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Sample records for subclinical dictyocaulus viviparus

  1. POSIBLE RESISTENCIA DE Dictyocaulus viviparus AL FENBENDAZOL EN UN BOVINO. Reporte de caso

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    V. M. Molina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de posible resistencia al fenbendazol en una ternera Jersey infestada por Dictyocaulus viviparus. En el municipio de Entrerríos (Antioquia, Colombia, una hembra de la raza Jersey de 6 meses de edad, presentó un serio cuadro de bronconeumonía, el cual no mejoró con la aplicación de fenbendazol y enrofloxacina como terapia de mantenimiento. En la necropsia, se observó un número elevado de parásitos vivos compatibles con Dictyocaulus viviparus, determinando una bronquitis verminosa. Este nematodo, el cual se trata rutinariamente con fenbendazol en las fincas lecheras colombianas, ha demostrado ser resistente frente algunos bencimidazoles; finalmente, se señalan las posibles causas de esta resistencia de Dictyocaulus viviparus en la ternera Jersey.

  2. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were

  3. The efficacy of two isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effects of two different isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the number of free-living larvae of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. A laboratory dose-titration assay showed that isolates CI3...... pats containing free-living stages of D. viviparus and C. oncophora on grass plots. Herbage around the pars was collected at regular intervals and infective larvae recovered, counted and identified. These experiments showed that both D. flagrans isolates reduced the number of gastrointestinal as well...

  4. Prevalence and seasonality of bulk milk antibodies against Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi in Irish pasture-based dairy herds.

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    Bloemhoff, Yris; Forbes, Andrew; Good, Barbara; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Strube, Christina; Sayers, Ríona

    2015-04-15

    Infections with Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi nematode parasites are of importance to bovine health and production in temperate areas across the world. Losses due to these parasites in dairy herds can be considerable due to decreased milk productivity and fertility. However, information on current epidemiological patterns in Irish dairy herds is limited. Bulk milk samples were collected from a total of 319 dairy farms across the Republic of Ireland. The D. viviparus samples were tested with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein, while the O. ostertagi samples were tested with an ELISA based on crude saline extract, whole worm O. ostertagi antigen. Management data were collected from the farms using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to find significant associations between the presence of antibodies against D. viviparus and O. ostertagi and management factors. The overall prevalence of D. viviparus infection was 62.8%, while over 98% of herds had antibodies to O. ostertagi at the specified cut-off. Both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi antibodies were highest in November, which could be explained by the accumulated uptake of larvae through the grazing season. In herds of farmers that dosed their in-calf heifers with anthelmintics were significantly more likely to be positive for antibodies against D. viviparus infection. This study highlights that both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi infections are widespread in dairy herds in Ireland throughout the grazing season. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

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    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  6. Persistent efficacy of doramectin injectable against artificially induced infections with Cooperia punctata and Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle.

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    Stromberg, B E; Woodward, B W; Courtney, C H; Kunkle, W E; Johnson, E G; Zimmerman, G L; Zimmerman, L A; Marley, S E; Keller, D S; Conder, G A

    1999-06-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the persistent efficacy of doramectin injectable solution against experimental challenges with infective larvae of Cooperia punctata and Dictyocaulus viviparus. In each study, four groups of ten randomly-assigned calves, negative for trichostrongyle-type eggs on fecal examination, were treated subcutaneously in the midline of the neck with saline (1 ml/50 kg) on Day 0 or doramectin (200 microg/kg = 1 ml/50 kg) on Day 0, 7, or 14. Two additional calves from the same pool of animals were randomly assigned as larval-viability monitors and received no treatment. On Days 14-28, approximately 1000 and 50 infective larvae of Cooperia spp. and D. viviparus, respectively, were administered daily by gavage to each animal in Groups T1-T4. On Day 28, the two larval-viability monitor calves were inoculated in a similar manner with a single dose of approximately 30000 and 2000 larvae of Cooperia spp. and D. viviparus, respectively. Equal numbers of calves from each treatment group were killed on Days 42-45, as well as the two viability monitor animals to enumerate worm numbers. A 2% or 5% aliquot of small intestinal contents and washings were examined for worm quantification and identification, while 100% of the lung recoveries were quantified and identified. For each study and across the three studies, geometric mean worm recoveries for each treatment group were calculated from the natural log transformed data (worm count + 1) and were used to estimate percentage reduction. In the three studies, doramectin injectable solution was 97.5% efficacious against lungworms for up to 28 days and was 99.8% efficacious in reducing infection resulting from challenge with infective larvae of C. punctata for at least 28 days post-treatment.

  7. The effect of patent Dictyocaulus viviparus (re)infections on individual milk yield and milk quality in pastured dairy cows and correlation with clinical signs.

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    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; König, Sven; Strube, Christina

    2018-01-08

    Infections with the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus might lead to reduced milk production and detrimental impacts on milk quality resulting in considerable economic losses in dairy farming. In the presented field study, 1988 faecal samples were collected from 1166 Black and White dairy cows allocated in 17 small and medium-sized German grassland farms. Faecal samples were collected in summer and autumn 2015 to assess D. viviparus larvae excretion. Test-day records were used to estimate the association between patent D. viviparus infections in individual cows and the milk production parameters milk yield, milk protein and milk fat content by using linear mixed models. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from each farm and individual milk samples from those cows which were excreting larvae in summer were collected in autumn. In addition, occurrence of the clinical symptom "coughing" was noted in individual cows during autumn sampling to determine its association with patent lungworm infections. Patent D. viviparus infections were found on 23.5% (4/17) of farms with a prevalence at the individual cow level of 0.9% (9/960) in summer and 3.4% (35/1028) in autumn. No BTM sample exceeded the BTM ELISA cut-off value of 0.410 optical density ratio (ODR), the mean value was 0.168 ODR. Only one individual milk sample exceeded the individual milk ELISA cut-off value of 0.573 ODR (mean value of 0.302 ODR). A patent D. viviparus infection status was associated with a lower average daily milk yield of 1.62 kg/cow/day (P = 0.0406). No significant association was found with milk protein or fat content representing milk quality parameters. Coughing was observed in 5.9% (61/1028) of cows. Of the coughing cows, only 4.9% (3/61) had a patent lungworm infection. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected coughing cows. Farmers and veterinarians should be aware that patent lungworm (re)infections in dairy cows reduce milk yield, despite

  8. Development of a multiplex fluorescence immunological assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against Cooperia oncophora, Dictyocaulus viviparus and Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

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    Karanikola, Sofia N; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; de Waal, Theo; Höglund, Johan; Charlier, Johannes; Weber, Corinna; Müller, Elisabeth; Kowalczyk, Slawomir J; Kaba, Jaroslaw; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2015-06-19

    A major constraint for the effective control and management of helminth parasites is the lack of rapid, high-throughput, routine diagnostic tests to assess the health status of individual animals and herds and to identify the parasite species responsible for these helminthoses. The capability of a multiplex platform for the simultaneous detection of three pasture associated parasite species was evaluated and compared to existing ELISAs. The recombinant antigens 14.2 kDa ES protein for Cooperia oncophora, major sperm protein for Dictyocaulus viviparus and Cathepsin L1 for Fasciola hepatica were recombinantly expressed either in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris. Antigens were covalently coupled onto magnetic beads. Optimal concentrations for coupling were determined following the examination of serum samples collected from experimentally mono-infected animals, before and after their infection with the target species. Absence of cross-reactivity was further determined with sera from calves mono-infected with Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Examination of negative serum samples was characterised by low median fluorescence intensity (MFI). Establishment of the optimal serum dilution of 1:200 was achieved for all three bead sets. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to obtain cut-off MFI values for each parasite separately. Sensitivity and specificity at the chosen cut-off values were close to, or 100% for all bead sets. Examination of serum samples collected on different days post infection from different animals showed a high reproducibility of the assays. Serum samples were additionally examined with two already established ELISAs, an in-house ELISA using the recombinant MSP as an antigen and a DRG ELISA using Cathepsin L1 for liver fluke. The results between the assays were compared and kappa tests revealed an overall good agreement. A versatile bead-based assay using fluorescence detection (x

  9. Interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. in Wild Ruminants with Morphological Description of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from Red Deer, Cervus elaphus.

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    Pyziel, Anna M; Laskowski, Zdzisław; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Höglund, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Lungworms from the genus Dictyocaulus cause parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterized by coughing and severe lung pathology in both domestic and wild ruminants. In this study we investigated the interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. from European bison (Bison bonasus L.), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) by nucleotide sequence analysis spanning the 18S RNA gene (small subunit [SSU]) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of the ribosomal gene array as well as the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Molecular analyses of sequence data obtained partly with novel primers from between 10 and 50 specimens from each host were carried out. Bayesian inference analysis revealed that each host species was infected with different genotypes. Analysis of cox1 sequence data showed a diverse genetic background and high evolutionary potential of Dictyocaulus taxa. Data from lungworms of European bison revealed a distinct genotype of Dictyocaulus viviparus, whereas Dictyocaulus capreolus was only found in roe deer. In contrast, red deer were infected with a taxon with unique SSU, ITS2, and cox1 sequences. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel genotype from red deer, which differs significantly from the National Center for Biotechnology Information reference sequence of Dictyocaulus eckerti. The molecular evidence was consistent with a morphological study with description and imaging of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. recovered from red deer. Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. can be distinguished from D. eckerti on the basis of the absence of cervical papillae, the occurrence of a single ring of 4 symmetrical submedian cephalic papillae, length of the tail in females, morphometry of the female reproductive system, and measurements of gubernacula in males. In conclusion, our findings further strengthen the idea that the genetic complexity and diversity among Dictyocaulus lungworms infecting wildlife ruminants is larger

  10. Microstructures in shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus viviparus: a potential sensor for temperature change?

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    Füllenbach, Christoph S; Schöne, Bernd R; Branscheid, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Mollusk shells contain a plethora of information on past climate variability. However, only a limited toolkit is currently available to reconstruct such data from the shells. The environmental data of some proxies (e.g. Sr/Ca ratios) is obscured by physiological effects, whereas other proxies, such as δ(18)O, simultaneously provide information on two or more different environmental variables. The present study investigates whether microstructures of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus viviparus provide an alternative means to reconstruct past water temperature. Cold and highly variable temperature regimes resulted in the precipitation of highly unordered first-order lamellae of simple crossed-lamellar (XLM) structures if new shell formed from scratch. However, during stable and warm conditions, well-ordered first-order lamellae were laid down irrespective of pre-existing shell material. Homogeneous first-order lamellae also formed during times of cold and highly variable temperatures if the new shell was deposited onto existing shell material with well-ordered first-order lamellae. The growth front seems to contain instructions for building specific microstructure variants, irrespective of environmental conditions. However, if this template is missing, the animal forms a deviating microstructure. Under extremely stressful situations (e.g. removal from habitat, calcein staining, extreme temperature shifts), the gastropod precipitates an evolutionarily older microstructure (irregular simple prisms) rather than XLM structures. These shell portions were macroscopically described as disturbance lines. In addition, repetitive, presumably periodic growth patterns were observed, which consisted of gradually changing third-order lamellae between consecutive faint, organic-rich growth lines. These growth patterns were probably controlled by intrinsic biological clocks and exhibited a two-daily periodicity. The results of this study may provide the basis for using changes in

  11. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS......) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from...... different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females...

  12. Is subclinical gambling really subclinical?

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    Weinstock, Jeremiah; April, Laura M; Kallmi, Selmi

    2017-10-01

    Gambling disorder and substance use disorders (SUD) overlap in terms of etiology and diagnostic constructs (e.g., preoccupation, loss of control), yet diagnostic thresholds for the disorders are different. Currently, endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria does not warrant a diagnosis while endorsing 2-3 SUD criteria does. The aim of this study was to examine whether subclinical gamblers (i.e., endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria) experience psychosocial dysfunction equivalent to individuals who are diagnosed with mild severity SUD (i.e., 2-3 SUD criteria) and whether this level of dysfunction is significantly different from individuals with no psychopathology. Data are from the first wave of Quinte Longitudinal Study, a large epidemiological sample (N=4121). Psychometrically supported measures assessed for psychosocial functioning and the presence of Axis-I psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional analysis examined 7 domains of psychosocial functioning using ANCOVA, which allowed for the inclusion of covariates, to test for difference between subclinical gamblers and individuals with no psychopathology and individuals with mild severity SUD. Equivalency testing compared subclinical gamblers in relation to mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers reported significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in relation to individuals endorsing no current psychopathology. Subclinical gamblers were also equivalent to and not significantly different from individuals with mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers experience similar psychosocial impairment to those individuals who endorse mild severity SUD, and this significantly differed from healthy individuals. The threshold for diagnosis of gambling disorder therefore warrants re-examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. I. histochemical and biochemical features of lead pollution on some organs of Viviparus viviparus L. (Mollusca Gastropoda)

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    Benedetti, I.; Benedetti, L.; Bolognani, L.; Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Marini, M.; Ottaviani, E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental lead pollution was studied in some organs (foot, mantle and digestive gland) of Viviparus viviparus L. The amount of lead contained after 48h, 96 h and one week of pollution were established using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of physicochemical determination, it turns out that lead is mainly concentrated in the mantle. The biochemical tests (cholesterol, sulpholipids and phospholipids) were aimed at evaluating the lipids involved in the membranes. The histochemical research was carried out chiefly to evaluate the modifications of polysaccharides and proteins. Some hydrolytic enzymes (Na+ and K+ dependent ATPase) and some ooreductive enzymes (NADH+ and NADPH+ dependent diaphorases, D-lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase) were also tested. The digestive gland is the most severely damaged organ as proved by histomorphological and biochemical analyses.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  15. Efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on against Dictyocaulus arnfieldi infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

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    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Loria, Antonio; Masucci, Roberto; Di Palo, Rossella; Brianti, Emanuele; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2011-12-01

    A trial to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPM) against the lungworm Dictyocaulus arnfieldi was carried out on 15, naturally-infected donkeys. Ten animals were treated with a 'pour-on' EPM preparation (at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight), and five animals acted as controls. Faecal larval counts were carried out two days before treatment, on day of treatment and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment with the anthelmintic. EPM was 100% effective in eliminating faecal larvae from day 7, until the end of study at day 28. No adverse drug-reactions or side-effects were observed in any of the treated donkeys. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subclinical Diabetes

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    LUÍS M.T.R. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses. Insulin resistance and hyperhormonemia (insulin, amylin, glucagon are non-disputable hallmarks of T2DM, which already takes place among these normoglycemic, otherwise health subjects, characterizing a state of subclinical diabetes. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be computed from fasting plasma insulin as an independent variable in normoglycemia. An overview of the current diagnostic criteria, disease onset, complications, comorbidities and perspectives on lifestyle interventions are presented. A proposal for early detection of subclinical diabetes from routine evaluation of fasting plasma insulin, which is affordable and robust and thus applicable for the general population, is further suggested.

  17. Characterization of the Zoarces viviparus liver transcriptome using massively parallel pyrosequencing

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    Asker Noomi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teleost Zoarces viviparus (eelpout lives along the coasts of Northern Europe and has long been an established model organism for marine ecology and environmental monitoring. The scarce information about this species genome has however restrained the use of efficient molecular-level assays, such as gene expression microarrays. Results In the present study we present the first comprehensive characterization of the Zoarces viviparus liver transcriptome. From 400,000 reads generated by massively parallel pyrosequencing, more than 50,000 pieces of putative transcripts were assembled, annotated and functionally classified. The data was estimated to cover roughly 40% of the total transcriptome and homologues for about half of the genes of Gasterosteus aculeatus (stickleback were identified. The sequence data was consequently used to design an oligonucleotide microarray for large-scale gene expression analysis. Conclusion Our results show that one run using a Genome Sequencer FLX from 454 Life Science/Roche generates enough genomic information for adequate de novo assembly of a large number of genes in a higher vertebrate. The generated sequence data, including the validated microarray probes, are publicly available to promote genome-wide research in Zoarces viviparus.

  18. ABUNDANCIA Y ESTADO SANITARIO DEL MEXCLAPIQUE (Girardinichthys viviparus Bustamante EN CUERPOS DE AGUA DEL CENTRO DE MÉXICO

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    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se refiere a la presencia, abundancia y estado sanitario de Girardinichthys viviparus Bustamante en el embalse Requena, Laguna de Zumpango y los tres Lagos de Chapultepec, en la ciudad de México. Seregistraron parámetros ambientales como la temperatura, oxígeno, dureza alcalinidad, pH y conductividad. Los peces fueron capturados con red de cuchara y se evaluó el estado sanitario de los peces. Girardinichthys. viviparus sólo se registro en el Lago Menor y Mayor de Chapultepec, en el primero se presentó la mayor abundancia del pez y el menor parasitismo.

  19. ABUNDANCIA Y ESTADO SANITARIO DEL MEXCLAPIQUE (Girardinichthys viviparus Bustamante) EN CUERPOS DE AGUA DEL CENTRO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado; G. Contreras-Rivero; G. Elías-Fernández

    2003-01-01

    El presente estudio se refiere a la presencia, abundancia y estado sanitario de Girardinichthys viviparus Bustamante en el embalse Requena, Laguna de Zumpango y los tres Lagos de Chapultepec, en la ciudad de México. Seregistraron parámetros ambientales como la temperatura, oxígeno, dureza alcalinidad, pH y conductividad. Los peces fueron capturados con red de cuchara y se evaluó el estado sanitario de los peces. Girardinichthys. viviparus sólo se registro en el Lago Menor y Mayor de Chapult...

  20. Molecular cloning, characterisation, and tissue distribution of oestrogen receptor alpha in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Thomas K; Skjødt, Karsten; Anglade, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) oestrogen receptor alpha (eERalpha) has been isolated from eelpout liver, cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 570 amino acid residues (mw: 63.0 kDa). The amino acid sequence of eERalpha showed a high degree...... contributes to the accumulating evidence that in fish E(2) is not only involved in the regulation of liver specific proteins, but has a much broader range of targets....

  1. Biological responses to dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Contributions to an integrated environmental assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna

    This PhD project attempts to link exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to effects in the marine fish eelpout Zoarces viviparus by combining different in vivo and in vitro biomarkers in both...

  2. Oxidative stress response in an endangered goodeid fish (Girardinichthys viviparus) by exposure to water from its extant localities.

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    Vega-López, Armando; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia

    2008-09-01

    The oxidative stress response in Girardinichthys viviparus after exposure to water from its extant habitants was evaluated. The distribution range of this endangered species is currently restricted to a single lake, which receives domestic and industrial wastewater treated to a secondary level, but this is also contaminated with PCBs. Fish were exposed to water from Lake Texcoco, its extant habitat or another one, the Lake Zumpango proposed as a candidate to re-introduction. To predict the damage induced by sublethal increases in PCBs, assessment is also made of fish response to water from these localities enriched with PCB mixtures. Adult fish born in the laboratory were exposed to filtered surface water or to the PCB-enriched water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days. An assessment of the oxidative stress response in G. viviparus revealed four characteristic response patterns that were frequently observed: (1) increased lipid-peroxidation (LPOX), depressed SOD and increased CAT; (2) an increase in all three biomarkers; (3) reduced LPOX, unchanged SOD and increased CAT; (4) increased LPOX and depressed SOD and CAT. Our results demonstrate the complexity stress response of this endangered species while indicating that preventive measures are urgent to control the discharge of pro-oxidants in its environment.

  3. Management of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

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    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient's medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves' disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation).

  4. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

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    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  6. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS......: Cardiac MRI was performed before and after euthyroidism was obtained by radioactive iodine treatment in 12 otherwise healthy patients (11 women and one man, mean age 59 years, range 44-71 years) with a nodular goiter and SH, and compared with eight healthy controls investigated at baseline. Cardiac data...... were expressed as an index, as per body surface area, except for heart rate (HR) and ejection fraction. RESULTS: Post-treatment cardiac MRI was performed in median 139 days after a normalized serum TSH value had been recorded. During treatment, serum TSH increased from (median (range)) 0.01 (0...

  7. Subclinical heart failure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a consequence of chronic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada S Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Our findings indicate the presence of subclinical heart failure in these patients. JIA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, with systemic disease, and with active disease are at greatest risk of developing subclinical heart failure.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2006-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has long-term sequelae that include osteoporosis, cardiovascular morbidity, and progression to overt thyrotoxicosis or thyroid failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT(4)) levels. All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, underwent thyroid screening by chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or below the 2.5th percentile for gestational age and whose serum fT(4) levels were 1.75 ng/dL or less were identified to have subclinical hyperthyroidism. Those women screened and delivered of a singleton infant weighing 500 g or more were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes in women identified with subclinical hyperthyroidism were compared with those in women whose TSH values were between the 5th and 95th percentiles. A total of 25,765 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of singleton infants. Of these, 433 (1.7%) were considered to have subclinical hyperthyroidism, which occurred more frequently in African-American and/or parous women. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were less likely to be complicated by hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.98). All other pregnancy complications and perinatal morbidity or mortality were not increased in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our results indicate that identification of subclinical hyperthyroidism and treatment during pregnancy is unwarranted. II-2.

  9. Role of Micronutrients on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Micronutrients in Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nutrition is one of the key factors in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Micronutrient supplements are widely used to prevent many chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, scientific evidence regarding this issue is still insufficient and current data on the association of dietary micronutrients and CVD risk is contradictory. Most of the randomized studies have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this review, role of each micronutrient on subclinical atherosclerosis will be evaluated thoroughly.

  10. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...... for risk discrimination, calibration and reclassification; and (ii) the economic costs and health benefits associated with measuring markers of subclinical organ damage....

  11. EAMJ May Subclinical.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... EL-Safty, I.A.M., GadalIah, M., Shouman, A.E. and. Nessim, D.E. Subclinical nephrotoxicity caused by smoking and occupational silica exposure among. Egyptian industrial workers. Arch. Med. Res. 2003;. 34: 415-421. 4. Ivandic, M., Hofmann, W. and Guder, W.G. The use of knowledge-based systems to ...

  12. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  13. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii......) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage...

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  15. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  16. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  17. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  18. Estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and cytotoxic effects elicited by water from the type localities of the endangered goodeid fish Girardinichthys viviparus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Armando; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Jiménez-Orozco, F Alejandro; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia

    2007-04-01

    Girardinichthys viviparus is a Mexican endangered endemic fish species living only in Lake Texcoco (LTX), one of two extant type localities for this species. The other type locality is Lake Zumpango (LZ). LTX and LZ are fed by wastewater treated at secondary level that contains several endocrine disrupting chemicals. Our goal was to assess the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects elicited in G. viviparus by water from the two type localities and by these same matrices enriched with PCBs in order to understand potential damage due to increased xenobiotic levels. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects were evaluated in vitro by E-screen assay in MCF-7 cells and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. PCBs were quantified in type localities. In vivo vitellogenin (VTG) induction was determined by a hybrid ELISA in adult laboratory-born fish exposed during 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days to LTX or LZ water in static exposure systems, and by the same matrices enriched with PCBs. We found PCBs only in LTX, but the water from both type localities elicit estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was not observed in MCF-7 cells exposed to LTX or LZ water. VTG induction was higher with LTX water than with LZ water; also the response of males was greater than in females. In the PCB-enriched matrices, VTG induction in both sexes exposed to LTX water was reduced compared to un-enriched matrices. Thus, the sublethal increases in PCB levels may be hazardous to both sexes since they are linked probably to hepatotoxicity.

  19. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLINE...... and EMBASE (inception to March 26, 2015) were searched without language restrictions for prospective cohort studies with thyroid function data and subsequent fractures. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual participant data were obtained from 13 prospective cohorts in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Japan....... Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Hop-de Groot, Rianne J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Ross, H Alec; den Heijer, Martin; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2013-01-01

    Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 73/372 women (19.6%). It occurred more often when pregnancy ended before 32 weeks of gestation (p = 0.008). In this cohort, subclinical hypothyroidism is more common after very preterm delivery. It may contribute to the elevated risk of remote cardiovascular disease.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  2. Natural Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Sytch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate the natural course of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH and to estimate possible predictable factors of overt hypothyroidism. Population of the study was selected from the patients with spontaneously elevated thyrotropin (TSH and normal free thyroxin (fT4 levels. Overall 87 patients (12 male, 75 female with SH without any therapy with thyroid hormones or iodide drugs or without previous thyroid surgery, thyrostatic therapy, or radioactive iodine therapy were included in the analysis. Results: the main risk factors of overt hypothyroidism in this population were positive thyroid antibodies (odds ratio = 3.99 and high initial level of TSH (>8 mU/l (odds ratio = 4.77. Patient’s age, gender or duration of SH did not affect significantly the risk of overt hypothyroidism. Conclusions: rational substitutive therapy with thyroid hormones was not discussed in this study, however the data suggest that positive thyroid antibodies and relatively high TSH level may be useful to decide upon such therapy in individuals with SH. Key words: hypothyroidism, Hashimotos, thyroiditis, thyrotropin.

  3. Phase I enzyme induction in Girardinichthys viviparus, an endangered goodeid fish, exposed to water from native localities enriched with polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Armando; Jiménez-Orozco, F Alejandro; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luís A; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, M Lilia

    2009-10-01

    The present study examines the induction of mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzymes, including CYP content CYP1A (EROD) activity and alcohol dehydrogenase activity (ADH), in an endemic Mexican fish species, the black-fin goodeid Girardinichthys viviparus, exposed to the water of two localities, Lake Texcoco (LTX) and Lake Zumpango, and to the same matrices enriched in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to simulate the potential toxic effects of sublethal increases in these xenobiotics. Fishes of both sexes born in the laboratory were exposed for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days. Water from the two types of localities of the black-fin goodeid contains MFO inducers. Of the two, the most contaminated is LTX water, which also contains PCBs. EROD activity was higher in all treatments with female compared with male fish. This suggests greater metabolic compromise in female fish as a response to damage caused by these xenobiotics. In this species, CYP induction displayed two patterns that were not always concurrent with higher CYP1A activity. In the enriched matrix system, biotransformation processes were notably altered. Increased ADH may indicate that this enzyme is involved in the biotransformation of PCBs and their metabolites, particularly in male fish, and provides at least a part of reductive power required by the MFO enzymes; however, specific studies are needed to clarify this point.

  4. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C; Bielak, Lawrence F; Cox, Amanda J; Dörr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; Smith, Albert V; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B; Carr, J Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986004; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H; Goodarzi, Mark O; Harris, Tamara B; Heckbert, Susan R; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Išgum, Ivana|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31484984X; Jukema, J Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kral, Brian G; Launer, Lenore J; Massaro, Joseph; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mosley, Thomas H; de Mutsert, Renée; Newman, Anne B; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S; Peloso, Gina M; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A; Raffield, Laura M; Raitakari, Olli T; Reilly, Dermot F; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Völker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassel, Christina L; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W; Deary, Ian J; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Psaty, Bruce M; Rader, Daniel J; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the

  5. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Demidova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed 20 women suffering from adiposity and subclinical hypothyroidism. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, BP and insulinresistance, the extent and variants of fat tissue distribution, a test with physical exercise, all research in dynamics (in the beginning and 6 months after normalization of TSH level against the background of substitution therapy with L-T4 were evaluated. The positive shifts revealed during the afore mentioned research allow us to express our opinion in favour of carrying out substitution therapy with L-T4 at subclinical hypothyroidism .

  6. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  7. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  8. Sub-clinical Addison′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As autoimmune adrenalitis is fast replacing tuberculosis as the most common etiology cause of adrenal insufficiency, subtler forms of the same are being recognised as subclinical addison′s disease. In this article, we review what is known about this entity till date.

  9. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-fold increase in IgG antibodies to. AGG2,3 and to either PT or FHA or both are shown in Figs. 1 - 3. The subclinical pertussis led to stimulation of antibody responses to multiple antigens of Bordetella perttjssis. Antibody levels attained were significantly higher for all pertussis antibody assays than those detected in' age-.

  10. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  11. Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F; Aydin, S; Kaygusuzoglu, E; Yildiz, H; Erulas, F A; Ozkan, Y

    2008-07-01

    Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as orotic acid concentration were detected by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that ghrelin level in milk and serum was significantly higher in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis than that of dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. This was also the case when the orotic acid concentrations in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis were compared with those dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, ghrelin and orotic acid occur in particularly high concentrations in subclinical mastitis, and might, therefore, be required in greater amounts for tissue repair and may be also used as a indicator for subclinical mastitis.

  12. Outcome of adrenalectomy for subclinical hypercortisolism and Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Gallucci, Pierpaolo; Lombardi, Celestino P; Bellantone, Rocco

    2017-01-01

    We compared operative and metabolic outcomes in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome caused by unilateral adrenal lesion, aiming to clarify the role of glucocorticoid replacement treatment in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome after adrenalectomy. The medical records of all the patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome or Cushing syndrome were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for subclinical Cushing syndrome were a pathologic dexamethasone suppression test plus 2 additional criteria. Twenty-nine patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 50 with Cushing syndrome were identified. No significant difference was found between patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome regarding lesion size, operative time, and hospital stay. Two patients out of 29 with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 3 out of 50 patients with Cushing syndrome experienced Clavien-Dindo grade II complications (P = .87). All the patients required postoperative glucocorticoid replacement that was discontinued within 6 months in 28 of the 29 patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and in 3 out of 50 Cushing syndrome patients (P Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Hypercortisolism was resolved in all the cases. Operative and metabolic outcomes of adrenalectomy are similar in subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Postoperative glucocorticoid replacement treatment is advisable in all patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Prolonged adrenal insufficiency is more frequent in Cushing syndrome patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  14. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  15. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

  16. SUBCLINICAL INTERSTITIAL PULMONARY INJURY IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bestaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 61 inpatients diagnosed with RA (according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria who were treated at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology; in so doing, high-resolution computed tomography revealed lung changes as a ground glass pattern in 15 patients, reticular striation, traction bronchoectases, and lung tissue changes as honeycomb ones in 25 patients; no lung abnormalities were found in 21 patients. DAS28 was applied to determine the inflammatory activity of RA. The RA patients underwent X-ray studies of the hand, foot, and chest, by using accordingly X-Ray unit and spiral computed tomography scanner (section thickness, 0.65 mm. External respiration function (ERF indicators were studied with plethysmograph. IgM rheumatoid factor was measured using an immune nephelometer. Serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were assayed by immunochemiluminescence technique on a Cobas e411 analyzer. The xMAP technology using a BioPlex200 analyzer was employed to determine the serum concentrations of 27 cytokines in 15 patients with subclinical IPI and in 25 with clinical IPI. Results and discussion. The major respiratory signs in patients with IPI proved to be cough (24 %, expectoration (20 %, dyspnea (16 %, and crepitation (64 % on auscultation. Three patients with subclinical IPI were found to have crepitation on auscultation. Respiratory symptoms were absent in the RA patients without IPI. It should be noted that there are a larger number of RA patients with a high smoking index among the RA patients with IPI than among those without IPI (p < 0.05. Investigation of ERF indicators revealed a statistically significantly lower lung diffusing capacity (LDC in the RA patients with subclinical IPI than in those without IPI (p < 0.05. Other ERF indicators showed no significant deviations of the reference values. LDC and total lung capacity appeared to be statistically

  17. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  19. Prevalence of strongylids of pigs in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 36.8% (77/209) infected pigs, 84.4%, 58.4%, 57.1%, 19.5% and 6.5% were for Hyostrongylus rubidus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides ransomi and Dictyocaulus viviparus respectively. Mixed infection with various nematode species accounted for 94.8% of the prevalence.

  20. 21 CFR 520.905c - Fenbendazole paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole paste. 520.905c Section 520.905c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus), stomach worms (Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi...

  1. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  2. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  3. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  4. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Cox, Amanda J.; Dorr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F.; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A.; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica; Smith, Albert V.; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L. Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A.; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D.; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Isgum, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kral, Brian G.; Launer, Lenore J.; Massaro, Joe; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Jr, Thomas H. Mosley; de Mutsert, Renee; Newman, Anne B.; Nguyen, Khanh-dung; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S.; Peloso, Gina M.; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A.; Raffield, Laura M.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reilly, Dermot F.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D.; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Volker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassel, Christina L.; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W.; Deary, Ian J.; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimaki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wilson, James G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Volzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background-The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease. We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghada A. Mohamed

    hypothyroidism was 3.4% in males and 5.8% in females.14 Perros et al. found that the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.3% in men and 4.6% in women with Type 2 diabetes.15 The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our study was greater than those of both these studies and revealed a dominance of.

  6. Microorganisms associated with sub-Clinical mastitis and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camels are adapted to the arid and semi arid lands (ASAL), but their full milking potential is affected by udder infection especially sub-clinical mastitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common pathogens responsible for sub-clinical mastitis in camels kept under ranch conditions in Northern Kenya. A total of ...

