costs. The optimum size and output of heating equipment for all different shapes and sizes of room are set out to arm the purchaser against the partisan claims of heating contractors and the incompetent or unscrupulous actions of installers. Thermal insulation, in principle and in operation, is explained and advice is given on how to calculate real return from money spent.

  2. A complete history of everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanclos, Kyle; Deich, William T. S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses Lick Observatory's local solution for retaining a complete history of everything. Leveraging our existing deployment of a publish/subscribe communications model that is used to broadcast the state of all systems at Lick Observatory, a monitoring daemon runs on a dedicated server that subscribes to and records all published messages. Our success with this system is a testament to the power of simple, straightforward approaches to complex problems. The solution itself is written in Python, and the initial version required about a week of development time; the data are stored in PostgreSQL database tables using a distinctly simple schema. Over time, we addressed scaling issues as the data set grew, which involved reworking the PostgreSQL database schema on the back-end. We also duplicate the data in flat files to enable recovery or migration of the data from one server to another. This paper will cover both the initial design as well as the solutions to the subsequent deployment issues, the trade-offs that motivated those choices, and the integration of this history database with existing client applications.

  3. The role of completion imaging following carotid artery endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Schneider, Fabrice; Illuminati, Giulio; Samson, Russell H

    2013-05-01

    A variety of completion imaging methods can be used during carotid endarterectomy to recognize technical errors or intrinsic abnormalities such as mural thrombus or platelet aggregation, but none of these methods has achieved wide acceptance, and their ability to improve the outcome of the operation remains a matter of controversy. It is unclear if completion imaging is routinely necessary and which abnormalities require re-exploration. Proponents of routine completion imaging argue that identification of these abnormalities will allow their immediate correction and avoid a perioperative stroke. However, much of the evidence in favor of this argument is incidental, and many experienced vascular surgeons who perform carotid endarterectomy do not use any completion imaging technique and report equally good outcomes using a careful surgical protocol. Furthermore, certain postoperative strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage and hyperperfusion syndrome, are unrelated to the surgical technique and cannot be prevented by completion imaging. This controversial subject is now open to discussion, and our debaters have been given the task to clarify the evidence to justify their preferred option for completion imaging during carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescents' Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: Implications for the Development of Decision Making and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Catalina J.; Luciana, Monica; Conklin, Heather M.; Yarger, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adolescents (79 girls, 66 boys), ages 9-17, completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) as well as working memory (digit span) and behavioral inhibition (go/no-go) tasks. Cross-sectional age-related changes were seen on all 3 tasks. Gender differences were seen in IGT deck…

  5. Identification and Analysis of Multi-tasking Product Information Search Sessions with Query Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research aims to identify product search tasks in online shopping and analyze the characteristics of consumer multi-tasking search sessions. Design/methodology/approach: The experimental dataset contains 8,949 queries of 582 users from 3,483 search sessions. A sequential comparison of the Jaccard similarity coefficient between two adjacent search queries and hierarchical clustering of queries is used to identify search tasks. Findings: (1 Users issued a similar number of queries (1.43 to 1.47 with similar lengths (7.3-7.6 characters per task in mono-tasking and multi-tasking sessions, and (2 Users spent more time on average in sessions with more tasks, but spent less time for each task when the number of tasks increased in a session. Research limitations: The task identification method that relies only on query terms does not completely reflect the complex nature of consumer shopping behavior. Practical implications: These results provide an exploratory understanding of the relationships among multiple shopping tasks, and can be useful for product recommendation and shopping task prediction. Originality/value: The originality of this research is its use of query clustering with online shopping task identification and analysis, and the analysis of product search session characteristics.

  6. A Verification Method of Inter-Task Cooperation in Embedded Real-time Systems and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    In software development process of embedded real-time systems, the design of the task cooperation process is very important. The cooperating process of such tasks is specified by task cooperation patterns. Adoption of unsuitable task cooperation patterns has fatal influence on system performance, quality, and extendibility. In order to prevent repetitive work caused by the shortage of task cooperation performance, it is necessary to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software development stage. However, it is very difficult to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software developing stage where task program codes are not completed yet. Therefore, we propose a verification method using task skeleton program codes and a real-time kernel that has a function of recording all events during software execution such as system calls issued by task program codes, external interrupts, and timer interrupt. In order to evaluate the proposed verification method, we applied it to the software development process of a mechatronics control system.

  7. Transferring control demands across incidental learning tasks - stronger sequence usage in serial reaction task after shortcut option in letter string checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Wenke, Dorit; Frensch, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    After incidentally learning about a hidden regularity, participants can either continue to solve the task as instructed or, alternatively, apply a shortcut. Past research suggests that the amount of conflict implied by adopting a shortcut seems to bias the decision for vs. against continuing instruction-coherent task processing. We explored whether this decision might transfer from one incidental learning task to the next. Theories that conceptualize strategy change in incidental learning as a learning-plus-decision phenomenon suggest that high demands to adhere to instruction-coherent task processing in Task 1 will impede shortcut usage in Task 2, whereas low control demands will foster it. We sequentially applied two established incidental learning tasks differing in stimuli, responses and hidden regularity (the alphabet verification task followed by the serial reaction task, SRT). While some participants experienced a complete redundancy in the task material of the alphabet verification task (low demands to adhere to instructions), for others the redundancy was only partial. Thus, shortcut application would have led to errors (high demands to follow instructions). The low control demand condition showed the strongest usage of the fixed and repeating sequence of responses in the SRT. The transfer results are in line with the learning-plus-decision view of strategy change in incidental learning, rather than with resource theories of self-control.

  8. Transferring control demands across incidental learning tasks – stronger sequence usage in serial reaction task after shortcut option in letter string checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N.; Wenke, Dorit; Frensch, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    After incidentally learning about a hidden regularity, participants can either continue to solve the task as instructed or, alternatively, apply a shortcut. Past research suggests that the amount of conflict implied by adopting a shortcut seems to bias the decision for vs. against continuing instruction-coherent task processing. We explored whether this decision might transfer from one incidental learning task to the next. Theories that conceptualize strategy change in incidental learning as a learning-plus-decision phenomenon suggest that high demands to adhere to instruction-coherent task processing in Task 1 will impede shortcut usage in Task 2, whereas low control demands will foster it. We sequentially applied two established incidental learning tasks differing in stimuli, responses and hidden regularity (the alphabet verification task followed by the serial reaction task, SRT). While some participants experienced a complete redundancy in the task material of the alphabet verification task (low demands to adhere to instructions), for others the redundancy was only partial. Thus, shortcut application would have led to errors (high demands to follow instructions). The low control demand condition showed the strongest usage of the fixed and repeating sequence of responses in the SRT. The transfer results are in line with the learning-plus-decision view of strategy change in incidental learning, rather than with resource theories of self-control. PMID:25506336

  9. An EEG-based mental workload estimator trained on working memory task can work well under simulated multi-attribute task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Mental workload (MW)-based adaptive system has been found to be an effective approach to enhance the performance of human-machine interaction and to avoid human error caused by overload. However, MW estimated from the spontaneously generated electroencephalogram (EEG) was found to be task-specific. In existing studies, EEG-based MW classifier can work well under the task used to train the classifier (within-task) but crash completely when used to classify MW of a task that is similar to but not included in the training data (cross-task). The possible causes have been considered to be the task-specific EEG patterns, the mismatched workload across tasks and the temporal effects. In this study, cross-task performance-based feature selection (FS) and regression model were tried to cope with these challenges, in order to make EEG-based MW estimator trained on working memory tasks work well under a complex simulated multi-attribute task (MAT). The results show that the performance of regression model trained on working memory task and tested on multi-attribute task with the feature subset picked-out were significantly improved (correlation coefficient (COR): 0.740 ± 0.147 and 0.598 ± 0.161 for FS data and validation data respectively) when compared to the performance in the same condition with all features (chance level). It can be inferred that there do exist some MW-related EEG features can be picked out and there are something in common between MW of a relatively simple task and a complex task. This study provides a promising approach to measure MW across tasks.

  10. Completely Described Undirected Graph Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objects of research are undirected graphs. The paper considers a problem of their isomorphism. A literature analysis of its solution, has shown that there is no way to define a complete graph invariant in the form of unique structural characteristics of each its vertex, which has a computational complexity of definition better than О (n 4 .The work objective is to provide the characteristics of the graph structure, which could be used to solve the problem of their isomorphism for a time better than О (n 4 . As such characteristics, the paper proposes to use the set of codes of tree roots of all the shortest - in terms of the number of edges - paths from each vertex to the others, uniquely defining the structure of each tree. It proves the theorem that it is possible to reduce the problem of isomorphism of the undirected graphs to the isomorphism problem of their splitting into the trees of all the shortest - in terms of the number of edges - paths of each vertex to the others. An algorithm to construct the shortest paths from each vertex to all others and to compute codes of their vertices has been developed. As the latter, are used Aho-codes, which find application in recognising the isomorphism of trees. The computational complexity to obtain structural characteristics of vertices has been estimated to be about О (n 3 .The pilot studies involved the full-scale experiment using the developed complex programmes to generate raw data, i.e. analytic representation of the graph with the number of vertices equal to 1200, and a programme to provide codes of the tree roots. To have an estimate of - "the worst" in terms of time - complexity of expansion algorithm of graphs into trees of the shortest paths and define the codes of their roots has been an experimentally studied how the number of tree vertices depends on the graph density. For the worst case was obtained a dependence of the number of tree vertices on the number of graph vertices

  11. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    The debut as a clinical supervisor is still rather unknown. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009–2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...... were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...

  12. Letter and Colour Matching Tasks: Parametric Measures of Developmental Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara L. Powell; Marie Arsalidou; Vogan, Vanessa M; Margot J Taylor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of interference in developmental assessments of working memory (WM) capacity across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. One hundred and forty-two participants completed two versions of visuospatial (colour matching task, CMT) and verbal (letter matching task, LMT) WM tasks, which systematically varied cognitive load in a high and low interference condition. Results showed similar developmental trajectories across high interference contexts (CMT- and...

  13. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of...Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016...Defense Strategies fo r Advanced Ballistic and Crui se Missile Threats l am pleased to forward the final report of the DSB Task Force on Defense

  14. A Task Taxonomy for Temporal Graph Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerracher, Natalie; Kennedy, Jessie; Chalmers, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    By extending and instantiating an existing formal task framework, we define a task taxonomy and task design space for temporal graph visualisation. We discuss the process involved in their generation, and describe how the design space can be 'sliced and diced' into multiple overlapping task categories, requiring distinct visual techniques for their support. The approach addresses deficiencies in the task literature, offering domain independence, greater task coverage, and unambiguous task specification. The taxonomy and design space capture tasks for temporal graphs, and also static graphs, multivariate graphs, and graph comparison, and will be of value in the design and evaluation of temporal graph visualisation systems.

  15. Task Content Familiarity, Task Type and Efficacy of Recasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Han, ZhaoHong

    2006-01-01

    The role of recasts has been the subject of an increasing number of second language acquisition (SLA) studies in recent years, as has been the role of tasks. Few studies, nevertheless, exist that investigate the interaction between the two. The present study makes a preliminary excursion into this unexplored domain by examining the impact of two…

  16. Multitasking and aging: do older adults benefit from performing a highly practiced task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Voss, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The present study examined the effect of training on age differences in performing a highly practiced task using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm (Pashler, 1984, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 358-377). Earlier training studies have concentrated on tasks that are not already overlearned. The present question of interest is whether task dual-task integration will be more efficient when single-task performance is approaching asymptotic levels. Task 1 was red/green signal discrimination (green = "go" and red = "wait"; analogous to pedestrian signals) and Task 2 was tone discrimination (white noise vs. a horn "honk"; analogous to traffic sound). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between Task 1 and Task 2 was varied (50, 150, 600, and 1000 ms). All individuals participated in eight sessions spread over 8 weeks (one session per week). Participants completed a dual-task pretest (Week 1), followed by 6 weeks of single-task testing (Weeks 2-7), followed by a dual-task posttest (Week 8). Although older adults showed larger overall dual-task costs (i.e., PRP effects), they were able to reduce the costs with practice as much as younger adults. However, even when training on Task 1 results in asymptotic performance, this still did not lead to an appreciable reduction in dual-task costs. Also, older adults, but not younger adults, responded more rapidly to green stimuli than to red stimuli in the Task 1 training latency data. The authors confirmed this green/go bias using diffusion modeling, which takes into account response time and error rates at the same time. This green/go bias is potentially dangerous at crosswalks, especially when combined with large dual-task interference, and might contribute to the high rate of crosswalk accidents in the elderly.