  7. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  8. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism: how should it be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatourechi, Vahab

    2002-01-01

    The term 'subclinical hypothyroidism' applies to patients who have mildly increased levels of serum thyrotropin hormone (TSH) and normal levels of thyroxine and liothyronine (triiodiothyronine). This very common condition, also called 'mild thyroid failure', accounts for 75% of patients who have increased serum TSH. For patients with sustained increases above 10 mIU/L, there is uniform agreement that thyroxine therapy is indicated. Therapy for milder forms of hypothyroidism is controversial. Some randomized clinical trials favor therapy for mild thyroid failure, but they are inconclusive because they lack stratification for the subgroup of patients with TSH levels below 10 mIU/L. For this subgroup, we recommend individualized management. The presence of goiter, positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, manic-depressive disorder, fertility problems, or pregnancy or the anticipation of pregnancy favors the initiation of therapy. Positive TPO antibodies are a strong indication for therapy because of the high likelihood in these patients of progression to overt hypothyroidism; patients who are already receiving thyroxine should have adjustments of their dosage. Children and adolescents with mild thyroid failure should also be treated because of possible adverse effects on growth and development. It has been suggested that subclinical hypothyroidism is a cardiovascular risk factor, however further investigation is needed. The controversy surrounding therapy will not be resolved until more randomized studies are available for the subgroup of patients with TSH <10 mIU/L, and until the question of cardiovascular risk factors is further clarified.

  10. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  11. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  13. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which...... adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... Depression Scale 15 (GDS) at baseline and after 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender and education. RESULTS: Among 606 participants (41% women, mean age 75 years) without anti-depressant medication, GDS scores at baseline did not differ for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 47...

  15. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  16. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis of bioprosthetic aortic valves after transcatheter valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been found with CT imaging. The objective of this study was to report the prevalence of subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical...... and transcatheter aortic valves and the effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on the subclinical leaflet thrombosis and subsequent valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes on the basis of two registries of patients who had CT imaging done after TAVR or SAVR. METHODS: Patients enrolled between Dec 22, 2014......, and Jan 18, 2017, in the RESOLVE registry, and between June 2, 2014, and Sept 28, 2016, in the SAVORY registry, had CT imaging done with a dedicated four-dimensional volume-rendered imaging protocol at varying intervals after TAVR and SAVR. We defined subclinical leaflet thrombosis as the presence...

  17. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  18. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH...

  19. Subclinical Measures of Atherosclerosis: Genetics and Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kavousi (Maryam)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, systematic condition with a long asymptomatic phase. Atherosclerosis develops gradually as a subclinical condition over the life course and eventually becomes clinically apparent as ischemic heart disease,

  20. Onychomycosis is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalan, Orhan; Adar, Adem; Keles, Hakan; Ertugrul, Goksen; Ozkan, Nurhayat; Aktas, Habibullah; Karakaya, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of toenail onychomycosis with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Consecutive diabetic patients who were seen at our outpatient clinic were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was assessed and toenail onychomycosis was diagnosed with microscopic evaluation. We investigated 127 patients with diabetes melltus type 2. Overall, the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis was 37.8 % (48 of 127). Of the 127 patients, 60 (47.2 %) had subclinical atherosclerosis (CIMT ≥ 1 mm). Prevalence of male gender (43.3 % vs. 22.4 %, p = 0.012) and onychomycosis (53.3 % vs. 23.9 %, p = 0.001) was significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Among biochemical parameters, low-density lipoprotein (122 ± 38 mg/dL vs. 108 ± 36 mg/dL, p = 0.039) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (median 8.4 %, IQR: 2.1 % vs. median 7.5 %, IQR: 1.6 %, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Study groups were similar with respect to all other demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the presence of onychomycosis was independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (OR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.16 to 6.30) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Onychomycosis may be a marker of atherosclerotic arterial involvement.

  1. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stijn C H; ten Kate, Gerrit L; Akkus, Zeynettin; Renaud, Guillaume; Sijbrands, Eric J G; ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Bosch, Johan G; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler for the detection of subclinical atherosclerotic plaques is suboptimal. The aim of this study is to assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) added to standard carotid ultrasound improves the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement, standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler imaging, and CEUS were performed in 100 asymptomatic patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. CEUS was performed using intravenous administration of SonoVue™ contrast agent (Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy). CIMT, standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were reviewed by two independent observers. Standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were scored for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed if patients had a CIMT above their age-corrected threshold value or if atherosclerotic plaques were present on standard carotid ultrasound clips or CEUS clips. McNemar's test was performed to compare between groups. Twenty-one patients (21%) had a thickened CIMT value and were considered to have subclinical atherosclerosis. Standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 77 patients (77%). The addition of CEUS to the standard ultrasound protocol demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 88 patients (88%). The incorporation of CEUS into the standard carotid ultrasound protocol resulted in a significantly improved detection of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques which were only detected with CEUS and not with standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging were predominantly hypoechoic.

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Bober, Ece

    2014-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the reference range with normal serum free thyroxin (sT4) and free triiodothyronine (sT3) levels. The prevalence of SH in children and adolescents is reported between 1.7% and 9.5%. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most prevalent cause of SH in children. Although it has been suggested that SH is entirely an asymptomatic laboratory diagnosis, typical hypothyroid symptoms as well have been reported in some patients. Results of the adult studies on SH revealed that SH had unfavorable effects on cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis); metabolic parameters (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, etc.); neuromuscular system; and cognitive functions in the long term. The number of studies investigating the effect of childhood SH on growth, bone maturation, lipid parameters, carbohydrate metabolism, neuromuscular system, and cognitive and cardiac function is limited. Knowledge about the natural history of SH is unclear even though there are numerous studies upon this subject. In children and adults, treatment of SH with L-T₄ is still a matter of debate, and there is no consensus on this issue yet.

  3. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  4. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  6. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.

  7. Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Schuff, K G; Carlson, N E; Carello, P; Janowsky, J S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis alters health status, mood, and/or cognitive function. This was a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects. A total of 33 hypothyroid subjects receiving l-T(4) were included in the study. Subjects underwent measurements of health status, mood, and cognition: Short Form 36 (SF-36); Profile of Mood States (POMS); and tests of declarative memory (Paragraph Recall, Complex Figure), working memory (N-Back, Subject Ordered Pointing, and Digit Span Backwards), and motor learning (Pursuit Rotor). These were repeated after 12 wk on each of the study arms. Mean TSH levels decreased from 2.15 to 0.17 mU/liter on the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm (P learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels. We found slightly impaired physical health status but improvements in measures of mental health and mood in l-T(4) treated hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion. Motor learning was also improved. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function.

  8. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  9. Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: racial profiling is necessary!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakzai, Sarwar H; Orakzai, Raza H; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2006-11-01

    We aim to review the studies comparing coronary calcification across different ethnic groups. There is still uncertainty regarding ethnic differences in the prevalence, progression, and risk of coronary artery disease. Clues to possible racial differences in rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be found by identifying subclinical disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be used to predict risk of CHD in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Online databases were searched for studies assessing racial differences in CAC. Most of the published studies have shown that racial differences exist in the prevalence and severity of CAC. Whites have a higher prevalence of CAC as compared to African Americans and other ethnic groups even after adjustment for risk factors. These differences in CAC are even more pronounced in men and in the elderly. Data regarding the distribution of CAC in ethnic groups outside the United States are limited. Emerging evidence indicates that while several ethnic groups outside the United States tend to have a greater prevalence of CHD risk factors, their prevalence of CAC is lower, as compared with Americans. Thus, the data obtained in the United States may not be able to be fully extrapolated to populations outside the United States for assessment of CHD risk. The presence and extent of CAC varies among different racial groups within and outside the United States. The relationship between calcification and the incidence of CHD in these ethnic groups needs further exploration. Thus, it is important to develop ethnic specific CAC nomograms to more accurately determine the underlying CHD risk associated with CAC in these individuals. It will also be imperative to obtain outcome data and relate it to baseline levels of CAC to help us put in perspective the significance of racial differences in CAC and how they impact on cardiac risk prediction.

  11. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  12. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  13. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  14. Increased H-FABP concentrations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Possible marker for subclinical myocardial damage and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, O; Akbal, E; Köklü, S; Tuna, Y; Koçak, E; Başar, N; Tok, D; Erbiş, H; Senes, M

    2013-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder which is reported as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with NAFLD are also at risk of future cardiac events independently of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine serum concentrations of heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in NAFLD and to investigate its correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 34 patients with NAFLD and 35 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. NAFLD patients had elevated liver enzymes and steatosis graded on ultrasonography. Healthy subjects had normal liver enzymes and no steatosis on ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis were examined. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) which was measured by high resolution B mode ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were elevated in patients with NAFLD (16.3 ± 4.0 ng/ml) when compared with healthy controls (13.8 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p  subclinical myocardial damage in patients with NAFLD but also of subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of metabolic syndrome and cardiac risk factors.

  15. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

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    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  16. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...

  17. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

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    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  18. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...

  19. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Curley, Erin E.; Tung, Esther S.

    2016-01-01

    phenomena, and clinical correlates. RESULTS: There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive......BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve...... diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. METHODS: Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological...

  20. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  1. Clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Etzkorn, Jeremy R; Sobanko, Joseph F; Margolis, David J; Gelfand, Joel M; Chu, Emily Y; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Shaikh, Waqas R; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical spread of in situ melanoma occurs at a wide frequency, ranging from 12% to 71%. To identify clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma. We used a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 674 consecutive in situ melanomas to examine 627 patients treated with Mohs surgery and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining. The presence of subclinical spread was correlated with clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated significantly increased odds for subclinical spread of in situ melanomas when they were located on the head or neck, at acral sites, or on the pretibial leg (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.41-3.40); in persons with a history of prior treatment (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.74-4.420); melanomas of preoperative size >1 cm (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.23-2.46, P = .002); or in persons ≥60 years old (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = .042). A count prediction model demonstrated that the risk for subclinical spread increased with the number of clinical risk factors. We used a single-site, retrospective study design. Clarifying the risk factors for subclinical spread might help to refine triage of in situ melanomas to the appropriate surgical techniques for margin assessment prior to reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolically healthy obesity and the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Shin, Hee-Young; Chang, Yoosoo; Kang, Mira; Jee, Jaehwan; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Ahn, Hyeon Seon; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Son, Hee Jung; Ryu, Seungho

    2017-07-01

    Although obesity and metabolic abnormalities are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the risk of cardiovascular disease among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO), remains unclear. We examined the association between body mass index categories and the development of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of metabolically healthy individuals. We conducted a cohort study of 6453 men without subclinical carotid atherosclerosis or metabolic abnormalities at baseline, who underwent repeated health check-up examinations that included carotid ultrasound. A metabolically healthy state was defined as having no metabolic syndrome components and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was assessed using ultrasound. During the follow-up period of 34,797.9 person-years, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis developed in 1916 participants. Comparing overweight and obese with normal weight participants, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis were 1.24 (1.12-1.38) and 1.54 (1.38-1.72), respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for metabolic variables. This association was also evident in MHO men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm) and it did not differ across any clinically relevant subgroups evaluated. In a large cohort study of strictly defined metabolically healthy participants, the MHO phenotype was associated with an increased risk of incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, providing evidence that the MHO phenotype is not protective from cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

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    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  5. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  6. Subclinical inflammation in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Dina Gamal Eldeen Y. Elkholi

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: PCOS and controls with andriod obesity had higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and lower levels of anti-inflammatory biomarkers than PCOS and controls with gynoid obesity. The former groups had IR/HI and metabolic disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism while the latter groups had NIS and normal metabolism. It seems that these metabolic disorders are induced by android obesity with subclinical inflammation of the expanded visceral adipose tissue rather than PCOS per se. The PCOS per se is not associated with subclinical inflammation.

  7. Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrick, F N; Hockett, M E; Saxton, A M; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    2001-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of mastitis during early lactation on the reproductive performance of Jersey cows. From 1986 to 1997, quarter foremilk samples were collected every 4 to 8 wk during lactation, at drying off, near calving, and when clinical mastitis was diagnosed and were evaluated microbiologically to identify causative bacteria. Services per conception, days open, and days to first service were obtained from DHIA records on 752 cows. Cows were separated by mastitis type (clinical, n = 186; subclinical, n = 240; control, uninfected or infected after confirmed pregnancy, n = 326). Cows were reclassified based on the time of clinical or subclinical mastitis as follows: period 1, before first service (n = 374); period 2, between first service and pregnancy (n = 52); and period 3, after confirmed pregnancy or uninfected (control; n = 326). Milk production did not differ for any group separations. Reproductive performance did not differ between gram-negative or gram-positive mastitis pathogens. Cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis before first service had increased days to first service (77.3+/-2.7 and 74.8+/-2.7 d), days open (110.0+/-6.9 and 107.7+/-6.9 d), and services per conception (2.1+/-0.2 and 2.1+/-0.2) compared with controls (67.8+/-2.2 d, 85.4+/-5.8 d, 1.6+/-0.2; P < 0.05). Days to first service were not increased in cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis during period 2 (70.6+/-3.3 and 61.2+/-7.8 d). However, days open (143.6+/-8.5 d) and services per conception (3.0+/-0.2) were increased (P < 0.05) in cows with clinical mastitis during period 2, but not in cows with subclinical mastitis (90.9+/-20.2 d and 2.1+/-0.5). Cows initially diagnosed subclinical that became clinical during period 2 exhibited increased days to first service (93.9+/-10.1 d), days open (196.0+/-26.2 d), and services per conception (4.3+/-0.7) compared with control animals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis reduced reproductive

  8. Weight History and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Cobb, Laura; Lazo, Mariana; Bello, Natalie A; Shah, Amil; Nambi, Vijay; Blumenthal, Roger S; Gerstenblith, Gary; Solomon, Scott D; Ballantyne, Christie M; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2017-11-20

    Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years. Duration of obesity was calculated in years. A cumulative weight measure of "excess BMI-years" was also calculated [product of mean BMI (centered at 25 kg/m(2)) over all ARIC time points × follow-up duration]. We used logistic regression to estimate associations of weight history metrics with increased hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L) at visit 4. Overall, 623 individuals (7%) had increased hs-cTnT at visit 4. Within each current BMI category, previous excess weight was associated with increased hs-cTnT, with the strongest associations for those with past and current obesity [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 2.51-5.90 for obesity at age 25 years and visit 4]. Each 10-year longer obesity duration was associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35). Each 100 higher excess BMI-years was also progressively associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.27). Previous obesity and greater cumulative weight from young adulthood increase the likelihood of myocardial damage, indicating long-term toxic effects of adiposity on the myocardium and the need for weight maintenance strategies targeting the entire life span. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  9. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Katseli, Anastasia; Vassilatou, Evangeline; Papanastasiou, Lambrini; Piaditis, George; Zografos, George N

    2013-06-01

    Subclinical Cushing syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas has been associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. The management of these patients, be it conservative or surgical, is still debated, but there is accumulating evidence that surgery is best and that laparoscopic adrenalectomy, when possible, is the most preferred procedure. Here we present the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome and determine the effect of this procedure on components of the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-nine patients, 8 men and 21 women with adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing syndrome who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, were studied retrospectively. They had undergone postoperative follow-up for improvement or worsening of their arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose level for a mean period of 77 months. Preoperatively, 17 patients (58.6 %) had arterial hypertension, 14 (48.3 %) had a body mass index exceeding 27 kg/m(2), and 12 (41.4 %) had diabetes mellitus. Postoperatively, a decrease in mean arterial pressure was found in 12 patients (70.6 %), a decrease in body mass index in 6 patients (42.9 %), and an improvement in glycemic control in 5 patients (41.7 %). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is beneficial in many patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome because it reduces arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose levels. Prospective randomized studies are needed to compare laparoscopic adrenalectomy with a conservative approach and to confirm these results.

  10. Subclinical renal abnormalities in young thalassemia major and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Limited data are available about renal involvement in thalassemia patients. Renal dysfunction in these patients seems to be multifactorial attributed mainly to long standing anemia, chronic hypoxia, iron overload and toxicity of iron chelators. Objective: To assess the frequency of subclinical glomerular and ...

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood obesity and its correlation with lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emokpae, M A; Adeleke, S I; Uwumarongie, H O

    2011-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on body mass index. The objectives of the study were (i) to determine whether levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are elevated in obese children, (ii) to compare the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in obese with non-obese and (iii) to examine the association of subclinical hypothyroidism with lipoproteins and body mass index. Fifty six obese children/adolescent girls aged 10.5 +/- 4.3 years, BMI 31.2 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 and apparently healthy children aged 11.2 +/- 5.2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 2.1 kg/m2 were evaluated. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were measured using ELECSYS 1010 autoanalyzer while serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and glucose were measured using enzyme catalyzed colorimetric techniques. Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 10.7% of obese subjects. Significantly increase levels of T3 (p obese than control subjects. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 10.7% of obese children. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index in childhood/adolescent obesity. There is need for this group ofsubjects to be evaluated for thyroid hormones so that those requiring therapy can be diagnosed and treated.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients is higher than that of the general population. Undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction may affect the metabolic control and enhance cardiovascular, and other chronic complication risks in diabetic patients. Few studies have examined the relationship between subclinical ...

  13. Prevalence, bacterial etiology and risk factors of subclinical mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high prevalence of subclinical mastitis revealed in Nyeri calls for concerted control measures. The high isolation rate of Staphylococcus species signals the need for improvement of the hygienic standards of these goats during milking and within their pens. Very low antibiotic resistance in the area indicates that most ...

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Is it important in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Eray; Ergin, Rahime Nida; Öztekin, Deniz Can; Kars, Bülent; Çakır, Seda; Sofuoğlu, Kenan

    2017-06-01

    To compare intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of women with subclinical hypothyroidism with those of euthyroid women. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Out of 2529 ICSI cycles evaluated, 41 women with hypothyroidism, 28 women with hyperthyroidism, and 128 women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were excluded, and 2336 cycles were analyzed. Women were identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism (case group, n=105) in the presence of a thyroid-stimulating hormone level >4.5 mU/L and normal free T4 and compared with euthyroid controls (n=2231). The mean age, body mass index, day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone level, and antral follicle count of the study patients were similar to the control group (p>0.5). The cycle cancellation rate of the study group was similar to the control group (13.3% vs. 7.6%, p=0.1). The clinical pregnancy rate was 21.2% in the study group, which was significantly lower than the 35.8% in the control group (p=0.04). The take-home baby rate was also significantly lower in the study group compared with the control groups (13.5% vs. 31.4% respectively, p=0.01). Both the clinical pregnancy rate and the take-home baby rate is lower in women with subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of ICSI cycle.

  15. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: Five hundred and sixty-five patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 or unknown), ...

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat or not to treat??? Congenital hypothyroidism is 30 times more frequent in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) than in the population of healthy children [1]. Mild isolated plasma thyrotropin. (TSH) elevation with normal thyroxine (T4) ...

  17. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  18. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  19. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The association between HIV and CVD has been established in many studies. However, information is still lacking on subclinical disease as well as its associated risk factors in this population. This study aimed at ...

  20. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence, pattern and predictors. ... Mean age was 70.1 ± 6.2 years, 77.7% were married. Prevalence of S-MEM ... Independent clinical predictors of S-MEM included previous head injury, diabetes, history of osteoarthritis of knee joints, and absent acoustic reflex.

  1. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  2. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  3. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  4. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolesc......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.......28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. RESULTS...

  5. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  6. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, David J.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older personswith this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving...... 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg...... if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptomsscore and Tiredness score on a thyroid...

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data...... hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults....

  8. Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, R; Cheung, N; Islam, FMA; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Cotch, MF; Sharrett, AR; O'leary, D; Wong, TY

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. Design Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Participants Nine hundred twenty-seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Diabetic retinopathy was ascertaine...

  9. Is Diabetic Retinopathy Related to Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryo; Cheung, Ning; Islam, FM Amirul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara EK; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sharrett, A Richey; O’Leary, Daniel; Wong, Tien Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. Our study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred and twenty seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS DR was ascertained from retinal photographs according to modification of the Airlie House Classification system. Vision threatening DR (VTDR) was defined as severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR or clinically significant macular edema. Subclinical CVD measures were assessed and defined as follows: high coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, defined as CAC score≥400; low ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as ABI25% stenosis or presence of carotid plaque. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between DR and subclinical CVD measures. RESULTS The prevalence of DR and VTDR in this sample was 30.0% and 7.2%, respectively. VTDR was associated with a high CAC score (odds ratio [OR] 2.33, 95% condifence interval [CI] 1.15–4.73), low ABI (OR 2.54; 95%CI, 1.08–5.99) and high ABI (OR 12.6, 95% CI, 1.14, 140.6), after adjusting for risk factors including hemoglobin A1c level and duration of diabetes. The association between VTDR and high CAC score remained significant after further adjustment for hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications. DR was not significantly associated with measures of carotid artery disease. CONCLUSIONS In persons with diabetes without a history of clinical CVD, the presence of advanced stage of DR is associated with subclinical coronary artery disease. These findings emphasize the need to be careful about the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of DR. PMID:21168222

  10. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  11. Subclinical ketosis: prevalence and associations with production and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    Cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds were monitored for subclinical ketosis for a period of two and one half years. Milk samples were routinely collected and the level of milk ketone bodies determined by the use of a commercial nitroprusside based test powder (reactions scored as negative, +1 or +2). Approximately 92% of positive reactions were observed in the first 65 days of lactation and for that time period the prevalence of ketosis was 12.1%. Based on this prevalence, the minimum possible duration of subclinical ketosis would be 7.9 days and the minimum possible lactational incidence rate would be 12.1%. The prevalence during the first 65 days of lactation in individual herds ranged from 0 to 33.9%. Subclinical ketosis was more likely to be found in cows experiencing metritis than in unaffected cows. Detection of elevated levels of milk ketones also indicated that the cow had a significantly higher risk of having clinical ketosis, metritis or cystic ovaries diagnosed within the following four days. Milk ketone scores of +1 and +2 were found to be associated with a reduction in daily milk production of 1.0 and 1.4 kg of milk respectively. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6713247

  12. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria Helena; Gomes, Filumena Maria da Silva; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P 3,500 g was associated with (a) BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P 75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P 3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25648854

  13. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P3,500 g was associated with (a BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis.

  14. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  15. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка; Юлия Николаевна Шапошникова

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of...

  16. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  17. Subclinical atherosclerosis in low Framingham risk HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Rafael; Reus, Sergio; López, Nicolás; Portilla, Irene; Sánchez-Payá, José; Giner, Livia; Boix, Vicente; Merino, Esperanza; Torrús, Diego; Moreno-Pérez, Óscar; Portilla, Joaquín

    2017-08-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex, and differences between HIV-infected patients and general population cannot be completely explained by the higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to analyse the association between inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV patients with low Framingham risk score. Case-control study. Outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic in a university hospital. HIV-1-infected patients aged > 35 years receiving antiretroviral treatment with viral load  5 cigarettes/day; diabetes; hypertension; vascular diseases. subclinical atherosclerosis determined by ultrasonography: common carotid intima-media thickness greater than 0·8 mm or carotid plaque presence. Explanatory variables: ribosomal bacterial DNA (rDNA), sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α. Eighty-four patients were included, 75% male, mean age 42 years and mean CD4+ cells 657 ± 215/mm(3) . Median Framingham risk score was 1% at 10 years (percentile 25-75: 0·5-4%). Eighteen patients (21%) had subclinical atherosclerosis; the associated factors were older age (P = 0·001), waist-hip ratio (P = 0·01), time from HIV diagnosis (P = 0·02), rDNA (P = 0·04) and IL-6 (P = 0·01). In multivariate analysis, OR for subclinical atherosclerosis was 7 (95% CI, 1.3-40, P = 0.02) and 9 (95% CI, 1.0-85, P = 0.04) for patients older than 44 years and IL-6 > 6·6 pg/mL, respectively. Well-controlled HIV patients with low Framingham risk score have a high prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, and the main risk factors are age and inflammation. These patients are not receiving primary prophylaxis for cardiovascular events according to current guidelines. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  18. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Peaceman, Alan M; Varner, Michael W; Sorokin, Yoram; Hirtz, Deborah G; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Tolosa, Jorge; Caritis, Steve N; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2017-03-02

    Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T4) level (0.86 to 1.90 ng per deciliter [11 to 24 pmol per liter]), and for hypothyroxinemia, defined as a normal thyrotropin level (0.08 to 3.99 mU per liter) and a low free T4 level (hypothyroidism underwent randomization at a mean of 16.7 weeks of gestation, and 526 with hypothyroxinemia at a mean of 17.8 weeks of gestation. In the subclinical hypothyroidism trial, the median IQ score of the children was 97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 99) in the levothyroxine group and 94 (95% CI, 92 to 96) in the placebo group (P=0.71). In the hypothyroxinemia trial, the median IQ score was 94 (95% CI, 91 to 95) in the levothyroxine group and 91 (95% CI, 89 to 93) in the placebo group (P=0.30). In each trial, IQ scores were missing for 4% of the children. There were no significant between-group differences in either trial in any other neurocognitive or pregnancy outcomes or in the incidence of adverse events, which was low in both groups. Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia beginning between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation did not result in significantly better cognitive outcomes in children through 5 years of age than no treatment for those conditions. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00388297 .).

  19. Endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders, physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renate T de Jongh; Paul Lips; Natasja M van Schoor; Kelly J Rijs; Dorly J H Deeg; Hannie C Comijs; Mark H H Kramer; Jan P Vandenbroucke; Olaf M Dekkers

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To what extent endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders contribute to impaired physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals remains a matter of debate. Design...

  20. Positive and negative subclinical symptoms and MCCB performance in non-psychiatric controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Korponay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB in a large (n = 303 and demographically diverse non-clinical sample. We found that compared to participants with low levels of subclinical positive symptoms, participants with high levels of subclinical positive symptoms performed significantly better in the domains of working memory (p < .001, verbal learning (p = .007 and visual learning (p = .014. Although comparison of participants with high and low levels of subclinical negative symptoms revealed no differences in MCCB performance, we found that individuals with high levels of subclinical negative symptoms performed significantly better on a measure of estimated IQ (WRAT-3 Reading subtest; p = .02 than those with low levels of subclinical negative symptoms. These results are at odds with prior reports that have generally shown a negative relationship between neurocognitive functioning and severity of subclinical psychotic symptoms, and suggest some potential discontinuities between clinically significant psychotic symptoms and sub-syndromal manifestations of psychosis.

  1. Prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnancy loss clinic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khalid, A S; Joyce, C; O'Donoghue, K

    2013-01-01

    ...% of pregnancies respectively. We examined the prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in women with recurrent miscarriage, late miscarriage and stillbirth attending the Pregnancy Loss Clinic...

  2. Increased left atrial pressure in non-heart failure patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Sairaku

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular risk is still debated. We aimed to measure the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and the left atrial (LA pressure. Methods The LA pressures and thyroid function were measured in consecutive patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, who did not have any known heart failure, structural heart disease, or overt thyroid disease. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism (4.5≤ thyroid-stimulating hormone 18 mmHg (odds ratio 3.94, 95% CI 1.28 11.2; P = 0.02. Conclusions Subclinical hypothyroidism may increase the LA pressure in AF patients.

  3. Unresolved Subclinical Hypothyroidism is Independently Associated with Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Oh; Lee, Ihn Suk; Choi, Yoo A; Lee, Sang Ju; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Hye Eun; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hye Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Suk Young; Hwang, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have subclinical hypothyroidism. However, few reports have investigated changes in the status of subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients and its clinical significance in CKD progression. Methods: We included 168 patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 2-4. The normalization of subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up was assessed, and the association between transitions in subclinical hypothyroid status and the rate of decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. Results: At baseline, 127 patients were euthyroid and 41 (24.4%) patients were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these 41 patients, 21 (51.2%) spontaneously resolved to euthyroid during follow-up. The rate of eGFR decline of patients with resolved subclinical hypothyroidism was similar to that of euthyroid patients. The patients with unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism showed a steeper renal function decline than patients with euthyroidism or resolved subclinical hypothyroidism (all p hypothyroidism than in those who were euthyroid (p = 0.006). In multivariate linear regression for rate of eGFR decrease, unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism (β = -5.77, p = 0.001), baseline renal function (β = -0.12, p hypothyroidism did not resolve to euthyroidism, and this lack of resolution was independently associated with rapid renal function decline. PMID:24396286

  4. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  5. Subclinical atherosclerosis and obesity phenotypes among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Susan T; Smulevitz, Beverly; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Reininger, Belinda; McPherson, David D; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2015-03-18

    Data on the influence of obesity on atherosclerosis in Hispanics are inconsistent, possibly related to varying cardiometabolic risk among obese individuals. We aimed to determine the association of obesity and cardiometabolic risk with subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican-Americans. Participants (n=503) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Metabolic health was defined as 5.13; or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >3 mg/L. Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured. A high proportion of participants (77.8%) were metabolically unhealthy; they were more likely to be male, older, with fewer years of education, and less likely to meet daily recommendations regarding fruit and vegetable servings. One-third (31.8%) had abnormal carotid ultrasound findings. After adjusting for covariates, mean cIMT varied across the obesity phenotypes (P=0.0001); there was no difference among the metabolically unhealthy regardless of whether they were obese or not. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for covariates, cardiometabolic risk (P=0.0159), but not obesity (P=0.1446), was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. In Mexican-Americans, cardiometabolic risk has a greater effect on early atherosclerosis development than body mass index. Non-obese but metabolically unhealthy participants had similar development of subclinical atherosclerosis as their obese counterparts. Interventions to maintain metabolic health among obese and non-obese patients may be a more important goal than weight loss alone. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  7. [Concept and clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Mitsuhide; Tanabe, Akiyo; Tsuiki, Mika

    2010-03-01

    The clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome has been widely recognized because of its high prevalence in adrenal incidentaloma. Circulatory and metabolic disorders are the most frequent and important complications of the disease state. Since those complications show aggravation during the clinical course and improvement after surgery, appropriate diagnosis and treatment are essential. Diagnostic criteria, especially the cutoff value of plasma cortisol after dexamethasone suppression, are markedly affected by the sensitivity and specificity of cortisol assay methods. Revision of the diagnostic criteria should reflect the prognosis of the disease state.

  8. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  9. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sally M; Middleton, Philippa; Cossich, Mary C; Crowther, Caroline A

    2010-07-07

    Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included three RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 314 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). One trial of 30 hypothyroid women compared levothyroxine doses, but only reported biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the three trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and decreased incidence of moderate to advanced postpartum thyroiditis. Levothyroxine treatment of clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy is already standard

  10. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH.......05). These changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less pronounced than in 15 women with overt hypothyroidism, also studied. Taking the two groups together (n = 31), pretreatment thyroid function (expressed as either TSH or free T(4) estimate) correlated to CO and SVR as well as the changes induced...... by LT(4) (p hypothyroidism should...

  11. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  12. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  13. Femoral and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis association with risk factors and coronary calcium: the AWHS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Early subclinical atherosclerosis has been mainly researched in carotid arteries. The potential value of femoral arteries for improving the predictive capacity of traditional risk factors is an understudied area. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the association of subclinical ca...

  14. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Piero; Cipriani, Paola; Masedu, Francesco; Romano, Silvio; Berardicurti, Onorina; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Paola; Alvaro, Saverio; Penco, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV) and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis. We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS), at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis. Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  15. FEATURES PREGNANCY AND BIRTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM, LIVING IN THE FAR NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-02-01

    Results. The medication correction of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in extreme north indicated less thyroid gland, than in women without medication correcting this condition. In newborns of mothers with subclinical hypothyroidism, there has been an increase in the size of the thyroid gland and reduced Apgar score.

  16. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  17. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  18. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p ketosis.

  19. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: 200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (pmastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Imaging subclinical atherosclerosis: is it ready for prime time? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Ibáñez, Borja; Fuster, Valentín

    2014-10-01

    Imaging subclinical atherosclerosis holds the promise of individualized cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. The large arsenal of noninvasive imaging techniques available today is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, there is a debate about the advisability of clinical screens for subclinical atherosclerosis and which modality is the most appropriate for monitoring risk and atherosclerosis progression. This article offers an overview of the traditional and emerging noninvasive imaging modalities used to detect early atherosclerosis, surveys population studies addressing the value of subclinical atherosclerosis detection, and also examines guideline recommendations for their clinical implementation. The clinical relevance of this manuscript lies in the potential of current imaging technology to improve CV risk prediction based on traditional risk factors and the present recommendations for subclinical atherosclerosis assessment. Noninvasive imaging will also help to identify individuals at high CV who would benefit from intensive prevention or therapeutic interventions.