  17. IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts

  18. Three-dimensional visualisation and articulating instrumentation: Impact on simulated laparoscopic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy requires the development of technical skills distinct from those used in open procedures. Several factors extending the learning curve of laparoscopy include ergonomic and technical difficulties, such as the fulcrum effect and limited degrees of freedom. This study aimed to establish the impact of four variables on performance of two simulated laparoscopic tasks. Methods: Six subjects including novice (n=2, intermediate (n=2 and expert surgeons completed two tasks: 1 four running sutures, 2 simple suture followed by surgeon′s knot plus four square knots. Task variables were suturing angle (left/right, needle holder type (standard/articulating and visualisation (2D/3D. Each task with a given set of variables was completed twice in random order. The endpoints included suturing task completion time, average and maximum distance from marks and knot tying task completion time. Results: Suturing task completion time was prolonged by 45-degree right angle suturing, articulating needle holder use and lower skill levels (all P < 0.0001. Accuracy also decreased with articulating needle holder use (both P < 0.0001. 3D vision affected only maximum distance ( P =0.0108. For the knot tying task, completion time was greater with 45-degree right angle suturing ( P =0.0015, articulating needle holder use ( P < 0.0001, 3D vision ( P =0.0014 and novice skill level ( P =0.0003. Participants felt that 3D visualisation offered subjective advantages during training. Conclusions: Results suggest construct validity. A 3D personal head display and articulating needle holder do not immediately improve task completion times or accuracy and may increase the training burden of laparoscopic suturing and knot tying.

  19. The Management of End-User Computing Documents: The Urgent Task of Keeping Track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Cherackal

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the management of documentation requirements of information generated because of end user computing. Points out historical trends, proposes patterns for meeting documentation requirements, introduces techniques for facilitating documentation, and discusses recommendations for completion of the documentation task. (JOW)

  20. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  1. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...... describes the work completed by DTU in general. The sub-tasks are: Subtask 4.1 Experimental Techniques Subtask 4.2 Cold forming Subtask 4.3 Warm/hot forming Subtask 4.4 Tests on complex industrial geometries....

  2. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  3. Increasing Physical Therapy Equipment Preparation Using Task Clarification, Feedback and Environmental Manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Nicole; VanWagner, Michelle; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase completion of tasks related to morning preparation procedures among 2 full-time and 4 part-time employees at a physical therapy clinic. A functional assessment was conducted to aid in the development of the treatment package consisting of graphic feedback, task clarification, and equipment manipulations.…

  4. Using Tasks with Young Beginner Learners: The Role of the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    A question commonly raised by teachers is the extent to which task-based language teaching (TBLT) is suitable for young beginners, but to date, very little research has examined how TBLT can be implemented with complete beginners. The purpose of this article is to document my attempt to introduce a task-based approach in order to see if such an…

  5. Do Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compensate in Naturalistic Prospective Memory Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to…

  6. Developing Multiplicative Thinking with Rectangular Array Tasks in a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy I-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study reports findings from a teaching experiment in which 4th grade children engaged in solving multiplication tasks with rectangular arrays in a computer environment. The environment provided flexible task-solving through dynamic virtual manipulatives (VMs) so children could use their existing knowledge of multiplication to complete array…

  7. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  8. The Effect of Background Music and Background Noise on the Task Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Gianna; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. Forty participants completed five cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed…

  9. Data from 617 healthy participants performing the Iowa gambling task: A "many labs" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingroever, H.; Fridberg, D.; Horstmann, A.; Kjome, K.; Kumari, V.; Lane, S.D.; Maia, T.; McClelland, J.; Pachur, T.; Premkumar, P.; Stout, J.; Wetzels, R.; Wood, S.; Worthy, D.A.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This data pool (N = 617) comes from 10 studies assessing performance of healthy participants (i.e., no known neurological impairments) on the Iowa gambling task (IGT)—a task measuring decision making under uncertainty in an experimental context. Participants completed a computerized version of the

  10. Inter-Cultural Contact and Flow in a Task-Based Japanese EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Flow represents a state of complete involvement and heightened intensity that leads to improved performance on a task (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990). The notion of flow has the potential to provide worthwhile insights into the area of task engagement, yet the construct has received relatively little empirical attention by second language…

  11. Task-Based Method for Designing Underactuated Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kamada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a task-based method for designing underactuated multi-joint prosthetic hands for specific grasping tasks. The designed robotic hands or prosthetic hands contain fewer independent actuators than joints. We chose a few specific grasping tasks that are frequently repeated in everyday life and analysed joint motions of the hand during the completion of each task and the level of participation of each joint. The information was used for the synthesis of dedicated underactuated mechanisms that can operate in a low dimensional task coordinate space. We propose two methods for reducing the actuators' number. The kinematic parameters of the synthesized mechanism are determined by using a numerical approach. In this study the joint angles of the synthesized hand are considered as linearly dependent on the displacements of the actuators. We introduced a special error index that allowed us to compare the original trajectory and the trajectory performed by the synthesized mechanism, and to select the kinematic parameters of the new kinematic structure as a way to reduce the error. The approach allows the design of simple gripper mechanisms with good accuracy for the preliminary defined tasks.

  12. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level. 

  13. The cooking task: making a meal of executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T. A.; Barker, L. A.; Denniss, R.; Jalil, A.; Beer, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Current standardized neuropsychological tests may fail to accurately capture real-world executive deficits. We developed a computer-based Cooking Task (CT) assessment of executive functions and trialed the measure with a normative group before use with a head-injured population. Forty-six participants completed the computerized CT and subtests from standardized neuropsychological tasks, including the Tower and Sorting Tests of executive function from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Cambridge prospective memory test (CAMPROMPT), in order to examine whether standardized executive function tasks, predicted performance on measurement indices from the CT. Findings showed that verbal comprehension, rule detection and prospective memory contributed to measures of prospective planning accuracy and strategy implementation of the CT. Results also showed that functions necessary for cooking efficacy differ as an effect of task demands (difficulty levels). Performance on rule detection, strategy implementation and flexible thinking executive function measures contributed to accuracy on the CT. These findings raise questions about the functions captured by present standardized tasks particularly at varying levels of difficulty and during dual-task performance. Our preliminary findings also indicate that CT measures can effectively distinguish between executive function and Full Scale IQ abilities. Results of the present study indicate that the CT shows promise as an ecologically valid measure of executive function for future use with a head-injured population and indexes selective executive function’s captured by standardized tests. PMID:25717294

  14. SitLog: A Programming Language for Service Robot Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Pineda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present SitLog: a declarative situation-oriented logical language for programming situated service robot tasks. The formalism is task and domain independent, and can be used in a wide variety of settings. SitLog can also be seen as a behaviour engineering specification and interpretation formalism to support action selection by autonomous agents during the execution of complex tasks. The language combines the recursive transition network formalism, extended with functions to express dynamic and contextualized task structures, with a functional language to express control and content information. The SitLog interpreter is written in Prolog and SitLog's programs follow closely the Prolog notation, permitting the declarative specification and direct interpretation of complex applications in a modular and compact form. We discuss the structure and representation of service robot tasks in practical settings and how these can be expressed in SitLog. The present framework has been tested in the service robot Golem-II+ using the specification and programming of the typical tasks which require completion in the RoboCup@Home Competition.

  15. Task-switch costs subsequent to cue-only trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainson, Rachel; Martin, Douglas; Prosser, Laura

    2017-08-01

    There is abundant evidence that there is a performance cost associated with switching between tasks. This "switch cost" has been postulated to be driven by task performance on the preceding trial, but recent research challenges any necessary role of previous task performance in driving the cost. Across three experiments, we investigated whether it is difficult to switch from a task that was prepared but never performed. We replicated the finding of a switch cost following cue-only trials (involving no task performance) whilst controlling for a potential cue-switching confound. This cost was larger than that following completed trials when preparation interval was short (300 ms), and it reduced significantly with a longer preparation interval (1000 ms) on the current trial. We also found that preparing only to attend to a particular visual dimension (colour or shape) was sufficient to drive a significant subsequent switch cost, which appeared to be residual in nature; we speculate that this cost may reflect the persistence of unfulfilled task intentions and/or a strategic slowing when consecutive intentions conflict.

  16. Eye blink frequency during different computer tasks quantified by electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Nøjgaard, J K; Jørgensen, L V; Christensen, K B; Sjøgaard, G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate electrooculography (EOG) as an automatic method to measure the human eye blink frequency (BF) during passive and interactive computer tasks performed at two screen heights. Ten healthy subjects (5 males and 5 females) participated in the study in a 23 degrees C temperature and 30-35% relative humidity controlled simulated office environment. Each test subject completed a 2 x 10 min active task of computer work and a 3 x 10 min passive task of watching a film on a video display unit (VDU). Both tasks included two viewing angles: standard (the monitors' upper edge was in the same height as the subjects' eyes) and low (lowered by 25 degrees). EOG signals were recorded with two Ag/AgCl surface electrodes positioned above and below the right eye, and a reference electrode was placed behind the ear. The experiments were video filmed, and eye blinks were counted manually from the video recordings and compared to the EOG measurements. The method showed a high validity to detect blinks during computer work: 95.4% of the blinks were retrieved by the EOG method and very few artefacts from eye movements were erroneously classified as eye blinks (2.4%). By use of the EOG method, the computer task was found to significantly decrease the BF by 69% compared to the passive task (P < 0.001), and a small decrease (12-14%) was found by lowering the viewing angle by 25 degrees.

  17. A Spatial Queuing-Based Algorithm for Multi-Robot Task Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lenagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA is an important area of research in autonomous multi-robot systems. The main problem in MRTA is to allocate a set of tasks to a set of robots so that the tasks can be completed by the robots while ensuring that a certain metric, such as the time required to complete all tasks, or the distance traveled, or the energy expended by the robots is reduced. We consider a scenario where tasks can appear dynamically and a task needs to be performed by multiple robots to be completed. We propose a new algorithm called SQ-MRTA (Spatial Queueing-MRTA that uses a spatial queue-based model to allocate tasks between robots in a distributed manner. We have implemented the SQ-MRTA algorithm on accurately simulated models of Corobot robots within the Webots simulator for different numbers of robots and tasks and compared its performance with other state-of-the-art MRTA algorithms. Our results show that the SQ-MRTA algorithm is able to scale up with the number of tasks and robots in the environment, and it either outperforms or performs comparably with respect to other distributed MRTA algorithms.

  18. Principled Syntactic Code Completion using Placeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Amorim, L.E.; Erdweg, S.T.; Wachsmuth, G.H.; Visser, Eelco; Varro, D.; Balland, E.; van der Storm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Principled syntactic code completion enables developers to change source code by inserting code templates, thus increasing developer efficiency and supporting language exploration. However, existing code completion systems are ad-hoc and neither complete nor sound. They are not complete and only

  19. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz; José Navarro; Rita Berger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, a...

  20. How knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty: The impact of transformational leadership and group development

    OpenAIRE

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José, imp.; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  1. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    OpenAIRE

    Leuteritz, J-P.; Navarro Cid, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  2. Evidence for Two Independent Factors that Modify Brain Networks to Meet Task Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Gratton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans easily and flexibly complete a wide variety of tasks. To accomplish this feat, the brain appears to subtly adjust stable brain networks. Here, we investigate what regional factors underlie these modifications, asking whether networks are either altered at (1 regions activated by a given task or (2 hubs that interconnect different networks. We used fMRI “functional connectivity” (FC to compare networks during rest and three distinct tasks requiring semantic judgments, mental rotation, and visual coherence. We found that network modifications during these tasks were independently associated with both regional activation and network hubs. Furthermore, active and hub regions were associated with distinct patterns of network modification (differing in their localization, topography of FC changes, and variability across tasks, with activated hubs exhibiting patterns consistent with task control. These findings indicate that task goals modify brain networks through two separate processes linked to local brain function and network hubs.

  3. Cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue: a comparison of seven task types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The study introduces a nonlinear paradigm that addresses several unresolved problems concerning cognitive workload and fatigue: (a) how to separate the effects of workload versus fatigue, (b) whether the upper boundaries of cognitive channel capacity are fixed or variable, and how multitasking produces a bottleneck phenomenon, (c) that prolonged time on task can produce performance decrements but also produce improvements in task performance associated with practice and automaticity, and that (d) task switching can alleviate fatigue but could be mentally costly. This study describes two cusp catastrophe models that have become useful for separating the workload and fatigue performance phenomena and explores the role of task switching and multitasking in both performance phenomena. In the experiment, 105 undergraduates completed seven computer-based tasks seven times under one of four experimental conditions: tasks fully alternated, tasks aggregated with the multitask module performed first, aggregated with the multitask module performed last, and where the participants chose the task order themselves. Results supported both the cusp models such that fatigue effects were stronger for tasks with higher memory or attentional demand, and were often counteracted by practice effects; spelling ability acted as a compensation variable in most cases, and the intervening amount of work done acted as the bifurcation variable. For cognitive workload, catastrophic shifts in performance were noted between the single tasks and the multitask, with relative difficulty of the single task acting as the load (asymmetry) variable and the flexible task ordering condition as the bifurcation variable.

  4. Authentic Assessment through Rich Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This short article explains the key principles of "rich tasks," a version of authentic assessment developed in Queensland, Australia, as part of a major curriculum development called the "New Basics." In various documents, the project leaders recognised the danger that inappropriate assessment would undermine the proposed…

  5. Survey of Task Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-14

    Taylor, for example, referred to task analysis in his work on scientific management (65). In the same time frame, the Gilbreths developed the first...ciation, Washington, D. C., 1965. 21. Gilbreth , F. B. Bricklaying System, M. C. Clark, New York, 1909. -42- REFERENCES (Continued) 22. Gilbreth , F

  6. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  7. Use cases versus task descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    to specify require-ments for the same project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. [Princi-pal ideas/results] Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between users and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer's needs...