  1. Subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereflican, M; Sereflican, B; Dagistan, E; Goksugur, N; Kizildag, B

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS) is an inflammatory oral mucosal disease. It has been known that inflammatory cascade plays important role in the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical atherosclerotic findings and a systemic inflammatory disease, RAS. In total, 32 patients with RAS were matched with 30 control subjects on the basis of age, sex, and major cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory parameters including lipid profiles were determined for patients and controls. B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess carotid extra-medial thickness (cEMT) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Both cEMT and cIMT in the RAS group were significantly higher than in the control group (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between cIMT and cEMT (r = 0.381, P = 0.034). cIMT was positively correlated with age, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure, while cEMT was positively correlated with age in patients with RAS. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study to evaluate cEMT and cIMT in patients with RAS. This study presents morphological evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RAS. Further studies investigating the relationship between atherosclerosis and RAS are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. OCT-guided management of subclinical recurrent retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Houghton, Susan; Stathopoulos, Christina; Munier, Francis L

    2018-02-09

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor recurrence in the papillary or macular region is a threat to life and visual prognosis respectively, making early detection indispensable. This study demonstrates the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the early detection of subclinical tumor recurrence. Since June 2012, hand-held SD-OCT (spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography) of retro-equatorial foci, the optic head nerve and macula, is systematically performed under anesthesia in children treated and followed for Rb. Between June 2012 and January 2017, 16 subclinical recurrent tumors in 14 children were detected only by OCT in flat pigmented scars (n = 9), in type 2 regression (n = 3), on the optic nerve head (n = 3), and as secondary retinal seeding (n = 1). OCT has become invaluable in the modern management of Rb. It allows not only early detection of a lesion before any tumor extension towards the macula or optic nerve head, but also the monitoring of the therapeutic response.

  3. Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-12-01

    The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (≥ 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ≥ 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals.

  4. Association of obstructive sleep apnoea with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Erdmann, Timo; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Lehmann, Nils; Stang, Andreas; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Teschler, Helmut; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed i) to assess the prevalence of OSA in the general population and ii) to analyse the association of this disorder with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study a subgroup of 1604 subjects (791 men, age 50-80 years) underwent OSA screening. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured. OSA was defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h. OSA was observed in 29.1% of men and 15.6% of women. In a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for risk factors AHI was associated with CAC in men aged ≤65 years (estimated log-transformed increase of CAC = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.001-0.50, p = 0.051) and in women of any age (estimated log-transformed increase = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.04-0.41, p = 0.02). Doubling of the AHI was associated with a 19% increase of CAC in men aged ≤65 years and with a 17% increase in women of any age. In the general population aged ≥50 years OSA is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men aged ≤65 years and in women of any age, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvements in insulin sensitivity are blunted by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2009-02-01

    Exercise- and weight loss-induced improvements in insulin resistance (IR) are variable; some individuals experience robust enhancements in insulin sensitivity, whereas others do not. Thyroid hormone status is related to IR, but it is not clear whether subclinical hypothyroidism may help to explain the variability in improvements in IR with diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether thyroid hormone status is related to the improvement in insulin sensitivity and physical fitness after weight loss and exercise training. By retrospective nested case-control analysis, eight subclinical hypothyroid (sHT) subjects and eight matched euthyroid controls underwent a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and peak oxygen uptake test, before and after a 16-wk program of moderate aerobic exercise combined with diet-induced weight loss. All subjects were middle-aged (57.3 +/- 3.3 yr), were overweight to obese (body mass index = 33.1 +/- 0.8 kg m(-2)), and had impaired glucose tolerance. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was significantly lower (P hypothyroidism may interfere with beneficial adaptations on muscle metabolism and physical fitness that typically occur with weight loss and increased physical activity. These results may have significant clinical implications because of the high prevalence of both hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in the aging population.

  6. Cardiac changes with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçaslan, Barış; Tigen, Mustafa Kürşat; Tekin, Ahmet Selami; Ciftçi, Hilmi

    2013-09-01

    Obesity has been linked to a spectrum of minor cardiovascular changes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on cardiac functions and its relations with subclinical hypothyroidism in healthy women. Eighty-eight consecutive "healthy" females (mean age: 31.2±6.6 years) were included in the study. Thyroid function tests and echocardiography studies were performed in all patients. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were also measured. A body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 was considered obese. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was higher in obese subjects (pobese subjects with higher E/e' (p=0.001) and larger left atrial volume (LAV) (pobese subjects (p=0.033). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were significantly higher in obese subjects (p=0.011) and were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, LAV, and LVM. The prevalence of abnormal systolic and diastolic functions showed stepwise increases with higher TSH levels in obese subjects. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of E/e' with anthromorphometric and biochemical parameters, and waist circumference was found to be the strongest independent variable correlated with the E/e' ratio. Cardiac structural and functional deteriorations may be related with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese subjects.

  7. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Genetic predisposition to obesity and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Lijuan; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-10-10

    Obesity has been associated with increased common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between genetic predisposition to obesity and CCA IMT. The study included 428 young Chinese adults with CCA IMT measured using a high-resolution B-mode tomographic ultrasound system. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles of 6 obesity-associated genetic variants confirmed in our previous analyses. The GRS was significantly associated with greater CCA IMT (pobesity status, but remained significant (p=0.009). In addition, we found that blood pressure significantly modified the association between the GRS and CCA IMT (p for interaction=0.001). The associations between the GRS and CCA IMT were stronger in participants with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.028 mm greater CCA IMT, p for trendobesity and development of subclinical atherosclerosis. Elevated blood pressure might amplify the adverse effect of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

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    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  10. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  11. Recognition memory for pictorial material in subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Cristina; Murphy, Fionnuala C; Calder, Andrew J; Barnard, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Depression has been associated with impaired recollection of episodic details in tests of recognition memory that use verbal material. In two experiments, the remember/know procedure was employed to investigate the effects of dysphoric mood on recognition memory for pictorial materials that may not be subject to the same processing limitations found for verbal materials in depression. In Experiment 1, where the recognition test took place two weeks after encoding, subclinically depressed participants reported fewer know judgements which were likely to be at least partly due to a remember-to-know shift. Although pictures were accompanied by negative or neutral captions at encoding, no effect of captions on recognition memory was observed. In Experiment 2, where the recognition test occurred soon after viewing the pictures, subclinically depressed participants reported fewer remember judgements. All participants reported more remember judgements for pictures of emotionally negative content than pictures of neutral content. Together, these findings demonstrate that recognition memory for pictorial stimuli is compromised in dysphoric individuals in a way that is consistent with a recollection deficit for episodic detail and also reminiscent of that previously reported for verbal materials. These findings contribute to our developing understanding of how mood and memory interact. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Palaeosymbiosis revealed by genomic fossils of Wolbachia in a strongyloidean nematode.

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    Georgios Koutsovoulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are common endosymbionts of terrestrial arthropods, and are also found in nematodes: the animal-parasitic filaria, and the plant-parasite Radopholus similis. Lateral transfer of Wolbachia DNA to the host genome is common. We generated a draft genome sequence for the strongyloidean nematode parasite Dictyocaulus viviparus, the cattle lungworm. In the assembly, we identified nearly 1 Mb of sequence with similarity to Wolbachia. The fragments were unlikely to derive from a live Wolbachia infection: most were short, and the genes were disabled through inactivating mutations. Many fragments were co-assembled with definitively nematode-derived sequence. We found limited evidence of expression of the Wolbachia-derived genes. The D. viviparus Wolbachia genes were most similar to filarial strains and strains from the host-promiscuous clade F. We conclude that D. viviparus was infected by Wolbachia in the past, and that clade F-like symbionts may have been the source of filarial Wolbachia infections.

  13. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

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    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  15. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

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    Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical / overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results: A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1% and 16 (10.9% women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion: It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Ibañez, Borja; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Laclaustra, Martín; Oliva, Belén; Mocoroa, Agustín; Mendiguren, José; Martínez de Vega, Vicente; García, Laura; Molina, Jesús; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán, Gabriela; Alonso-Farto, Juan C; Guallar, Eliseo; Civeira, Fernando; Sillesen, Henrik; Pocock, Stuart; Ordovás, José M; Sanz, Ginés; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Fuster, Valentín

    2015-06-16

    Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63% of participants (71% of men, 48% of women). Intermediate and generalized atherosclerosis was identified in 41%. Plaques were most common in the iliofemorals (44%), followed by the carotids (31%) and aorta (25%), whereas coronary artery calcification was present in 18%. Among participants with low Framingham Heart Study (FHS) 10-year risk, subclinical disease was detected in 58%, with intermediate or generalized disease in 36%. When longer-term risk was assessed (30-year FHS), 83% of participants at high risk had atherosclerosis, with 66% classified as intermediate or generalized. Subclinical atherosclerosis was highly prevalent in this middle-aged cohort, with nearly half of the participants classified as having intermediate or generalized disease. Most participants at high FHS risk had subclinical disease; however, extensive atherosclerosis was also present in a substantial number of low-risk individuals, suggesting added value of imaging for diagnosis and prevention. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01410318. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Vitamin supplementation increases risk of subclinical mastitis in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis.

  18. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  19. Evaluation of LDL-Cholesterol / HDL-Cholesterol Ratio as Predictor of Dyslipidemia in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Smita S. Kottagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration above the upper limit of the reference range when serum T3 and T4 concentrations are within reference ranges. Subclinical thyroid disease is a laboratory diagnosis. Patients with subclinical disease have few or no definitive clinical signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. It has been associated with higher levels of some cardiovascular risk factors. Despite some conflicting results, many studies have found that subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism have total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels higher than euthyroid subjects. The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is well known. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find the importance of Low Density Lipoprotein – Cholesterol / Higher Density Lipoprotein - Cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio rather than measurement of individual lipid profile parameters in bringing to light the dyslipidemic state associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: We studied 30 subclinical hypothyroid cases with age above 35 yrs and 30 age matched euthyroid controls. Serum T3, T4, TSH were estimated by ELISA method, serum total cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol by enzymatic CHOD-PAP method, and LDL cholesterol using Friedewald formula. Results: We found the significant increase in the serum levels of TSH (p < 0.001, Total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and LDL-C/HDL-C (p<0.001, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. There was no significant change in the levels of serum T3, T4, HDL- cholesterol. Conclusion: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are seen in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. LDL-C/HDLC ratio is a better indicator for dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroid cases.

  20. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...

  2. Prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis in broiler farms in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Zafer; Guven, Esin; Akcay, Aytac; Kar, Sirri; Nalbantoglu, Serpil; Cakmak, Ayse

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Eimeria spp. oocysts in fecal samples collected from 1,108 broiler houses in six regions, representing about 12% of all broiler farms in Turkey, was studied using the modified McMaster method. The age of the chickens in the 1,108 pens varied from 1 to 50 days. Oocysts were found in 602 (54.3%) of these broiler houses, and the mean OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) in those samples was 36,498.7 (50-952,000). No indication of clinical coccidiosis or other clinically evident infection or wide mortality was encountered in any of the pens studied. Further study showed that the age of the chickens, the occurrence of diarrhea on the houses and the density of broiler breeding in the area correlated with subclinical coccidiosis prevalence.

  3. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  4. Submental thyroid ectopy might cause subclinical hypothyroidism in early childhood

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    Mirjana Kocova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid ectopy is a rare condition resulting from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the gland. Sublingual is the most common thyroid ectopy; all other ectopic thyroid locations occur very rare. There are no reports in the literature that describe the clinical course of patients with congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid ectopy. Methods and Results: We present a child with congenital hypothyroidism detected on neonatal screening which had a subclinical course during follow-up. Scintigraphy revealed submental thyroid ectopy, a rare ectopic location and no orthotopic thyroid gland. Conclusion: Our case is unique because of the rare ectopic thyroid location but also of the unexpected clinical course; however, further thyroid monitoring is required for the therapy adjustment and detection of any changes in the ectopic tissue.

  5. Management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: are we too simplistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Georg; Peeters, Robin P; Chan, Shiao Y; Bernal, Juan; Bouchard, Philippe; Salvatore, Domenico; Boelaert, Kristien; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Guideline advice of many societies on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy suggests treatment when TSH serum levels exceed 2.5 mU/l. Justification of this procedure is based on limited experience, mainly from studies carried out in patients with positive thyroid-specific antibodies and higher TSH levels that classically define the condition in the non-pregnant state. Taking into account a lack of clear understanding of the regulation of thyroid hormone transport through the utero-placental unit and in the absence of foetal markers to monitor the adequacy of thyroxine treatment, this review attempts to discuss currently available data and suggests a more cautious approach. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity....

  7. Dyschromatopsia in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Marker of Subclinical Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena; Parra, Joana; Cruz, Simão; Pereira, Pedro; Santos, Ana F; Rua, Adriana; Meira, Dália; Fonseca, Pedro; Pedrosa, Catarina; Cardoso, João N; Almeida, Cristina; Araújo, Maria; Santos, Ernestina

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), even in the absence of a clinical episode of optic neuritis (ON), the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may be damaged leading to dyschromatopsia. Subclinical dyschromatopsia has been described in MS associated with lower motor and cognitive performances. To set the prevalence of dyschromatopsia in eyes of MS patients without a history of ON, to compare its prevalence in patients with and without ON history, and to explore the association between dyschromatopsia and disease duration, average peripapillary RNFL thickness, macular volume, and cognitive and motor performances. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple medical centers. Data were collected after single neurological and ophthalmological evaluations. Dyschromatopsia was defined by the presence of at least 1 error using Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates. In our population of 125 patients, 79 patients (63.2%) never had ON and 35 (28.8%) had unilateral ON. The prevalence of dyschromatopsia in eyes of patients without ON was 25.7%. Patients with dyschromatopsia had a statistically significant lower RNFL thickness (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, right and left eyes, respectively) and worse performance in symbol digit modalities test (P = 0.012). No differences were found in macular volume or motor function tasks. Dyschromatopsia occurs frequently in MS patients. It may be associated with a worse disease status and possibly serve as a marker for the detection of subclinical disease progression since it was detected even in the absence of ON. It correlated with thinner peripapillary RNFL thickness and inferior cognitive performance.

  8. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow......Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (≥3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between...

  9. Fourier analysis of videokeratography data : Clinical usefulness in grade I and subclinical keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sideroudi, Haris; Labiris, Georgios; Georgatzoglou, Kimon; Ditzel, Fienke; Siganos, Charalambos; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the contribution of Fourier analysis of videokeratographic data in the diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus and keratoconus. SETTING: Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University, Alexandroupolis, Greece. DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: The following

  10. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and

  11. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  12. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke : An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, Jose A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Voelzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P.

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished

  13. Hemodynamic Markers and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Women With Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Athanasouli, Fani; Pappa, Theodora; Labrinoudaki, Irene; Papamichael, Christos; Polymeris, Antonis; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Vemmou, Anastasia; Sarika, Leda; Terpos, Evangelos; Alevizaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ...: The objective of the study was to assess whether pHPT is associated with hemodynamic markers and subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women under a cross-sectional case-control design. Methods...

  14. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective...

  15. A Genomic Analysis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Hippocampus and Neocortex of the Developing Brain -- JN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences for the developing offspring. The impact of milder degrees of perturbation of the thyroid axis, typically considered subclinical, however, has not been established. Thyroid hormo...

  16. Long-Term Outcome in Levothyroxine Treated Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Concomitant Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. DESIGN: This was a register-based historical cohort...... study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was composed of Danish primary care patients and hospital outpatients age 18 years and older with established heart disease who were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism in 1997-2011. Patients were stratified according to whether they claimed a subsequent...... myocardial infaction and stroke, and all-cause hospital admissions. RESULTS: Of 61 611 patients with a diagnosis of cardiac disease having their first time thyroid function testing, 1192 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 73.6 [SD ± 13.3] y, 63.8% female) were included, of whom 136 (11...

  17. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  18. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    MIROULIAEI, Mehrdad; FALLAH, Razieh; BASHARDOOST, Nasrollah; PARTOVEE, Mina; ORDOOEI, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this article: Mirouliaie M, Fallah R, Partovee M, Ordooei M. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):23-26. AbstractObjectiveHypothyroidism may be an exacerbating factor for  primary headaches and migraine is one of the most common primary headaches in childhood. Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on children with migraine headache.M...

  19. Betel Nut Chewing and Subclinical Ischemic Heart Disease in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were perform...

  20. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotufo Paulo A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively. Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively. No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia.

  1. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and milk from cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević-Filipović, Milica; Ilić, Vesna; Vujčić, Zoran; Dojnov, Biljana; Stevanov-Pavlović, Marija; Mijačević, Zora; Božić, Tatjana

    2012-01-15

    Serum amyloid A proteins (SAA) are very sensitive acute phase proteins, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids. They are currently under investigation as biomarkers of diseases. The aim of the present study was to compare the concentration and isoform expression of SAA in serum and milk of cows with bacteriologically negative milk (control group) and naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) subclinical mastitis (subclinical mastitis group). Somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological analyses were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis group. SAA concentration was evaluated using a commercial ELISA kit, while expression of different isoforms (serum A-SAA and milk M-SAA3 isoforms) was visualized by denaturing isoelectrical focusing and immunoblotting. The SAA concentrations in sera and milk of cows in the subclinical mastitis group were three and 100 times higher than in those from the control group of cows, respectively. Cows in the subclinical mastitis group had more acidic SAA isoforms in serum with the most prominent one at pI 5.5. This isoform was not detected in sera from the control group. Milk samples in the subclinical mastitis group contained abundant highly alkaline M-SAA3 isoforms and most of the serum isoforms, except for that at pI 5.5. In the subclinical mastitis group SAA isoforms with equivalent pI as serum isoforms accounted for 20% of the total SAA concentration in milk. There were significant differences in the concentrations and isoform patterns of SAA in serum and milk between the control and subclinical mastitis groups of cows. Also, we demonstrated that serum SAA isoforms were not transferred to milk proportion to their plasma content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, T; Lyngbæk, S; Eugen-Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage.......The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage....

  3. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters. They were identified lipid profile, CRP, TSH, T4. Determination of IMT was performed using color Doppler ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 13.0.Results. A study of patients showed that the comparison group matched for age, sex, BMI. The levels of atherogenic lipids and CRP were statistically higher in the subclinical hypothyroidism group compared with the control group. A mathematical analysis showed that TSH affects indicators such as the IMT, CRP and BMI.In subclinical hypothyroidism group were statistically significantly higher levels of atherogenic lipids, CRP as compared with the control group. Mathematical analysis showed that the significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism are the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone, CRP and BMI.Conclusions: Significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism is the TSH, CRP and BMI. The level of TSH above 10.2 mIU/L is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism

  4. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  5. Selenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Agosti, Barbara; Delbarba, Andrea; Cappelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid is an organ with one of the highest selenium concentrations, containing many selenoproteins implicated in thyroid hormone metabolism. Treatment with levothyroxine has been recommended for all subclinical hypothyroid patients with TSH levels > 10 mU/L, whereas for those with TSHSelenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in one third of subclinical hypothyroidism patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 567-571).

  6. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  7. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansournia, N; Riyahi, S; Tofangchiha, S; Mansournia, M A; Riahi, M; Heidari, Z; Hazrati, E

    2017-03-01

    Association of subclinical hypothyroidism with type 2 diabetes and its complications has been previously documented. These reports were, however, inconclusive and mainly gathered from Chinese and East Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its relationship with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian individuals with type 2 diabetes, drawn from a white Middle Eastern population with an increasing prevalence of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 255 Iranian participants with type 2 diabetes and without history of thyroid disorders were included. Patients with TSH > 4.2 mIU/L and normal T4 were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal 24-h urinary albumin or protein measurements (24-h urinary albumin ≥30 mg/day or 24-h urinary protein ≥150 mg/day). Multivariate logistic regression was employed to obtain the OR for the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy. We found that subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy were as prevalent as 18.1 and 41.2 %, respectively, among the participants. We also found that subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with higher rates of diabetic nephropathy, after multivariable adjustment (OR [95 % CI] 3.23 [1.42-7.37], p = 0.005). We found that the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in Iranian diabetic population was among the highest rates reported to date. Our data supported the independent association of subclinical hypothyroidism with diabetic nephropathy, calling for further investigations to evaluate their longitudinal associations.

  9. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mea......-risk individuals, suggesting added value of imaging for diagnosis and prevention. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01410318....

  10. Betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2010-11-04

    Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%), higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%). Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958-10.999). The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346-16.581) and 4.666 (1.278-17.028), respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.

  11. Expert opinion on ranking risk factors for subclinical mastitis using a modified Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, N M; Lievaart, J J

    2013-05-01

    To collate the expert opinion of Australian dairy practitioners on the relative importance of risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. A modified Delphi technique was used to collect the data over two rounds. First, participants were asked to complete a survey involving ranking the level of importance of 42 risk factors on the incidence of subclinical mastitis on a scale from 1 to 10 for two categories of subclinical mastitis; contagious and environmental. After presenting and discussing the results of the first survey, the participants were asked to complete the same survey a second time. To rank the risk factors and identify the consensus amongst the participants, the median and total variation of answers were calculated and compared between the two surveys. The most important factors identified by the respondents after the second survey for contagious subclinical mastitis were: Teat Disinfection Post-milking, Management of High Cell Count Cows and Presence of Chronically Infected Mastitis Cows in the Herd. The most important factors for environmental subclinical mastitis were Cleanliness of the Environment and Technique of Teat Disinfection Post-milking. A movement toward consensus for the more important factors and a movement away from consensus for the less important factors in the second survey were observed. The most important factors for subclinical mastitis were found to be: teat disinfection post-milking, management of high cell count cows, presence of chronically infected mastitis cows in the herd and cleanliness of the environment.

  12. Proteomics of inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Romana; Piras, Cristian; Kovačić, Mislav; Samardžija, Marko; Ahmed, Hany; De Canio, Michele; Urbani, Andrea; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2012-07-19

    Cow serum proteome was evaluated by three different complementary approaches in the control group, subclinical and clinical mastitis in order to possibly find differential protein expression useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis as well as for an early diagnosis of the disease. The systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were observed. The collected evidence shows a differential protein expression of serpin A3-1, vitronectin-like protein and complement factor H in subclinical mastitis in comparison with the control. It was also found a differential protein expression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, serpin A3-1, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-I in clinical mastitis compared to the control. Among the inflammatory proteins up-regulated in clinical mastitis, vitronectin is over-expressed in both subclinical and clinical mastitis indicating a strong bacterial infection. This suggests vitronectin as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of the onset of mastitis as well as a valuable marker for diagnosis of the subclinical form of the disease. Obtained data could be useful for the detection of mastitis during the subclinical phase and for a better comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Short Telomere Load, Telomere Length, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The PESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Fuster, Valentin; Dorado, Beatriz; Soberón, Nora; Flores, Ignacio; Gallardo, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Blasco, María A; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-05-31

    Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with cardiovascular ischemic events and mortality in humans, but data on its association with subclinical atherosclerosis are scarce. Whether the incidence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with the abundance of critically short telomeres, a major trigger of cellular senescence, remains unknown. The authors conducted a cross-sectional exploration of the association between subclinical atherosclerosis burden and both average LTL and the abundance of short telomeres (%LTLSubclinical Atherosclerosis) study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by coronary artery calcium scan and 2-dimensional/3-dimensional ultrasound in different aortic territories. Statistical significance of differences among multiple covariates was assessed with linear regression models. Independent associations of telomere parameters with plaque presence were evaluated using general linear models. In men and women, age was inversely associated with LTL (Pearson's r = -0.127, p subclinical atherosclerosis. Longitudinal follow-up of PESA participants will assess long-term associations between telomere length and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with low to medium calculated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Kazani, Maria; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Creatsa, Maria; Alexandrou, Andreas; Fotiou, Stylianos; Papamichael, Christos; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2013-03-20

    The menopausal status is closely related with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, it is still not included in risk stratification by total cardiovascular risk estimation systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of subclinical vascular disorders in young healthy postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study consecutively recruited 120 healthy postmenopausal women without clinically overt CVD or diabetes, aged 41-60 years and classified as not high-risk by the Heartscore (subclinical atherosclerosis. Subclinical atherosclerosis and the presence of at least one plaque were identified in 55% and 28% of women, respectively. Subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis had higher age, years since menopause, HOMA-IR and blood pressure. By multivariate analysis years since menopause and systolic blood pressure independently determined subclinical atherosclerosis while 79% of intermediate-risk women (Heartscore 2-4.9%) being in menopause for at least 4 years would be reclassified to a higher risk for the presence of atherosclerosis. Subclinical atherosclerosis was highly prevalent in postmenopausal women with low to medium Heartscore. Thus our data suggest that menopausal status and associated risk factors should be additionally weighted in risk calculations, regarding primary prevention strategies in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnancy loss clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A S; Joyce, C; O'Donoghue, K

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have associated pregnancy loss with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating-hormone level, with normal free thyroxine. In overt hypothyroidism, the free thyroxine is low. Subclinical and overt hypothyroidism occurs in 0.25-2.5% and 0.2-0.3% of pregnancies respectively. We examined the prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in women with recurrent miscarriage, late miscarriage and stillbirth attending the Pregnancy Loss Clinic. Data was collected from the Pregnancy Loss Clinic records. Women with sporadic miscarriages, autoimmune disorders, thrombophilias and known hypothyroidism were excluded. Two-hundred-and-sixty-two women were included. Median maternal age was 35 years (range 18-47). Subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism was found in 11.45% of women. Twenty-two women (8.39%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, eight (3.05%) had undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism. Results were compared to women with ongoing pregnancies. A proportion of women attending the clinic had subclinical or undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism, raising the suspicion of causation in unexplained pregnancy loss.

  16. Non-Autoimmune Subclinical and Overt Hypothyroidism in Idiopathic Steroid-resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Vidhya; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Rajappa, Medha

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the frequency of non-autoimmune subclinical and overt hypothyroidism in children with idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). This cross-sectional study recruited 30 children (age 1-18 y) with idiopathic SRNS; and 30 healthy controls. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were performed in cases as well as controls. Anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were performed in all cases. Non-autoimmune subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was detected in 10 out of 30 children with idiopathic SRNS; 2 had overt hypothyroidism, while 8 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with SRNS had a mean (SD) TSH value 4.55 (4.64) mIU/L that was higher as compared to controls (1.88 (1.04) mIU/L) (Phypothyroidism (2 cases) and grade III subclinical hypothyroidism (1 case) were subsequently started on levothyroxine therapy. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism seems to be high in idiopathic SRNS, with almost one-third of children having overt or subclinical non-autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  17. Obesity, subclinical myocardial injury, and incident heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Coresh, Josef; Lazo, Mariana; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Blumenthal, Roger S; Folsom, Aaron R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Ballantyne, Christie M; Nambi, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to evaluate the association of obesity with a novel biomarker of subclinical myocardial injury, cardiac troponin T measured with a new high-sensitivity assay (hs-cTnT), among adults without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Laboratory evidence suggests a relationship between obesity and myocardial injury that may play a role in the development of heart failure (HF), but there is limited clinical data regarding this association. We evaluated 9,507 participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study without baseline CVD (Visit 4, 1996 to 1999). We assessed the cross-sectional association of body mass index (BMI) with high (≥14 ng/l) and measurable (≥3 ng/l) hs-cTnT levels after multivariable regression. We further evaluated the independent and combined associations of BMI and hs-cTnT with incident HF. Higher BMI was independently associated with a positive, linear increase in the likelihood of high hs-cTnT, with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.59 to 3.06) for high hs-cTnT after adjustment. Over 12 years of follow-up, there were 869 incident HF events. Obesity and hs-cTnT were both independently associated with incident HF, and individuals with severe obesity and high hs-cTnT had a greater than 9-fold higher risk of incident HF (hazard ratio: 9.20 [95% confidence interval: 5.67 to 14.93]) than individuals with normal weight and undetectable hs-cTnT. Among individuals without CVD, higher BMI has an independent, linear association with subclinical myocardial injury, as assessed by hs-cTnT levels. Obesity and hs-cTnT provide independent and complementary prognostic information regarding the risk of incident HF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 70. Epicardial fat quality effect on subclinical atherosclerosis

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    R. Abazid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial fat quality measured as Hounsfield Unit (HU by computed tomography has significant impact on atherosclerosis. Excessive epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. There are limited data, however, about the quality of epicardial fat as a CAD risk factor. We investigated the relation between EAT volume and quality and subclinical CAD defined by positive coronary artery calcification (CAC using computed tomography (CT. We reviewed 609 CT scans to assess the EAT volume, which was measured by manually tracing the parietal pericardial sac on axial images. Fat density was recorded in mean Hounsfield units (HU. Coronary calcium scores were measured using the Agatston method. The patients’ mean age was 50 ± 11 years, and 398 (65.4% were men. The mean EAT volume was 65 ± 27 cm3, and it had a density of 87.0 ± 3.4 HU. Calcium was present in 135 (22% of the patients: 97 (16% of the total were men and 38 (6% were women. There was no difference between the sexes in regard to EAT volume (66 ± 27 vs. 63 ± 26, p = 0.34 or density (87.4 ± 3.2 vs. 87.0 ± 3.6, p = 0.28. Obese patients (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2 had significantly higher EAT volumes than nonobese patients (73 ± 30 vs. 61 ± 29, p = 0.011, but no difference was seen in CAC (33 ± 97 vs. 27 ± 103, p = 0.34 or fat density (87.7 ± 4.0 vs. 88.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.48. Univariate regression analyses showed that higher fat attenuation (HU was associated with a lower coronary atherosclerosis hazard ratio (HR (0.871, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.790–0.948, p < 0.0001, and an increased EAT volume was associated with more CAC (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.078–1.245, p = 0.0001. The quality of EAT, measured as HU on CT, is a strong predictor of subclinical CAD as defined by coronary artery calcifications, with a higher HU associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis.

  19. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

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    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  20. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  1. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

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    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Acidosis and Subclinical Metabolic Acidosis in CKD.

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    Raphael, Kalani L

    2017-10-13

    Metabolic acidosis is not uncommon in CKD and is linked with bone demineralization, muscle catabolism, and higher risks of CKD progression and mortality. Clinical practice guidelines recommend maintaining serum total CO2 at ≥22 mEq/L to help prevent these complications. Although a definitive trial testing whether correcting metabolic acidosis improves clinical outcomes has not been conducted, results from small, single-center studies support this notion. Furthermore, biologic plausibility supports the notion that a subset of patients with CKD have acid-mediated organ injury despite having a normal serum total CO2 and might benefit from oral alkali before overt acidosis develops. Identifying these individuals with subclinical metabolic acidosis is challenging, but recent results suggest that urinary acid excretion measurements may be helpful. The dose of alkali to provide in this setting is unknown as well. The review discusses these topics and the prevalence and risk factors of metabolic acidosis, mechanisms of acid-mediated organ injury, results from interventional studies, and potential harms of alkali therapy in CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Young Women With Abdominal Obesity Have Subclinical Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Bianca L; La Gerche, André; Naughton, Geraldine A; Obert, Philippe; Kemp, Justin G

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effect of abdominal obesity on myocardial function in young obese women remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiac morphology and function, myocardial deformation, and mechanical indices, in young women with and without abdominal obesity. Cross-sectional analyses of 39 women with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm) and 33 nonobese control subjects (waist circumference factors including anthropometric, hypertension, biochemistry, and fitness were also assessed. Standard echocardiography results for cardiac morphology and function were similar between groups, with the exception of larger left atrial dimensions in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with control subjects, women with abdominal obesity also demonstrated reduced systolic and diastolic mitral annular plane velocities, increased left atrial pressure surrogates (E/diastolic mitral annular plane velocity), and prolonged timing measures of diastolic function including isovolumic relaxation time and transmitral deceleration time (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, longitudinal strain and diastolic strain rate were reduced in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05) but circumferential deformation and myocardial mechanics (twist indices and rotation) were preserved. Markers of abdominal obesity retained an independent direct correlation with parameters of cardiac dysfunction, explaining 12%-39% of the overall variability. A young, otherwise healthy group of women with abdominal obesity displayed subclinical cardiac dysfunction indicated using selected tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography measures. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease among premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLURE, Candace K.; CATOV, Janet M.; NESS, Roberta B.; SCHWARZ, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine the association between lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD). Study Design The Women and Infants Study of Healthy Hearts enrolled 607 mothers who delivered a singleton between 1997 and 2002. In 2007, participating mothers underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness, lumen diameter (LD), adventitial diameter (AD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between lactation and sCVD. Results Compared with mothers who breastfed for ≥3 months after every birth, mothers who never breastfed exhibited a 0.13mm larger LD (95%CI 0.04,0.22) and a 0.12mm larger AD (95%CI 0.02,0.22) in models adjusting for age, parity, birth outcome, sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, family history, gestational weight gain, early adult BMI, current BMI, CRP, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, glucose and insulin levels. Conclusions Mothers who do not breastfeed have vascular characteristics associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22727348

  5. Clinical, Microbiological and Hematological Findings in Ovine Subclinical Mastitis

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    Daniela Marina Mot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its richness in nutrients, milk represents a complete and balanced food that can be prepared from many other important products in human nutrition. But milk is also a medium of culture for numerous microorganisms. Although milk possesses antimicrobial mechanisms, in many cases it can be contaminated by endogenous or exogenous sources. This microorganism contamination of sheep milk and finished products depreciate its qualitative and produce severe food poisoning to consumers. In this study aimed a bacteriological control of five samples of milk haphazardly collected from six particular herds of sheep in the western part of the country. In parallel was carried out a clinical examination of the animal, insisting on mammary gland and examination of blood samples collected from the same animals. In laboratory was performed a bacteriological examination of milk samples and leucogram on blood samples. The identified bacterial species in milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium. Although it started from the idea that the animals were healthy, it was still identified in more than half of the subjects examined subclinical mammary gland infections.

  6. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  7. Is inflammaging an auto[innate]immunity subclinical syndrome?

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    Giunta Sergio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The low-grade, chronic, systemic inflammatory state that characterizes the aging process (inflammaging results from late evolutive-based expression of the innate immune system. Inflammaging is characterized by the complex set of five conditions which can be described as 1. low-grade, 2. controlled, 3. asymptomatic, 4. chronic, 5. systemic, inflammatory state, and fits with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory on the evolution of aging postulating that senescence is the late deleterious effect of genes (pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatorythat are beneficial in early life. Evolutionary programming of the innate immune system may act via selection on these genetic traits. Here I propose that the already acquired knowledge in this field may pave the way to a new chapter in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity: the auto-innate-immunity syndromes. Indeed, differently from the well known chapter of conventional autoimmune diseases and syndromes where the main actor is the adaptive immunity, inflammaging may constitute the subclinical paradigm of a new chapter of autoimmunity, namely that arising from an autoimmune inflammatory response of the innate-immune-system, an old actor of immunity and yet a new actor of autoimmunity, also acting as a major determinant of elderly frailty and age-associated diseases.

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism and myocardial function in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, C; Grandone, A; Di Salvo, G; Corona, A M; Di Sessa, A; Pascotto, C; Calabrò, R; Toraldo, R; Perrone, L; del Giudice, E Miraglia

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric obesity is an important health problem representing a major public health concern worldwide in the last decades. An isolated elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with normal levels of thyroid hormones is frequently found in obese children. It has been named Isolated Hyperthyreotropinemia or Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) and may be considered a consequence of obesity. Evidence exists that SCH is related to impairment of both systolic and diastolic myocardial function in the adult population. The aim of our study is to establish if obesity-related SCH influences myocardial function in children. We examined 34 obese children and adolescents with SCH and 60 obese children with normal TSH levels who underwent Doppler echocardiographic to evaluate myocardial function. Global systolic function as assessed by Ejection Fraction (EF) was comparable between groups, however Right Ventricle pressure global systolic function and pressure were significantly reduced in SCH group. Mitral annulus peak systolic (MAPSE) excursion lateral and MAPSE septum resulted significantly reduced in SCH group. Tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic motion (TDI-S) was reduced in SCH group. Diastolic function also showed significant modifications in SCH group. These results suggest possible involvement of cardiac function in obese children with SCH resulting in both abnormal diastolic function and reduced longitudinal systolic function. This new insight into cardiovascular consequences of obesity-related SCH in children could influence clinical approach to such patients by pediatric endocrinologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens Christian

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (pobese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.

  10. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Impact on Fertility, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usadi, Rebecca S; Merriam, Kathryn S

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy was classically thought to be low; however, with new definition of normal TSH range in pregnancy, there has been an increase in the percentage of women who meet classification for SCH. The diagnosis of SCH is important not only for monitoring for maternal conversion to overt hypothyroidism, but also for identifying obstetric and neonatal outcomes related to SCH. Although there have been proven associations between maternal overt hypothyroidism and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, there has been conflicting data on the correlation between SCH and these outcomes. Recent data from a meta-analysis found an increased risk of pregnancy loss, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, and neonatal death for women with SCH compared to euthyroidism in pregnancy. Research studies have not demonstrated a distinct benefit from treatment of SCH, and the professional societies are divided on their recommendations for treating SCH. Additionally, universal screening of SCH is controversial at present. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Clinical efficacy of therapeutic intervention for subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, R; Lin, L; Long, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, J

    2016-11-21

    This study explored the effects of levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We analyzed the effects on pregnancy outcomes with respect to gestational week when the desired thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was reached as well as the length of time required to reach the target level during L-T4 treatment. This study enrolled 457 patients diagnosed with SCH upon initial thyroid function screening. Subjects were assigned to the treatment group (N = 184), and the control group (N = 273). Two variables were analyzed in the treatment group: the gestational week when the target TSH level was achieved and the length of time required to reach the target level during treatment. Based on these criteria, the treatment group was further divided into subgroups, including three subgroups based on the time required to reach target levels (8 weeks) and gestational week when the target TSH level was achieved (before the 12th, between the 12th-28th, and after the 28th gestational week). The overall risk of complications in the control group was significantly higher than in the treatment group (P 8 weeks treatment duration (P pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with SCH. The shorter the treatment duration required to reach the target TSH level and the earlier the gestational week when the target TSH level is achieved through treatment, the lower the incidence of complications.

  13. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  14. Subclinical carbon monoxide poisoning in our health area

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    Arroyo, I.G.; Testa, A.F.; Sangrador, C.O.; Garcia, M.T.A.; Berrocal, J.L.S.; Pastor, N.R.; Martin, J.M.; Garcia, L.S.; Garcia, M.C.F.; Maire-Richard, E.G. [Hospital of Virgen Concha, Zamora (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We present an observation study on the relationship between high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) and subclinical poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) in our health area. The study was carried out in February and March 2000 in 228 over 18-year-old patients of both sexes who went to the Emergency Room for various reasons. After an informed consent was conceded, a venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the level of COHB; later, we collected the anthropometric data, the data relative to the tobacco use, and the data of the type of heating at home. The values limit of the COHB obtained were the following: in non smokers, 1.9%; in 1-10 cigarettes/day smokers, 5.2%; in 11-20 cigarettes/day smokers, 6.9%; in {gt}20 cigarettes/day smokers, 9.6%. A COHB high level was observed in 25% of the patients regardless of the smoking habits, being the coal-dust slack brazier the source of most frequent exposure to CO.

  15. Biomarkers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Autoimmune Disorders

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    Elisabetta Profumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is accelerated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA. We investigated a possible association of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs, nitric oxide (NO, 3-nitrotyrosine, vitamin A, vitamin E, and β-carotene serum levels with subclinical atherosclerosis in RA and PsA. By the use of ELISA, we observed higher ox-LDL levels in patients with intima-media thickness (IMT > 1 than in patients with IMT ≤ 1 and a negative correlation between NO levels and IMT values. By the use of high-performance liquid chromatography, we determined higher levels of vitamin A in patients with PsA and IMT ≤ 1 than in controls and lower levels of β-carotene in patients with RA and PsA than in controls. β-carotene concentrations were negatively correlated to the duration of disease in RA. Our study confirms that ox-LDLs and NO may be markers of accelerated atherosclerosis in RA and PsA whereas vitamins seem to be associated only to the presence of the autoimmune disorders.

  16. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  17. Myocardial Performance Index for Patients with Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aziz; Doğan, Abdullah; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal

    2017-05-25

    BACKGROUND Hypothyroid has several effects on the cardiovascular system. Global myocardial performance index (MPI) is used in assessment of both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. We compared MPI in hypothyroidism patients vs. normal control subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-two hypothyroid patients were divided into 2 groups: a subclinical hypothyroid (SH) group (n=50), and an overt hypothyroid (OH) group (n=32). The healthy control group (CG) constituted of 37 patients. TSH, FT3, and FT4, anti-TPO, anti-TG, insulin, lipid values, and fasting glucose levels were studied. All patients underwent an echocardiographic examination. Myocardial performance indexes were assessed and standard echocardiographic examinations were investigated. RESULTS MPI averages in OH, SH, and control groups were 0.53±0.06, 0.51±0.05, and 0.44±0.75 mm, respectively. MPI was increased in the OH and SH groups in comparison to CG (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS MPI value was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients in comparison to the control group, showing that regression in global left ventricular functions is an important echocardiographic finding. Future studies are required to determine the effects of this finding on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Relation of subclinical serum creatinine elevation to adverse in-hospital outcomes among myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gilad; Gal-Oz, Amir; Khoury, Shafik; Keren, Gad; Shacham, Yacov

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury is associated with adverse outcomes after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It remains unclear, however, whether subclinical increase in serum creatinine that does not reach the consensus criteria for acute kidney injury is also related to adverse outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We conducted a retrospective study of 1897 consecutive STEMI patients between January 2008 and May 2016 who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and in whom acute kidney injury was not diagnosed throughout hospitalization. We investigated the incidence of subclinical acute kidney injury (defined as serum creatinine increase of ≥ 0.1 and < 0.3 mg/dl) and its relation to a composite end point of adverse in hospital outcomes. Subclinical acute kidney injury was detected in 321 patients (17%). Patients with subclinical acute kidney injury had increased rate of the composite end point of adverse in-hospital events (20.3% vs. 9.7%, p<0.001), a finding which was independent of baseline renal function. Individual components of this end point (occurrence of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, need for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality) were all significantly higher among patients with subclinical acute kidney injury ( p< 0.05 for all). In a multivariable regression model subclinical acute kidney injury was independently associated with higher risk for adverse in-hospital events (odds ratio 1.92.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.97, p=0.004). Among STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, small, subclinical elevations of serum creatinine, while not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute kidney injury, may serve as a significant biomarker for adverse outcomes.

  19. Clinical utility of ocular residual astigmatism and topographic disparity vector indexes in subclinical and clinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Soto-Negro, Roberto; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Artola, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to characterize the distribution of the vector parameters ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) and topography disparity (TD) in a sample of clinical and subclinical keratoconus eyes, and to evaluate their diagnostic value to discriminate between these conditions and healthy corneas. This study comprised a total of 43 keratoconic eyes (27 patients, 17-73 years) (keratoconus group), 11 subclinical keratoconus eyes (eight patients, 11-54 years) (subclinical keratoconus group) and 101 healthy eyes (101 patients, 15-64 years) (control group). In all cases, a complete corneal analysis was performed using a Scheimpflug photography-based topography system. Anterior corneal topographic data was imported from it to the iASSORT software (ASSORT Pty. Ltd), which allowed the calculation of ORA and TD. Mean magnitude of the ORA was 3.23 ± 2.38, 1.16 ± 0.50 and 0.79 ± 0.43 D in the keratoconus, subclinical keratoconus and control groups, respectively (p keratoconus, subclinical keratoconus and control groups, respectively (p keratoconus. The diagnostic ability of these parameters for the detection of subclinical keratoconus was more limited (ORA: cutoff 1.17 D, sensitivity 60.0 %, specificity 84.2 %; TD: cutoff 1.29 D, sensitivity 80.0 %, specificity 80.2 %). The vector parameters ORA and TD are able to discriminate with good levels of precision between keratoconus and healthy corneas. For the detection of subclinical keratoconus, only TD seems to be valid.

  20. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the Southwestern Iran and detection of cutoff point for NEFA and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.

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    Asl, Ardavan Nowroozi; Nazifi, Saeed; Ghasrodashti, Abbas Rowshan; Olyaee, Ahad

    2011-06-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is simply a condition marked by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies without the presence of the clinical signs of ketosis. Subclinical ketosis can cause economic losses through decreased milk production and association with preparturient diseases. Limited information is available regarding the prevalence of SCK in dairy herds in Southwestern Iran. The objectives of this study were (i) determination of the cutoff point of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of SCK using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (ii) determination of prevalence of subclinical ketosis in apparently healthy dairy cattle in Southwestern Iran. From October to December 2009, a total of 100 clinically healthy multiparous Holstein cows (3-8 years old) were randomly selected from 16 dairy herds around Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran. The cows had two-six lactations, with body weight ranging from 500 to 650 kg. Blood samples for each cow were taken at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition and 3-4h after the morning feeding. The optimal cutoff point was set, by the ROC method, to >0.26 mmol/L for NEFA, and ketosis in all of the 2, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum. The results suggest that, a cut-off point of 0.26 mmol/L for NEFA concentrations can be used during early lactation for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis and making management decisions for prevention and treatment. Glucose cannot be a good criterion for diagnosis of SCK and it does not appear to be useful for monitoring subclinical ketosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

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    Haji Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia. Data on the study subjects’ background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13 and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50, but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52. Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.

  2. Efficacy in treatment of subclinical cervical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review

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    Fábio Russomano

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The treatment of the subclinical Human papillomavirus (HPV infection of the uterine cervix is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection of the cervix without intraepithelial neoplasia, via a search in the medical literature. METHOD: We performed a systematic review with a comprehensive reference search in Medline, LILACS, Excerpta Medica, AIDSLINE, Popline, Cochrane Library and other authors' reference lists to identify experimental studies of therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. In order to identify unpublished studies, we also contacted experts in the area, clinical trial registries, pharmaceutical industries, government and research institutions. We also searched on the Internet and in the book-of-abstracts of some medical conferences. The studies identified were masked and selected by inclusion criteria to help ascertain their internal validity. The data about regression or progression of HPV infection were extracted from the studies included. RESULTS: We identified 67 studies related to the treatment of subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. Only five clinical trials matched the inclusion criteria and none demonstrated significant differences between the experimental group and the control group concerning regression of HPV infection (with or without CIN I or progression to higher grades of CIN. CONCLUSION: The evidence we found in the medical literature regarding the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix was unsatisfactory.

  3. Betel Nut Chewing and Subclinical Ischemic Heart Disease in Diabetic Patients

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    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%, higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%. Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958–10.999. The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346–16.581 and 4.666 (1.278–17.028, respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.

  4. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

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    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Impact of subclinical and clinical mastitis on sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

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    Peters, M D P; Silveira, I D B; Fischer, V

    2015-12-01

    A total of 90 cows from three commercial farms were used to evaluate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis and thermal nociceptive threshold. Milk strips from all udder quarters were tested for clinical mastitis with visual inspection of milk and udder alterations and for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. Milk yield was recorded, milk was sampled and further analyzed for somatic cells count (SCC). Cows were considered healthy when SCC200 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder, with moderate subclinical mastitis when SCC>500 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder and with clinical mastitis when visual alterations in milk and/or udder were detected. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated with the thermal threshold meter apparatus applied to the rear legs. Thermal threshold (TT) decreased when we compared healthy cows with cows presenting clinical mastitis and tended to decrease when we compare healthy cows with those with moderate subclinical mastitis. TT was lower at the ipsilateral rear leg compared with the contralateral leg to the infected mammary gland. TT linearly decreases as log10SCC increased and it showed sharp decrease as log10SCC exceed the value of 6.4. Increase in one unit of log10SCC increased the odds of low thermal threshold (lower than 55.8°C). Subclinical mastitis might be a welfare issue as it tended to decrease nociceptive thermal threshold.

  6. Correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis.

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    Shahidi-Dadras, Mohammad; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Abdollahimajd, Fahimeh; Younespour, Shima; Partovi Kia, Masoud; Zargari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic factor that was overexpressed in both psoriatic and atherosclerotic lesions. In a prospective controlled study, we investigated the correlation between serum levels of VEGF and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Sixty patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited to the study. Mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (MIMT-CCA) and serum VEGF levels of all subjects were measured. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as having an MIMT-CCA ≥0.8 mm. Serum VEGF levels in psoriatic patients were significantly higher compared with healthy controls (P subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis was significantly associated with serum VEGF levels, age, disease duration, and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). This study supported the possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic patients. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary-artery disease: meta-analysis.

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    Ampuero, Javier; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, using tests of subclinical atherosclerosis. To evaluate the influence of NAFLD on subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). We reviewed Pubmed and EMBASE. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 14 studies and were classified in two groups. Ten studies aimed the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and four studies the presence of coronary artery disease. To assess subclinical atherosclerosis, we selected studies with pathological carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and with presence of carotid plaques. We considered coronary artery disease when patients showed at least 50% stenosis at one or more major coronary arteries. NAFLD was assessed by ultrasound (US) and liver biopsy. NAFLD showed a higher prevalence of pathological CIMT [35.1% (351/999) vs. 21.8% (207/948); p subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The right management of these patients could modify the natural history both liver and cardiovascular disease.

  8. The Association Between Endocan Levels and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Lv, Yaya; Zhang, Yaqiong; Shi, Weiya; Liu, Juxiang; Li, Yonghong; Zhou, Zubang; He, Qijuan; Wei, Suhong; Liu, Jing; Quan, Jinxing

    2017-05-01

    Proinflammatory conditions induced by circulating factors in diabetes play a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction and related vascular complications. Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 or endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan secreted primarily by the vascular endothelium. Although endocan has been shown to be a potential biomarker in coronary heart disease, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) in diabetes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the correlation between serum endocan levels and subclinical AS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients (n = 69) with T2DM were included. All the patients were stratified based on the absence (n = 42) or presence (n = 27) of subclinical AS. Healthy subjects (n = 28) served as controls. Serum levels of endocan, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were measured. Endocan levels were significantly elevated in both the T2DM (0.89 ± 0.28ng/mL) and T2DM with subclinical AS (1.20 ± 0.33ng/mL) groups relative to the control group (0.68 ± 0.24ng/mL) (P subclinical AS (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.43-2.73, P subclinical AS in patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Relation of Framingham Risk Score to Subclinical Atherosclerosis Evaluated Across Three Arterial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Roksana; Hodis, Howard N; Detrano, Robert; Liu, Chao-ran; Liu, Chi-hua; Mack, Wendy J

    2008-01-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) is widely used in clinical practice to identify subjects at high risk for developing coronary heart disease (CHD). However, FRS may not accurately identify subjects at risk. We measured subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta with the presence of calcium (CAC and AC, respectively) and in the common carotid artery by intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 498 healthy subjects. The distribution of these subclinical atherosclerosis measures was evaluated across 3 strata of the FRS. CAC, AC and CIMT were significantly independently associated with FRS. The FRS increased with the number of arterial sites with atherosclerosis. Sixty-nine percent of the subjects categorized in the low risk group (FRS20%) had 1 or more vascular imaging studies demonstrating subclinical atherosclerosis. Among the low risk group, subjects with atherosclerosis had a longer history of lifetime smoking compared to those without atherosclerosis. In conclusion, subclinical atherosclerosis is prominent across the spectrum of FRS. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis in different arterial sites in addition to FRS may be useful in targeting subjects for lifestyle and other interventions. PMID:18805105

  11. Efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps in detecting subclinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummanapalli, Shyam Sunder; Potluri, Haresh; Vaddavalli, Pravin Krishna; Sangwan, Virender S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and compare the efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps obtained using the Orbscan IIz scanning-slit device to distinguish differences in eyes with subclinical keratoconus from normal eyes. LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Axial and tangential maps of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces were obtained in eyes of patients with subclinical keratoconus (normal fellow eye of an eye with clinically diagnosed keratoconus). The following measurements were obtained from each map and compared between the 2 groups: location of the corneal apex in millimeters relative to the corneal vertex, dioptric power at the corneal apex and corneal vertex, corneal irregularity indices at 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm, anterior-posterior apex ratio, and inferior-superior dioptric asymmetry value. Maps were obtained in 71 eyes (71 patients) with subclinical keratoconus and 76 normal eyes (76 patients). The tangential posterior apex curvature was significantly steeper than the axial posterior apex curvature in both groups (P keratoconus eyes from normal eyes. The anterior-posterior apex ratio on the tangential map and 5.0 mm irregularity index of the posterior corneal surface were highly sensitive and specific for early detection of subclinical keratoconus. Tangential corneal topography maps should be considered in preoperative subclinical keratoconus screening. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

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    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  13. The Natural History of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwaru, Lily L.; Rariy, Chevon M.; Arnold, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies of long-term outcomes of subclinical hypothyroidism have assessed only baseline thyroid function, despite natural transitions to euthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism over time. Objective: We provide estimates of persistence, resolution, and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism over 4 yr, stratified by baseline TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 3996 U.S. individuals at least 65 yr old enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected at baseline in 459 individuals not taking thyroid medication. Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid function was evaluated at 2 and 4 yr and initiation of thyroid medication annually. Results were stratified by baseline TSH, TPOAb status, age, and sex. Results: Persistence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 56% at 2 and 4 yr. At 2 yr, resolution was more common with a TSH of 4.5–6.9 mU/liter (46 vs. 10% with TSH 7–9.9 mU/liter and 7% with TSH ≥10 mU/liter; P hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism were common between 2 and 4 yr. Age and sex did not affect transitions. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism persists for 4 yr in just over half of older individuals, with high rates of reversion to euthyroidism in individuals with lower TSH concentrations and TPOAb negativity. Future studies should examine the impact of transitions in thyroid status on clinical outcomes. PMID:22438233

  14. Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. P300 event related potential application to cognitive status assessment of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Dejanović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of thyroid function are often accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders. Assessment of cognitive status in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism represents a possibility for early diagnostics of cognitive impairment and timely introduction of necessary pharmacotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to quantify whether there are P3 event related potential (ERP deviations as electrophysiological markers of cognitive activity in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. P300 potentials were examined in thirty patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 30 healthy subjects of the control group. P300 was recorded using the classic auditory oddball paradigm, with 20% of target and 80% of non-target stimuli. The results analysis showed a significantly longer latency P300 and reduced amplitude P300 in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid subjects. There is also a statistically significant negative correlation between the results of a mini mental state examination and the P300 latency at Fz electrode (r= -0.47, p <0.01 and Cz electrode (r= -0.43, p =0.017. P300 ERP is important in the evaluation of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, due to the sensitivity in the detection cognitive disorders.

  16. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism as an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guifang; Mu, Xuefeng; Xing, Huizhi; Xu, Ruibiao; Sun, Guangxi; Dong, Chonghai; Pan, Qichuan; Xu, Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm is increasing sharply. It has been reported that both colorectal neoplasm and cardiovascular disease share similar common risk factors. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) occurs in 4-20% of the adult population and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, no study has yet explored the relationship between SCH and colorectal neoplasm. Our objectives were to clarify the association between the two conditions. This is a case-control study. A total of 273 cases of colorectal neoplasm were first identified, and a 1:3 matched random sample of 819 controls was then collected using strata according to age, and gender. The medical records of all these patients were retrieved. Blood pressure, body mass index, and thyroid function were determined. Colonoscopies were performed by experienced gastroenterologists. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to explore the relationship between SCH and colorectal neoplasm. Remarkably, the prevalence rate of SCH was significantly higher in colorectal neoplasm (+) group, compared with colorectal neoplasm (-) group (Pneoplasm was found in 67 (34.9%) subjects in SCH group, which was more than that in euthyroid group (P=0.002). Moreover, patients with SCH were more likely to have advanced colonic lesion and colorectal cancer compared with euthyroid subjects (P=0.028 and 0.036, respectively). After adjusting for the factors of blood pressure, body mass index, history of hypertension and smoking, an association still existed between colorectal neoplasm and SCH (OR=1.689, 95% CI: 1.207-2.362, P=0.002). A strong association between SCH and colorectal neoplasm was firstly identified. SCH was found to be an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Subclinical Rickets Cause SCFE? A Prospective, Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkader, Alexandre; Woon, Regina P; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common disorder of the growing hip; however, its etiology remains unknown. Vitamin D (25-OH) is a major regulator of bone homeostasis and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the major causes of rickets, and rickets has been associated with SCFE. Increased body mass index (BMI) has been linked to SCFE and obese children are known to have lower vitamin D levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that children who develop SCFE may have subclinical rickets predisposing them to the development of physeal disease. This was a pilot, prospective study designed to determine the relationship between vitamin D, bone, muscle, and fat in patients with SCFE. We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with idiopathic SCFE aged 9 to 14 years. Upon diagnosis, vitamin D, PTH, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone blood levels were obtained. A single-slice computed tomography was used to measure cortical bone density (CBD) of the femur. Demographics, BMI, and the results obtained were compared to generate a relationship between vitamin D levels and SCFE. Twenty patients were enrolled, 13 males and 7 females, at an average age of 12 years (range, 9 to 14 y), and mean BMI% was 93.9 (range, 81.3 to 99.5). There were 15 stable and 5 unstable SCFE. Overall, mean and SD values for vitamin D, 25-OH were within the normal range (43.9 ± 13.5). We found no difference in values in vitamin D between nonobese (BMI children are known to have lower levels of vitamin D and a higher prevalence of SCFE, we found no correlation between low vitamin D and the development of SCFE in this subset of patients.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Sharma, Neera; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Dutta, Deep

    2016-11-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Consecutive patients diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or overt primary hypothyroidism underwent serum prolactin, gonadotropins, testosterone and estradiol estimation. Patients with pregnancy, pituitary adenomas, secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, comorbid states and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From initially screened 4950 patients, hormonal data from 2848 individuals who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. The occurrence of hyperprolactinemia (females:males) was highest in primary hypothyroidism (42.95%:39.53%) (n=192), followed by ScH (35.65%:31.61%) (n=770) and euthyroid individuals (2.32%:2.02%) (n=1886) (P10mIU/L (females: males) was 25.56%:20.73%, 49.07%:50% and 61.43%:35.71% respectively (Phypothyroidism. In females, testosterone was lowest in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In males, serum estradiol was significantly higher, and testosterone significantly lower in men with ScH and primary hypothyroidism. Regression analysis revealed serum TSH followed by free T4, to be best predictors of serum prolactin in both sexes. Hyperprolactinemia is common in ScH, especially in those with TSH>7.5mIU/L. ROC analysis confirmed that TSH≥7.51mIU/L in females and ≥8.33mIU/L in males had a sensitivity of ≈50% with a very high specificity of >90% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin screening may be warranted in ScH with TSH>7.5mIU/L, and may form an indication for treating ScH. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  1. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders before percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Vlaar, Alexander P.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Levi, Marcel; Paulus, Frederique; Berends, Fenny; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) can be safely performed in patients with severe coagulation disorders if these are carefully corrected immediately before the procedure. However, it is currently unclear whether PDT can be performed safely in patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with uncorrected mild coagulation disorders. Materials and methods In a randomised controlled trial we determined the effect of correction of mild coagulation disorders on bleeding during and after PDT. ICU patients planned for bedside PDT with: (i) a prothrombin time (PT) between 14.7–20.0 seconds, (ii) a platelet count between 40–100×109/L and/or (iii) active treatment with acetylsalicylic acid were randomised to receive infusion with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (“correction”) versus no transfusion (“no correction”) before PDT. Results We randomised 35 patients to the “correction” group and 37 patients to the “no correction” group. In patients who received FFP, the decrease in PT was marginal (mean decrease 0.40±0.56 seconds); the median increase in platelet counts after transfusion of platelets was 35 [11–47]x109/L. The median blood loss was 3 [IQR: 1–6] grams in the “correction” group and 3 [IQR: 2–6] grams in the “no correction” group (P=0.96). Discussion Bleeding during and after bedside PDT in ICU patients with mild coagulation disorders is rare in our setting. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders by transfusion of FFP and/or platelets does not affect bleeding. PMID:22337277

  2. [Subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-González, José Luis; Villegas-González, Mario Jesús; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantu, Carlos Alberto; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernán; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical entity capable to cause hearing impairment that can be diagnosed promptly with high frequencies audiometry. To detect subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis performing high frequency audiometry 125Hz to 16,000Hz and tympanometry. The results were correlated with markers of disease activity and response to therapy. High frequency audiometry was performed in 117 female patients aged from 19 to 65 years. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed at a sensitivity of pure tones from 125 to 8,000 Hz in 43.59%, a tone threshold of 10,000 to 16,000Hz in 94.02% patients in the right ear and in 95.73% in the left ear. Hearing was normal in 8 (6.84%) patients. Hearing loss was observed in 109 (93.16%), and was asymmetric in 36 (30.77%), symmetric in 73 (62.37%), bilateral in 107 (91.45%), unilateral in 2 (1.71%), and no conduction and/or mixed hearing loss was encountered. Eight (6.83%) patients presented vertigo, 24 (20.51%) tinnitus. Tympanogram type A presented in 88.90% in the right ear and 91.46% in the left ear, with 5.98 to 10.25% type As. Stapedius reflex was present in 75.3 to 85.2%. Speech discrimination in the left ear was significantly different (p = 0.02)in the group older than 50 years. No association was found regarding markers of disease activity, but there was an association with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a high prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss for high and very high frequencies. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: intellectual development of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Hossein Ghorbani; Tohidi, Maryam; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Behrooz, Ebrahim Ghorbani; Tehranidoost, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (M-SCH) on the neuropsychological development of the offspring are not clear. We evaluated the intellectual development of children of mothers who had M-SCH during the pregnancy for these children. Sixty-two children were recruited. After excluding those age 15, 44 were enrolled. The mothers of these children were part of a sub-pool of 90, of 441 hypothyroid women of reproductive age seen in Tehran endocrine clinics between 1991 and 2003 and who were observed during gestation. Mothers were receiving levothyroxine (LT4) before gestation. Mothers of 19 children (control group) had normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) during the pregnancy that produced these children. Mothers of the other 25 children had increased TSH during the comparable pregnancy. Nineteen mothers had M-SCH (case group) and six had overt hypothyroidism. Serum TSH and free T4 (FT4) and urine iodine were measured, and seven cognitive performance and intelligence quotient (IQ) tests were performed. Case children were similar to control children with respect to gender, age, parental education, maternal age at time of pregnancy and at the time of their hypothyroidism, percent mothers having thyroid peroxidase antibodies, LT4 dose of mothers during pregnancy, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and duration of breast feeding. Maternal TSH (mean ± standard deviation) in the case group during their mother's pregnancies was 11.3 ± 5.3 and 1.4 ± 1.0 mU/L in the controls (p hypothyroid mothers is similar in those whose mothers have M-SCH during pregnancy compared with those whose mothers have normal serum TSH concentrations during pregnancy.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is a commonly encountered entity in day-to-day clinical practice and has been associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profile in adults and children. Data on children and adolescents with SCH, from India, are limited. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional case–control study, conducted at a tertiary care center in Northeast India. Twenty-seven children and adolescents aged 11 ± 2.4 years with SCH and thyroid-stimulating hormone >7.5 mIU/L were included in the study along with 20 age-, gender-, and height-matched controls. Multiple clinical, biochemical, and radiological cardiovascular risk factors were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Body mass index (BMI (P = 0.048, waist circumference (P = 0.008, waist to height ratio (P = 0.007, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.04, triglycerides (TGs (P = 0.038, TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 0.005, non-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.019, fasting insulin (P = 0.006, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.007 were found to be significantly higher while free T4 (P = 0.002 and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.019 were found to be significantly lower in SCH subjects compared to controls. On multiple regression analysis, BMI was found to have significant association with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with SCH were found to have adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Long-term follow-up studies are required to assess the clinical significance of these findings and requirement for therapy.

  5. Family history of diabetes and the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G-M; Cho, Y-R; Lee, S-W; Yun, S-C; Gil, E H; Kim, D W; Kim, T-S; Kim, C J; Cho, J S; Park, M-W; Her, S H; Kim, Y-H; Yang, D H; Kang, J-W; Lim, T-H; Jung, C H; Koh, E H; Lee, W J; Kim, M-S; Lee, K-U; Kim, H-K; Choe, J; Park, J-Y

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of a family history of diabetes on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis according to coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic individuals. A total of 6434 consecutive asymptomatic individuals with no prior history of coronary artery disease voluntarily underwent CCTA evaluation as part of a general health examination. Coronary atherosclerotic plaque and significant coronary artery stenosis (degree of stenosis ≥50%) on CCTA were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between a family history of diabetes and atherosclerotic plaque or significant coronary artery stenosis according to the degree of diabetes (normal, prediabetic and diabetic). Mean age of study participants was 53.7±7.6 years, and 4694 (73.0%) were male. A total of 1593 (24.8%) participants had a family history of diabetes in a first-degree relative. Among the study participants, 1115 (17.3%), 3122 (48.5%) and 2197 (34.1%) were categorized as diabetic, prediabetic and normal, respectively. In diabetic participants, after stepwise adjustments for clinical and laboratory variables, a family history of diabetes was significantly associated with non-calcified plaque (P0.05 for all). In prediabetic and normal participants, a family history of diabetes was not associated with either atherosclerotic plaque or significant coronary artery stenosis (P>0.05 for all). In asymptomatic diabetic individuals, a family history of diabetes is consistently associated with non-calcified coronary plaque after adjusting for risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary management of labrador retrievers with subclinical hepatic copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, H; Biourge, V C; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Rothuizen, J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors, including dietary copper intake, contribute to the pathogenesis of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers. Clinical disease is preceded by a subclinical phase in which copper accumulates in the liver. To investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet on hepatic copper concentration in Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentrations. Twenty-eight clinically healthy, client-owned Labrador retrievers with a mean hepatic copper concentration of 919 ± 477 mg/kg dry weight liver (dwl) that were related to dogs previously diagnosed with clinical copper-associated hepatitis. Clinical trial in which dogs were fed a diet containing 1.3 ± 0.3 mg copper/Mcal and 64.3 ± 5.9 mg zinc/Mcal. Hepatic copper concentrations were determined in liver biopsy samples approximately every 6 months. Logistic regression was performed to investigate effects of sex, age, initial hepatic copper concentration and pedigree on the ability to normalize hepatic copper concentrations. In responders (15/28 dogs), hepatic copper concentrations decreased from a mean of 710 ± 216 mg/kg dwl copper to 343 ± 70 mg/kg dwl hepatic copper after a median of 7.1 months (range, 5.5-21.4 months). Dogs from a severely affected pedigree were at increased risk for inability to have their hepatic copper concentrations normalized with dietary treatment. Feeding a low-copper, high-zinc diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic copper concentrations in a subset of clinically normal Labrador retrievers with previous hepatic copper accumulation. A positive response to diet may be influenced by genetic background. Determination of clinical benefit requires further study. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose tolerance and lipid profile in longterm exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effects of restoration of euthyroidism, a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Eustatia-Rutten, C. F. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; Frölich, M.; Romijn, J. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism on glucose and lipid metabolism is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on TSH suppressive thyroxine therapy as a model for subclinical hyperthyroidism and

  9. The prevalence and consequences of subclinical eating disorders in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    1994-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the prevalence of eating disorders and excessive concerns regarding body weight in certain subpopulations of female athletes are increasing. The pressure on female athletes to improve their performances and physiques, coupled with the general sociocultural demand placed on all women to be thin, often results in attempts to achieve unrealistic body size and body weight goals. For some female athletes the pressure to achieve and maintain a low body weight leads to potentially harmful patterns of restrictive eating or chronic dieting. This paper seeks to further delineate the characteristics of a recently identified subclinical eating disorder in female athletes: anorexia athletica. Research studies that support the existence of subclinical eating disorders will be reviewed. In addition, the possible physiological and psychological consequences of subclinical eating disorders will be explored.