  8. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  9. Capturing Common Knowledge about Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, Y; Ratnakar, V; Chklovski, T; Groth, P.T.; Vrandecic, D

    2012-01-01

    Although to-do lists are a ubiquitous form of personal task management, there has been no work on intelligent assistance to automate, elaborate, or coordinate a users to-dos. Our research focuses on three aspects of intelligent assistance for to-dos. We investigated the use of intelligent agents to

  10. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  11. Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preempting Performance Challenges: The Effects of Inoculation Messaging on Attacks to Task Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R.; Dimmock, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task. PMID:25898287

  13. Preempting performance challenges: the effects of inoculation messaging on attacks to task self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R; Dimmock, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.

  14. Preempting performance challenges: the effects of inoculation messaging on attacks to task self-efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jackson

    Full Text Available Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy. Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16 were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness, participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.

  15. Illegitimate Tasks Reach Into Afterwork Hours: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Lischetzke, Tanja

    2017-02-16

    This study examines illegitimate tasks as a specific type of job stressors. Illegitimate tasks comprise unreasonable and unnecessary tasks and refer to inappropriate task assignments that go beyond an employee's role requirements. Building on the stressor-detachment model, we hypothesized that illegitimate tasks experienced during the day predict high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, which in turn should predict poor psychological detachment from work during evening hours, resulting in sustained high levels of negative affect and low self-esteem at bedtime. Over the course of 1 workweek, 137 employees completed daily surveys at the end of the workday and at bedtime (total of 567 days). Multilevel path modeling revealed a distinct pattern of findings at the day and the person level. At the day level, unnecessary tasks predicted high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with low self-esteem predicting poor psychological detachment from work during afterwork hours. Poor psychological detachment predicted a further increase in negative affect and a decrease in self-esteem over evening hours. At the between-person level, unreasonable tasks were related to high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with negative affect being related to poor psychological detachment from work. Overall, the findings demonstrate that illegitimate tasks are associated with unfavorable states at the end of the workday and are indirectly related to poor psychological detachment from work, undermining recovery from the stressful events experienced at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped

  17. Formative Research on the Heuristic Task Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Peterson, Bruce; Chavez, Michael

    Corporate and educational settings increasingly require decision-making, problem-solving and other complex cognitive skills to handle ill-structured, or heuristic, tasks, but the growing need for heuristic task expertise has outpaced the refinement of task analysis methods for heuristic expertise. The Heuristic Task Analysis (HTA) Method was…

  18. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  19. Report: Manchester Band of Pomo Indians Needs to Improve Its Financial Management System and Demonstrate Completion of Grant Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0320, September 21, 2016. The Manchester Band of Pomo Indians' inadequate financial management system, and shortfalls in completing grant tasks, resulted in all costs claimed being questioned.

  20. Is Transition in the Russian Economy Complete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mikhailovich Kul’kov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarter of a century passed since the beginning of market transformation (transition in Russia; nevertheless, there are serious doubts about whether the transition is complete. The effective transition to a new type of economy should ideally be a period of transformation, modernization and the formation of a national economic model. Only in this case can it be qualified as full, adequate, and constructive. Such combination has not taken place in Russia; it seems as if the market transformations were taking place independently, and this is the root of Russia’s many contemporary problems. The current crisis in the Russian economy primarily reflects the pendency of these tasks that were necessary to be solved from the very beginning of transformation. This crisis is first of all a focused expression and continuation of the transformation and reproduction crises in the national economy, the crisis of the current defective economic models and the then pursued economic policy. External factors only facilitated the exacerbation of Russia’s internal problems. In order to respond effectively to such a large-scale crisis it is necessary to consider all its aspects and underlying causes originating in the challenges of the transition period. Only the implementation of economic modernization and the formation of an effective national economic model is able to bring the Russian economy to a new level of development and thus to bring the transformation, which is lagging behind due to historical reasons, in line with these processes. In this case there will be good reason to conclude that the final border of the transition period is overcome. A new model of Russia’s economy must be adequate to the entire set of national-specific factors and strategic and vital development goals that Russia has. The core of modernization must be new industrialization, which is characterized by the transition to automation, computerization, greening of industrial

  1. Complete guide to preventive and predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This book shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Unlike other books that only focus on the engineering issues (task lists) or management issues (CMMS), this in-depth resource is the first to give true emphasize to the four aspects of success in preventive maintenance systems - engineering, management, economic, and psychological - thereby enabling readers to have a balanced view and understanding of what is happening in their organizations. Additionally, it blends concrete actionable steps and structures with the theory behind the steps. It includes check sheets, history of PM, stories, photographs, and case histories. It contains a glossary of terms. It provides sample task lists for a variety of equipment with some of the logic behind each task. It offers templates for developing your own tasking. It includes protocols for detailed economic analysis with examples.

  2. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Document Server

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  3. Tensor Factorization for Low-Rank Tensor Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pan; Lu, Canyi; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a tensor nuclear norm (TNN) based method was proposed to solve the tensor completion problem, which has achieved state-of-the-art performance on image and video inpainting tasks. However, it requires computing tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD), which costs much computation and thus cannot efficiently handle tensor data, due to its natural large scale. Motivated by TNN, we propose a novel low-rank tensor factorization method for efficiently solving the 3-way tensor completion problem. Our method preserves the low-rank structure of a tensor by factorizing it into the product of two tensors of smaller sizes. In the optimization process, our method only needs to update two smaller tensors, which can be more efficiently conducted than computing t-SVD. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed alternating minimization algorithm can converge to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. Experimental results on the synthetic data recovery, image and video inpainting tasks clearly demonstrate the superior performance and efficiency of our developed method over state-of-the-arts including the TNN and matricization methods.

  4. A documentation tool for product configuration systems - improving the documentation task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby

    2005-01-01

    essential tasks is thus to develop a complete and consistent product model which can reflect the actual product. A procedure for building product models has been developed at the Centre for Product Modelling (CPM), and the pro-cedure has been successfully applied in several industrial companies. CPM...... trivial time consuming tasks (notification on change, consistency check etc.), as a computer of-ten handles these tasks in a better way. Thus, a serious bottleneck can be eliminated by applying Information System (IS) technology to the process tasks. This paper deals with the specifications...

  5. Aircrew Tasks and Cognitive Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    log P3 Intelligence P1 Quick reference V4 Verbal (Direct informal) (n V3 Verbal (Direc• formal) 1-.U V2 • Verbal (ICS informal) V1 I =-Verbal (ICS...Bierbaum, 1989) attd the repertoire of sc des available now includes visual, either unaided or with night vision goggles, auditory, kinesthetic , cognitive...secondary task and physiological methodologies. Physiological indices of mental workload are based on the assumption that bodily states vary in a

  6. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  7. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  8. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamid Hussain Madni

    Full Text Available Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS, Minimum Completion Time (MCT, Minimum Execution Time (MET, Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing.

  10. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Syed Hamid Hussain; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdullahi, Mohammed; Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Usman, Mohammed Joda

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS), Minimum Completion Time (MCT), Minimum Execution Time (MET), Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing.

  11. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  12. Isaac Newton and Student College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…

  13. Homomorphisms of complete distributive lattices | Pultr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of analogous results on algebraic universality of categories based on finitary distributive (0, 1)-lattices is included to motivate further questions about categories based on complete distributive lattices. Keywords: complete distributive lattice, complete lattice homomorphism, frame, Heyting algebra, continuous map, ...

  14. Multiple completions primed by occlusion patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van; Leeuwenberg, E.L.J.; Helm, P.A. van der

    1995-01-01

    There is a strong tendency to complete a partly occluded shape. Two types of pattern completion, global and local, are frequently reported. By means of the primed-matching paradigm, it has previously been shown that global completions are prevalent for stimuli in which regularity is abundantly

  15. Impact of induced joy on literacy in children: does the nature of the task make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornare, Elise; Cuisinier, Frédérique; Czajkowski, Nikolai O; Pons, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    This research examined whether induced joy influences fifth graders' performance in literacy tasks. Children were asked to recall a joyful experience, used as a joy induction, before completing either a grammar (Study 1) or textual comprehension task (Study 2). The grammar task involved understanding at the surface level and retrieval of appropriate declarative and procedural knowledge, but limited elaboration unlike the textual comprehension task, which tackled inference generation. By differentiating tasks based on depth of processing required for completion we aimed at testing the validity of two concurrent hypotheses: that of a facilitating effect and that of a detrimental effect of induced joy. Compared to controls, joy induced children showed better performance on the grammar task - specifically children with lower language ability. No differences across groups emerged as a function of joy induction on the text comprehension task. Results are discussed with respect to emotion effects on cognition.

  16. The Shielding Function of Task Sets and Its Relaxation during Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the presented experiments was to investigate the dynamic interplay of task shielding and its relaxation during task switching. Task shielding refers to the finding that single task sets in terms of 2-choice categorization rules help shielding against distraction from irrelevant stimulus attributes. During task switching, this shielding…

  17. Kokkos' Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  18. Distributed and cooperative task processing: Cournot oligopolies on a graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Theodore P; Passino, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for the design of distributed agents that must complete externally generated tasks but also can volunteer to process tasks encountered by other agents. To reduce the computational and communication burden of coordination between agents to perfectly balance load around the network, the agents adjust their volunteering propensity asynchronously within a fictitious trading economy. This economy provides incentives for nontrivial levels of volunteering for remote tasks, and thus load is shared. Moreover, the combined effects of diminishing marginal returns and network topology lead to competitive equilibria that have task reallocations that are qualitatively similar to what is expected in a load-balancing system with explicit coordination between nodes. In the paper, topological and algorithmic conditions are given that ensure the existence and uniqueness of a competitive equilibrium. Additionally, a decentralized distributed gradient-ascent algorithm is given that is guaranteed to converge to this equilibrium while not causing any node to over-volunteer beyond its maximum task-processing rate. The framework is applied to an autonomous-air-vehicle example, and connections are drawn to classic studies of the evolution of cooperation in nature.

  19. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessing executive functions in preschoolers using Shape School Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nieto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of the development of executive functions in preschool children due to their relationship with different cognitive, psychological, social and academic domains. Early detection of individual differences in executive functioning can have major implications for basic and applied research. Consequently, there is a key need for assessment tools adapted to preschool skills: Shape School has been shown to be a suitable task for this purpose. Our study uses Shape School as the main task to analyze development of inhibition, task-switching and working memory in a sample of 304 preschoolers (age range 3.25-6.50 years. Additionally, we include cognitive tasks for the evaluation of verbal variables (vocabulary, word reasoning and short-term memory and performance variables (picture completion and symbol search, so as to analyze their relationship with executive functions. Our results show age-associated improvements in executive functions and the cognitive variables assessed. Furthermore, correlation analyses reveal positive relationships between executive functions and the other cognitive variables. More specifically, using structural equation modeling and including age direct and indirect effects, our results suggest that executive functions explain to a greater extent performance on verbal and performance tasks. These findings provide further information to support research that considers preschool age to be a crucial period for the development of executive functions and their relationship with other cognitive processes

  1. Assessing Executive Functions in Preschoolers Using Shape School Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Marta; Ros, Laura; Medina, Gloria; Ricarte, Jorge J; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of the development of executive functions (EF) in preschool children due to their relationship with different cognitive, psychological, social and academic domains. Early detection of individual differences in executive functioning can have major implications for basic and applied research. Consequently, there is a key need for assessment tools adapted to preschool skills: Shape School has been shown to be a suitable task for this purpose. Our study uses Shape School as the main task to analyze development of inhibition, task-switching and working memory in a sample of 304 preschoolers (age range 3.25-6.50 years). Additionally, we include cognitive tasks for the evaluation of verbal variables (vocabulary, word reasoning and short-term memory) and performance variables (picture completion and symbol search), so as to analyze their relationship with EFs. Our results show age-associated improvements in EFs and the cognitive variables assessed. Furthermore, correlation analyses reveal positive relationships between EFs and the other cognitive variables. More specifically, using structural equation modeling and including age direct and indirect effects, our results suggest that EFs explain to a greater extent performance on verbal and performance tasks. These findings provide further information to support research that considers preschool age to be a crucial period for the development of EFs and their relationship with other cognitive processes.

  2. Inhibition Plasticity in Older Adults: Practice and Transfer Effects Using a Multiple Task Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To examine plasticity of inhibition, as indexed by practice effects of inhibition tasks and the associated transfer effects, using a multiple task approach in healthy older adults. METHOD. Forty-eight healthy older adults were evenly assigned to either a practice group or a no-contact control group. All participants completed pretest (2.5 hours) and posttest (2 hours) sessions, with a 2-week interval in between. During the 2-week interval, only the practice group completed six 30-minute practice sessions (three sessions per week for two consecutive weeks) of three lab-based inhibition tasks. RESULTS. All three inhibition tasks demonstrated significant improvement across practice sessions, suggesting practice-induced plasticity. The benefit, however, only transferred to near-near tasks. The results are inconclusive with regard to the near-far and far-far transfer effects. DISCUSSION. This study further extends literature on practice effects of inhibition in older adults by using a multiple task approach. Together with previous work, the current study suggests that older adults are able to improve inhibition performance through practice and transfer the practice gains to tasks that overlap in both target cognitive ability and task structure (i.e., near-near tasks).