  10. Evaluation of two cowside tests for the detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, M; Aarts, M G; Jonkers, A G; Wensing, T; Schukken, Y H

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of two cowside tests for subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. The tests utilize milk and urine samples, respectively. One hundred and eighty-five cows, one to sixty days postpartum, were sampled for milk, urine, and blood. Subclinical ketosis was defined with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurements. The sensitivity and the specificity of both tests at different beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were estimated. When subclinical ketosis was defined at beta-hydroxybutyrate levels of 1.4 mmol/L and higher, the milk test had sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The urine test lacked specificity (values ketosis in a herd. Milk testing is preferred, because of the easy obtainability of milk combined with the overall better test characteristics. PMID:8076278

  11. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis in migraine patients by ultrasound radiofrequency data technology: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş Tatar, İdil; Ergun, Onur; Çeltikçi, Pınar; Kurt, Aydın; Yavaşoğlu, Neşe; Birgi, Erdem; Tatar, Tolga; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a headache disorder affecting approximately 12% of the population, predominantly female individuals. Migraine has been associated with vascular events such as stroke and cardiovascular disease. The close connection between these vascular disorders and atherosclerosis is well known. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) is a marker for detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. The present study is an analysis of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in migraine patients. CAIMT was evaluated in 25 female migraine patients and 27 female controls using innovative ultrasound (US) radiofrequency (RF) data technology. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare measurements in patient and control groups. There was a statistically significant difference between mean CAIMT of migraine patients and control group (patherosclerosis compared to healthy individuals. CAIMT measurement with sonography can be utilized in follow-up to detect subclinical atherosclerosis.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism based on population and trimester specific cut-offs is reported to complicate 1-2% of all pregnancies. Using the recent Endocrine Society guidelines of 2.5 mIU/L of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as the upper level of normal in the first trimester the reported prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is much higher. Recent publications have also emphasized that there is considerable racial variation in the prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnancy. Among published literature North Indian women appear to have the highest rates of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy. More widespread use of universal screening and trimester specific ranges in pregnancy for thyroid hormonal assays will lead to a large number of North Indian women requiring treatment for thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

  13. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects...... of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were...... identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients...

  14. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2017-01-01

    variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. Methods -We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies...... were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association...... of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. Results -Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person...

  15. Intermittent changing axis deviation with intermittent left anterior hemiblock during atrial flutter with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-06-26

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is usually associated with a higher heart rate and a higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Intermittent changing axis deviation during atrial fibrillation has also rarely been reported. We present a case of intermittent changing axis deviation with intermittent left anterior hemiblock in a 59-year-old Italian man with atrial flutter and subclinical hyperthyroidism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intermittent changing axis deviation with intermittent left anterior hemiblock in a patient with atrial flutter.

  16. Persistent frequent subclinical seizures and memory impairment after clinical remission in smoldering limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Masako; Otsuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2014-09-01

    To delineate a possible correlation between clinical course and EEG abnormalities in non-infectious "smoldering" limbic encephalitis. Long-term clinical data, including video-EEG monitoring records, were analysed in two patients. The two patients were positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody and unspecified antineuronal antibody, respectively. The latter patient had small cell lung carcinoma. Both patients had memory impairment and clinical seizures. EEG showed frequent subclinical seizure patterns in the bilateral temporal regions. Subclinical seizure patterns and memory impairment persisted over one to two years after clinical seizure remission. Therapy (prednisolone and chemoradiation in the two patients, respectively) resulted in decreased occurrence of subclinical seizure patterns and memory improvement. EEG seizure patterns may persist years after clinical seizure remission in "smoldering" limbic encephalitis and lead to memory impairment.

  17. Divergent cellular responses during asymptomatic subclinical and clinical states of disease in cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) results in a chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease are not fully under...

  18. Factors Associated With Low Levels of Subclinical Vascular Disease in Older Adults: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Michos, Erin D.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L.; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R. Graham; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Greenland, Philip; David R Jacobs; Post, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT), and reduced ankle brachial indices (ABI) are markers of subclinical vascular disease strongly associated with aging. We identified factors associated with low levels of subclinical vascular disease in 1824 participants ≥70 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. 452 had low CAC (

  19. Clinical and pathologic factors associated with subclinical spread of invasive melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Shaikh, Waqas R; Etzkorn, Jeremy R; Sobanko, Joseph F; Margolis, David J; Gelfand, Joel M; Chu, Emily Y; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Indications to treat invasive melanoma with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) or analogous techniques with exhaustive microscopic margin assessment have not been defined. Identify clinical and histologic factors associated with subclinical spread of invasive melanoma. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 216 invasive melanomas treated with MMS and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining. Logistic regression models were used to correlate clinicopathologic risk factors with subclinical spread and construct a count prediction model. Risk factors associated with subclinical spread by multivariate analysis included tumor localization on the head and neck (OR 3.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.32), history of previous treatment (OR 4.18, 95% CI 1.42-12.32), age ≥65 (OR 4.45, 95% CI 1.29-15.39), and ≥1 mitoses/mm2 (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.01-6.83). Tumor thickness and histologic subtype were not associated with subclinical spread. The probability of subclinical spread increased per number of risk factors, ranging from 9.22% (95% CI 2.57%-15.86%) with 1 factor to 80.32% (95% CI 68.13%-92.51%) with 5 factors. This study was conducted at a single academic institution with a small study population using a retrospective study design that was subject to potential referral bias. Clinical and histologic factors identify invasive melanomas that are at increased risk for subclinical spread and might benefit from MMS or analogous techniques prior to reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of lipid oxidation with subclinical atherosclerosis and 10-year coronary events in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miquel; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Molina, Lluís; Bruguera, Jordi; Sala, Joan; Masià, Rafel; Covas, Maria Isabel; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    To assess 1) the association of lipid oxidation biomarkers with 10-year coronary artery disease (CAD) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, and 2) the reclassification capacity of these biomarkers over Framingham-derived CAD risk functions, in a general population. Within the framework of the REGICOR study, 4782 individuals aged between 25 and 74 years were recruited in a population-based cohort study. Follow-up of the 4042 who met the eligibility criteria was carried out. Plasma, circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and oxLDL antibodies (OLAB) were measured in a random sample of 2793 participants. End-points included fatal and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and angina. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in the highest quintile and ankle-brachial index subclinical atherosclerosis. Mean age was 50.0 (13.4) years, and 52.4% were women. There were 103 CAD events (34 myocardial infarction, 43 angina, 26 coronary deaths), and 306 subclinical atherosclerosis cases. Oxidized LDL was independently associated with higher incidence of CAD events (HR = 1.70; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02-2.84), but not with subclinical atherosclerosis. The net classification index of the Framingham-derived CAD risk function was significantly improved when ox-LDL was included (NRI = 14.67% [4.90; 24.45], P = 0.003). No associations were found between OLAB and clinical or subclinical events. The reference values for oxLDL and OLAB are also provided (percentiles). OxLDL was independently associated with 10-year CAD events but not subclinical atherosclerosis in a general population, and improved the reclassification capacity of Framingham-derived CAD risk functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated circulating sST2 associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ihsan; Ozkayar, Nihal; Ates, Hale; Karakulak, Uğur Nadir; Kursun, Oğuzhan; Topcuoglu, Canan; Inan, Bayram; Yilmaz, Nisbet

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) in patients with newly diagnosed primary hypertension (HT) and to determine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and IL-33/sST2. Eighty-two patients with newly diagnosed primary HT and ninety healthy volunteers were included in the study. CIMT ⩾0.9 mm was considered as significant for subclinical atherosclerosis. The sST2 levels of patients with primary HT were higher than those of the control group, whereas the IL-33 levels of these patients were much lower than those of the control group. The sST2 levels were higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis than in control subjects or patients with primary HT but not with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the primary HT group, sST2 had a positive correlation with CIMT, 24-h systolic-diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein, whereas sST2 had a negative correlation with the IL-33 level. A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that sST2 is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Although the diagnostic predictive value of HT risk was determined as >51.8 pg l(-1) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in respect of the sST2 level, the diagnostic predictive value for subclinical atherosclerosis risk was determined to be >107.2 pg l(-1). The sST2 level displays a positive correlation with atherosclerotic changes, and is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis expressed as increased CIMT.

  2. Fourier analysis of videokeratography data: Clinical usefulness in grade I and subclinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideroudi, Haris; Labiris, Georgios; Georgatzoglou, Kimon; Ditzel, Fienke; Siganos, Charalambos; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the contribution of Fourier analysis of videokeratographic data in the diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus and keratoconus. Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Observational case series. The following Pentacam-derived parameters, resulting from Fourier decomposition of keratometric data, were evaluated for their diagnostic capacity using receiver operating curves: spherical component and eccentricity, maximum decentration, regular astigmatism in the center and in the periphery, mean astigmatism, irregularities, regular astigmatism in the center plus the irregularities, and total astigmatism. Logistic regression was performed to identify a combined diagnostic model. The study comprised 80 keratoconus eyes, 55 eyes diagnosed with subclinical keratoconus, and 50 normal eyes. Significant differences were detected in spherical eccentricity, maximum decentration, irregularities, regular astigmatism in the center and in the periphery, regular astigmatism in the center plus the irregularities, mean astigmatism, and total astigmatism parameters between the groups. Almost all parameters had high diagnostic ability in both study groups (area under the curve >90%). Among individual parameters, those with the highest predictive accuracy were the regular astigmatism in the center plus the irregularities (subclinical keratoconus 97.6%, keratoconus 98.8%) and the maximum decentration (subclinical keratoconus 91.4%, keratoconus 98.5%). Sufficient predictive accuracy (subclinical keratoconus 99.4, keratoconus 100%) was identified in a diagnostic model that combined the regular astigmatism in the center plus the irregularities and the maximum decentration. Fourier decomposition of keratometric data provided parameters with high accuracy in differentiating corneas with subclinical keratoconus from normal corneas and should be included to allow prompt diagnosis of keratoconus. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Survival: The Effects of Heart Failure and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Gary C.; Alexander, Erik K.; Bhan, Ishir; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Studies examining the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and mortality have yielded conflicting results. Emerging data suggest these associations may depend upon underlying congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or race, but this has not been empirically determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism overall with mortality according to pre-existing CHF and race. Design and Participants: We examined the associations of subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH higher than assay upper limit of normal; total T4 within reference) and hypothyroidism overall (TSH higher than assay upper limit of normal; total T4 below lower limit of normal or within reference) with all-cause mortality among Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants stratified by CHF and race using multivariable Cox models. To confirm whether differences between strata were statistically significant, we tested for interaction on the basis of CHF (separately) and race by likelihood ratio testing. Results: There were 14 130 (95.0%) euthyroid controls and 749 (5.0%) participants with hypothyroidism, 691 (4.6%) of whom had subclinical disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism vs euthyroidism was associated with greater mortality in those with CHF but not in those without: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) = 1.44 (1.01–2.06) and 0.97 (0.85–1.11), respectively (P interaction = .03). Similar findings were observed for hypothyroidism overall. Hypothyroidism overall vs euthyroidism was associated with greater mortality in Black participants (HR = 1.44 [95% CI = 1.03–2.03]) but not in non-Blacks (HR = 0.95 [95% CI = 0.83–1.08]) (P interaction = .03). Conclusion: Among participants with CHF, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism overall are associated with greater death risk. Additional studies are needed to confirm findings and explore possible mechanisms for the

  4. Risk prediction is improved by adding markers of subclinical organ damage to SCORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: It is unclear whether subclinical vascular damage adds significantly to Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk stratification in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a population-based sample of 1968 subjects without cardiovascular disease or diabetes not receiving any cardiova......AIMS: It is unclear whether subclinical vascular damage adds significantly to Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk stratification in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a population-based sample of 1968 subjects without cardiovascular disease or diabetes not receiving any...

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Jensen, Tonny; Køber, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty......-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (-) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using...... with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease....

  6. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...... and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M...

  7. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, anti...

  8. Cost of Mastitis in Scottish Dairy Herds with Low and High Subclinical Mastitis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost £140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as £69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as £228 cow/year in herds with high s...

  9. [Rational therapy of patients with essential hypertension and abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pligovka, V M

    2014-11-01

    It was determined the characteristics of lipid status of patients with essential hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism--mostly increased levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In assessing the effectiveness of statin therapy in combination with levothyroxine replacement therapy compared with statin monotherapy, combination therapy showed the best result in terms of achievement of target levels of both total cholesterol and LDL. The obtained results allow us to recommend the use of combination therapy for patients with hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism in order to achieve the target values of LDL and thus to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these patients.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND DAIRY COWS WITH SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Akgül

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study is to compare beta-hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA, glucose (GLU gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and albumin (Alb values of healthy animals and animals suffering from subclinical ketosis. The material in this study consisted of 15 healthy cows and 15 cows with subclinical ketosis on a commercial dairy farm located in Bursa (Turkey. Significant differences (p<0.001 were observed in BHBA, GLU, and Ca between the two groups. Results of this study might indicate the importance of calcium metabolism in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE, especially subclinical NE (SNE whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet], SNE group (normal diet, BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet], treatment group (normal diet [days 1–28] + BS15 diet [days 29–42], and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1–28] + normal diet [days 29–42] throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by

  12. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Qing, Xiaodan; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Li, Guangyao; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical NE (SNE) whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet]), SNE group (normal diet), BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet]), treatment group (normal diet [days 1-28] + BS15 diet [days 29-42]), and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1-28] + normal diet [days 29-42]) throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by positively changing

  13. Association of exhaled carbon monoxide with subclinical cardiovascular disease and their conjoint impact on the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Enserro, Danielle; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Polak, Joseph F.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Wolf, Philip A.; O'Connor, George T.; Keaney, John F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Whereas endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is cytoprotective at physiologic levels, excess CO concentrations are associated with cardiometabolic risk and may represent an important marker of progression from subclinical to clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results In 1926 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (aged 57 ± 10 years, 46% women), we investigated the relationship of exhaled CO, a surrogate of blood CO concentration, with both prevalent subclinical CVD and incident clinical CVD events. Presence of subclinical CVD was determined using a comprehensive panel of diagnostic tests used to assess cardiac and vascular structure and function. Individuals with the highest (>5 p.p.m.) compared with lowest (≤4 p.p.m.) CO exposure were more likely to have subclinical CVD [odds ratios (OR): 1.67, 95% CI: 1.32–2.12; P < 0.001]. During the follow-up period (mean 5 ± 3 years), 193 individuals developed overt CVD. Individuals with both high CO levels and any baseline subclinical CVD developed overt CVD at an almost four-fold higher rate compared with those with low CO levels and no subclinical disease (22.1 vs. 6.3%). Notably, elevated CO was associated with incident CVD in the presence [hazards ration (HR): 1.83, 95% CI: 1.08–3.11; P = 0.026] but not in the absence (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.42–1.53; P = 0.51) of subclinical CVD (Pinteraction = 0.019). Similarly, subclinical CVD was associated with incident CVD in the presence of high but not low CO exposure. Conclusion Our findings in a community-based sample suggest that elevated CO is a marker of greater subclinical CVD burden and, furthermore, a potential key component in the progression from subclinical to clinical CVD. PMID:24574370

  14. One-year progression of diabetic subclinical macular edema in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the 1-year progression of retinal thickness (RT) increase occurring in eyes with subclinical macular edema in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-eight type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; levels 20 and 35 in the Early Treatment...

  15. Procalcitonin and midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide as biomarkers of subclinical cerebrovascular damage: the northern manhattan study

    OpenAIRE

    Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Spanaus, Kathartina; DeRosa, Janet; Gutierrez, Jose; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton; Sacco, Ralph; Elkind, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. METHODS: The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study)...

  16. Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Hogeveen, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability.

  17. Subclinical ADHD, Stress, and Coping in Romantic Relationships of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbey, Gail A.; Snell, William E., Jr.; Callis, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the subclinical symptoms of adult ADHD and those of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) affect relationship satisfaction and stress and to determine whether different patterns of coping strategies emerge when undergraduates have symptoms of one or both disorders. Method: Participants (N = 497) complete self-report surveys…

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for subclinical coccidiosis in broiler chicken farms in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Mohammad Reza; Seifi, Saeed; Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Hachesoo, Bahman Abdi; Habibi, Hasan; Bujmehrani, Hossein

    2011-12-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of almost universal importance in Poultry production. The subclinical form of coccidiosis has most significant economic impact due to impaired growth rate and feed conversion. Some factors such as: age, size of flock, season, etc., may effect on severity of this disease. In this study, the relationships between some major risk factors and prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis were investigated. This study was done in 120 broiler farms in five different cities of Mazandaran province, north of Iran. Five chicks (3-8 weeks of ages) were taken randomly from every 120 farms and post-mortem and parasitological examinations were performed. Five Eimeria spp. were recognized: Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, and Eimeria necatrix. The prevalence rate of subclinical coccidiosis among them is 75% (90 farms out of 120). E. acervulina was the most prevalent species (65.5%) followed by E. maxima (17.7%), E. tenella (15.5%), E. brunetti (10%), and E. necatrix (5.5%). According to what the results approve, the occurrence of subclinical coccidiosis is significantly related to the age and size of flock, whereas the other factors such as the season of year, industrial strains, chicken's keeping system, and anticoccidial drugs do not affect this phenomenon remarkably.

  19. [Subclinical hypothyroidism; the start of a clinical trial into the usefulness of treatment with radioactive iodine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Wiersinga, W.M.; Prummel, M.F.; Heijer, M. den; Corstens, F.H.M.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as the presence of serum free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyrotrophin (TSH) level. Evidence is accumulating that it has important clinical effects. Randomised clinical trials are needed to

  20. Sleep quality and cognitive function in healthy old age: the moderating role of subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below ( approximately 5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.

  2. Reducing Sub-Clinical Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Comparison of Two College Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen; Schiraldi, Glenn R.

    2004-01-01

    Mental health has been declining among college students in recent years. Reports indicate that even sub-clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression can negatively influence life satisfaction and performance. Mental health experts are calling for more efforts to address these concerns among college and general populations. This study examined the…

  3. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  4. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  5. [Improvement in functional capacity after levothyroxine treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto Grasiosi, Jorge; Peressotti, Bruno; Machado, Rogelio A; Filipini, Eduardo C; Angel, Adriana; Delgado, Jorge; Cortez Quiroga, Gustavo A; Rus Mansilla, Carmen; Martínez Quesada, María del Mar; Degregorio, Alejandro; Cordero, Diego J; Dak, Marcelo; Izurieta, Carlos; Esper, Ricardo J

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether levothyroxine treatment improves functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class i-iii) and subclinical hypothyroidism. One hundred and sixty-three outpatients with stable chronic heart failure followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled. A physical examination was performed, and laboratory tests including thyroid hormone levels, Doppler echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, and Holter monitoring were requested. Functional capacity was assessed by of the 6-min walk test. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected and, after undergoing the s6-min walk test, were given replacement therapy. When they reached normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the 6-min walk test was performed again. The distance walked in both tests was recorded, and the difference in meters covered by each patient was analyzed. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure was 13%. These patients walked 292±63m while they were hypothyroid and 350±76m when TSH levels returned to normal, a difference of 58±11m (P<.011). Patients with normal baseline TSH levels showed no significant difference between the 2 6-min walk tests. Patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly improved their physical performance when normal TSH levels were reached. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. [Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Claure, Adriana Lorena; Rayo-Mares, Jesús Darío; Nishimura-Meguro, Elisa; Herrera-Márquez, Julia Rocío; Muñoz-Montúfar, Juan Pablo; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In several studies it has been reported a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with epilepsy secondary to the use of monotherapy with valproic acid, carbamazepine and phenytoin. The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with drug-resistant epilepsy treated at the Pediatric Neurology Service of the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI in Mexico City. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. All pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and without structural alteration seen at the pediatric neurology service of our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2015 were included. Results: Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our sample was of 25%, with most patients receiving polytherapy with valproic acid. The intentional searching for subclinical hypothyroidism in pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy without structural alteration might be considered as part of routine medical care and patients receiving combination therapy with valproic acid they should be considered as a subgroup with an increased risk of developing such comorbidity.

  7. Cannabis use and subclinical positive psychotic experiences in early adolescence : findings from a Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Willemijn A; Wigman, Johanna T W; Monshouwer, Karin; Kahn, René S; van Os, Jim; Boks, Marco P M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    AIMS: To investigate the association between early cannabis use and subclinical psychotic experiences, distinguishing between five levels of use: never used, discontinued use (life-time users who did not use in the preceding year), experimental use, regular use and heavy use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional

  8. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Misrak; Leta, Samson; Mamo, Gezahegne; Tesfaye, Shimelis

    2017-12-21

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to March 2016 to estimate the prevalence, to assess the risk factors and to isolate the major etiological agent of subclinical mastitis in Bishoftu town. The study was conducted on 262 cross breed lactating cows selected from 12 intensively managed dairy farms. California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture methods were used as diagnostic tools. From 262 cows examined, 105 (40.1%) and from 1048 quarters examined, 170 (16.1%) were positive for sub-clinical mastitis using CMT. All CMT positive samples were cultured for etiological agent identification. From 170 samples cultured, 153 were positive for known subclinical mastitis pathogens. The dominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus species from these Staphylococcus aureus (44.9%) was the major one followed by Streptococcus spp. (25.3%) and other gram negative enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli (8.8%). Age, body condition score, milk yield, and number of parity were considered as potential risk factors; among these, age and number of parity have statistically significance association with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis (P < 0.05) both in the CMT and the bacteriological tests.

  9. Milk enzyme activities and subclinical mastitis among women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy...

  10. Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Hogeveen, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability.

  11. Determination of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with subclinical ketosis in Jersey cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subclinical ketosis is a fresh cow disorder that is costly in terms of lost milk production and treatment cost. Although treatment and prevention strategies are available, prevention requires targeting animals that are likely to develop the disease. Whole-herd genotyping is becoming more common with...

  12. Early Detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Patients Assessed by Carotid Duplex and Coronary Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsi Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Carotid duplex may detect subclinical vascular atherosclerosis in more than half of asymptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification detected by coronary computed tomography. These findings have important implications for early-stage atherosclerosis screening and implementation of primary preventive intervention.

  13. Association of fatty liver with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarado, María Del Rocío; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Medina-Urrutia, Aída Xóchitl; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo Celestino; González-Salazar, María Del Carmen; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Mendoza-Pérez, Enrique; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with fatty liver (FL) have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) probably due to its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF). To know the prevalence of FL and analyze its association with CMRF and subclinical atherosclerosis, in a sample of Mexican Mestizo population. This study included 846 subjects from the Genetic of Atherosclerosis Disease (GEA) study (53 ± 9 years, 50.7% women) without diabetes and no personal or family history of premature CAD. Blood samples were taken for measurements of lipids profile, uric acid, and insulin. The presence of FL was identified by computed tomography. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was measured by B mode ultrasound, using the > 75 percentile as cutoff value to define subclinical atherosclerosis. The general prevalence of FL was 32.4%. In men, FL was associated with hyperuricemia, whereas in women, hyperuricemia, low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome were the factors associated with this hepatic alteration. In women, FL was associated with a 66% higher probability of having high CIMT, independently of age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and waist circumference, but not of HOMA-IR. In women, FL was associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis independently of traditional CMRF. Our study suggests that, in women, insulin resistance could be a mediator of metabolic abnormalities and of subclinical atherosclerosis.

  14. The interface of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Ali, Rula A; Major, Jennifer; Langford, Carol; Hoffman, Garry S; Clark, Tiffany; Zhang, Li; Sun, Zhiyuan; Silverstein, Roy L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between inflammatory disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's) and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 46 adult patients with GPA were enrolled. Disease status was measured by Birmingham vasculitis assessment scores as modified for GPA, vasculitis damage index, disease duration, and number of relapses. Classic atherosclerotic risk factors, platelet aggregation responses, and circulating microparticle (MP) levels were recorded. All patients underwent carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement as outcome for subclinical atherosclerosis. In univariate analyses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, and age were significantly associated with higher IMT (ρ values 0.37, 0.38, 0.35, and 0.054, respectively [P subclinical atherosclerosis. The correlation with subclinical atherosclerosis could be because of glucocorticoid use and not the inflammatory process in GPA, giving the inherent bias that exits with the use of glucocorticoid with each relapse. The findings of increased levels of circulating leukocyte-derived MPs and enhanced platelet reactivity during relapse suggest possible roles for MPs and platelets in disease pathogenesis and support a growing literature that links inflammation, atherosclerosis, and platelet activation. This hypothesis is further substantiated by our demonstration that MPs isolated from plasma of GPA patients can activate platelets and vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical aspects of endogenous hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, Karen Anne

    2009-01-01

    Patients with DTC are initially treated with a total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy. Hereafter, all patients are treated with high doses of thyroxin aiming at significantly suppressing thyrotropin (TSH) levels, resulting in a subclinical hyperthyroid state. The rationale of this approach is

  16. Effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on whole-body and regional bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, A; Fusco, A; Andreoli, A; Magnani, A; Tulli, A; Lauro, D; De Lorenzo, A

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on bone mineral content (BMC) in different body segments. Thirty-two premenopausal women (age: 37 +/- 9.9 years), with a wide range in body mass index (BMI), were studied. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by a basal TSH > or = 4 microU/l and/or a TRH-stimulated peak > or = 30 microU/l. For each subject, weight, height, BMI (weight/height(2)) and the waist/hip ratio were measured. Total BMC, total bone mineral density (BMD), leg BMC, leg BMD, trunk BMC, trunk BMD, arm BMC and arm BMD were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Thyroid function (basal and TRH-stimulated TSH, free T(3) and free T(4)) were determined from fasting blood samples for all subjects. Anova was conducted within all the groups to observe the effect of thyroid status and/or obesity on BMC and BMD. There was no statistical difference for age. Total BMC was affected by obesity (p obesity (p hypothyroid status (p obesity seem to affect BMD differently in the body segments. An influence of gravitational force seems necessary in order to make evident the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on bone. A condition of subclinical hypothyroidism should be considered when evaluating subjects for osteoporosis, since a BMD measured at the femoral neck may induce underestimation of initial osteoporosis. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.

    2010-01-01

    not limit the spread of Staph. aureus at high transmission rates, although the associated costs were lower compared with no intervention. To improve udder health in a dairy herd, lactational treatment of contagious subclinical IMI must therefore be preceded by management measures that lower the transmission...

  18. The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Werven, van T.; Schuiling, H.J.; Nielen, van M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5

  19. Levels of plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Erkan; Aydemir, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    During the last 15 years, several risk markers for atherosclerosis, such as fibrinogen and D-dimer, have been identified. The role of elevated fibrinogen levels as an independent risk factor for coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease is well established on the basis of clinical and epidemiological studies. Increased D-dimer levels are associated with increased risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations in fibrinogen and D-dimer, which indicates overall thrombotic activity, in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Thirty-six subclinical hyperthyroidic subjects and 36 euthyroidic control subjects matched for age, gender, and body mass index were selected. The levels of plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer in all subjects were measured. The level of fibrinogen was significantly higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidic group than in the euthyroidic group (296.9+/-74.3 mg/dl vs. 255.0+/-41.7 mg/dl, psubclinical hyperthyroidic group than in the euthyroidic group (261.9+/-47.8 mg/dl vs. 216.4+/-32.1 mg/dl, psubclinical hyperthyroidism present a relatively hypercoagulable state. This state could contribute to increased thromboembolic risk in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  20. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Palle L.; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women. PMID:26351582

  1. Identification of Diagnostic Protein Markers of Subclinical Mastitis in Bovine Whey Using Comparative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proteomics of inflammatory response in whey from cows with subclinical mastitis were analysed. Whey protein lysates were separated on 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 3-10 linear and 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 4-7 using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results indicated that the whey proteins in milk from cows with subclinical mastitis are different from those in milk from healthy cows. All protein spots were found to have biologically relevant changes in relative abundance during subclinical mastitis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, including ß-1,4 galactosyltransferase, ß-2 microglobulin, complement 3, a-1-acid glycoprotein, ß-lactoglobulin A, a-S1 casein precursor, ß-casein B, and serotransferrin precursor. The mRNA expression of these genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. These proteins are involved in signal transduction, binding, transport, and immune defence activity. The results suggest that the markers may be used for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.

  2. Investigation of pancreas indocrine function in order to reveal subclinical insulin resistence in women with acne

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, T.; Rudykh, N.; Shevchuk, A

    2008-01-01

    Changed glycemic curves and indices of insulin resistance, the increase of insulin basal level in comparison with healthy persons, presence of antibodies to insulin antigen, decrease of level sex hormone bilding globulin were revealed in patients with acne. It can be considered as sign of formation of subclinical insulin resistance.

  3. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas
    (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined
    with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kousios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a significant problem in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD. Subclinical atherosclerosis identified by noninvasive methods could improve CVD risk prediction in CKD but these methods are often unavailable. We therefore systematically reviewed whether circulating levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors (TIMPs are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in CKD, as this would support their use as biomarkers or pharmacologic targets. Methods. All major electronic databases were systematically searched from inception until May 2015 using appropriate terms. Studies involving CKD patients with data on circulating MMPs levels and atherosclerosis were considered and subjected to quality assessment. Results. Overall, 16 studies were identified for qualitative synthesis and 9 studies were included in quantitative synthesis. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 were most frequently studied while most studies assessed carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Only MMP-2 demonstrated a consistent positive association with cIMT. Considerable variability in cIMT measurement methodology and poor plaque assessment was found. Conclusions. Although MMPs demonstrate great potential as biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis, they are understudied in CKD and not enough data existed for meta-analysis. Larger studies involving several MMPs, with more homogenized approaches in determining the atherosclerotic burden in CKD, are needed.

  5. Is there an association between subclinical hypothyroidism and preterm uterine contractions? A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassie, Daniel I; Ashwal, Eran; Raban, Oded; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Aviram, Amir

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and preterm contractions. Prospective observational study among women at 23 + 0/7 and 34 + 6/7 weeks of gestation, with no known thyroid function abnormality, and preterm uterine contractions (PTC). All patients underwent laboratory evaluation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxin (FT4). Patients with and without PTC were compared. No association was found between PTC and subclinical hypothyroidism. Rate of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) was comparable between women with abnormal and normal thyroid function tests. Excluding indicated PTD, patients in the study group had a higher rate of spontaneous PTD (24.7% versus 9.6%, p = 0.03). Patients with past PTD and preterm contractions had higher rates of hypothyroxinemia compared with patients without past PTD (54.6% versus 19.0% and 31.2%, p = 0.001), and patients with past PTD (regardless of the presence or absence of PTC) had higher rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with patients with PTC and without PTD (59.1% and 66.7% versus 31.6%, p = 0.017). No association was found between PTC and subclinical hypothyroidism in the entire cohort, except for patients with preterm contractions and a history of past PTD. This specific group of patients might benefit from thyroid function evaluation.

  6. Subclinical Endometritis Diagnosed through Cytobrush and Reproductive Performance in Cattle from the Municipality of Pupiales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Antonio Vallejo Timarán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the distribution of subclinical endometritis and the reproductive behavior of dairy cattle diagnosed through endometrial cytology from the Municipality of Pupiales, Nariño. Materials and methods: A reproductive assessment was carried out (rectal palpation, ultrasonography and evaluation of vaginal mucus to determine the absence of early gestation and of clinical signs of uterine infection, and 174 cows were sampled through cervical catheterization and the technique of Cytobrush starting 30 days after birth. Consequently, the population under study was organized based on ovarian function (empty cycling normal or anestrous and the status of the uterus (with or without endometritis. Results: 43 cows (24.7% showed cellular changes indicative of an active inflammatory process originated in the endometrium. 79.06% of the animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis were cyclic and had low reproductive performance. Conclusion: The high impact of subclinical endometritis in fertility and reproductive efficiency was determined. An early reproductive assessment must be performed, together with tests that make it possible to determine the presence of concomitant subclinical conditions.

  7. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  8. Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms, Cognitive Processes, School Achievement, and Intelligence-Achievement Relationship in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Partha; Basu, Jayanti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the general intelligence, cognitive processes, school achievement, and intelligence-achievement relationship of adolescents with subclinical levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms differed from those of their normal counterparts. From an initial large pool of 14-year-old Bengali students in eighth…

  9. Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of dairy goats is on the increase in East African countries. As in cows, prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats appears to be high but studies on the influence of this disease on milk yield and composition are scarce. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and ...