  3. Frequency of nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Barbara; Bell, Cheryl; Johnston, Derek; Jones, Martyn; Schofield, Pat; Allan, Julia; Ricketts, Ian; Morrison, Kenny; Johnston, Marie

    2013-09-01

    To explore the frequency of different nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards. The time nurses spend on direct patient care is important for both patients and nurses. However, little is known about the time nurses spend on various nursing tasks. A real-time, repeated measures design conducted amongst 67 (n = 39 medical, n = 28 surgical) UK hospital nurses. Between September 2011 and August 2012 participants completed an electronic diary version of a classification of nursing tasks (WOMBAT) during shifts. A total of 961 real-time measures of nursing task were obtained. Direct patient care [median = 37.5%, interquartile range = 27.8], indirect care (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 19.4) and medication (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 18.8) were most commonly reported. Participants were interrupted in 62% of entries (interquartile range = 35), reported adequate time in 78% (interquartile range = 31) and adequate resources in 89% (interquartile range = 36). Ward-related tasks were significantly more frequent on medical wards than surgical wards but otherwise there were no significant differences. Nurses spend the highest proportion of time in direct patient care and majority of this on core nursing activities. Interruptions to tasks are common. Nurses tend to report adequate time/resources. The frequency of nursing tasks is similar in medical and surgical wards. Nurse managers should review the level of interruptions to nurses' work and ensure appropriate levels of supervision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Task 5 Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located in the Simpevarp area, southeast Sweden, some 35 km north of Oskarshamn. Construction of the underground laboratory commenced in 1990 and was completed in 1995, consisting of a 3.6 km. long tunnel excavated in crystalline rock to a depth of approximately 460 m. Prior to, during and subsequent to completion, research concerning the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in fractured crystalline rock has been carried out. Central to this research has been the characterisation of the groundwater flow system and the chemistry of the groundwaters at Aespoe prior to excavation (Pre-investigation Phase) and subsequently to monitor changes in these parameters during the evolution of laboratory construction (Construction Phase). The principle aim of the Aespoe Task 5 modelling exercise has been to compare and ultimately integrate hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology using the input data from the pre-investigation and construction phases. The main objectives were: to assess the consistency of groundwater-flow models and hydrogeochemical mixing-reaction models through integration and comparison of hydraulic and hydrogeochemical data obtained before and during tunnel construction, and to develop a procedure for integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical information which could be used for disposal site assessments. Task 5 commenced in 1998 and was finalised in 2002. Participating modelling teams in the project represented ANDRA (France; three modelling teams - ANTEA, ITASCA, CEA), BMWi/BGR (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), JNC (Japan), CRIEPI (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden; two modelling teams - CFE and Intera (now GeoPoint)). Experience from Task 5 has highlighted several important aspects for site investigations facilitating the possibilities for mathematically integrated modelling and consistency checks that should be taken into account for future repository performance assessments. Equally important is that Task 5 has

  5. UTSI/CFFF MHD PROGRAM COMPLETION AND RELATED ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel W. Muehlhauser

    2004-07-21

    In this final technical report, UTSI summarizes work completed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95231. This work began on the contract effective date, September 15, 1995 and is continuing on a very small basis to complete the groundwater remediation as of this date. The work scope required UTSI to continue to maintain the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility and keep it in readiness for anticipated testing. This effort was terminated in September 1998 by DOE stop-work letter. Work continued on reporting, environmental restoration and on the High Temperature Superconductivity work that was underway. The work included preparing reports on the MHD POC tests that had been completed just prior to this contract initiation under an earlier contract with DOE Chicago. These four reports are summarized herein. This report summarizes the environmental restoration work performed under the contract, including groundwater monitoring and remediation, removal of wastes from the facility, removal of asbestos from the cooling tower and actions in compliance with the license to discharge water into Woods Reservoir. This report covers work in support of the DOE High Temperature Superconductivity program including: (1) Assistance to DOE in preparing a development plan; (2) Cooperation with industry, national laboratories and other universities to promote the commercialization of thin film superconductors (coated conductors); (3) Process Evaluations; (4) Process Diagnostic Development; and (5) Process Economics. The assistance to DOE task included convening an advisory board composed of all the major participants in the DOE program and preparing a draft development plan and Research and Development Roadmap leading to commercialization of the coated conductor technology. Under this program, cooperative agreements and cooperative work was undertaken with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Midwest Superconductivity, Inc., EURUS Technologies, Inc., Westinghouse Electric Company, and others. In the

  6. Are gamers better crossers? An examination of action video game experience and dual task effects in a simulated street crossing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Neider, Mark B; Crowell, James A; Lutz, Aubrey; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-05-01

    A high-fidelity street crossing simulator was used to test the hypothesis that experienced action video game players are less vulnerable than non-gamers to dual task costs in complex tasks. Previous research has shown that action video game players outperform nonplayers on many single task measures of perception and attention. It is unclear, however, whether action video game players outperform nonplayers in complex, divided attention tasks. Experienced action video game players and nongamers completed a street crossing task in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants walked on a manual treadmill to cross the street. During some crossings, a cognitively demanding working memory task was added. Dividing attention resulted in more collisions and increased decision making time. Of importance, these dual task costs were equivalent for the action video game players and the nongamers. These results suggest that action video game players are equally susceptible to the costs of dividing attention in a complex task. Perceptual and attentional benefits associated with action video game experience may not translate to performance benefits in complex, real-world tasks.

  7. The assessment of risky decision making: a factor analysis of performance on the Iowa Gambling Task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task, and Columbia Card Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Blaine, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Researchers and clinicians frequently use behavioral measures to assess decision making. The most common task that is marketed to clinicians is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), thought to assess risky decision making. How does performance on the IGT relate to performance on other common measures of decision making? The present study sought to examine relationships between the IGT, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 390 undergraduate students who completed the IGT, BART, and either the "hot" or "cold" CCT. Principal components factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-cold (n = 112) indicated that the IGT measures a different component of decision making than the BART, and the CCT-cold weakly correlated with early IGT trials. Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-hot (n = 108) revealed a similar picture: the IGT and BART assessed different types of decision making, and the BART and CCT-hot were weakly correlated. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 170) indicated that a 3-factor model without the CCT-cold (Factor 1: later IGT trials; Factor 2: BART; and Factor 3: early IGT trials) was a better fitting model than one that included the CCT-cold and early IGT trials on the same factor. Collectively, the present results suggest that the IGT, BART, and CCT all measure unique, nonoverlapping decision making processes. Further research is needed to more fully understand the neuropsychological construct of decision making. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Physiological Synchronization in a Vigilance Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels and other physio-logical responses between people is a potentially important component of work team performance, client-therapist relationships, and other types of human interaction. This study addressed several problems: What statistical models are viable for identifying synchronization for loosely coupled human systems? How is the level of synchronization related to psychosocial variables such as empathy, subjective ratings of workload, and actual performance? Participants were 70 undergraduates who worked in pairs on a vigilance dual task in which they watched a virtual reality security camera, rang a bell when they saw the target intruder, and completed a jig-saw puzzle. Event rates either increased or decreased during the 90 min work period. The average R2 values for each person were .66, .66, .62, and .53 for the linear autoregressive model, linear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, the nonlinear autoregressive model, and the nonlinear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, respectively. All models were more accurate at a lag of 20 sec compared to 50 sec or customized lag lengths. Although the linear models were more accurate overall, the nonlinear synchronization parameters were more often related to psychological variables and performance. In particular, greater synchronization was observed with the nonlinear model when the target event rate increased, compared to when it decreased, which was expected from the general theory of synchronization. Nonlinear models were also more effective for uncovering inhibitory or dampening relationships between the co-workers as well as mutually excitatory relationships. Future research should explore the comparative model results for tasks that induce higher levels of synchronization and involve different types of internal group coordination.

  9. San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie; Hutchinson, Kathleen

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of the Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily LoadProject (DO TMDLProject) is to provide a comprehensive understanding ofthe sources and fate of oxygen consuming materials in the San JoaquinRiver (SJR) watershed between Channel Point and Lander Avenue (upstreamSJR). When completed, this study will provide the stakeholders anunderstanding of the baseline conditions of the basin, provide input foran allocation decision, and provide the stakeholders with a tool formeasuring the impact of any waterquality management program that may beimplemented as part of the DO TMDL process. Previous studies haveidentified algal biomass as the most significant oxygen-demandingsubstance in the DO TMDL Project study-area between of Channel Point andLander Ave onthe SJR. Other oxygen-demanding substances found in theupstream SJR include ammonia and organic carbon from sources other thanalgae. The DO TMDL Project study-area contains municipalities, dairies,wetlands, cattle ranching, irrigated agriculture, and industries thatcould potentially contribute biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to the SJR.This study is designed to discriminate between algal BOD and othersources of BOD throughout the entire upstream SJR watershed. Algalbiomass is not a conserved substance, but grows and decays in the SJR;hence, characterization of oxygen-demanding substances in the SJR isinherently complicated and requires an integrated effort of extensivemonitoring, scientific study, and modeling. In order to achieve projectobjectives, project activities were divided into a number of Tasks withspecific goals and objectives. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4 of the DO TMDL Project.The major objective of Task 4 is to collect sufficient hydrologic (flow)and water quality (WQ) data to characterize the loading of algae, otheroxygen-demanding materials, and nutrients fromindividual tributaries andsub-watersheds of the upstream SJR between Mossdale and

  10. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model "modality atypical," that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  11. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  12. The role of attention during retrieval in working-memory span: a dual-task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, M Karl; Miyake, Akira

    2009-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that retrieving target words in operation span (OSpan) involves attention-demanding processes. Participants completed the standard OSpan task and a modified version in which all equations preceded all target words. Recall took place under either full attention or easy versus hard divided-attention conditions. Recall suffered under divided attention with the recall decrement being greater for the hard secondary task. Moreover, secondary-task performance was disrupted more by the standard OSpan task than by the modified version with the hard secondary task showing the larger decrement. Finally, the time taken to start recalling the first word was considerably longer for the standard version than for the modified version. These results are consistent with the proposal that successful OSpan task performance in part involves the attention-demanding retrieval of targets from long-term memory.

  13. Differential effects of emotionally versus neutrally cued autobiographical memories on performance of a subsequent cognitive task: Effects of task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberly eYoung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a limited resource, and in order to improve processing of the attended information, competing processes must be suppressed. Although it is well established that an experimentally induced change in mood state comprises one type of competing process that can impair performance on a subsequent task, no study has investigated whether an emotionally valenced autobiographical memory (AM also can alter performance on a subsequent task. We therefore examined the effects of AM recall on cognitive performance. Healthy participants (n=20 per experiment recalled AMs in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words. Following each AM participants completed a simple perceptual task (Experiment 1 or solved moderately difficult subtraction problems (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 participants performed less accurately following exposure to positive or negative versus neutral cue words (ps<0.001, and also were less accurate following negative versus positive cue words (p<0.001. In Experiment 2, in contrast, no difference in accuracy or response times reached statistical significance. Performance accuracy even trended towards being higher following exposure to negative versus neutral cue words (p=0.08. The results of Experiment 1 suggested that recalling emotionally salient AMs reduces the attention directed toward a simple continuous performance task administered immediately following the AM task, conceivably due to persistent contemplation of the AM. The negative results of Experiment 2 suggested that the effect of AMs on attention was attenuated, however, by increasing the difficulty of the subsequent task. Our results have implications for patients with MDD, as performing cognitively demanding tasks may allow them to attenuate the impairing effects of negative rumination on cognition.

  14. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  15. Antenna pattern study, task 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Two electromagnetic scattering codes, NEC-BSC and ESP3, were delivered and installed on a NASA VAX computer for use by Marshall Space Flight Center antenna design personnel. The existing codes and certain supplementary software were updated, the codes installed on a computer that will be delivered to the customer, to provide capability for graphic display of the data to be computed by the use of the codes and to assist the customer in the solution of specific problems that demonstrate the use of the codes. With the exception of one code revision, all of these tasks were performed.

  16. Task Organizing for Urban Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-09

    states that "I • ...- • •v•Z’- quad, must fight in a large city, it should be renfo ..rz i - Engineer Cqrr’-’ct Operatlons, FM 5-100, states that, " MOBA ...reliably task organize his unit for combat. 90 The nn’ibsrs ~ sa pr r3to Sbi dev&Loped in thAZ atudy should be tested in MOBA scenrocsqti AtnSzvohr P~ ames...Heidelberg, Chief of Historical Section, Us AKýrm bap, 17 July 1952. Ketron, Inc. GaMing Models for Military Operations in Bailt-Up Areas- MOBA .. October

  17. Complex motor representations may not be preserved after complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C-J

    2012-07-01

    When using motor imagery to improve rehabilitation after spinal cord injury it is assumed that the motor representations are preserved and that task specific physical training is not necessary. Here I tested this hypothesis by examining P.W. who has a complete spinal cord injury due to an accident. However, P.W. was an elite wheelchair athlete, hence, has experienced a high load of physical training in general. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), P.W. imagined wheelchair slalom (a complex motor task P.W. can perform) and stair walking (a complex motor task P.W. no longer can perform). A control group of neurologically intact participants were also included. The results showed that only for the task (wheelchair slalom) P.W. currently could physically perform was the pre-motor cortex recruited. For stair walking P.W. recruited inferior frontal cortex and parietal cortex. The results were confirmed with the control group showing similar pattern but for the opposite tasks. The conclusions from this study are that complex motor representations may not be preserved after a complete spinal cord injury and motor imagery is dependent on the current ability to perform the task physically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  19. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  20. EFFORTS Sub-task report on task 4.2: Cold forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Christensen, Thomas Vennick; Bay, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Task 4.2 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.2 experimental analysis of cold forming as regards form filling, interface stresses and forces and moments using sof model materials have been carried out.......Task 4.2 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.2 experimental analysis of cold forming as regards form filling, interface stresses and forces and moments using sof model materials have been carried out....

  1. Task-based nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, George

    2010-12-01

    Task-based interface design principles (TBI) were evaluated as a framework for designing effective nutritional labels. In two experiments a total of 123 people assembled a packed lunch, selecting components using labels in GDA or TBI format, or when given only the names of the foods. Study 1 found that a GDA label helped people make healthier choices than the product name alone, but that for a number of types of food, most people would make the same decision with or without a GDA label. Moreover, decisions were much faster when made with the name alone. Study 2 introduced a TBI label in the context of the more specific task of keeping the salt in the lunch under 1g. TBI and GDA labels reduced salt equally, but only the TBI label was as quick as the name alone. Labels that are aligned with people's specific objectives are more efficient. TBI is a potentially useful framework, that can be deployed using mobile computing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Road Signs for UV-Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    We confront the concepts of Wilsonian UV-completion versus self-completion by Classicalization in theories with derivatively-coupled scalars. We observe that the information about the UV-completion road is encoded in the sign of the derivative terms. We note that the sign of the derivative couplings for which there is no consistent Wilsonian UV-completion is the one that allows for consistent classicalons. This is an indication that for such a sign the vertex must be treated as fundamental and the theory self-protects against potential inconsistencies, such as superluminality, via self-completion by classicalization. Applying this reasoning to the UV-completion of the Standard Model, we see that the information about the Higgs versus classicalization is encoded in the sign of the scattering amplitude of longitudinal W-bosons. Negative sign excludes Higgs or any other weakly-coupled Wilsonian physics.

  3. A Tandem Learning Approach to Task Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Timothy; スチュワート, ティモシー

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to task evaluation that emerged out of the process of course development. The multi-layered approach to task evaluation described synthesizes student and teacher evaluations of tasks written in journals with more traditional course evaluation data in a reflective process of course development. Ultimately, the approach opens up dynamic insights into the appropriateness of tasks by incorporating the views of both students and teachers.The paper concludes by illu...

  4. Comparing Task Models for User Interface Design

    OpenAIRE

    Limbourg, Quentin; Vanderdonckt, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Many task models, task analysis methods, and supporting tools have been introduced in the literature and are widely used in practice. With this comes need to understand their scopes and their differences. This chapter provides a thorough review of selected, significant task models along with their method and supporting tools. For this purpose, a meta-model of each task model is expressed as an Entity-Relationship-Attribute schema (ERA) and discussed. This leads to a comparative analysis of ta...

  5. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  6. Task relevance of emotional information affects anxiety-linked attention bias in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decision from Models: Generalizing Probability Information to Novel Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Paily, Jacienta T; Maloney, Laurence T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new type of decision under risk where-to succeed-participants must generalize their experience in one set of tasks to a novel set of tasks. We asked participants to trade distance for reward in a virtual minefield where each successive step incurred the same fixed probability of failure (referred to as hazard). With constant hazard, the probability of success (the survival function) decreases exponentially with path length. On each trial, participants chose between a shorter path with smaller reward and a longer (more dangerous) path with larger reward. They received feedback in 160 training trials: encountering a mine along their chosen path resulted in zero reward and successful completion of the path led to the reward associated with the path chosen. They then completed 600 no-feedback test trials with novel combinations of path length and rewards. To maximize expected gain, participants had to learn the correct exponential model in training and generalize it to the test conditions. We compared how participants discounted reward with increasing path length to the predictions of nine choice models including the correct exponential model. The choices of a majority of the participants were best accounted for by a model of the correct exponential form although with marked overestimation of the hazard rate. The decision-from-models paradigm differs from experience-based decision paradigms such as decision-from-sampling in the importance assigned to generalizing experience-based information to novel tasks. The task itself is representative of everyday tasks involving repeated decisions in stochastically invariant environments.

  8. Completion Phenomenon in Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Ikeda, M; H. Kazui; Ito, K.; Inoue, N; Y. Hatakenaka; Sawada, T; Ikeda, H; Shiraishi, J

    1993-01-01

    We investigated completion phenomenon for proverbs in cases demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to a variety of diseases. Lack of this completion was exclusively observed in patients with focal atrophy. These patients showed a selective and consistent impairment in word comprehension without phonemic cue effects in naming. The completion phenomenon was present in patients demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to other cerebral diseases. In these patients, comprehension d...

  9. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  10. Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

  11. Tips for teachers and parents: recommendations for homework completion. Quickly? Together? With help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogorad P.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this conclusion of the article different conditions for successful completion of homework tasks by children with autism spectrum disorders are listed. These conditions include creation of the work envronment, increase of independence and strengthening the basic attachments of a child.

  12. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  13. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58... Headquarters Organization § 701.58 Task forces. The Director with Council concurrence or the Council may establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the Council...

  14. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  15. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  16. Task-specific dystonia : pathophysiology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Parees, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we

  17. A Task Is a Task Is a Task Is a Task... Or Is It? Researching Telecollaborative Teacher Competence Development--The Need for More Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The concept of task has become central not only to an understanding of language learning per se, but also to the design and research of Online Intercultural Exchanges (OIEs). While research on the design of tasks in OIEs has been very productive, we still lack insights into how teachers develop competences in task design on the micro-level.…

  18. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  19. A training tool to assess laparoscopic image navigation task performance in novice camera assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Wilson, Michael S J; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain S; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-11-01

    A number of tools for assessing task performance of the laparoscopic camera assistant have been described, but few focus on the acquisition and assessment of the attainment of proficiency in novice laparoscopic camera assistants. Our aim was to develop a simulated objective assessment tool for a novice camera assistant. A 10-cycle image navigation task tool was developed. This involved a series of 360° clockwise and anticlockwise rotation maneuvers of a 30° laparoscope along its shaft, focusing on a predefined geometric target on a 45° fixed slope in a laparoscopic box trainer. The tasks were to simultaneously maintain neutral horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Task accuracy and time to completion were assessed objectively at 3-s intervals on an unedited video recording. Twenty-nine novice medical students were assessed. Novices improved mean total error and task completion time (first versus fifth cycle, mean errors 15.4 versus 8.4, P = 0.048; mean task time 158.1 versus 92.9 s, P = 0.04). This improvement continued until the task cycle was completed (sixth versus 10th cycles, 7.9 versus 6.2, P = 0.01; 91.9 versus 76.6 s, P camera navigation tasks. There was improvement in errors related to maintaining horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Mean task completion time also decreased. This tool could be used as an additional mean of assessment and training in novice surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Amodal completion in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyi; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Amodal completion refers to the perceptual "filling-in" of partly occluded object fragments. Previous work has shown that object completion occurs efficiently, at early perceptual stages of processing. However, despite efficient early completion, at a later stage, the maintenance of complete-object representations in visual working memory (VWM) may be severely restricted due to limited mnemonic resources being available. To examine for such a limitation, we investigated whether the structure of to-be-remembered objects influences what is encoded and maintained in VWM using a change detection paradigm. Participants were presented with a memory display that contained either "composite" objects, that is, notched shapes abutting an occluding square, or equivalent unoccluded, "simple" objects. The results showed overall increased memory performance for simple relative to composite objects. Moreover, evidence for completion in VWM was found for composite objects that were interpreted as globally completed wholes, relative to local completions or an uncompleted mosaic (baseline) condition. This global completion advantage was obtained only when the "context" of simple objects also supported a global object interpretation. Finally, with an increase in memory set size, the global object advantage decreased substantially. These findings indicate that processes of amodal completion influence VWM performance until some overall-capacity limitation prevents completion. VWM completion processes do not operate automatically; rather, the representation format is determined top-down based on the simple object context provided. Overall, these findings support the notion of VWM as a capacity-limited resource, with storage capacity depending on the structured representation of to-be-remembered objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. TASK-1 and TASK-3 may form heterodimers in human atrial cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Schlichthörl, Günter; Dittmann, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Limberg, Sven H; Silbernagel, Nicole; Zuzarte, Marylou; Moosdorf, Rainer; Wulf, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Rolfes, Caroline; Decher, Niels

    2015-04-01

    TASK-1 channels have emerged as promising drug targets against atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. While TASK-3, the closest relative of TASK-1, was previously not described in cardiac tissue, we found a very prominent expression of TASK-3 in right human auricles. Immunocytochemistry experiments of human right auricular cardiomyocytes showed that TASK-3 is primarily localized at the plasma membrane. Single-channel recordings of right human auricles in the cell-attached mode, using divalent-cation-free solutions, revealed a TASK-1-like channel with a single-channel conductance of about 30pS. While homomeric TASK-3 channels were not found, we observed an intermediate single-channel conductance of about 55pS, possibly reflecting the heteromeric channel formed by TASK-1 and TASK-3. Subsequent experiments with TASK-1/TASK-3 tandem channels or with co-expressed TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels in HEK293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, supported that the 55pS channels observed in right auricles have electrophysiological characteristics of TASK-1/TASK-3 heteromers. In addition, co-expression experiments and single-channel recordings suggest that heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channels have a predominant surface expression and a reduced affinity for TASK-1 blockers. In summary, the evidence for heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channel complexes together with an altered pharmacologic response to TASK-1 blockers in vitro is likely to have further impact for studies isolating ITASK-1 from cardiomyocytes and for the development of drugs specifically targeting TASK-1 in atrial fibrillation treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Staff perceptions of leadership during implementation of task-shifting in three surgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Paterson, Karyn; Burmeister, Liz; Thomson, Bernadette; Young, Louise

    2013-03-01

    Registered nurses are difficult to recruit and retain. Task shifting, which involves reallocation of delegation, can reduce demand for registered nurses. Effective leadership is needed for successful task shifting. This study explored leadership styles of three surgical nurse unit managers. Staff completed surveys before and after the implementation of task shifting. Task shifting involved the introduction of endorsed enrolled nurses (licensed nurses who must practise under registered nurse supervision) to better utilize registered nurses. Implementation of task shifting occurred over 4 months in a 700-bed tertiary hospital, in southeast Queensland, Australia. A facilitator assisted nurse unit managers during implementation. The impact was assessed by comparison of data before (n = 49) and after (n = 72) task shifting from registered nurses and endorsed enrolled nurses (n = 121) who completed the Ward Organization Features Survey. Significant differences in leadership and staff organization subscales across the settings suggest that how change involving task shifting is implemented influences nurses' opinions of leadership. Leadership behaviours of nurse unit managers is a key consideration in managing change such as task shifting. Consistent and clear messages from leaders about practice change are viewed positively by nursing staff. In the short term, incremental change possibly results in staff maintaining confidence in leadership. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Relationships Between Need for Cognition, Boredom Proneness, Task Engagement, and Test Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A. Diehl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participants read a procedural text describing how to make a wind-up spool toy while only reading, reading and watching the experimenter do the task, or reading and doing the task themselves. Afterward, task performance (measured by time to complete the task without the instructions and number of errors and memory for/understanding of the text (measured with a Multiple Choice Test were assessed. Participants then completed a packet that included the Need for Cognition and Boredom Proneness scales. Task performance was better under the Read & Do and Read & Watch conditions, indicating that those participants were more engaged in the task than Read Only. Need for Cognition was positively related to Multiple Choice Test score (after controlling for boredom proneness and task experience only under the Read & Do conditions (and marginally for Read & Watch. This suggests that level of task engagement may moderate the relationship between need for cognition and test performance. The Boredom Proneness subscales of Perception of Time and Affective Responses were negatively related to need for cognition.

  4. Online Metacognitive Tasks for EFL Distance Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya GARCIA-SANCHEZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Online courses have benefited from the adequate use of digital tools and resources that allow learners to be the center of their own learning process. More often online instructors not only aim at what students have to individually do but learners are also engaged in interacting with the educational community by means of a variety of ubiquitous learning (u-learning resources that can be accessed anywhere and at any time. This article proposes a debate on the importance of providing interactive scenarios among students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Higher Education when registered in online courses. Without communicative activities, the successful production of any foreign language is not complete since knowledge building and the understanding of the foreign language, either in written or spoken form, are the key points of an adequate performance of communicative competences. The findings of this study will provide information about useful u-learning tools and evaluation tasks for the adequate performance of communicative competences required in a foreign language online course.