  10. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  11. Can ambulatory blood pressure measurements substitute assessment of subclinical cardiovascular damage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: We have previously demonstrated that markers of subclinical organ damage (SOD) improve cardiovascular risk prediction in healthy individuals. We wanted to investigate whether this additive effect of SOD was due to inaccurate blood pressure (BP) measurement or whether ambulatory BP (AMBP...

  12. Subclinical and overt thyroid dysfunction and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular events (MACEs), and cause-specific events in subjects with overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the study were subjects who underwent thyroid blood tests, without prior thyroid disease, consulting...

  13. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  14. [Clinical factors and biomarkers associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Estrada, Vicente; Gómez-Garre, Dulcenombre; Ávila, Mario; Fuentes-Ferrer, Manuel; Sánchez-Parra, Clara; Sainz, Talía; de Carranza, María; Fernández-Cruz, Arturo

    2012-09-08

    HIV-infected patients present accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD is among the most important causes of mortality in this population. We aimed to identify biomarkers and clinical factors associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiovascular biomarkers were measured in 235 HIV-infected patients. Individuals with a cIMT ≥ 75th percentile or plaque were classified as having subclinical atherosclerosis and compared with patients without subclinical atherosclerosis. Age was 46 (11) years old. Mean cIMT was 0.58 (0.13)mm. Sixty-five (27.8%) patients had subclinical atherosclerosis. These subjects had more frequently lipodystrophy (OR:2.7; CI95%:1.4-4.9), immunosuppression (OR:2.5; CI95%:1.1-5.8), longer time to HIV diagnosis (≥ p50 [10 years], OR:1.4; CI95%:1.1-2.9), longer exposure to nucleoside analogues (≥ p50 [132 months], OR:3.2; CI95%:1.7-6) and to protease inhibitors (≥ p50 [24 months], OR:2.2; CI95%:1.1-3.6). They also showed higher levels of several biomarkers such as NT-proBNP (≥ p75 [72.6 pg/ml], OR:2.0; CI95%:1-4.1) and albumin/creatinine urine ratio (≥ p50 [5mg/g], OR:3.8; CI95%:1.3-11). After the multivariate analysis, subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age (OR:6.6; CI95%:2.2-19.5; P=.001), a longer time to HIV diagnosis (OR:3.1; CI95%:1.0-11.0; P=.044) and immunosuppression (OR:2.8; CI95%:1-8.3; P=.048). Among HIV-infected patients, time to HIV diagnosis and immunosuppression were independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with subclinical atherosclerosis showed increased levels of vascular damage biomarkers, especially albumin/creatinine urine ratio and NT-proBNP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy on brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dijie; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Yu, Xiaohui; Gao, Yun; Wang, Sen; Fan, Chenling; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hongmei

    2010-08-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones (THs), especially thyroxine (T(4)), are crucial to early brain development in the mammalian embryo. Epidemiological studies and case reports have shown that maternal subclinical hypothyroidism may result in significant negative effects on pregnancy and neurodevelopment of the fetus. To understand the mechanism responsible for these neurological alterations, we induced maternal subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant rats. Behavior and several genes that are under the control of THs were evaluated in the offspring of TH-deficient rats. A total of 60 female rats were divided into three groups: (i) maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (total thyroidectomy with T(4) infusion), (ii) maternal hypothyroidism (total thyroidectomy without T(4) infusion), and (iii) control (sham operated). All rats were mated 10 days after the start of infusion. The infusion continued until 10 days postpartum. Pups were sacrificed at postnatal day 3 (PND 3), PND 7, and PND 21. The hippocampus was collected and tested for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Rap1 protein expression by Western blotting and for BDNF and neural cell adhesion molecule mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. On PND 41-PND 49, rat pups explored the Morris water maze. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. This study found decreases in BDNF mRNA expression (on PND 3) and protein level (on PND 3 and PND 7) in hippocampi of pups from subclinical hypothyroidism dams (p hypothyroidism offspring than in control offspring at PND 7 and PND 21. No change was observed in neural cell adhesion molecule mRNA expression in the maternal subclinical hypothyroidism offspring. In addition, results from the Morris water maze revealed that pups from the subclinical hypothyroidism dams showed deficits in long-term memory, spending less time in the platform quadrant (p 0.05) in this group as well. The long-term memory deficits of pups born to maternal

  16. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bauer, Douglas C.; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Cappola, Anne R.; Balmer, Philippe; Iervasi, Giorgio; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Sgarbi, José A.; Völzke, Henry; Gencer, Bariş; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Molinaro, Sabrina; Bremner, Alexandra; Luben, Robert N.; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Cornuz, Jacques; Newman, Anne B.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Walsh, John P.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Data from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular outcomes are conflicting. We aimed to assess the risks of total and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, CHD events, and atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism among all available large prospective cohorts. Methods Individual data on 52 674 participants were pooled from 10 cohorts. Coronary heart disease events were analyzed in 22 437 participants from 6 cohorts with available data, and incident AF was analyzed in 8711 participants from 5 cohorts. Euthyroidism was defined as thyrotropin level between 0.45 and 4.49 mIU/L and endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism as thyrotropin level lower than 0.45 mIU/L with normal free thyroxine levels, after excluding those receiving thyroid-altering medications. Results Of 52 674 participants, 2188 (4.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. During follow-up, 8527 participants died (including 1896 from CHD), 3653 of 22 437 had CHD events, and 785 of 8711 developed AF. In age-and sex-adjusted analyses, subclinical hyperthyroidism was associated with increased total mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24, 95% CI, 1.06–1.46), CHD mortality (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02–1.62), CHD events (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.99–1.46), and AF (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.16–2.43). Risks did not differ significantly by age, sex, or preexisting cardiovascular disease and were similar after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, with attributable risk of 14.5% for total mortality to 41.5% for AF in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Risks for CHD mortality and AF (but not other outcomes) were higher for thyrotropin level lower than 0.10 mIU/L compared with thyrotropin level between 0.10 and 0.44 mIU/L (for both, P value for trend, ≤.03). Conclusion Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased risks of total, CHD mortality, and incident AF, with highest

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  18. Is subclinical hypothyroidism associated with lower live birth rates in women who have experienced unexplained recurrent miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Myrthe M; Vissenberg, Rosa; Bisschop, Peter H; Dawood, Feroza; van Wely, Madelon; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Farquharson, Roy G

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid disorders have been associated with recurrent miscarriage. Little evidence is available on the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on live birth rates. In this cohort study, women who had experienced miscarriage and subclinical hypothyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone >97.5th percentile mU/l with a normal thyroxine level) were investigated; the control group included women who had experienced recurrent miscarriage and normal thyroid function. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of subclinical hypothyroidism. Data were available for 848 women; 20 (2.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism; 818 women (96%) had euthyroidism; and 10 (1.2%) had overt hypothyroidism. The live birth rate was 45% in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 52% in euthyroid women (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.71). The ongoing pregnancy rate was 65% versus 69% (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.10) and the miscarriage rate was 35% versus 28% (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.68), respectively. No differences were found when thyroid stimulating hormone 2.5 mU/l was used as cut-off level to define subclinical hypothyroidism. In women with unexplained miscarriage, no differences were found in live birth, ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage rates between women with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Family history of coronary heart disease and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind K; Pandey, Shivda; Blaha, Michael J; Agatston, Arthur; Feldman, Theodore; Ozner, Michael; Santos, Raul D; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2013-06-01

    The goals of this systematic analysis are to determine the association between family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease as well as to discuss the inclusion of CHD family history in the frequently used coronary risk prediction algorithms. Individuals with a family history of CHD are at high risk for developing atherosclerosis and events related to CHD, regardless of the presence of other coronary risk factors. They form a target population that might benefit from primary prevention strategies; however, family history data is not a part of the frequently used risk prediction algorithms. Medline and PubMed databases were searched for all studies evaluating the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and family history of CHD, published till June 2010. Thirty-two studies met the above criteria and were included in this review. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima thickness, vascular function, and inflammatory markers including C reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were used as measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Studies differed in design, demographic data of the population, techniques and validation of family history information. Most studies established a statistically significant relationship between the above markers and family history of CAD; further, the association was noted to be independent of traditional risk factors. Family history of CAD is associated with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, and this relationship remains statistically significant after adjusting for traditional risk factors. The above data suggest these individuals should be considered strongly as candidates for assessment of subclinical CVD to further refine risk and treatment goals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality.

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    Mette Nygaard Andersen

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9% had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female. Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3% patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2 years, 358 MI's and 1,566 (12.8% deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44], cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25] or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19], except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99].Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI.

  1. Reduction of Lactobacillus in the milks of cows with subclinical mastitis.

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    Qiao, J; Kwok, L; Zhang, J; Gao, P; Zheng, Y; Guo, Z; Hou, Q; Huo, D; Huang, W; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis are the most frequent diseases encountered on dairy farms worldwide, which cause significant economic loss and veterinary cost. The mastitic disease status is associated with increases in both milk bacterial pathogens and somatic cell count (SCC). Although it is well established that the mastitic pathogens generally correlate with the milk SCC, to our knowledge, the correlation between the probiotic genus, Lactobacillus, and the mastitic causative bacteria and SCC have not been determined previously. Thus, in this study, milk samples from 12 mild and 28 severe subclinical mastitic dairy cows were collected from the same farm. The overall milk bacterial load was quantified with the total plate count method. The Lactobacillus genus and 4 common clinical and subclinical mastitic pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Trueperella pyogenes) in the sampled milk were enumerated by quantitative PCR. Mild and severe subclinical mastitic samples were distinctly separated on the principal component analysis score plot generated based on the quantities of these 5 target bacteria, suggesting that clear differences existed in the microbiological composition between the two sample groups. Based on comparison with the pairwise Mann-Whitney test, the mild subclinical mastitic dairy cows had a significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli (P=0.0175), but lower E. coli (P=0.0002), S. aureus (Psubclinical mastitic group. The negative correlation between Lactobacillus and the pathogenic bacteria, as well as the SCC, was confirmed with Spearman correlation analysis. Data generated from the current study may hint to a close relationship between Lactobacillus and the health of bovine udder.

  2. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

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    R.H. Mdegela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  3. Monoamine oxidase A genotype, childhood trauma, and subclinical atherosclerosis: a twin study.

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    Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, James D; Goldberg, Jack; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Vaccarino, Viola

    2013-06-01

    A functional promoter polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and also moderates the association between early-life stress and mental disorders, which often co-occur with cardiovascular disease. No study has examined the relationship between MAOA genotype, childhood trauma, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of this investigation was to examine whether childhood trauma moderates the association between MAOA genotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. A sample including 289 middle-aged male twin pairs was studied. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound. Childhood trauma, before age 18 years, was measured with the Early Trauma Inventory and included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as general trauma. Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the main and interactive effects of the MAOA genotype and each domain of childhood trauma on FMD, adjusting for known risk factors. General trauma was the most prevalent childhood trauma (28.4%), followed by physical abuse (25.0%), emotional abuse (19.4%), and sexual abuse (11.6%). MAOA genotype was not associated with any domain of childhood trauma. There was no significant evidence for a main effect for the MAOA genotype (β = .02, p = .82) or childhood trauma (.005 .54) FMD. However, a significant interaction was observed between MAOA genotype and physical (β interaction = .37, p = .026) or emotional abuse (β interaction = .43, p = .025) on subclinical atherosclerosis. Childhood trauma modulates the impact of MAOA variant on subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Subclinical keratoconus detection by pattern analysis of corneal and epithelial thickness maps with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chamberlain, Winston; Tan, Ou; Brass, Robert; Weiss, Jack L; Huang, David

    2016-02-01

    To screen for subclinical keratoconus by analyzing corneal, epithelial, and stromal thickness map patterns with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Four centers in the United States. Cross-sectional observational study. Eyes of normal subjects, subclinical keratoconus eyes, and the topographically normal eye of a unilateral keratoconus patient were studied. Corneas were scanned using a 26,000 Hz Fourier-domain OCT system (RTVue). Normal subjects were divided into training and evaluation groups. Corneal, epithelial, and stromal thickness maps and derived diagnostic indices, including pattern standard deviation (PSD) variables and pachymetric map-based keratoconus risk scores, were calculated from the OCT data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the indices. The study comprised 150 eyes of 83 normal subjects, 50 subclinical keratoconus eyes of 32 patients, and 1 topographically normal eye of a unilateral keratoconus patient. Subclinical keratoconus was characterized by inferotemporal thinning of the cornea, epithelium, and stroma. The PSD values for corneal (P keratoconus risk score (AUC = 0.735). High-resolution Fourier-domain OCT could map corneal, epithelial, and stromal thicknesses. Corneal and sublayer thickness changes in subclinical keratoconus could be detected with high accuracy using PSD variables. These new diagnostic variables might be useful in the detection of early keratoconus. Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and Drs. Li, Tan, and Huang have a significant financial interest in Optovue, Inc. These potential conflicts have been reviewed and managed by OHSU. Dr. Brass receives research grants from Optovue, Inc. Drs. Chamberlain and Weiss have no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women and its effect on fetomaternal outcome.

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    Sharmeen, M; Shamsunnahar, P A; Laita, T R; Chowdhury, S B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are few data from Bangladesh about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. With this background, this study aims to find out thyroid dysfunction (both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism) in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome. We studied the evaluation of 50 admitted pregnancies corresponding to 29 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and rest 21 was overt hypothyroidism. Detailed history and examination were performed. Apart from routine obstetrical investigations, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) estimation was done. Their obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were noted. Overt hypothyroidism was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients. In sub clinical hypothyroidism 86.2% conceived firstly within 2 years and 66.7% in overt hypothyroidism patients conceived firstly in between 3 to 5 years after marriage. Overt hypothyroids were prone to have pregnancy-induced hypertension 42.9%, intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.001) and gestational diabetes (38.1%) as compared to subclinical cases. Neonatal complications were significantly more in overt hypothyroidism group. Mean TSH level was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients but mean FT4 level was almost similar in both groups. Majority of the patient underwent caesarean section in both groups due to associated medical and obstetrical complications. None of the babies showed hypothyroidism by cord blood tests. In this analysis our results showed that overt hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women are associated with more maternal complication & adverse parental outcome than subclinical hypothyroidism. The adequate treatment of hypothyroidism during gestation minimizes risks and generally, makes it possible for pregnancies to be carried to term without complications

  6. Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland.

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    Busato, A; Trachsel, P; Schällibaum, M; Blum, J W

    2000-04-28

    1+ were submitted for somatic cell counting (SCC), bacteriological examination and to test for antibiotic susceptibility. The SCC and germ-cell counts of monthly bulk-tank milk samples were available through Dairy Inspection and Advisory Services and milk production data of 567 herd-book cows were available from breeding associations. Possible individual and environmental predictors of subclinical mastitis were identified using logistic models adjusted for clustering of the data at herd and cow levels. Data were analyzed separately for cows from 7 to 100 and from 101 to 305 days post partum. Prevalences of subclinical mastitis at the quarter level were 21.2% for lactation period 7-100 days and 34.5% for 101-305 days post partum. The geometric mean SCC in bulk-tank milk samples was 85.6x10(3)cells/ml. Samples at 7-100 and 101-305 days post partum were positive for Staphylococcus aureus in 16.0 and 7.4%, for coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 51.5 and 50.6%, for Streptococcus agalactiae in 0.0 and 0.8%, for other Streptococci in 19.4 and 15.6%, for E. coli in 1.0 and 0.4%, and for Corynebacterium bovis in 25.7 and 45.1%, respectively. Risks of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with increasing days post partum and advancing age of cow. Cows that were sampled when staying in alpine dairies had considerably higher risks of subclinical mastitis than cows staying in home barns. Significantly lower risks of subclinical mastitis were observed in farms where CMT was performed regularly as a control measure. Bacteria in milk from cows with mastitis exhibited antibiotic resistance at a comparable frequency as found previously in conventional farms.

  7. Assessing sub-clinical psychosis phenotypes in the general population--a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that expression of a psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of its clinical detection. To date, however, no conceptual certainty has been reported for the validity and reliability of sub-clinical psychosis. Our main objectives were to assess the prevalence rates and severity of various psychosis symptoms in a representative community sample. Furthermore, we wanted to analyze which latent factors are depicted by several currently used psychosis questionnaires. We also examined how those latent factors for sub-clinical psychosis are linked to psychosocial factors, normal personality traits, and coping abilities related to chronic stress. Most of the eight subscales from the Paranoia Checklist and the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies had a very similar type of distribution, i.e., an inverse Gaussian (Wald) distribution. This supported the notion of a continuity of psychotic symptoms, which we would expect to find for continuously distributed symptoms within the general population. Sub-clinical psychosis can be reduced to two different factors - one representing odd beliefs about the world and odd behavior, and the other one representing anomalous perceptions (such as hallucinations). Persons with odd beliefs and behavior are under greater burden and more susceptible to psychosocial risks than are persons with anomalous perceptions. These sub-clinical psychosis syndromes are also related to stable personality traits. In conclusion, we obtained strong support for the notion that there is no natural cut-off separating psychotic illness from good health. Sub-clinical psychosis of any kind is not trivial because it is associated with various types of social disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Control Study in Nepalese Population

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    Rajendra KC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess cardiovascular risk factors in Nepalese population with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods. A case control study was conducted among 200 subjects (100 subclinical hypothyroid and 100 euthyroid at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Demographic and anthropometric variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP were taken. Blood samples were assayed for serum free triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Results. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly higher diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP than controls. The odds ratio of having hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL, low HDL cholesterol (100 mg/dL, high hs-CRP (>1 mg/L, and high diastolic BP (>80 mmHg and being overweight (BMI ≥ 23 Kg/m2 in subclinical hypothyroidism was 2.29 (95% CI; 1.2–4.38, p=0.011, 1.73 (95% CI; 0.82–3.62, p=0.141, 3.04 (95% CI; 1.66–5.56, p<0.001, 2.02 (95% CI; 1.12–3.64, p=0.018, 3.35 (95% CI; 1.72–6.55, p<0.001, and 0.9 (95% CI; 0.48–1.67, p=0.753, respectively, as compared to controls. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroid patients are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease than euthyroid subjects.

  9. Therapeutic effect of nisin Z on subclinical mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-09-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of > or =500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens.

  10. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ROLE OF CRP IN 50 ADULT PATIENTS

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    Pratik Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is generally characterised as a clustering of the abnormal levels of blood lipids (low HDL and high triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and excess abdominal obesity. The objectives of the study areTo evaluate presence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the study population of the patients with metabolic syndrome. To find out relation between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and different parameters of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate whether patients of metabolic syndrome with raised hs-CRP have an increased risk of having hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 adult patients who met with inclusion criteria were selected. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS who fulfilled the NCEP-ATP III criteria: 3 out of 5 criteria positive. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions (e.g. lithium, amiodarone or γ-interferon were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of 50 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Out of which 36 were euthyroid, 3 were overt hypothyroid and 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. Out of 11 patients of subclinical hypothyroidism, 9 were female and 2 were male patients. Out of 28 females, 9 (32% were SCH while out of 22 males, 2 (9% were SCH. Out of 50 patients, 3 were overt hypothyroid. All 3 patients had BP >130/85, waist circumference was >88 cm and HDL of 130/85, HDL 150 mg/dL and fasting blood glucose of >100 mg/dL were more associated with male patients. CONCLUSION Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 22% of study population and more so in females having metabolic syndrome (32%. Hence, it will be worthwhile to screen female metabolic syndrome patients for thyroid function abnormality. Abnormal blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were more associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  11. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  12. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoy, Kamil; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Altundag, Aytug; Kurt, Onuralp; Salihoglu, Murat; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls enrolled in the prospective study in Istanbul, Turkey. Subclinical hypothyroid patients were treated with L-thyroxine for 3 months. Psychophysiological olfactory testing was performed using odor dispensers similar to felt-tip pens ("Sniffin' Sticks", Burghart, Wedel, Germany). Taste function tests were made using "Taste Strips" (Burghart, Wedel, Germany) which are basically tastant adsorbed filter paper strip. Patients scored lower on psychophysical olfactory tests than controls (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.9±1.1, p = 0.007; odor discrimination:12.4±1.3 vs 13.1±0.9, p = 0.016; odor identification:13.1±0.9 vs 14.0±1.1, p = 0.001; TDI score: 33.8±2.4 vs 36.9±2.1, p = 0.001). In contrast, results from psychophysical gustatory tests showed only a decreased score for "bitter" in patients, but not for other tastes (5.9±1.8 vs 6.6±1.0, p = 0.045). Three month after onset of treatment olfactory test scores already indicated improvement (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.6±0.6, psmell and taste, with thyroid function test were also evaluated. TSH, fT4 were found have no correlation with smell and taste changes with treatment. However bitter taste found positively correlated with T3 with treatment(r: 0.445, p: 0.018). Subclinical hypothyroid patients exhibited a significantly decreased olfactory sensitivity; in addition, bitter taste was significantly affected. Most importantly, these deficits can be remedied on average within 3 months with adequate treatment.

  13. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Heckbert, Susan R; Ceresini, Graziano; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Peeters, Robin P; Luben, Robert; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Walsh, John P; Bremner, Alexandra; Iacoviello, Massimo; Macfarlane, Peter; Heeringa, Jan; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Magnani, Jared W; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-11-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent disorder leading to heart failure, stroke, and death. Enhanced understanding of modifiable risk factors may yield opportunities for prevention. The risk of AF is increased in subclinical hyperthyroidism, but it is uncertain whether variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person-years of follow-up), 1958 (6.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2574 individuals (8.6%) developed AF during follow-up. TSH at baseline was not significantly associated with incident AF in euthyroid participants or those with subclinical hypothyroidism. Higher fT4 levels at baseline in euthyroid individuals were associated with increased AF risk in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.66, for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of fT4; P for trend ≤0.001 across quartiles). Estimates did not substantially differ after further adjustment for preexisting cardiovascular disease. In euthyroid individuals, higher circulating fT4 levels, but not TSH levels, are associated with increased risk of incident AF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  15. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1 most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2 magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3 similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4 ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism as a risk factor for placental abruption: evidence from a low-risk primigravid population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2013-12-01

    Subclinical thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy has been shown to have an association with neurodevelopmental delay in the offspring. It is unclear whether obstetric factors may account for this observation.

  17. Comparative antibiogram of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) associated with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K; Shafi, T A; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    ...) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results...

  18. Dietary determinants of subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia and components of the metabolic syndrome in overweight children: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Aeberli, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review and summarize the dietary determinants of the metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation and dyslipidemia in overweight children. Design: Review of the current literature, focusing on pediatric studies. Participants: Normal weight, overweight, or obese children and

  19. Analysis of associations between major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.; Østergård, H.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between BoLA class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis were investigated using information on 333 cows from three different breeds and crossbreeds from 14 dairy herds in Denmark. Somatic cell count and bacteriological status were used as markers for subclinical mastitis....... Associations between BoLA class I haplotypes and IMI status were also determined. The association between BoLA class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis was weak. The A10(W50), A11, A12(A30), A16, A19(A6), A21, A26, and A31(A30) alleles were associated with different markers of subclinical mastitis....... Susceptibility or resistance to the two bacteria categories was associated with different alleles. This study indicated that BoLA antigens may be involved in resistance to mastitis and that resistance may be specific for a particular pathogen....

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J. Visser (Theo); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Overt hypothyroidism has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether

  1. The Effect of Early Substitution of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Biochemical Blood Parameters and the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandrc Milena S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is defined as high TSH and normal thyroxine. Data on the effects of early substitution by levothyroxine on psychophysical health in SCH are still not consistent enough to support its introduction.

  2. Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal tumours in a patient with gallbladder multiple stone: therapeutical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsote Mara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The field of Cushing syndrome is a various area; there are still subjects incompletely clarified as the subclinical pattern as well as cortisol producing bilateral adrenal tumours.

  3. The association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and dementia: The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Bauer, Douglas C; da Costa, Bruno R; Feller, Martin; Rieben, Carole; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and dementia are limited and conflicting. We aimed to determine whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction was associated with dementia and cognitive decline. Population-based prospective cohort study. Adults aged 70-79 years with measured thyroid function, but no dementia at baseline, and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) at baseline and follow-up. Primary outcome was incident-adjudicated dementia, based on 3MS, hospital records and dementia drugs. Secondary outcome was change in 3MS. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education and baseline 3MS, and then further for cardiovascular risk factors. Among 2558 adults, 85% were euthyroid (TSH 0.45-4.49mIU/L), 2% had subclinical hyperthyroidism with mildly decreased TSH (TSH 0.10-0.44 mIU/L), 1% subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH (TSH < 0.10 mIU/L with normal free thyroxine [FT4]) and 12% subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 4.50-19.99 mIU/L with normal FT4). Over 9 years, 22% developed dementia. Compared to euthyroidism, risk of dementia was higher in participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH (HR 2.38, 95% CI = 1.13;5.04), while we found no significant association in those with mildly decreased TSH (HR 0.79, 95% CI = 0.45;1.38) or with subclinical hypothyroidism (HR 0.91, 95% CI = 0.70;1.19). Participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH had a larger decline in 3MS (-3.89, 95% CI = -7.62; -0.15). Among older adults, subclinical hyperthyroidism with a TSH < 0.10 mIU/L was associated with a higher risk of dementia and a larger cognitive decline, while subclinical hyperthyroidism with mildly decreased TSH or subclinical hypothyroidism were not. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  5. Residual subclinical impairment in patients who totally recovered from Guillain-Barré syndrome: impact on military performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, D S; Cuetter, A C

    1990-09-01

    Patients who have clinically recovered from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may exhibit a deficit during strenuous exercises that require maximal effort and muscular endurance. The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is a quantitative tool that challenges neuromuscular endurance and unmasks a subclinical deficit in soldiers who have apparently recovered from GBS. The impact of this subclinical deficit on active duty soldiers and strategies for managing their poor performance on the APFT are discussed.

  6. Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vakanjac Slobodanka; Pavlović Vojislav; Magaš Vladimir; Pavlović Miloš; Đurić Miloje; Maletić Milan; Nedić Svetlana; Sočo Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mast...

  7. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Agalactiae: Subclinical Mastitis Causes in Dairy Cow and Dairy Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ratna Winata, Lucia Ratna Winata

    2017-01-01

    - Abstract This study aims to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aereus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in subclinical mastitis infection in dairy cows and buffalo in Enrekang (region in South Sulawesi). Subclinical mastitis was pre-examined using California Mastitis Test (CMT) reagent and 33 samples were positively detected. The positive samples were then isolated with culture test on the Baird Parker Agar media (BPA), identified with catalyst, Gram...

  8. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (Psubclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently.

  9. Individual with subclinical atherosclerosis have impaired proliferation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells, which can be restored by statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ramirez, Javier; Kok, Maayke G M; Hofman, Menno; Bierings, Ruben; Creemers, Esther E; Meijers, Joost C M; Voorberg, Jan; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan

    2014-01-01

    To study the regenerative capacity of the endothelium in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we cultured blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) of patients with premature CAD and their first degree relatives (FDR). Additionally we evaluated the influence of statin treatment on circulating BOEC precursors in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with premature CAD (men subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC>0). We did not observe differences in the number of BOEC colonies and proliferation between premature CAD patients and FDRs. FDRs with subclinical atherosclerosis had lower colony numbers compared with healthy FDRs, however this was not statistically significant, and BOEC proliferation was significantly impaired (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.96). Unexpectedly, the number of BOEC colonies and BOEC proliferation were similar for premature CAD patients and healthy FDRs. Since a considerable number of premature CAD patients used statins, we studied the number of BOEC precursors as well as their proliferative capacity in ten individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis, before and after statin therapy. Interestingly, FDRs with subclinical atherosclerosis showed a significant increase in the number of BOEC colonies after statin therapy. BOEC proliferation of subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis is impaired compared with healthy controls. In these subjects, statin therapy significantly increased the number of circulating BOEC precursors as well as their proliferative capacity, revealing a beneficial effect of statins on endothelial regeneration.

  10. Exercise training in childhood cancer survivors with subclinical cardiomyopathy who were treated with anthracyclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Ness, Kirsten K; Joshi, Vijaya; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Green, Daniel M

    2013-11-06

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with anthracyclines are at risk for cardiomyopathy. This case series evaluated the response of anthracycline exposed CCS with subclinical cardiomyopathy to aerobic and strength training. Body composition, strength and cardiopulmonary fitness were evaluated before and after the 12-week intervention. All equipment and materials were provided to five 10+ year CCS (3 males, mean age 38.0 ± 3.3 years) for a guideline-based home exercise program. All five completed the study with no adverse events. Compliance with exercise was 86%. These results suggest that exercise training may improve exercise capacity of CCS with subclinical cardiomyopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. USE OF CALIFORNIA MASTITIS TEST IN DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazif Varatanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Udder health control has been conducted in three different cow breeds by comparing the California Mastitis Test results in order to justify its use in detecting subclinical mastitis. The test examined 75 cows, or 228 quarters in total. In 76% of the cows of different breeds, the results of California Mastitis Test were positive. The tests were positive in one or two quarters with the intensity level of one, two and three. The test showed much higher percentage of positive reaction in the rear quarters. According to the results of our research, the continuous application of this test enables the early detection of subclinical mastitis resulting in its prevention and also improvement in quantity and milk quality.Key words: mastitis, California Mastitis Test, cow

  12. Individual pathogens, pathogen burden, and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, Moyses; Ding, Jingzhong; Tsai, Michael Y.; Cushman, Mary; Polak, Joseph F.; Lima, João; Barr, R. Graham; Sharrett, A. Richey

    2009-01-01

    We examined the cross-sectional relationships of subclinical atherosclerosis – expressed by carotid intimal–medial thickness and coronary calcification – with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis A virus, and pathogen burden (number of positive pathogens). A random sample of 1056 individuals chosen from 5030 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort participants were included. After multiple adjustment, no associations were found between atherosclerosis measures and either individual pathogens or pathogen burden. Interactions with inflammatory and endothelial function markers, demographic factors, BMI, high-density lipoprotein, diabetes, and smoking were also explored. The only interaction that was large, qualitative, statistically significant (P subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the study’s limitations, which include its cross-sectional design and insufficient statistical power, suggest that inferences from its findings should be made cautiously. PMID:19444130

  13. Ultrasound of the hand is sufficient to detect subclinical inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Hilde Berner; Kvien, Tore K; Terslev, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) is a sensitive method for detecting joint/tendon inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Subclinical inflammation is often found in patients with RA in composite score remission. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether US of only...... the hands is sufficient to identify subclinical inflammation in patients with established RA in clinical remission. METHODS: A total of 209 patients with established RA (81% women, mean [SD] age 53.3 (13.2) years, disease duration 10.0 [8.8] years) were examined when initiating biologic disease...... inflammation and could be feasible for assessing bDMARD-treated patients with RA in remission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000284066 . Registered on 8 April 2010....

  14. Reduction in daily milk yield associated with subclinical bovine herpesvirus 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, J M E; Randall, L V; Archer, S C

    2015-10-03

    The aim of this observational cohort study was to investigate the potential economic impact of subclinical bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection in a commercial UK dairy herd in terms of milk yield depression. Infection status of cows (infected or not infected) was assigned from serology on a single occasion. A multi-level linear model was used to evaluate the impact of infection status on milk production, using milk records that were routinely collected over two years. BoHV-1 seropositive cows produced 2.6 kg/day less milk over the study period compared with cows that were seronegative. This result highlights the importance of appropriate management of risks associated with subclinical infection with BoHV-1 as part of proactive herd health and production management. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Placental Histopathologic Changes Associated with Subclinical Malaria Infection and Its Impact on the Fetal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Falgunee K.; Davison, Billie B.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Hernandez, Jean; Branch, OraLee H.

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic examination of placental tissue can provide an accurate assessment of malaria infection during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study of 193 women in Iquitos, Peru, 1.0% and 6.6% had parasites in the peripheral blood as detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. However, 22% had placental malaria pigment indicating past, subclinical infections. Placental tissues with pigment from 24 cases were matched by gravidity and month of delivery to 24 controls and histopathologically examined. Cases had significantly higher number of monocytes in the intervillous space (44.7 versus 25.5; P = 0.012). Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels were present in 33.3% of cases. This study demonstrated that subclinical malarial infection occurred frequently in pregnant women and is associated with increased presence of monocytes in the placenta. Pigmented monocytes in fetal vessels suggest parasites can breach the placental barrier and enter the fetal circulation. PMID:21036823

  16. Controlling Subclinical Mastitis by Antibiotic Application during Dry Period of Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sri Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mastitis is essential, as one of the efforts to control disease in dairy cow. Dry period has implications to understand the mastitis and its control strategies. The udder is very susceptible to be infected both at the beginning and towards the end of dry period. This is linked to physiological changes in udder. Treatment with antibiotics during the dry period can reduce new infection about 82% and has several advantages. The success rate of subclinical mastitis treatment is much higher (80-90% compared to the treatment during lactation (30-40%; the doses of antibiotic can be higher and safer, due to its retention time in udder becomes longer; the risk of antibiotic contamination in milk can be avoided because the udder is not milked. Antibiotic application during dry period is the best way to treat subclinical and chronic mastitis. Treatment during dry period is a specific mastitis control for intramammary infection to avoid economic losses.