  5. Performance assessment task team progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  6. The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....

  7. Increasing Homework Completion through Positive Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Karen E.

    A behavior modification program designed to increase the rate of mathematics homework completion by a learning-disabled student is reported. The 9-year-old subject habitually failed to complete daily math homework assignments and had not responded to a classroom behavior modification program. The subject and teacher created a 3-week contract and…

  8. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the…

  9. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... such service offers the capability to place calls to or receive calls from the PSTN. 6. In addition... traffic in response to continued complaints about rural call completion issues from rural associations... Project offering providers the opportunity to test call completion issues identified on calls destined to...

  10. Influence of projectile breakup on complete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Complete fusion excitation functions for 11,10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb have been reported at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers. The measurements show significant suppression of complete fusion cross-sections at energies above the barrier for 10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb reactions, when compared to ...

  11. Selectively personalizing query auto-completion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, F.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Query auto-completion (QAC) is being used by many of today's search engines. It helps searchers formulate queries by providing a list of query completions after entering an initial prefix of a query. To cater for a user's specific information needs, personalized QAC strategies use a searcher's

  12. Query auto completion in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Query auto completion is an important feature embedded into today's search engines. It can help users formulate queries which other people have searched for when he/she finishes typing the query prefix. Today's most sophisticated query auto completion approaches are based on the collected query logs

  13. ALMA Completes Its First Science Observing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Biggs, A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Humphreys, E.; Petry, D.; Randall, S.; Stanke, T.; Stoehr, F.; Testi, L.; van Kampen, E.

    2013-03-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has recently completed its first year of science observing and the second year is beginning with increased capabilities. The completion rates for European-led proposals are reported. User support activities in the European ALMA Regional Centres are summarised, together with the results of a survey of users.

  14. Matrices with high completely positive semidefinite rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, David; Gribling, Sander; Laurent, Monique

    2017-01-01

    A real symmetric matrix M is completely positive semidefinite if it admits a Gram representation by (Hermitian) positive semidefinite matrices of any size d. The smallest such d is called the (complex) completely positive semidefinite rank of M , and it is an open question whether there exists an

  15. Asymmetric filter convergence and completeness | Frith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completeness for metric spaces is traditionally presented in terms of convergence of Cauchy sequences, and for uniform spaces in terms of Cauchy filters. Somewhat more abstractly, a uniform space is complete if and only if it is closed in every uniform space in which it is embedded, and so isomorphic to any space in ...

  16. On completeness in symmetric spaces | Moshokoa | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the literature completeness for symmetric spaces is done through the classical Cauchy criterion for metric spaces. However, unlike the situation in metric spaces a convergent sequence in a symmetric space is not necessarily a Cauchy sequence. In the paper we introduce a notion of convergence completeness for ...

  17. Completion of probabilistic uniform limit spaces | Nusser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article completions of special probabilistic semiuniform convergence spaces are considered. It turns out that every probabilitic Cauchy space under a given t-norm T (triangular norm) has a completion which, in the special case of probabilistic Cauchy spaces with reference to T = min, coincides with the ...

  18. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Odontamblyopus rubicundus is a species of gobiid fishes, inhabits muddy-bottomed coastal waters. In this paper, the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of O. rubicundus is reported. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is. 17119 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA ...

  19. Task-specific style verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Norbert; Cséri, Tamás; Szügyi, Zalán

    2012-09-01

    Programming antipatterns are commonly used patterns that make the code unnecessary complex and unmaintainable. However, beginner programmers such as students, often use them. Usage of antipatterns should be eliminated from source code. Many antipatterns can be detected at compilation-time with an appropriate parser tool. In this paper we argue for a new lint-like tool that does detect typical programming antipatterns, and it is extensible to task-specific verifications. This tool mainly developed to evaluate students' programs, however it can be used in industrial projects as well. Our approach based on pattern matching on abstract syntax tree provided by Clang parser. We present our description language that specifies the antipatterns.

  20. Dual-task study of cognitive and postural interference: a preliminary investigation of the automatization deficit hypothesis of developmental co-ordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C-L; Pan, C-Y; Cherng, R-J; Wu, S-K

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether children with developmental co-ordination disorder and balance problem (DCD-BP) had greater problems than controls in performing a primary balance task while concurrently completing different cognitive tasks varying in oral or listening cognitive complexity, as well as to investigate the automatization deficit hypothesis of DCD-BP. Children with DCD-BP (n= 39), along with age-matched control counterparts (n= 39), were placed on automatic processing situation under dual-task conditions. All children were required to perform a primary task, five dual-task paradigms (oral counting task, auditory-verbal reaction task, auditory-choice reaction task, auditory-memory task and articulation alone) and an eyes-closed balancing task. In the primary task condition, the differences were not statistically significant (P= 0.393) between children with and without DCD-BP. However, children with DCD-BP were significantly more impaired on three of five dual-task conditions (oral counting task: P= 0.003; auditory-verbal reaction task: P= 0.011; auditory-memory task: P= 0.041) compared with the single-task situation, with the exception of the auditory-choice reaction task (P= 0.471) and articulation alone (P= 0.067). These results suggest that children with DCD-BP were more cognitively dependant and may have an automatization deficit.

  1. Completion systems for large diameter casing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinch, J.B.; Lorenz, M. (Baker Sand Control (US)); (Leggett, D. (Baker Sand Control Services Pta. Ltd. (SG)))

    1988-01-01

    Completion operations, for oil and gas wells, are usually performed in casing sizes not exceeding 13-3/8 in. (34.0 cm) with the majority of completions being performed in 9-5/8 in. (24.5 cm) and smaller. As such, the availability of completion equipment, for large diameter casings, becomes extremely limited or nonexistent. Occasionally, conditions may exist which require the completion to be designed in a casing size larger than 13-3/8 in. (34.0 cm). In order to complete in these casing sizes, special equipment must be designed. This paper discusses the design criteria, development, and subsequent use of perforating and gravel pack equipment generated for use in 20 in. (50.8 cm) casing.

  2. Complete regression of primary malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O; Mannion, Meghan; Phelps, Robert G

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, histopathologic studies to determine the nature and significance of regression in malignant melanoma have yielded different results. At least in part, this most likely reflects differences in the definition of what constitutes regression. Although partial regression is relatively common, complete regression is rare. It has been said that complete regression of a primary lesion is associated with metastatic disease, but the evidence for this is largely anecdotal-the literature contains only case reports and small series. We found 2 cases of complete regression in our dermatopathology database. Metastatic disease was identified in both cases; in 1 case, the suspicion of melanoma was raised on the initial biopsy and subsequent workup revealed lymph node metastasis. These cases illustrate the histologic features of a completely regressed primary melanoma and add credence to the theory that completely regressed melanoma is associated with a poor outcome.

  3. Components of competitor priming in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J

    2017-11-01

    Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.

  4. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoë; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G; Lorist, Monicque M; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2006-08-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e.g. AB) compared to task-repeat trials (e.g. BB); mixing costs refer to longer RTs in task-repeat trials compared to single-task trials. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to 18 coffee drinkers. Both caffeine doses reduced switch costs compared to placebo. Event-related brain potentials revealed a negative deflection developing within the preparatory interval, which was larger for switch than for repeat trials. Caffeine increased this switch-related difference. These results suggest that coffee consumption improves task-switching performance by enhancing anticipatory processing such as task set updating, presumably through the neurochemical effects of caffeine on the dopamine system.

  5. The influence of time on task on mind wandering and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimsky, Marissa; Forster, Daniel E; Llabre, Maria M; Jha, Amishi P

    2017-12-01

    Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task). Task performance (correct/incorrect response) and self-reported mind wandering data were evaluated by hierarchical linear modeling to track trial-by-trial fluctuations. Performance declined with greater time on task, and the rate of decline was steeper for high vs low load trials. Self-reported mind wandering increased over time, and significantly varied asa function of both load and time on task. Participants reported greater mind wandering at the beginning of the experiment for low vs. high load trials; however, with greater time on task, more mind wandering was reported during high vs. low load trials. These results suggest that the availability of executive resources in support of working memory maintenance processes fluctuates in a demand-sensitive manner with time on task, and may be commandeered by mind wandering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual task training in persons with Multiple Sclerosis: a feasability randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Wajda, Douglas A; Sandroff, Brian M; Roeing, Kathleen L; Sung, JongHun; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of dual task training in persons with Multiple Sclerosis. Randomized, single-blinded controlled trial. University research laboratory. A total of 234 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 20 individuals with multiple sclerosis who self-reported problems with multitasking and were ambulatory volunteered for the investigation. 14 participants completed the post-assessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to either single task training program which focused on balance and walking function ( n=6) or dual task training program that incorporated cognitive tasks in balance and walking training ( n=8). Before and after the 12-week interventions participants underwent assessments of walking; dual task walking; balance (Berg Balance Scale and balance confidence) and cognition as indexed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS. There was an 8.5% recruitment rate, a 70% retention rate, and a 100% adherence rate. There was a trend for dual task gait speed to improve in the dual task training group following the intervention (Pre: task 1: 109.8±39, task 2: 104.2±34.1; Post: task 1:127.6±40.1, task 2: 122.8±37.4; P=0.14; η(2) = 0.24). There was also a trend for the dual task training group (28.1) to have greater performance than the control group (24.7) on visuospatial memory ( P=0.10; η(2)= 0.23). There were no changes in cognitive performance during walking trials. The study procedures were found to be feasible and improvements should be made in recruitment efforts going forward. Further examination of dual task training programs in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted.

  7. Checklist usage decreases critical task omissions when training residents to separate from simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Edward W; Ho, Dennis; Elahi, Maqsood; Ball, Timothy R; Hofkamp, Michael P; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Culp, William C; Villamaria, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    Separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) requires multiple preparatory steps, during which mistakes, omissions, and human errors may occur. Checklists have been used extensively in aviation to improve performance of complex, multistep tasks. The aim of this study was to (1) develop a checklist using a modified Delphi process to identify essential steps necessary to prepare for separation from CPB, and (2) compare the frequency of completed items with and without the use of a checklist in simulation. It was hypothesized that the use of a checklist would reduce the number of omissions. High-fidelity simulation study. University-affiliated tertiary care facility. Seven cardiac anesthesiologists created a checklist using a modified Delphi process. Ten residents participated in 4 scenarios separating from CPB in simulation. Each scenario was performed first without a checklist and then again with a checklist. An observer graded participants' performance. A pre-separation checklist containing 9 tasks was created using the Delphi process. Without using this checklist, 4 tasks were completed in at least 75% of scenarios, and 8 tasks were completed at least 75% of the time when using the checklist. There was a significant improvement in completion of 5 of the 9 items (pchecklist of steps in preparing to separate from CPB. Using this checklist during simulation resulted in increased frequency of completing designated tasks in comparison to relying on memory alone. Checklists may reduce omission errors during complex periods of anesthesiologists' perioperative workflow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of surgical task performance by remote-access endoscopic telemanipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Jensen, J; Hill, J; Bowersox, J C

    2000-05-01

    The performance limitations inherent in minimally invasive surgery may be overcome by using an interface that provides intuitive orientation for video display and tool manipulation. A prototype remote-access endoscopic telemanipulator was designed to fulfill these requirements and used for a surgical anastomosis task. A remote-access telemanipulator system, employing remote center-of-motion geometry, was used to complete distant in vitro tubular anastomoses. The performance of four surgeons using this system was compared with that achieved in completing the same anastomosis task in an open environment using open surgical techniques and in a minimally invasive environment using standard laparoscopic methods. The average performance times for completion of the anastomosis task was 1448 +/- 130 s using the telemanipulator system compared with 2108 +/- 291 s with laparoscopic instruments and 296 +/- 25 s with conventional techniques. Leakage rates from the tubular anastomoses were 5.2 +/- 1.4 ml/s in the telemanipulator group, 6.9 +/- 2.0 ml/s in the laparoscopic group, and 3.2 +/- 0.9 ml/s in the conventional methods group. All experimental subjects were able to complete the assigned task in each experimental condition successfully without complications. Our results in this pilot study suggest that remote-access endoscopic telemanipulation can execute complex three-dimensional manipulations, and that the intuitive orientation of the surgeon's workstation may contribute to easier task completion.

  9. Multitask Matrix Completion for Learning Protein Interactions Across Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Meghana; Murugesan, Keerthiram; Carbonell, Jaime G; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2017-06-01

    Disease-causing pathogens such as viruses introduce their proteins into the host cells in which they interact with the host's proteins, enabling the virus to replicate inside the host. These interactions between pathogen and host proteins are key to understanding infectious diseases. Often multiple diseases involve phylogenetically related or biologically similar pathogens. Here we present a multitask learning method to jointly model interactions between human proteins and three different but related viruses: Hepatitis C, Ebola virus, and Influenza A. Our multitask matrix completion-based model uses a shared low-rank structure in addition to a task-specific sparse structure to incorporate the various interactions. We obtain between 7 and 39 percentage points improvement in predictive performance over prior state-of-the-art models. We show how our model's parameters can be interpreted to reveal both general and specific interaction-relevant characteristics of the viruses. Our code is available online.