  17. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  18. Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Karup Pedersen, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    , obesity, and tobacco smoking may also contribute substantially. We performed a systematic review of studies through the last 20 years on early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with JIA with the purpose of investigating whether possible risk factors, other than inflammation......, were considered.We found 13 descriptive cross sectional studies with healthy controls, one intervention study and two studies on adults diagnosed with JIA. Only one study addressed obesity, and physical activity (PA) has only been assessed in one study on adults with JIA and only by self......Many studies show that Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is associated with early subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation per se may be an important driver but other known risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin insensitivity, a physically inactive lifestyle...

  19. Walking speed and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy older adults: the Whitehall II study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamer, M.; Kivimaki, M.; Lahiri, A; Yerramasu, A; Deanfield, J. E.; Marmot, M G; Steptoe, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective Extended walking speed is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals, but the ability of an objective short-distance walking speed test to stratify the severity of preclinical conditions remains unclear. This study examined whether performance in an 8-ft walking speed test is associated with metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis.Design Cross-sectional.Setting Epidemiological cohort.Participants 530 adults (aged 63 +/- 6 years, 50.3% ma...

  20. Increased Atherogenic Lipoproteins Are Associated with Cognitive Impairment: Effects of Statins and Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Nondahl, David M; Klein, Barbara E. K.; McBride, Patrick E.; Sager, Mark A.; Schubert, Carla R; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia increases the risk for dementia. Some studies suggest that statins may protect cognition, but findings are conflicting. Unmeasured confounders, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or subclinical atherosclerosis, may have influenced prior study outcomes. In older adults participating in a population-based cohort study (n=1711, aged 65–97 years), we investigated the relationships of total and HDL cholesterol levels, statin use, and carotid intima-media thic...

  1. Circulating neuregulin 4 levels are inversely associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Jiang; Mingzhu Lin; Yanfang Xu; Jin Shao; Xuejun Li; Huijie Zhang; Shuyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) has been identified as a new secreted adipokine that may protect against development of obesity and metabolic disorders. However, information is not available regarding the association between circulating Nrg4 and subclinical atherosclerosis in humans. We measured serum Nrg4 in 485 obese adult subjects (aged 40 years or older) who had the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) recruited from the community. Individuals with increased CIMT and carotid plaque ha...

  2. Subclinical levels of maternal depression and infant sensitivity to social contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how young infants respond to contingent and non-contingent interaction in relation to maternal level of depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample of mothers and infants. Two groups of three-month-olds interacted with their mother who was assessed as either non-depressed or sub-clinically depressed, based on self-reported scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The infants were presented with a continuous image and voice of their mother in a closed circuit computer system, using the double video procedure. The experiment comprised five sequences, alternating between contingent (Live) and non-contingent (Replay) maternal behaviur in a fixed Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3 sequence. The infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed a high gaze focus at their mother independently of the quality of interaction, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers showed a preference for looking at the mother only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Further, the infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed no differentiation in affective expression between contingent and non-contingent interactions, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers expressed more positive affect than negative affect only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Finally, there was a significant relation between the infant's preference for looking at the mother and the infant's amount of positive affect, but this was only found for the infants of the non-depressed. These results indicate that young infants' sensitivity to social contingency is related to maternal level of depression, even in a non-clinical sample. This expands the implications of earlier findings on the impact of maternal depression on infant sensitivity to social contingency, demonstrating that even sub-clinical levels of maternal depression may effect early interaction and child development. Copyright © 2013

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; von Känel, Roland; Jennings, J Richard; Santoro, Nanette; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-05-01

    A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity. Two hundred ninety-five midlife women completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire, physiologic hot flash and actigraphic sleep monitoring, blood draw, and carotid ultrasound (intima media thickness [IMT]; plaque). Relations between abuse/neglect and outcomes were tested in linear regression models adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and CVD risk factors. Interactions with sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity were tested. Forty-five percent of women reported a history of child abuse or neglect. Women with any child abuse or neglect had higher IMT [b(SE) = .039 (.011), p = .001] and carotid plaque [odds ratio (95% [CI] = 1.95 [1.15-3.33]); p = .014] than nonabused/neglected women. Furthermore, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with higher subclinical CVD. Sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT among nonwhite women. Interactions with sleep time and sleep hot flashes (p values abuse/neglect history was observed primarily among women sleeping less than 6 hours/night or with sleep hot flashes. A history of child abuse or neglect is associated with higher subclinical CVD in women, particularly when paired with short sleep or hot flashes. Findings underscore the importance of childhood adversity in midlife women's CVD risk.

  4. Impact of subclinical haemorrhage on the pituitary gland in patients with pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Tominaga, Atsushi; Usui, Satoshi; Arita, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical instruments for surgery frequently demonstrate subclinical haemorrhage in pituitary adenomas; however, the effects of subclinical haemorrhage on pituitary glands remain unclear. We sought to clarify the pituitary function in patients with subclinical pituitary adenoma haemorrhage (SPAH). Between January 2006 and December 2012, we retrospectively reviewed 328 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma. SPAH was defined as an intratumoral haemorrhage based on both 3 tesla MRI and operative findings, with no clinical symptoms of acute pituitary adenoma apoplexy. The pituitary dysfunction assessed using pre- and postoperative provocative tests was investigated in patients categorized into three groups: nonapoplectic adenoma, adenoma with SPAH and adenoma with clinical apoplexy. The main outcome measure was the incidence of pituitary dysfunction. The overall incidence of nonapoplectic adenomas, adenomas with SPAH and adenomas with clinical apoplexy was 82·3%, 14·3% and 3·4%, respectively. Clinical pituitary apoplexy frequently occurred in male patients with large nonfunctioning adenomas, causing pituitary dysfunction. Contrastingly, the incidence of SPAH was significantly higher in the patients with prolactinoma (P = 0·0260), including those with relatively small adenomas (P = 0·0007). No medications, such as dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogues, were observed to affect the occurrence of SPAH. No deterioration of the pituitary function was observed in the SPAH patients in comparison with the patients with nonapoplectic adenoma, and the size of the haematoma occupying the pituitary adenoma did not exhibit any relationships with the deterioration of the pituitary function. Furthermore, SPAH caused no deterioration of the pituitary function after a surgery based on the postoperative provocation tests. Subclinical pituitary adenoma haemorrhage does not cause any added dysfunction in

  5. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Khaing Nang

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed.This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93 but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31 after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations.Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  6. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  7. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arnab; Guha, Chanchal; Biswas, Ujjwal; Jana, Partha Sarathi; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Samanta, Indranil

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla VIM , tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50) were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, bla CTX-M was detected in 18 (36%) isolates, and 6 (12%) harbored bla TEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried bla SHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10%) isolates harbored tet(A) gene, and 8 (16%) isolates carried tet(B) gene. No tet(C) gene was detected from the isolates. This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  8. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  9. Should Subclinical Hypothyroidism Be an Exclusion Criterion for the Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; de-Medeiros, Matheus Antônio Souto; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva; Norman, Robert John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should be excluded before making a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seven hundred sixteen patients, 462 with true PCOS, 31 with PCOS-SCH, and 223 normal cycling women were enrolled. Clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters among the groups were investigated. Continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Proportions were compared using Z test. Fisher test was used to compare categorical variables. Simple correlation was performed using Spearman's coefficient. Correlation between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and dependent variables were performed using backward multiple regression. The significance level was set at 0.05. True polycystic ovary and polycystic ovary with subclinical hypothyroidism patients presented similar anthropometrical parameters. C-peptide was higher in polycystic ovary patients than in the other groups (p=0.014). Prevalence of glucose intolerance (p=0.186) and insulin resistance (p=0.293) was not statistically different in polycystic ovary and polycystic ovary with subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH levels showed positive correlation with lean body mass (p=0.032), total cholesterol (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.048) and prolactin (p=0.047). Backward multiple regression model retained TC, insulin, and PRL as predictors of TSH levels (p=0.011). Anthropometric parameters and ovary morphology were similar in both PCOS and PCOS-with-SCH patients. Regarding hormones, only C-peptide was higher in PCOS group. TSH correlated with total cholesterol, insulin, and prolactin. Before PCOS diagnosis, the exclusion criterion thyroid dysfunction should be standardized and subclinical hypothyroidism should not exclude a diagnosis of PCOS.

  10. Antidepressant Use and Subclinical Measures of Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Álvaro; McClelland, Robyn L; Delaney, Joseph A; Allison, Matthew A; Psaty, Bruce M; Rifkin, Dena E; Rapp, Stephen R; Szklo, Moyses; Stein, Murray B; Criqui, Michael H

    2016-08-01

    Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications used in primary care. The cardiovascular safety profile of antidepressant medications, in terms of subclinical atherosclerosis, is underexamined. A total of 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were examined. At baseline, the mean age was 62 years with 4 race/ethnic groups represented: European Americans (38%), Hispanic Americans (23%), African Americans (28%), and Chinese Americans (11%). Antidepressants were subgrouped as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and "other" (bupropion, nefazodone, trazodone, mirtazapine). After adjusting for potential confounders, we estimated the association between antidepressant use and the following measures of subclinical atherosclerosis: coronary artery calcium (CAC), the ankle-brachial index, and carotid intima-media thickness, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. A total of 324 participants were exposed to SSRIs, 88 to TCAs, 41 to SNRIs, and 123 to other antidepressants. For CAC incidence, the fully adjusted longitudinal analyses revealed no consistent associations with SSRIs (relative risk [RR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.37), SNRIs (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.13-1.86), TCAs (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.50-1.77), other antidepressant (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.03) exposure, and subclinical disease. Similar null results were obtained in the cross-sectional and longitudinal exposure to antidepressants with changes in baseline CAC greater than 0, ankle-brachial index, and carotid intima-media thickness. The results of the current study do not support an association between antidepressants and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  11. Can suppression of inflammation by anti-TNF prevent progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in inflammatory arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lai-Shan; Kitas, George D; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2014-06-01

    It remains a matter of debate whether TNF-a antagonists have favourable effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. This systematic review evaluates the effect of TNF-a blockers on the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis. A search of the MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge databases was conducted to identify studies into the effect of TNF-a antagonists on subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in patients with RA, AS and PsA. Carotid intimamedia thickness (cIMT) was used to assess subclinical atherosclerosis. Two methods were used to assess arterial stiffness: pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). Twenty-three studies matching the search criteria were included for analysis. TNF-a blockers probably are effective in preventing (7/13 studies) or even reversing (5/13 studies) the progression of IMT in patients with RA, AS and PsA who are responding to treatment. With regard to arterial stiffness, PWV was either significantly reduced (7/13 studies) or remained unchanged (6/13 studies) following TNF-a antagonist treatment. Nonetheless, most studies in RA (7/10) reported significant improvement of PWV. AIx remained unchanged in 10 of 13 studies. The balance of evidence suggests that TNF-a antagonists may have a beneficial effect on preventing the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. It remains unknown whether this effect is specific to TNF-a antagonists or relates to better control of inflammation irrespective of the disease modification strategy by which this is achieved.

  12. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Mo, Eun Young; Shin, Seok Joon; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-08-05

    This study investigated the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study involved 1024 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV; as a marker of arterial stiffness) and an ultrasound assessment of carotid atherosclerosis were performed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined by the presence of a high baPWV (≥1720 cm/s), carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness >0.8 mm or the presence of plaques), and carotid stenosis (≥50 % of luminal narrowing). The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to GGT level, and the relationship between GGT level and subclinical atherosclerosis was analysed. Serum GGT levels were closely associated with obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. However, serum GGT levels did not show a linear association with baPWV, carotid intima-media thickness, or plaque grade. The prevalence of high baPWV, carotid atherosclerosis, and carotid stenosis did not differ between the quartiles in men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed no association between GGT level and high baPWV, carotid atherosclerosis, and carotid stenosis, either as continuous variables or quartiles. Serum GGT levels were significantly associated with obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome, but not with the early and late stages of atherosclerotic vascular changes, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum GGT level may not be a reliable marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Frequency of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Subclinical Atherosclerosis Among Young Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clarence; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pan, Jen-Jung; Smulevitz, Beverly; McPherson, David D; Fallon, Michael; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Laing, Susan T

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, whose criteria are risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD, its association with subclinical atherosclerosis, and factors that may account for this association in Mexican Americans. In a population-based cross-sectional sample drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in Texas, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured. Abnormal carotid ultrasound study was defined as mean cIMT >75th percentile for age and gender and/or plaque presence. NAFLD was defined as steatosis by ultrasound in the absence of other causes of liver disease. Multivariable weighted regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between NAFLD and cIMT. Mean age was 50.4 ± 1.2 years with 58.3% women. Mean body mass index was 31.0 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), and 54.0% had the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD was highly prevalent (48.80%); subjects with NAFLD had greater body mass index, central obesity, fasting glucose levels, and dyslipidemia and were more likely to have the metabolic syndrome. Nearly 1/3 of subjects with NAFLD also had evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis (31.2%). After adjusting for covariates, there was an independent association between NAFLD and increased cIMT only in younger subjects subclinical atherosclerosis among younger subjects; clustering of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in this health disparity cohort increases the risk of both liver disease and early atherosclerosis in young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Comparison of Pre and Post-Treatment Orexin A Levels in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a clinical condition mostly observed in women, the prevalence of which increases by age. Sleepiness and appetite problems are observed in subclinical hypothyroidism. Orexins play a role in the physiological regulations like the stabilization of cardiovascular functions and the sleep-alert cycle. Similarities in the physiological regulation areas of orexins and the clinical findings of hypothyroidism were influential in the planning of this research. Additionally, homosisteine, which is influential on the cardiovascular system and the plasma level of which changes by eating (as is the case with orexins, was also analyzed. Besides, the change in the lipid profiles of the patients was also observed. Material and Methods: Nineteen pre-menopausal female patients (mean age=39.58±12.58, mean BMI= 26.7±4.9 included in this study. Following 12 hours fasting blood samples were taken from brachial vein. All patients were given 50µg/day L-T4 TSH levels were examined in every 4-6 weeks to adjust the L-T4 doses. When euthyroidism was ensured, a re-evaluation was made 4 months later. Results:  Pre-treatment plasma orexin A levels of 19 patients with pre-menopausal subclinical hypothyroidism increased significantly following a treatment of l-tiroxin for 4 months (pre-treatment orexin level median=1.20 mg/dl (mean: 1.33±0.28 post-treatment median=1.82 mg/dl (mean: 1.70±0.42 p=0.007. A significant change in the level of plasma total homosisteine and lipid profile was not detected. Conclusions: Advanced studies are needed to study the physiological effects of orexin levels in cases with subclinical hypothyroidism and the possible benefits in treatment.

  15. Association of Television Viewing Time with Body Composition and Calcified Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman's correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation.

  16. Phosphodiesterase 8B gene polymorphism is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; Freathy, Rachel M; Knight, Bridget A; Hill, Anita; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Vaidya, Bijay

    2009-11-01

    Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of adverse outcomes in pregnancy. The Endocrine Society's recent consensus guidelines have recommended treatment with T(4) for this condition in pregnancy. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs4704397 in the phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene has been found to be associated with altered serum TSH concentrations in the general population. We aimed to assess whether genetic variation in TSH due to the rs4704397 genotype affects the number of individuals classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) were measured in 970 pregnant women at 28 wk gestation. rs4704397 genotype was available on 877 subjects. Reference range calculations were based on the TPOAb-negative women. TSH, but not FT4, FT3, or TPOAbs, varied with genotype and was highest in those with the AA genotype (median, 2.16, 1.84, and 1.73 mIU/liter for AA, AG, and GG genotypes, respectively; P = 0.0004). A greater proportion of women with the AA genotype had TSH concentrations above 4.21 mIU/liter, the upper limit of the reference range, compared with the AG and GG genotypes (9.6 vs. 3.5%, respectively; P = 0.004). Maternal PDE8B genotype was not associated with offspring birthweight or gestational age at delivery. Genetic variation in TSH levels in pregnancy associated with the PDE8B rs4704397 genotype has implications for the number of women treated for subclinical hypothyroidism under current guidelines. Consideration should be made to individualization of normal ranges, potential effects on pregnancy outcome, and intention to treat for subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

  17. PREVALENCE OF OVERT AND SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG INDIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON FOETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Deeksha; Ruchika; Anchal; Rekha; Manjula

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are amongst the commonest endocrinological disorders encountered in pregnancy. It is now well established that not only overt (OH), but Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) also has adverse effects on maternal and foetal outcomes. Most of the studies are from the western population and only a few studies have analysed pregnancy outcome in hypothyroid Indian pregnant women. Presently, there is a paucity of Indian data on the prevalence and effect of hypot...

  18. Clinical research on keratoconus and subclinical keratoconus in patients with astigmatism examined by Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang An

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the keratoconus(KCNand subclinical KCN in patients with astigmatism ≥2D by Pentacam anterior segment analyzer. METHODS: Two hundred and one eyes in 107 patients with astigmatism ≥2D were included in this study. All patients underwent optometry, visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, traditional corneal topography and examination with Pentacam. Changes of several parameters were observed including K1(horizontal central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm, K2(vertical central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm; Kmax(the maximum anterior corneal refractive power, corneal astigmatism(CYL, MinPachy(the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea, index of surface variation(ISV, index of vertical asymmetry(IVA, keratoconus index(KI, height of anterior corneal surface(AEand height of posterior corneal surface(PE, etc. ROC curve was made. Cutoff value and the sensitive index of each group were compared. Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis of several parameters obtained from Pentacam. ROC curve was analyzed to determine the best diagnosis cutoff value. RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 25.7±6.6 years old. Kmax, IVA, KI, AE and PE of the clinical and subclinical group were significantly higher than those of the astigmatism group, while the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea in clinical and subclinical group was lower than that of the astigmatism group(PCONCLUSION: The current study shows that subjects with 2D or more of astigmatism, even some of them have normal vision, should undergo corneal topography screening. Pentacam may provide more accurate information about anterior and posterior corneal anatomy especially for the height of posterior corneal surface, which plays an important role in screening of subclinical KCN.

  19. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu George Crisan; Romana eVulturar; Mircea eMiclea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  20. Spleen evaluation using contrast enhanced ultrasonography and Doppler in dogs with subclinical ehrlichiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maronezi,M.C.; Feliciano,M.A.R.; Crivellenti,L.Z.; Borin-Crivellenti,S.; Silva,P.E.S.; Zampolo,C.; Pavan,L.; Gasser,B.; Simões,A.P.R.; Maciel,G.S.; Canola,J.C.; Vicente,W.R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the splenic parenchyma of dogs with subclinical ehrlichiosis using Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and provide reference values for this organ in affected animals. Seventeen dogs naturally infected with E. canis were selected for this study. Splenic parenchyma echotexture and echogenicity, size and borders were determined by ultrasound scan. The vascular indices of the splenic artery were determined by Doppler. SonoVue, at 0.1mL per animal, ...

  1. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Pumipuntu, Natapol; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Santajit, Sirijan; Tunyong, Witawat; Kong-ngoen, Thida; Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method...

  2. Effect of subclinical infection on maintaining immunity against measles in vaccinated children in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, H C; Aaby, P; Samb, B; Jensen, H; Bennett, J; Simondon, F

    1999-01-09

    Despite a high coverage with measles vaccines in parts of west Africa, epidemics of measles occur with reduced severity in an increasing proportion of older children who have been vaccinated. We examined the effect of exposure to natural measles on immunity in vaccinated children. Our study was carried out in 1992 during an epidemic of measles in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal with about 27,000 inhabitants who mostly live in compounds that include several households; within each household people live in different huts. Vaccine coverage in Niakhar was 81% at the time of our study. We measured haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibody at exposure and twice thereafter (after 4-5 weeks and at 6 months) in 36 vaccinated and 87 unvaccinated children. The frequency of measles and subclinical measles--defined as a four-fold or greater rise in antibody titre without clinical signs or symptoms--was related to intensity of exposure according to whether the index case was in the same hut, household, or compound. Clinical measles occurred in 20 (56%) of 36 unvaccinated children and in one (1%) of 87 vaccinated children. Subclinical measles occurred in 39 (45%) of 86 vaccinated children who were exposed to measles and in four (25%) of 16 unvaccinated children. The frequency was inversely related to pre-exposure antibody concentration (p<0.001 for trend) and directly related to intensity of exposure (p=0.002 for trend). Antibody concentrations in subclinical cases increased on average by 45-fold and remained raised for at least 6 months. Increased antibody titre after subclinical measles may be common in vaccinated children in West Africa where the intensity of exposure is high. As measles vaccination coverage increases, the circulation of wild measles will decrease, and vaccine-induced antibody is less likely to be boosted. Thus, new epidemics, albeit milder in form, may occur in vaccinated areas which should be recognised in campaigns to eradicate measles.

  3. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pmilk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  4. The importance of the relationship between microalbuminuria, subclinical proteinuria and arterial hypertension in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, V; Dabelea, D

    1994-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents, among others, an important risk factor for the development of microalbuminuria in diabetics. On the other hand, with microalbuminuria, it has been observed an important rise in the prevalence of high blood pressure. This study stresses the importance of the relationship between subclinical proteinuria and microalbuminuria, on one hand, and arterial hypertension on the other hand. There have been studied 343 diabetics hospitalized in our Clinic. We estimated the presence of hypertension (according to WHO criteria) and the values of subclinical proteinuria (biuret method) and microalbuminuria (MICRAL-test). We observed that 70.8% of hypertensives and 49.4% of normotensives presented values of proteinuria that ranked between 300 and 500 mg/24 h (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, 25.8% of proteinuric patients and 14.8% of non-proteinuric ones were hypertensives (p < 0.05). In hypertensive diabetics the prevalence of subclinical proteinuria is higher than in normotensive ones. The prevalence of hypertension is significantly higher in microalbuminuric patients than in normoalbuminuric ones.

  5. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological analysis and sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. in subclinical mastitis of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS and positive Staphylococcus (CPS goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT, collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%, S. lugdunensis (15.40% and S. intermedius (13.64%. Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%, oxacillin (60.0% and ampicillin (55.5%. Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%, erythromycin (98.2%, gentamicin (98.2% and vancomycin (98.2% were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.

  7. [Comparison of Discriminant Analysis and Decision Trees for the Detection of Subclinical Keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Sonja; Herrmann, Eva; Kohnen, Thomas; Bühren, Jens

    2017-08-15

    Background Iatrogenic keratectasia is one of the most dreaded complications of refractive surgery. In most cases, keratectasia develops after refractive surgery of eyes suffering from subclinical stages of keratoconus with few or no signs. Unfortunately, there has been no reliable procedure for the early detection of keratoconus. In this study, we used binary decision trees (recursive partitioning) to assess their suitability for discrimination between normal eyes and eyes with subclinical keratoconus. Patients and Methods The method of decision tree analysis was compared with discriminant analysis which has shown good results in previous studies. Input data were 32 eyes of 32 patients with newly diagnosed keratoconus in the contralateral eye and preoperative data of 10 eyes of 5 patients with keratectasia after laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The control group was made up of 245 normal eyes after LASIK and 12-month follow-up without any signs of iatrogenic keratectasia. Results Decision trees gave better accuracy and specificity than did discriminant analysis. The sensitivity of decision trees was lower than the sensitivity of discriminant analysis. Conclusion On the basis of the patient population of this study, decision trees did not prove to be superior to linear discriminant analysis for the detection of subclinical keratoconus. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs with subclinical heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohad, Dan G; Rishniw, Mark; Ljungvall, Ingrid; Porciello, Francesco; Häggström, Jens

    2013-09-15

    To characterize sleeping respiratory rates (SRRs) and resting respiratory rates (RRRs), collected in the home environment, of dogs with subclinical heart disease that could result in left-sided congestive heart failure. Prospective cross-sectional study. 190 adult dogs with subclinical left-sided heart disease. Most dogs had mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy of various severities. Clients collected ten 1-minute SRRs or RRRs during a period ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Clinicians provided echocardiographic and medical data on each patient. The within-dog mean SRR (SRRmean; 16 breaths/min) was significantly lower than the within-dog mean RRR (RRRmean; 21 breaths/min). Seven dogs had SRRmean and 33 dogs had RRRmean > 25 breaths/min; 1 dog had SRRmean and 12 dogs had RRRmean > 30 breaths/min; these dogs mostly had a left atrial (LA)-to-aortic ratio > 1.8. Dogs with moderate LA enlargement had a significantly higher SRRmean than did other dogs. However, median SRRmean for each of 4 levels of LA enlargement was dog SRR and RRR remained stable for 10 consecutive measurements. Treatment with cardiac medications or presence of pulmonary hypertension was not associated with SRRmean or RRRmean. Results suggested that dogs with confirmed subclinical left-sided heart disease of various severities generally had SRRmean dog SRRmean or RRRmean.

  9. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Taruna; Nathawat, Prerna; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Rahul; Bishnoi, Jyoti; Kataria, Anil Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. About 38 isolatesof S. aureus were recovered from Holstein-Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjected to amplification of spa gene (X-region) by polymerase chain reaction and calculation of number of tandem repeats were done. Of the 16 isolates from H-F crossbred cattle, all with the exception of one isolate produced spa amplicon. Seven isolates produced amplicons of 200 bp, one produced 160 bp, and other seven produced spa amplicon of 150 bp with calculated number of 6, 5, and 4 repeats, respectively, whereas nine different types of amplicons were produced by 22 S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle, viz., 280, 250, 240, 200, 190, 180, 170, 150, and 140 bp with 10, 8, 8, 6, 6, 6, 5, 4, and 4 repeats, respectively. One of the isolates from Rathi cattle produced two spa amplicons (150 and 190 bp). A greater polymorphism was observed in the S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle than from H-F crossbreds with subclinical mastitis.

  10. Use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lívia Helena; de Souza, José Carlos Pereira; de Lima, Carlos José; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Andreani, Dora Inés Kozusny; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2017-12-16

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes a severe drawback in dairy production. Conventional treatments with antibiotic could leave antibiotic residues in the milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis to develop an in vivo therapeutic protocol that could be used in routine farm practice, favoring the early return to production. Forty cows with subclinical mastitis (n = 40) were divided into 4 groups (control, photodynamic therapy - PDT, light irradiation - LED, and photosensitizer - PS). Control group received no treatment, PDT group received application of 1.0 mL of 2.5% toluidine blue photosensitizer followed by LED irradiation at λ = 635 nm, the LED group was treated with LED irradiation alone, and the PS group received only 2.5% toluidine blue dye. LED irradiation was applied to the mammary gland by means of an acrylic light guide coupled to the LED equipment. The PDT and LED groups were irradiated with 200 J/cm 2 at three different positions inside the mammary gland. Milk samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h after treatment for microbial identification and total bacterial count. The treatment of the PDT group showed significant difference p subclinical bovine mastitis. There was no need to separate the animal from production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Saleh, Ebeed; Ayoub, Mousa

    2017-02-01

    Mastitis is positioned as the most vital ailment in dairy cows in light of conventional cost examinations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of different acute phase proteins (APPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy cows and in those with clinical or subclinical mastitis and to localize APP gene expression in the milk of mastitic cows. Therefore, 20 subclinical mastitic cows with positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) results and no clinical signs of mastitis, 15 clinically mastitic cows, and 15 healthy cows with negative CMT results and somatic cell count (SCC) of mastitis, except for total protein, albumin, and GSH levels and the TAC, which were significantly (p mastitis, while Fb expression was absent. The present study demonstrates that APPs, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of oxidative stress may serve as biomarkers of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Interestingly, the expression of SAA and Hp indicates the local de novo synthesis of these APPs within the mammary glands. Furthermore, the presence of SAA and Hp transcripts in milk cells derived from pathogen-free mammary glands proved their constitutive expression. However, future studies with more extensive baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate the reference values for APPs, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in cows.

  12. Characterization of intravascular cellular activation in relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Garovic, Vesna D; Mielke, Michelle M; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian D; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms and interactions among intravascular cells contributing to development of subclinical atherosclerosis are poorly understood. In women, both menopausal status and pregnancy history influence progression of atherosclerosis. This study examined activation and interactions among blood elements with subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with known pregnancy histories. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured using B-mode ultrasound in age- and parity-matched women [40 with and 40 without a history of preeclampsia] 35 years after the index pregnancy. Interactions among intravascular cells (38 parameters) were measured by flow cytometry in venous blood. Data analysis was by principal component which retained 7 independent dimensions accounting for 63% of the variability among 38 parameters. CIMT was significantly greater in women with a history of preeclampsia (P = 0.004). Platelet aggregation and platelet interactions with granulocytes and monocytes positively associated with CIMT in postmenopausal women independent of their pregnancy history (ρ = 0.258, Psubclinical atherosclerosis differ in women depending upon their pregnancy histories.

  13. Heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes, endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, T P; Osmenda, G; Batko, B; Wilk, G; Krezelok, M; Skiba, D; Sliwa, T; Pryjma, J R; Guzik, T J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. SLE patients have increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis, although the mechanisms of this observation remain unclear. Considering the emerging role of monocytes in atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and the phenotype of peripheral blood monocytes in SLE patients. We characterized the phenotype of monocyte subsets defined by the expression of CD14 and CD16 in 42 patients with SLE and 42 non-SLE controls. Using ultrasonography, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NMD) were assessed. Patients with SLE had significantly, but only modestly, increased IMT when compared with non-SLE controls (median (25th/75th percentile) 0.65 (0.60/0.71) mm vs 0.60 (0.56/0.68) mm; p subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE, although the mechanism appears to be independent of endothelial dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Subclinical Atherosclerosis Burden by 3D Ultrasound in Mid-Life: The PESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Melgar, Beatriz; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Oliva, Belén; García-Ruiz, José Manuel; Peñalvo, José Luis; Gómez-Talavera, Sandra; Sánchez-González, Javier; Mendiguren, José María; Ibáñez, Borja; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Javier; Fuster, Valentín

    2017-07-18

    Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis improves risk prediction beyond cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and risk scores, but quantification of plaque burden may improve it further. Novel 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound (3DVUS) provides accurate volumetric quantification of plaque burden. The authors evaluated associations between 3DVUS-based plaque burden and CVRFs and explored potential added value over simple plaque detection. The authors included 3,860 (92.2%) PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study participants (age 45.8 ± 4.3 years; 63% men). Bilateral carotid and femoral territories were explored by 3DVUS to determine the number of plaques and territories affected, and to quantify global plaque burden defined as the sum of all plaque volumes. Linear regression and proportional odds models were used to evaluate associations of plaque burden with CVRFs and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk. Plaque burden was higher in men (63.4 mm(3) [interquartile range (IQR): 23.8 to 144.8 mm(3)] vs. 25.7 mm(3) [IQR: 11.5 to 61.6 mm(3)] in women; p Subclinical Atherosclerosis [PESA] Study; NCT01410318). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis: the CARDIA trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J Steven; Daviglus, Martha L; He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and sub-clinical atherosclerosis over an 18-year period. Methods Toenail selenium concentrations were examined among 3112 Americans age 20–32 years in 1987 and measured by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Subclinical atherosclerosis, including common, bulb and internal carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), was measured in 2005 and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in 2000 and 2005. General linear regression was developed examining the relation between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs, and logistic regression for repeated outcomes was employed estimating the risk of having CAC>0. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, no associations were observed between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs as well as CAC score. Comparing participants in the highest with the lowest quintile of selenium, the CIMT was 0.005mm (SE=0.008mm, Ptrend=0.39), 0.018mm (SE=0.019mm, Ptrend=0.49), and 0.017mm (SE=0.014mm, Ptrend=0.21) thicker measured in common, bulb and internal carotid, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of having CAC>0 was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.67–1.35; Ptrend=0.999). Conclusions No associations were observed between toenail selenium and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis among American young adults. This study does not support an atherosclerotic mechanism of selenium for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20138620

  16. Psychological, endocrine and neural responses to social evaluation in subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Engert, Veronika; Lue, Sonja Damika; Andrews, Julie; Efanov, Simona I; Beaudry, Thomas; Pruessner, Jens C

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify vulnerability patterns in psychological, physiological and neural responses to mild psychosocial challenge in a population that is at a direct risk of developing depression, but who has not as yet succumbed to the full clinical syndrome. A group of healthy and a group of subclinically depressed participants underwent a modified Montreal Imaging Stress task (MIST), a mild neuroimaging psychosocial task and completed state self-esteem and mood measures. Cortisol levels were assessed throughout the session. All participants showed a decrease in performance self-esteem levels following the MIST. Yet, the decline in performance self-esteem levels was associated with increased levels of anxiety and confusion in the healthy group, but increased levels of depression in the subclinical group, following the MIST. The subclinical group showed overall lower cortisol levels compared with the healthy group. The degree of change in activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in response to negative evaluation was associated with increased levels of depression in the whole sample. Findings suggest that even in response to a mild psychosocial challenge, those individuals vulnerable to depression already show important maladaptive response patterns at psychological and neural levels. The findings point to important targets for future interventions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A rare presentation of subclinical Cushing's syndrome as a pubic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduc, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Akbaba, Gulhan; Dagdelen, Iffet; Kucukler, Kerim; Isik, Serhat; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and bone fractures are commonly seen in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). Fractures usually occur in the vertebrae and ribs whereas pubic fractures are less common. Similar to obvious hypercortisolemia, subclinical hypercortisolemia can increase the risk of fractures. However, in subclinical cases, bone fractures are very rarely seen as the presenting symptom. We herein report the case of a 62-year-old postmenopausal woman who was presented with a pubic fracture. During the evaluation of the fracture, thoracoabdominal magnetic resonance imaging of the patient demonstrated an adrenal mass. Although the patient did not show any signs of overt hypercortisolism, an endocrinologic evaluation revealed hypercortisolism due to an adrenal tumor. Adrenalectomy was performed, which resulted in a cure of the disease. During the orthopedic follow-up, the patient's pubic area pain gradually improved, and the pubic fracture healed without any accompanying new bone fractures. One year after the surgery, a remarkable improvement was detected in the patient's bone density in spite of the lack of administration of any medications for osteoporosis. Subclinical CS can present as a pubic fracture, and awareness of this relationship can help physicians to diagnose the disease.