  10. Training Endogenous Task Shifting Using Music Therapy: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Colleen; LaGasse, A Blythe

    2016-01-01

    People with acquired brain injury (ABI) are highly susceptible to disturbances in executive functioning (EF), and these effects are pervasive. Research studies using music therapy for cognitive improvement in this population are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a Musical Executive Function Training (MEFT) intervention to address task-shifting skills in adults with ABI and to obtain preliminary evidence of intervention effect on task shifting. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a music therapy intervention group (MTG), a singing group (SG), or the no-intervention control group (CG). The SG and MTG met for one hour a day for five days. Feasibility measures included participant completion rates and intervention fidelity. Potential benefits were measured using the Trail Making Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task as a pre- and posttest measure. Participant completion rates and interventionist fidelity to the protocol supported feasibility. One-way ANOVA of the pre- and posttest group differences revealed a trend toward improvement in the MTG over the SG. Feasibility and effect size data support a larger trial of the MEFT protocol. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluating low-resolution tomography neurofeedback by single dissociation of mental grotation task from stop signal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getter, Nir; Kaplan, Zeev; Todder, Doron

    2015-10-01

    Electroencephalography source localization neurofeedback, i.e Standardized low-resolution tomography (sLORETA) neurofeedback are non-invasive method for altering region specific brain activity. This is an improvement over traditional neurofeedback which were based on recordings from a single scalp-electrode. We proposed three criteria clusters as a methodological framework to evaluate electroencephalography source localization neurofeedback and present relevant data. Our objective was to evaluate standardized low resolution EEG tomography neurofeedback by examining how training one neuroanatomical area effects the mental rotation task (which is related to the activity of bilateral Parietal regions) and the stop-signal test (which is related to frontal structures). Twelve healthy participants were enrolled in a single session sLORETA neurofeedback protocol. The participants completed both the mental rotation task and the stop-signal test before and after one sLORETA neurofeedback session. During sLORETA neurofeedback sessions participants watched one sitcom episode while the picture quality co-varied with activity in the superior parietal lobule. Participants were rewarded for increasing activity in this region only. Results showed a significant reaction time decrease and an increase in accuracy after sLORETA neurofeedback on the mental rotation task but not after stop signal task. Together with behavioral changes a significant activity increase was found at the left parietal brain after sLORETA neurofeedback compared with baseline. We concluded that activity increase in the parietal region had a specific effect on the mental rotation task. Tasks unrelated to parietal brain activity were unaffected. Therefore, sLORETA neurofeedback could be used as a research, or clinical tool for cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Fernald Citizens Task Force: Shifting the focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegner, G.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Applegate, J.S. [Cincinnati Univ. (United States); Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sarno, D. [Phoenix Environmental, Inc. (United States)

    1995-11-30

    In August 1995, the Fernald Citizens Task Force provided the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Ohio EPA (OEPA), and FERMCO with cost-effective, iplementable recommendations for addressing Fernald`s most pressing issues. Fernald is now proceeding with an accelerated cleanup plan to make these recommendations reality. With its initial work plan complete, the Task Force confronted a new challenge: How to shift its focus from developing recommendations designed to influence Fernald`s Records of Decision to advising project managers during remedial design and remedial action. This paper reports on the experiences of the Task Force, the DOE, Fernald regulators, and FERMCO as the Task Force made this shift. In the process, the parties encountered issues involving work plan development, membership, organization, and support resource allocation. Lessons learned as these issues were resolved are summarized. The Fernald experience supports the conclusion that ``hands-on`` citizen involvement in government decision- making at a major environmental remediation site can effectively transition from one area of focus to another.

  13. Blinking and tear break-up during four visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himebaugh, Nikole L; Begley, Carolyn G; Bradley, Arthur; Wilkinson, Jenni A

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between blinking, tear film break-up, and ocular symptoms for normal and dry eye subjects performing four different visual tasks. Sixteen control and sixteen dry eye subjects performed four visual tasks (looking straight ahead, watching a movie, identifying rapidly changing letters, and playing a computer game) while blink patterns and fluorescein images of the tear film were videotaped. Pre and posttesting symptom questionnaires, querying the intensity of nine symptoms of ocular irritation, were completed by all subjects. Blink rate and blink amplitude were computed from digitized videos. The percentage of tear film break-up before the blink was calculated. Dry eye subjects had a significantly higher blink rate (p = 0.017, t-test). Both groups blinked significantly less during the game and letter tasks (p break-up in normal subjects was typically inferior; whereas dry eye subjects showed more tear break-up centrally and superiorly. Real-time video recording of tear break-up and blink behavior pointed to complex interaction between the two. Dry eye subjects shifted more toward intense ocular symptoms at posttesting (p break-up during normal visual tasks may explain the increased level of ocular discomfort symptoms reported at the end of the day, particularly in dry eye patients.

  14. Iowa gambling task: Administration effects in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Giorgio Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT assesses decision-making. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether specific changes in administering the IGT can affect performance of older adults completing the task. Method: Three versions of the IGT were compared regarding the feedback on the amount of money won or lost over the course of the test. The first version (I consisted of a replication of the original version (Bechara et al., 1994, which utilizes a computerized visual aid (green bar that increases or decreases according to the gains or the losses. The second version (II, however, involved a non-computerized visual aid (cards and, in the third version (III the task did not include any visual aid at all. Ninety-seven older adults, divided into three groups, participated in this study. Group I received computerized cues (n=40, group II, non-computerized cues (n=17 and III was submitted to a version without any cues (n=40. Results: The participants without any cues achieved only a borderline performance, whereas for those with non-computerized cues, twice the number of participants showed attraction to risk in relation to those with aversion. The participants of the computerized version were homogeneously spread across the three performance levels (impaired, borderline and unimpaired. Conclusions: Aspects of the complexity of the decision process as well as of the task used are proposed as possible theoretical explanations for the performance variation exhibited.

  15. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  16. Definition of complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, R L; Adkins, R H; Yakura, J S

    1991-11-01

    Prospective serial neurological examinations were performed on 445 consecutive traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients admitted for rehabilitation on an average of 22.8 +/- 15.6 days after injury. Patients were categorized by both the ASIA and Sacral Sparing (SS) definitions of complete SCI, in order to compare the definitions in terms of consistency and prognostic ability. Recovery during follow-up was determined by sensory scores for light touch, sharp/dull discrimination, proprioception, and the ASIA Motor Index Score. Change in complete status was unidirectional using the SS definition and bidirectional using the ASIA definition. Twelve patients with SS complete injuries on initial examination converted to SS incomplete injuries at follow-up. No patients converted from SS incomplete to SS complete injury. Twenty three patients with ASIA complete injuries upon admission converted to ASIA incomplete status and 6 converted from ASIA incomplete status on admission to ASIA complete status at follow-up. For quadriplegics, the average motor recovery for patients changing complete status according to the ASIA definition was 11.7 +/- 10.3, which was significantly less (p less than .05) than the average recovery using the SS definition (group 1), 17.9 +/- 9.3. For paraplegics, the average motor recovery using the ASIA definition, 8.3 +/- 6.7, did not differ significantly from the value using the SS definition, 6.8 +/- 4.0.

  17. Do adults with autism spectrum disorders compensate in naturalistic prospective memory tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to prepare breakfast following a set of rules and time restrictions. Overall, adults with ASD had less correct time- and event-based prospective memory responses in comparison to controls, which is consistent with previous research in children with ASD. Moreover, ASD participants completed fewer tasks, followed rules less closely, and monitored the elapsing time less closely than controls. Individuals with ASD seem not to be compensating in naturalistic prospective memory tasks.

  18. Performance on the traditional and the touch screen, tablet versions of the Corsi Block and the Tower of Hanoi tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Sarita Jane; Brewer, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists routinely administer cognitive tasks to assess a range of mental abilities. In recent years, researchers and practitioners have employed new (i.e. digital) technologies to test cognitive performance, with tablet computer based tasks often replacing traditional versions. However, the extent to which findings from traditional and tablet based tasks are equivalent remains unclear. In the present study, sixty participants (18 men and 42 women) completed both the Tower of Hanoi and C...

  19. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  20. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  1. The Applicability of Rhythm-Motor Tasks to a New Dual Task Paradigm for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ji Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the

  2. The Effects of Time on Task in Response Selection--An ERP Study of Mental Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möckel, Tina; Beste, Christian; Wascher, Edmund

    2015-06-09

    Long lasting involvement in a cognitive task leads to mental fatigue. Substantial efforts have been undertaken to understand this phenomenon. However, it has been demonstrated that some changes with time on task are not only related to mental fatigue. The present study intends to clarify these effects of time on task unrelated to mental fatigue on response selection processes at the behavioural and electrophysiological level (using event-related potentials, ERPs). Participants had to perform a Simon task for more than 3 hours and rated their experienced mental fatigue and motivation to continue with the task at several time points during the experiment. The results show that at the beginning of the experiment some unspecific modulations of training and adaptation are evident. With time on task participants' ability to resolve response conflict appears to become impaired. The results reveal that time on task effects cannot be completely explained by mental fatigue. Instead, it seems that an interplay of adaptation at the beginning and motivational effects in the course of a task modulate performance and neurophysiological parameters. In future studies it will be important to account for the relative contribution of adaptation and motivation parameters when time on task effects are investigated.

  3. Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, N.; Itti, L.; Humayun, M.; Weiland, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the benefits provided by a saliency-based cueing algorithm to normally sighted volunteers performing mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Human subjects performed mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. A saliency algorithm based on primate vision was used to detect regions of interest (ROI) in an image. Subjects were cued to look toward the directions of these ROI using visual cues superimposed on the simulated prosthetic vision. Mobility tasks required the subjects to navigate through a corridor, avoid obstacles and locate a target at the end of the course. Two search task experiments involved finding objects on a tabletop under different conditions. Subjects were required to perform tasks with and without any help from cues. Results. Head movements, time to task completion and number of errors were all significantly reduced in search tasks when subjects used the cueing algorithm. For the mobility task, head movements and number of contacts with objects were significantly reduced when subjects used cues, whereas time was significantly reduced when no cues were used. The most significant benefit from cues appears to be in search tasks and when navigating unfamiliar environments. Significance. The results from the study show that visually impaired people and retinal prosthesis implantees may benefit from computer vision algorithms that detect important objects in their environment, particularly when they are in a new environment.

  4. The Effects of Time on Task in Response Selection - An ERP Study of Mental Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möckel, Tina; Beste, Christian; Wascher, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Long lasting involvement in a cognitive task leads to mental fatigue. Substantial efforts have been undertaken to understand this phenomenon. However, it has been demonstrated that some changes with time on task are not only related to mental fatigue. The present study intends to clarify these effects of time on task unrelated to mental fatigue on response selection processes at the behavioural and electrophysiological level (using event-related potentials, ERPs). Participants had to perform a Simon task for more than 3 hours and rated their experienced mental fatigue and motivation to continue with the task at several time points during the experiment. The results show that at the beginning of the experiment some unspecific modulations of training and adaptation are evident. With time on task participants’ ability to resolve response conflict appears to become impaired. The results reveal that time on task effects cannot be completely explained by mental fatigue. Instead, it seems that an interplay of adaptation at the beginning and motivational effects in the course of a task modulate performance and neurophysiological parameters. In future studies it will be important to account for the relative contribution of adaptation and motivation parameters when time on task effects are investigated. PMID:26054837

  5. Extending knowledge of illegitimate tasks: Student satisfaction, anxiety, and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Marcus J; Eatough, Erin

    2017-07-06

    Illegitimate tasks represent assignments that individuals feels they "should not have to do" because they are not appropriate given their role. The primary aim of this study was to broaden existing knowledge on illegitimate tasks beyond workplace contexts by exploring whether this stressor was also negatively related to psychological well-being in higher education students. This study examined illegitimate tasks in relation to student satisfaction, anxiety, and emotional exhaustion in a college student setting through the demand-control-support framework. Reports from 473 college students indicated that illegitimate tasks may be important in student populations, as they were linked to student satisfaction and both psychological strain markers. In addition, perceptions of control over how to complete illegitimate tasks did not moderate relationships between illegitimate tasks and these outcomes, but perceptions of instructor support did. Specifically, instructor support buffered the negative effects of illegitimate tasks on anxiety and emotional exhaustion, such that the relationship between perceived task illegitimacy and both outcomes was less pronounced for students perceiving higher levels of support. However, an unexpected pattern emerged for the moderating effect of instructor support such that satisfaction deteriorated with high support, which underscores the need to further explore the function of social support in relation to illegitimate tasks. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members

  7. Vernier perceptual learning transfers to completely untrained retinal locations after double training: a "piggybacking" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jun-Yun; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M; Yu, Cong

    2014-11-14

    Perceptual learning, a process in which training improves visual discrimination, is often specific to the trained retinal location, and this location specificity is frequently regarded as an indication of neural plasticity in the retinotopic visual cortex. However, our previous studies have shown that "double training" enables location-specific perceptual learning, such as Vernier learning, to completely transfer to a new location where an irrelevant task is practiced. Here we show that Vernier learning can be actuated by less location-specific orientation or motion-direction learning to transfer to completely untrained retinal locations. This "piggybacking" effect occurs even if both tasks are trained at the same retinal location. However, piggybacking does not occur when the Vernier task is paired with a more location-specific contrast-discrimination task. This previously unknown complexity challenges the current understanding of perceptual learning and its specificity/transfer. Orientation and motion-direction learning, but not contrast and Vernier learning, appears to activate a global process that allows learning transfer to untrained locations. Moreover, when paired with orientation or motion-direction learning, Vernier learning may be "piggybacked" by the activated global process to transfer to other untrained retinal locations. How this task-specific global activation process is achieved is as yet unknown. © 2014 ARVO.

  8. Task-based Instruction and Vocabulary Learning: A Comparative Study of Jigsaw and Information Gap Tasks on Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary learning within the paradigm of Task Based Language Teaching through instructing jigsaw and information-gap tasks. To this end, 60 intermediate EFL learners were selected. They were all female and their age range was between 16-17 years old. Then the experimental groups in which one group with the use of jigsaw and one with information-gap received task based instruction for one session each week for five weeks, while the control group experienced the same amount of instruction as ordinary classes. At the end of the study, all subjects were assigned a 50-item multiple choice vocabulary test. A one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that TBI had a significant effect (p=.000< .05 on promoting vocabulary knowledge of Iranian intermediate EFL learners; there existed a significant difference between the experimental groups’ performances in the assigned tests, as well. The main pedagogical implication of this study is for teachers in that by involving learners in task completion and enjoying the process, learners can improve their vocabulary knowledge and accordingly their language proficiency.

  9. Effects of display curvature, display zone, and task duration on legibility and visual fatigue during visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungryul; Choi, Donghee; Yi, Jihhyeon; Lee, Songil; Lee, Ja Eun; Choi, Byeonghwa; Lee, Seungbae; Kyung, Gyouhyung

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of display curvature (400, 600, 1200 mm, and flat), display zone (5 zones), and task duration (15 and 30 min) on legibility and visual fatigue. Each participant completed two 15-min visual search task sets at each curvature setting. The 600-mm and 1200-mm settings yielded better results than the flat setting in terms of legibility and perceived visual fatigue. Relative to the corresponding centre zone, the outermost zones of the 1200-mm and flat settings showed a decrease of 8%-37% in legibility, whereas those of the flat setting showed an increase of 26%-45% in perceived visual fatigue. Across curvatures, legibility decreased by 2%-8%, whereas perceived visual fatigue increased by 22% during the second task set. The two task sets induced an increase of 102% in the eye complaint score and a decrease of 0.3 Hz in the critical fusion frequency, both of which indicated an increase in visual fatigue. In summary, a curvature of around 600 mm, central display zones, and frequent breaks are recommended to improve legibility and reduce visual fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperative Tasks between Humans and Robots in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Corrales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative tasks between human operators and robotic manipulators can improve the performance and flexibility of industrial environments. Nevertheless, the safety of humans should always be guaranteed and the behaviour of the robots should be modified when a risk of collision may happen. This paper presents the research that the authors have performed in recent years in order to develop a human-robot interaction system which guarantees human safety by precisely tracking the complete body of the human and by activating safety strategies when the distance between them is too small. This paper not only summarizes the techniques which have been implemented in order to develop this system, but it also shows its application in three real human-robot interaction tasks.

  11. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  12. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  13. The Effects of Task Type on The Quality of Resolving Language-Related Episodes and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Miri, Mowla

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how task type can affect the ways in which learners resolve lexical language-related episodes (LREs) and consequently how their vocabulary learning in the LREs is influenced. An intact class of Iranian learners (N = 24) of English as a foreign language were paired up to write a composition and complete a cloze task. The…

  14. Language and Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Relationship between Complement Syntax and False Belief Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and…

  15. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  16. 40 CFR 140.4 - Complete prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 140.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MARINE SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.4 Complete prohibition. (a) Prohibition pursuant to CWA section... Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency, and by receiving the Administrator's affirmative determination...

  17. Unsteady Stokes equations: Some complete general solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    homogeneous unsteady Stokes equations are examined. A necessary and sufficient condition for a divergence-free vector to represent the velocity field of a possible unsteady Stokes flow in the absence of body forces is derived. Keywords. Complete ...

  18. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  19. Approaches to complete prevention of OHSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia El-Faissal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complete prevention of OHSS has not been achieved yet; all the current efforts helped to reduce the severity of the disease. In this article the most successful and practical approaches to help prevent OHSS are discussed.

  20. Approaches to complete prevention of OHSS

    OpenAIRE

    El-Faissal, Yahia

    2014-01-01

    Complete prevention of OHSS has not been achieved yet; all the current efforts helped to reduce the severity of the disease. In this article the most successful and practical approaches to help prevent OHSS are discussed.

  1. Patients’ satisfaction with complete dentures: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchini, Leonardo; Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry – University of Iowa – College of Dentistry – Iowa City – Iowa – United States of America.

    2014-01-01

    Population aging is a worldwide phenomenon and, even though there is a downward trend in edentulism, the need for complete dentures is not likely to decrease in the near future. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction with their dentures is fundamental to improving oral health-related quality of life among edentulous individuals. Considering this, a search was performed for literature since 2001 on the factors that may influence patient satisfaction with complete dentures. Many factors were repor...

  2. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    First Online: 31 July 2017 (2018) ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  3. Complete biliary avulsion from blunt compression injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkovitz, M S; Liang, H; Pachter, H L; Alexander, P; Newman, R M; Gittes, G K

    1999-10-01

    The liver is the solid organ most commonly injured as a result of blunt abdominal trauma. Complete avulsion of the common hepatic duct is a rare and devastating type of hepatobiliary trauma. Here the authors report the case of a 7-year-old child who had complete biliary disruption as a result of an abdominal crush injury that was not diagnosed correctly preoperatively. The intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of this injury is discussed.

  4. Structural Completeness in The War is Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that Nina Mimica's The War is Over achieves structural completeness on the basis of a number of choices regarding its visual style: shot scale, shot length, editing style and camera movement.  ar Udgivelsesdato: Autumn......This article argues that Nina Mimica's The War is Over achieves structural completeness on the basis of a number of choices regarding its visual style: shot scale, shot length, editing style and camera movement.  ar Udgivelsesdato: Autumn...

  5. Enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity completely without absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Niu, Yueping; Deng, Li; Gong, Shangqing

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity in a four-level tripod-type atomic system completely without absorption. We study the effect of the incoherent pumping on the nonlinear susceptibility of the probe field and show that compared with that without the incoherent pumping, the Kerr nonlinearity can be enhanced with completely suppressed absorption at two different probe frequencies. Thus, we can get a symmetrical enhanced Kerr nonlinearity. Particularly, all of our results are in the case of Doppler broadening.

  6. DECOMPOSITIONS OF COMPLETE GRAPHS INTO KAYAK PADDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Froncek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A canoe paddle is a cycle attached to an end-vertex of a path. It was shown by Truszczynski that all canoe paddles are graceful and therefore decompose complete graphs. A kayak paddle is a pair of cycles joined by a path. We prove that the complete graph K2n+1 is decomposable into kayak paddles with n edges whenever at least one of its cycles is eve

  7. Complete Currarino Syndrome Recognized in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Akay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currarino syndrome is a hereditary pathology that is characterized by sacrococcygeal bone defect, presacral mass, and anorectal malformation. Sacrococcygeal bone defect is almost always a part of the syndrome. The complete form of this entity displays all three abnormalities and is very uncommon. In this report, we present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case with complete form of Currarino syndrome recognized in adulthood.

  8. Data transfer using complete bipartite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Praba, B.; Manimaran, A.; Kailash, G.

    2017-11-01

    Information exchange extent is an estimation of the amount of information sent between two focuses on a framework in a given time period. It is an extremely significant perception in present world. There are many ways of message passing in the present situations. Some of them are through encryption, decryption, by using complete bipartite graph. In this paper, we recommend a method for communication using messages through encryption of a complete bipartite graph.

  9. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  10. Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I

    2008-11-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.

  11. Reduction of stroke assessment time for visually guided reaching task on KINARM exoskeleton robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, S M; Dukelow, S P; Glasgow, J I; Scott, S H; Mousavi, P

    2014-01-01

    Robotic technologies provide objective, highly reliable tools for assessment of brain function following stroke. KINARM is an exoskeleton device that quantifies sensorimotor brain function using a visually guided reaching task among many other behavioral tasks. As further tasks are developed to more broadly assess different aspects of behavior using the robot, techniques and approaches are required to reduce the time it takes to complete each task. The present study investigates how the value of robot-measured parameters changes under alternative schemes that significantly reduce assessment time compared to the current assessment protocol for the visually guided reaching task. Results of the study are validated by addressing an important diagnostic question using an SVM classifier, showing that the alternative schemes provide nearly identical performance in terms of classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

  12. Identification of task demands and usability issues in police use of mobile computing terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Kaber, David

    2018-01-01

    Crash reports from various states in the U.S. have shown high numbers of emergency vehicle crashes, especially in law enforcement situations. This study identified the perceived importance and frequency of police mobile computing terminal (MCT) tasks, quantified the demands of different tasks using a cognitive performance modeling methodology, identified usability violations of current MCT interface designs, and formulated design recommendations for an enhanced interface. Results revealed that "access call notes", "plate number check" and "find location on map" are the most important and frequently performed tasks for officers. "Reading plate information" was also found to be the most visually and cognitively demanding task-method. Usability principles of "using simple and natural dialog" and "minimizing user memory load" were violated by the current MCT interface design. The enhanced design showed potential for reducing cognitive demands and task completion time. Findings should be further validated using a driving simulation study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  14. Letter and Colour Matching Tasks: Parametric Measures of Developmental Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara L. Powell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mediating role of interference in developmental assessments of working memory (WM capacity across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. One hundred and forty-two participants completed two versions of visuospatial (colour matching task, CMT and verbal (letter matching task, LMT WM tasks, which systematically varied cognitive load in a high and low interference condition. Results showed similar developmental trajectories across high interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Complex and divergent developmental growth patterns across low interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Simple. Performance on tasks requiring greater cognitive control was in closer agreement with developmental predictions relative to simple recall guided tasks that rely solely on the storage components of WM. These findings suggest that developmental WM capacity, as measured by the CMT and LMT paradigms, can be better quantified using high interference contexts, in both content domains, and demonstrate steady increases in WM through to mid-adolescence.

  15. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  16. Completion Phenomenon in Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nakagawa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated completion phenomenon for proverbs in cases demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to a variety of diseases. Lack of this completion was exclusively observed in patients with focal atrophy. These patients showed a selective and consistent impairment in word comprehension without phonemic cue effects in naming. The completion phenomenon was present in patients demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to other cerebral diseases. In these patients, comprehension deficits were not selective for words, or words not comprehended were inconsistent and some phonemic cue effects were observed. In a previous study, we reported that completion phenomena for multiplication tables, serial numbers and names of days were frequently noted in patients with focal atrophy. Together with the present findings, these results suggest that lack of proverb completion may be attributed to a selective, systematic and complete loss of the meaning representations for language units such as words and proverbs. In addition, pathological processes of focal atrophy with temporal predominance might selectively affect the semantic memory for language as a unit.

  17. Completion phenomenon in transcortical sensory aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y; Tanabe, H; Ikeda, M; Kazui, H; Ito, K; Inoue, N; Hatakenaka, Y; Sawada, T; Ikeda, H; Shiraishi, J

    1993-01-01

    We investigated completion phenomenon for proverbs in cases demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to a variety of diseases. Lack of this completion was exclusively observed in patients with focal atrophy. These patients showed a selective and consistent impairment in word comprehension without phonemic cue effects in naming. The completion phenomenon was present in patients demonstrating transcortical sensory aphasia due to other cerebral diseases. In these patients, comprehension deficits were not selective for words, or words not comprehended were inconsistent and some phonemic cue effects were observed. In a previous study, we reported that completion phenomena for multiplication tables, serial numbers and names of days were frequently noted in patients with focal atrophy. Together with the present findings, these results suggest that lack of proverb completion may be attributed to a selective, systematic and complete loss of the meaning representations for language units such as words and proverbs. In addition, pathological processes of focal atrophy with temporal predominance might selectively affect the semantic memory for language as a unit.

  18. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  19. Does the medium matter? The interaction of task type and technology on group performance and member reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, S G; McGrath, J E

    1994-02-01

    The authors investigated the hypothesis that as group tasks pose greater requirements for member interdependence, communication media that transmit more social context cues will foster group performance and satisfaction. Seventy-two 3-person groups of undergraduate students worked in either computer-mediated or face-to-face meetings on 3 tasks with increasing levels of interdependence: an idea-generation task, an intellective task, and a judgment task. Results showed few differences between computer-mediated and face-to-face groups in the quality of the work completed but large differences in productivity favoring face-to-face groups. Analysis of productivity and of members' reactions supported the predicted interaction of tasks and media, with greater discrepancies between media conditions for tasks requiring higher levels of coordination. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of using computer-mediated communications systems for group work.

  20. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.