  18. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Maizon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

  19. Pregnancy outcomes with thyroxine replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism: Role of thyroid autoimmunity

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    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study pregnancy outcomes in relation to thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb status with optimum thyroxine replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight women with subclinical hypothyroidism were followed up until the end of their pregnancy. TPO antibody status was performed for 59 women (positive 20, negative 39. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain TSH between 0.3-3 mIU/l in all patients, irrespective of TPOAb status. Pregnancy outcomes were noted as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage, preterm delivery, and spontaneous abortion. Outcomes were compared between 3 groups as per TPO antibody status (positive, negative, and undetermined, which were matched for age and gestational period. Results: Thyroid autoimmunity was noted in 34% of women screened for TPO antibody. A total of 11 adverse pregnancy outcomes were recorded (4 spontaneous abortions, 4 preterm deliveries, 3 PIH with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Adverse pregnancy outcomes were not different in the 3 groups with adequate thyroxine replacement for pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism targeting TSH in euthyroid range, irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity status.

  20. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

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    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  1. Inflammatory Obesity Phenotypes, Gender Effects, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert; Lacy, Mary E; Eaton, Charles; Correa, Adolfo; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2016-12-01

    Reasons for variations in atherosclerotic burden among individuals with similar levels of obesity are poorly understood, especially in African Americans. This study examines whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is useful for discriminating between benign and high-risk obesity phenotypes for subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans. Participants from the Jackson Heart Study (n=4682) were stratified into 4 phenotypes based on the presence of National Heart and Lung and Blood Institute definition of obesity or obesity-equivalent (body mass index ≥30 or body mass index 25-30 with waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) and inflammation by hsCRP ≥2 mg/L. Using multivariate regression models, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of the association between inflammatory obesity phenotypes and subclinical atherosclerosis determined by carotid intima-media thickness or coronary artery calcium scores. Sex-specific analyses were conducted given significant interaction for gender (P=0.03). The prevalence of obesity or equivalent was 65%, of which 30% did not have inflammation. Conversely, 37% of nonobese individuals had inflammation. Among nonobese men, hsCRP ≥2 mg/L identified a subset of individuals with higher carotid intima-media thickness (adjusted mean difference =0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.02, 0.08 mm) compared with their noninflammatory counterparts. Among obese men, hsCRP obese individuals with less subclinical atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in young adults are risk factors for subsequent common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Gamma, Alex; Angst, Jules

    2011-09-01

    Not all persons identified in the early stages to be at risk for psychosis eventually cross the threshold for a psychotic illness. However, sub-clinical symptoms may not only indicate a specific risk but also suggest a more general, underlying psychopathology that predisposes one to various common mental disorders. Analyzing data from the prospective Zurich Cohort Study, we used two psychosis subscales - "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms" - derived from the SCL-90-R checklist that measured sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in 1979. We also assessed 10 different diagnoses of common mental disorders through seven interview waves between 1979 and 2008. This 30-year span, covering participant ages of 19/20 to 49/50, encompasses the period of highest risk for the occurrence of such disorders. Both psychosis scales from 1979, but especially "schizotypal signs", were significantly correlated with most mental disorders over the subsequent test period. Higher values on both subscales were associated with an increasing number of co-occurring disorders. Our data demonstrate that sub-clinical psychosis generally represents a risk factor for the development of common mental disorders and a liability for co-occurring disorders. This refers in particular to dysthymia, bipolar disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proneness to psychosis could signal a fundamental tendency toward common mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  4. Interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Kelemen, Linda E; de Koning, Lawrence; Lonn, Eva; Vuksan, Vlad; Jacobs, Ruby; Davis, Bonnie; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2008-01-01

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol alter cardiovascular disease risk, but their effect on subclinical atherosclerosis remains understudied. The objective was to examine and quantify the interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and mean carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 620 persons of Aboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, or European origin aged 35-75 y, who had lived in Canada for >or=5 y. Mean IMT was calculated from 6 well-defined segments of the right and left carotid arteries with standardized B-mode ultrasound, and saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol intakes were measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. For every 10-g/d increase in saturated fat intake, IMT was 0.03 mm higher (P=0.01) after multivariate adjustment. A 1-g/d higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 0.03-mm higher IMT (P=0.02) after multivariate adjustment. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) was inversely associated with IMT after multivariate adjustment (change in IMT: -0.06 mm; Ptrans fat intakes were independently associated with IMT thickness (change in IMT: 0.03 mm; Pfat intakes were unrelated to IMT. The relation between saturated fat intake and IMT strengthened (beta=0.0066, Ptrans fats are independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, and alcohol intake may attenuate the relation between saturated fat and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  5. Association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary-artery disease: meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ampuero

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, using tests of subclinical atherosclerosis. Aim: To evaluate the influence of NAFLD on subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods: We reviewed Pubmed and EMBASE. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 14 studies and were classified in two groups. Ten studies aimed the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and four studies the presence of coronary artery disease. To assess subclinical atherosclerosis, we selected studies with pathological carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and with presence of carotid plaques. We considered coronary artery disease when patients showed at least 50 % stenosis at one or more major coronary arteries. NAFLD was assessed by ultrasound (US and liver biopsy. Results: NAFLD showed a higher prevalence of pathological CIMT [35.1 % (351/999 vs. 21.8 % (207/948; p < 0.0001], with OR 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.65-2.51. Similarly, the presence of carotid plaques was higher in NAFLD diagnosed by US [34.2 % (101/295 vs. 12.9 % (51/394; p < 0.0001] [OR 2.82 (95 % CI: 1.87-4.27] and diagnosed by liver biopsy [64.8 % (70/108 vs. 31.3 % (59/188; p < 0.0001] [OR 4.41 (95 % CI: 2.63-7.40]. On the other hand, four studies assessed CAD in patients underwent coronary angiogram. Subjects with NAFLD showed 80.4 % (492/612 of CAD, while it was detected in 60.7 % (356/586 (p < 0.0001 in patients without NAFLD. Therefore, NAFLD was associated with a remarkably higher likelihood of CAD, using random effects model [OR 3.31 (95 % CI: 2.21-4.95] or fixed effects model [OR 3.13 (95 % CI: 2.36-4.16]. Conclusions: NAFLD increases the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The right management of these patients could modify the natural history both liver and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke: An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, José A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Völzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished studies were identified through the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We collected individual participant data on thyroid function and stroke outcome. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 0.45–4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 4.5–19.9 mIU/L with normal T4 levels. Data Extraction and Synthesis: We collected individual participant data on 47 573 adults (3451 subclinical hypothyroidism) from 17 cohorts and followed up from 1972–2014 (489 192 person-years). Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroidism were 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–1.21) for stroke events (combined fatal and nonfatal stroke) and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.80–1.42) for fatal stroke. Stratified by age, the HR for stroke events was 3.32 (95% CI, 1.25–8.80) for individuals aged 18–49 years. There was an increased risk of fatal stroke in the age groups 18–49 and 50–64 years, with a HR of 4.22 (95% CI, 1.08–16.55) and 2.86 (95% CI, 1.31–6.26), respectively (p trend 0.04). We found no increased risk for those 65–79 years old (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86–1.18) or ≥80 years old (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.79–2.18). There was a pattern of increased risk of fatal stroke with higher TSH concentrations. Conclusions: Although no overall effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on stroke could be demonstrated, an increased risk in subjects younger than 65 years and those with higher TSH concentrations was observed. PMID:25856213

  7. Near-infrared fundus autofluorescence in subclinical best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

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    Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Iacono, Pierluigi; Del Turco, Claudia; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To describe fundus autofluorescence (FAF) on short-wavelength FAF and near-infrared FAF in the subclinical form of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Cross-sectional prospective study. Patients affected by the subclinical form of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (positive testing for BEST1 gene mutation, fully preserved best-corrected visual acuity, normal fundus appearance) were recruited. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including electro-oculogram (EOG), short-wavelength FAF, near-infrared FAF, spectral-domain OCT (SD OCT), and microperimetry. Main outcome measure was the identification of abnormal FAF patterns. Forty-six patients showing mutations in the BEST1 gene were examined. Forty patients presented a bilateral Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, 2 patients showed a unilateral Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, and 4 patients had a bilateral subclinical form. Patients with the unilateral form (2 eyes) and patients with the subclinical form (8 eyes) were analyzed. Three BEST1 sequence variants were identified: c.73C>T (p.Arg25Trp), c.28G>A (p.Ala10Thr), and c.652C>G (p.Arg218Gly). Short-wavelength FAF was normal in all eyes. Near-infrared FAF detected a pattern consisting of a central hypo-autofluorescence surrounded by a round area of hyper-autofluorescence. A bilateral reduced EOG response was detected in 1 patient. SD OCT revealed a thicker, well-defined, and more reflective interdigitation zone in 2 patients (4 eyes, 40%). Microperimetry of the central 10 degrees revealed a slight, diffuse reduction of retinal sensitivity. Mean retinal sensitivity within the central 2 and 4 degrees was lower and matched the hypo-autofluorescent area detected on near-infrared FAF. Additional relative scotomata were detected within the 10-degree area. No change in clinical, functional, or FAF pattern was found over the follow-up. Subclinical Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is characterized by the absence of biomicroscopic fundus

  8. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t267, clonal ancestor of bovine subclinical mastitis in India.

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    Mitra, S D; Velu, D; Bhuvana, M; Krithiga, N; Banerjee, A; Shome, R; Rahman, H; Ghosh, S K; Shome, B R

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Relation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With Cardiometabolic Syndrome.

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    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry A; Schmidt-Trucksass, Arno; Kim, Do Kyung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and that moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) attenuate this relation. Our study population (n = 2,107 men) participated in a health screening program that included measures of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a CAC score >0 and a mean CIMT more than the seventy-fifth percentile. Fitness was directly measured through peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue/exhaustion. The presence of CMS was defined as having ≥3 relevant risk factors based on the Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP-III) criteria. After adjusting for confounding variables, participants with CMS demonstrated a higher odds ratio (OR) of having a positive CAC (OR 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.89) and CIMT (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.52) compared with those without CMS. Upper levels of fitness were associated with a lower prevalence of CAC (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.88) and CIMT (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.71) compared with lower fitness. In the joint analysis, unfit participants with CMS were 1.47 times (95% CI 1.09 to 1.96 for CAC) and 2.35 times (95% CI 1.70 to 3.26 for CIMT) more likely to exhibit these indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with fit participants without CMS. Fit participants with CMS had ORs for the prevalence of CAC (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.47) and CIMT (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.53) that were similar to those of the fit cohort without CMS. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CMS is associated with an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis but that high fitness appears to attenuate these associations in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early levothyroxine treatment on maternal subclinical hypothyroidism improves spatial learning of offspring in rats.

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    Wang, S; Teng, W; Gao, Y; Fan, C; Zhang, H; Shan, Z

    2012-05-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism has adverse effects on neural development in the offspring. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impairs spatial learning in the offspring, as well as the efficacy and optimal time of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) treatment in pregnancy. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10 per group): control, hypothyroid (H), subclinical hypothyroid (SCH) and SCH treated with L-T(4), starting from the tenth, thirteenth and seventeenth gestational day (GD10, GD13 and GD17), respectively, to restore normal thyroid hormone levels. Spatial learning was assessed on progenies by a water maze test, a field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recording, and an long-term potentiation induction assay. Protein levels of early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by western blotting. Progenies from the SCH and H groups demonstrated significantly longer mean latency in the water maze test and a lower amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs compared to offspring of the control group. L-T(4) treatment for the GD10 and GD13 groups significantly shortened mean latency and increased the amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs of the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. However, L-T(4) treatment for the GD17 group showed only minimal effects on spatial learning in the offspring. Progenies of SCH and H groups had lower levels of Egr1, Arc, p-ERK and BDNF but higher levels of Rap1 compared to those of the controls. L-T(4) treatment ameliorated these protein expression changes in the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impaired spatial learning in the offspring; L-T(4) treatment in early pregnancy

  11. Clinical and subclinical endometritis induced alterations in bovine endometrial transcriptome and miRNome profile.

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    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ibrahim, Sally; Gebremedhn, Samuel; Tesfaye, Dawit; Heppelmann, Maike; Bollwein, Heinrich; Pfarrer, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2016-03-10

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are known to affect the fertility of dairy cows by inducing uterine inflammation. We hypothesized that clinical or subclinical endometritis could affect the fertility of cows by disturbing the molecular milieu of the uterine environment. Here we aimed to investigate the endometrial molecular signatures and pathways affected by clinical and subclinical endometritis. For this, Holstein Frisian cows at 42-60 days postpartum were classified as healthy (HE), subclinical endometritis (SE) or clinical endometritis (CE) based on veterinary clinical examination of the animals and histological evaluation the corresponding endometrial biopsies. Endometrial transcriptome and miRNome profile changes and associated molecular pathways induced by subclinical or clinical endometritis were then investigated using GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array and Exiqon microRNA PCR Human Panel arrays, respectively. The results were further validated in vitro using endometrial stromal and epithelial cells challenged with subclinical and clinical doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transcriptome profile analysis revealed altered expression level of 203 genes in CE compared to HE animals. Of these, 92 genes including PTHLH, INHBA, DAPL1 and SERPINA1 were significantly upregulated, whereas the expression level of 111 genes including MAOB, CXCR4, HSD11B and, BOLA, were significantly downregulated in CE compared to the HE animal group. However, in SE group, the expression patterns of only 28 genes were found to be significantly altered, of which 26 genes including PTHLH, INHBA, DAPL1, MAOB, CXCR4 and TGIF1 were common to the CE group. Gene annotation analysis indicated the immune system processes; G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway and chemotaxis to be among the affected functions in endometritis animal groups. In addition, miRNA expression analysis indicated the dysregulation of 35 miRNAs including miR-608, miR-526b* and miR-1265 in CE animals and 102 mi

  12. Determinants of Subclinical Vitamin A Deficiency among children 1-5 years in a rural community of Jammu

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    Shivali Suri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD, as evident by serum retinol levels, is huge (62% among preschool children in India. Sub-clinical VAD increases children’s' susceptibility to infections, reduces physical growth and decreases the ability to survive from serious illnesses. Aims & Objectives: To assess the burden of subclinical VAD and study the various risk factors associated with it among children 1-5 years of age. Material Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 750 children selected from 15 villages adopting multistage random sampling from January to December 2011. Heller Keller International Food Frequency Questionnaire (HKI- FFQ was used to assess intakes of 28 food-items including vitamin A rich foods for the past 7 days. Various risk factors like socio-demographic profile, dietary pattern, vitamin A supplementation and breast feeding patterns were also studied. Results: Twelve of the fifteen cluster villages studied were found to be at risk of subclinical VAD. 30.6 % of study subjects had not received even a single dose of Vitamin A. Almost one-third of the subjects had not been breast-fed for the recommended 6 months. Age and socio-economic status were significantly associated with the risk of sub-clinical VAD. Among the dietary factors, consumption of purely vegetarian foods and intake of green leafy vegetables less than thrice a week were significantly associated with enhanced risk of sub-clinical VAD. Conclusion: Sub Clinical VAD is a public health problem of wide-spread importance.   Dietary diversification along with enhanced coverage of Vitamin A supplementation can tackle the problem of subclinical VAD

  13. Whole-genome regulation analysis of histone H3 lysin 27 trimethylation in subclinical mastitis cows infected by Staphylococcus aureus.

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    He, Yanghua; Song, Minyan; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Ying

    2016-08-08

    S. aureus is one of the major etiological agents causing bovine subclinical mastitis. The regulatory effects of H3K27me3 on gene expression in subclinical S. aureus mastitis cows are unknown. This study aimed to profile genome-wide transcriptional changes regulated by H3K27me3 in bovine lymphocytes applied in subclinical S. aureus mastitis cows and healthy controls. A total of 61 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in subclinical S. aureus mastitis cows compared to the healthy controls, of which 25 DEGs are up-regulated and the rest are down-regulated genes in subclinical S.aureus mastitis cows. The up-regulated genes are mainly involved in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and T cell receptor-signaling pathway, while the down-regulated genes are related to metabolism pathways. Combination analysis of histone methylation and gene expression revealed that H3K27 trimethylation levels in silent genes were higher in subclinical S. aureus mastitis cattle than in healthy cows. The key regions of H3K27me3 target genes related to subclinical S. aureus mastitis were the upstream 2 kb regions of the DEGs relative to transcription start site (TSS). The current study provides a novel insight into the interaction between S. aureus and lymphocytes in lactating cows by histone H3 methylation regulation. The differentially expressed genes in bovine lymphocytes regulated by H3K27me3 on upstream 2 kb regions (IL10, PTX3 and etc.) may relate to S. aureus mastitis susceptibility and could be considered as key candidate genes for anti- S. aureus mastitis study and breeding.

  14. Effects of elevated parameters of subclinical ketosis on the immune system of dairy cows: in vivo and in vitro results.

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    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Meyer, Ulrich; Reiche, Dania; Sauerwein, Helga; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Using an established model in which subclinical ketosis is induced, the response of differential blood counts and levels of various haematological variables, including the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp), were tested over the last six weeks of parturition until the 56th day post-partum in cows with lower or higher body condition scores (LBC and HBC, respectively; n = 9/group). Animals in the HBC group evidenced subclinical ketosis whereas LBC animals were metabolically healthy. For in vitro examination with ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a further stimulus, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts of cows with and without subclinical ketosis (n = 5/group) were observed. Counts of leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes (LY) peaked at day 1 post-partum in HBC cows, with a more marked increase in heifers. In subclinical ketosis LY count increased again, with significantly higher values in the HBC group. The red blood cell (RBC) profile was affected by parity (counts were higher in heifers). Hp showed a positive linear correlation with BHB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; R(2) = 0.41). PBMC from cows that were not pre-stressed with subclinical ketosis were more sensitive to increasing levels of BHB in vitro, as evidenced by both their higher proliferative capability and increased release of nitric oxide (NO). In summary, cows with subclinical ketosis showed a heightened immune response compared with metabolically healthy individuals, based on increased LY counts, increasing stimulative properties of PBMC and a relationship between Hp and typically increased values of BHB and NEFA. Concentrations of BHB in vivo during subclinical ketosis did not alter the proliferative capability of bovine PBMC in vitro, which was first significantly decreased at a dosage of 5 mM BHB.

  15. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and hyperuricemia in relation to renal impairment in a rural Japanese population: the Nagasaki Islands study.

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    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Tamai, Mami; Kadota, Koichiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Hironori; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-04-01

    The influence of hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis is controversial. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis can be defined in two ways in terms of mean and maximum carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT): one with mean CIMT≥1.1 mm and the other with maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm. However, no studies have been reported of the association between hyperuricemia and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis while taking the two different ways of classification into account. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4133 subjects (1492 men and 2641 women) aged 30-89 years undergoing general health check-ups. For analysis of various associations, we calculated the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for the two ways classifications of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in relation to hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related renal impairment constitutes a significant marker for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis with mean CIMT≥1.1 mm for both men and women, while hyperuricemia per se was found to be beneficially associated with risk of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis with maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm for men. The classical cardiovascular risk factors without adjustment for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ORs for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (mean CIMT≥1.1 mm) and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm) were 2.20(1.10-4.22) and 0.84(0.63-1.13) for men and 2.12(1.02-4.38) and 0.92(0.66-1.27) for women. After further adjustment for GFR, the corresponding values were 1.54(0.74-3.20) and 0.67(0.49-0.92) for men and 1.32(0.61-2.88) and 0.80(0.57-1.12) for women. Hyperuricemia-related renal impairment is a significant marker for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for both men and women, while hyperuricemia per se may be inversely associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for men as seen in a rural community-dwelling Japanese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (

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    Anirban Guha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co and manganese (Mn and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  17. Serum cystatin C is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yu Kyung; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Kye Whon; Cho, Ryu Kyoung; Chung, Seung Min; Moon, Jun Sung; Yoon, Ji Sung; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the serum cystatin C level and cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied 523 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and calculated estimated 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (%). Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ⩾1700 ms, indicating the presence of arterial stiffness. Cystatin C level was significantly higher in the subclinical atherosclerosis group (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ⩾ 1700 ms) than in the non-subclinical atherosclerosis group (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity diabetes and cystatin C level, but not by serum creatinine, 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease score and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the multiple linear regression analysis. In addition, an increase in cystatin C level was independently associated with the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, serum creatinine level, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and haemoglobin A1c (odds ratio = 1.200, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38, p = 0.011). Serum cystatin C level was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. This result suggests that an increase in cystatin C level could be a valuable surrogate marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows

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    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-genetička i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih genetičkih resursa, očuvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

  19. Association of Mild-to-Moderate Reduction in Glomerular Filtration Rate with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parv, Florina; Beceanu, Andrei; Avram, Rodica; Timar, Romulus Zorin; Timar, Bogdan; Gadalean, Florica

    2017-05-24

    Due to loss of hormonal protective effects, postmenopausal women have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-established risk factor for CV disease, but little is known whether mild-to-moderate kidney dysfunction is associated with atherosclerosis burden in the postmenopausal asymptomatic women. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 125 postmenopausal women with no clinical form of atherosclerosis, by carotid and femoral ultrasonography, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Carotid and femoral atherosclerosis were defined as increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and/or the presence of plaques. Endothelial function was assessed by endothelial dependent (flow-mediated dilation at 1 minute [FMD1]) and independent (flow-mediated dilation after nitroglycerin [FMDNTG]) vasodilation. Classical CV risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and lipids) were evaluated. Kidney function was evaluated in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. Univariate linear regression and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate the independent associations between kidney function and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In the unadjusted linear analysis, eGFR showed a significant negative association with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: carotid IMT (R(2) = 0.305; p subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional CV risk factors. It is important to detect renal function decline, even if it is mild, to improve risk stratification of subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.

  20. Subclinical Nonautoimmune Hyperthyroidism in a Family Segregates with a Thyrotropin Receptor Mutation with Weakly Increased Constitutive Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Rong; Higashiyama, Takuya; Mizutori-Sasai, Yumiko; Ito, Mitsuru; Kubota, Sumihisa; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism is usually associated with Graves' disease or toxic nodular goiter. Here we report a family with hereditary subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by a constitutively activating germline mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene. Methods The proband was a 64-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a thyroid nodule and was found to be euthyroid with a suppressed serum TSH. The nodule was not hot. Although antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were present, TSHR antibodies were not detected by TSH-binding inhibition or by bioassay. Two of her middle-aged sons, but not her daughter, also had subclinical hyperthyroidism without TSHR antibodies. Without therapy, the clinical condition of the affected individuals remained unchanged over 3 years without development of overt hyperthyroidism. Results A novel heterozygous TSHR point mutation causing a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at codon 575 (E575K) in the second extracellular loop was detected in the three family members with subclinical hyperthyroidism, but was absent in her one daughter with normal thyroid function. In vitro functional studies of the E575K TSHR mutation demonstrated a weak, but significant, increase in constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway. Conclusion Although hereditary nonautoimmune overt hyperthyroidism is very rare, TSHR activating mutations as a cause of subclinical hyperthyroidism may be more common and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially if familial. PMID:20929407

  1. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

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    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  2. Influence of metabolic syndrome and its components on subclinical organ damage in hypertensive perimenopausal women.

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    Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Dragan, Aneta; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the association between metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and the presence of subclinical organ damage in hypertensive perimenopausal women. 152 women with newly diagnosed, untreated arterial hypertension (mean age 51.0 ± 3.5 years) were included in the study. In all subjects anthropometrical measurements, 24-hr blood pressure monitoring, echocardiographic examination, and carotid ultrasound were performed. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured to obtain data on vascular compliance. As the index of early kidney damage both glomerular filtration rate was calculated and albumin/creatinine ratio in the urine sample was measured. A fasting blood sample was taken to measure glucose and lipid concentration. MS was found in 41% of patients. Patients with MS exhibited elevated left ventricular mass index (LVMI 84.7 vs. 78.8 g/m(2.7), p=0.03), higher intima-media thickness (IMT 0.67 vs. 0.62 mm, p=0.003), greater prevalence of LV hypertrophy (30% vs. 13%, p=0.01), and carotid plaques (24% vs. 15%, p=0.01). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that components of MS (systolic blood pressure and waist circumference) are stronger predictors of LVM than MS itself. The relationship between MS and LVMI lost its significance when BMI was included in the model, and remained significant for IMT. In hypertensive perimenopausal women components of MS are stronger predictors of subclinical organ damage than MS itself. Left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are more strongly correlated with increasing body weight than with the presence of MS. MS, independently of BMI, influences the level of subclinical atherosclerosis in the study group. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry.

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    Heppelmann, Maike; Krach, Karoline; Krueger, Lars; Benz, Philipp; Herzog, Kathrin; Piechotta, Marion; Hoedemaker, Martina; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M-; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH-; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility.

  4. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis by noninvasive methods in asymptomatic patients with risk factors

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    Castellon X

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Xavier Castellon, Vera BogdanovaDepartment of Cardiology, Private Hospital Athis Mons, Paris, FranceAbstract: Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular death due to the increasing prevalence of the disease and the impact of risk factors such as diabetes, obesity or smoking. Sudden cardiac death is the primary consequence of coronary artery disease in 50% of men and 64% of women. Currently the only available strategy to reduce mortality in the at-risk population is primary prevention; the target population must receive screening for atherosclerosis. The value of screening for subclinical atherosclerosis is still relevant, it has become standard clinical practice with the emergence of new noninvasive techniques (radio frequency [RF] measurement of intima-media thickness [RFQIMT] and arterial stiffness [RFQAS], and flow-mediated vasodilatation [FMV], which have been used by our team since 2007 and are based on detection marker integrators which reflect the deleterious effect of risk factors on arterial remodeling before the onset of clinical events. These techniques allow the study of values according to age and diagnosis of the pathological value, the thickness of the intima media (RFQIMT, the speed of the pulse wave (RFQAS, and the degree of endothelial dysfunction (FMV. This screening is justified in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking. Studies conducted by RF coupled with two-dimensional echo since 2007 have led to a more detailed analysis of the state of the arterial wall. The various examinations allow an assessment of the degree of subclinical atherosclerosis and its impact on arterial remodeling and endothelial function. The use of noninvasive imaging in screening and early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis is reliable and reproducible and allows us to assess the susceptibility of our patients with risk factors and ensures better

  5. Follow-up of congenital heart disease patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

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    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism or mild thyroid failure is a common problem in patients without known thyroid disease. Demographic and analytical data were collected in 309, of which 181 were male and 128 were female, congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. CHD patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone above 5.5 mIU/L were also followed up from an analytical point of view to determine changes in serum glucose, cholesterol, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Of the CHD patients, 35 (11.3%) showed thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration above 5.5 mIU/L. Of them, 27 were followed up during 2.4±1.2 years - 10 were under thyroid hormone replacement treatment, and 17 were not. Of the 27 patients (25.9%), 7 with subclinical hypothyroidism had positive anti-thyroid peroxidase, and 3 of them (42.8%) with positive anti-thyroid peroxidase had Down syndrome. Down syndrome and hypoxaemic CHD patients showed higher thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations than the rest of the congenital patients (puric acid, lipids, C-reactive protein, or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide concentrations before and after the follow-up in those CHD patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone above 5.5 mIU/L whether or not they received levothyroxine therapy. CHD patients with subclinical hypothyroidism showed no significant changes in serum thyroxine, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide concentrations whether or not they were treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

  6. Early clinical and subclinical visual evoked potential and Humphrey's visual field defects in cryptococcal meningitis.

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    Anand Moodley

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM. Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9% right eyes and 50/74 (67.6% left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5 ms and 119.8 (±15.7 ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10 ms (p<0.001. Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6% right eyes and 32/45 (71.1% left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM.

  7. The Financial Impact of Decreased Milk Production Due to Subclinical Mastitis in German Dairy Herds

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    Martin PFÜTZNER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mastitis has been identified as the most costly disease in dairy industry. The aim of this study was performed to provide adequate information on the financial loss due to subclinical mastitis in German dairy farms. The data were collected from 12 dairy farms (a total of 7,648 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in the Elbe-Elster region, Germany. Their milk composition data were gathered individually once in a month from June 2011 to June 2012. Herde® (Agrosoft GmbH, Germany, a herd management program was used to analyse the data from the economic point of view. The 50,000 somatic cell counts (SCC/mL of a cut-off value was used to calculate the decrease in milk production emerged in subclinical mastitis. Average figures on an individual basis showed a daily decrease in milk production of 2.98 kg, 5.41 kg and 6.41 kg for cows with 50,001-100,000 SCC/mL, 100,001-250,000 SCC/mL and over 250,000 SCC/mL, respectively. All the reductions in milk yield were statistically significant by using mixed effect ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison method. Based on the average milk price in the survey period, a single cow according to the aforementioned SCC classification showed a loss of Euro (€ 294.85, € 536.80 and € 634.40 per lactation in gross milk receipts, respectively. On an average herd level, which was 637 dairy cows in this study, a total decrease of gross milk receipts was calculated to be almost € 241,000 per year. This findings show that the milk production begins to reduce over 50,000 SCC/mL, therefore the generally accepted cut-off value of 100,000 SCC/mL for subclinical mastitis should be re-evaluated.

  8. Therapeutic effect of polysaccharide fraction of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. in bovine subclinical mastitis.

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    Xu, Wei; Guan, Ran; Lu, Yisong; Su, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ye; Du, Aifang; Hu, Songhua

    2015-07-25

    Mastitis is considered the most significant and persistent disease in dairy cows, bringing about large economic losses. Subclinical mastitis brings about major cost implications, for it is difficult to detect due to absence of any visible indications and can persist in the mammary tissue throughout lactation. Immunomodulators have been widely used to reduce intramammary infections by modulating bovine mammary gland. Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP), extracted from herbal medicine, has been used widely especially for its immunomodulatory function for many years. The objective of this study was to estimate an oil emulsified Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP-O) as a potential therapeutic agent to treat subclinical mastitis by subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node in lactating cows via analysis of SCC, IMIs and NAGase. Injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node significantly reduced milk SCC and NAGase activity compared with control. The quarters with bacterial infection were also progressively reduced in RAMP-O treated cows and only 9 quarters were found to have bacterial infection, while no obvious change was found in the control group. Subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node had therapeutic value in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis by reducing SCC, NAGase and IMIs in milk. Considering both the therapeutic effect and the cost of RAMP-O, 32 mg per dose was found most suitable to reduce milk SCC and NAGase. Therefore, RAMP-O deserves further study for its use in treatment of bovine mastitis.

  9. Use of milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Arianna; Moscati, Livia; Fruganti, Gabriele; Pela, Michela; Scoccia, Eleonora; Valiani, Andrea; Maresca, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy ewes worldwide, with negative impact on the animal health, farm income and public health. Animals with SM often remain untreated because the disease may not be revealed. Increase in somatic cell count (SCC) and positive bacteriology for mastitis pathogens in milk samples are indicative of SM but the evidence of only one of these alterations must suggest an uncertain SM (UM). UM is defined when positive bacteriological examination (Latent-SM) or SCC>500 000 cells/ml (non-specific-SM) are detected in milk. Nevertheless, SCC and bacteriological examination are expensive, time consuming and are not yet in use at the farm level in dairy ewes. Recently, a sensitive acute phase protein, amyloid A, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids including mammary secretion (milk amyloid A-MAA), has been investigated as a marker of mastitis in cows and, in a few studies, in sheep. The aim of this trial was to compare the concentration of MAA of single udder-halves in ewes with healthy udder-halves (HU-control group) and naturally occurring subclinical mastitis, both confirmed (SM group) and uncertain (UM groups: Latent-SM and non-specific-SM), for monitoring udder health. The reliability of a specific ELISA kit for the measurement of MAA was also tested. During a 3-month trial period, 153 udder halves were assigned to the experimental groups based on their health status: 25 with SM, 40 with UM (11 with latent-SM and 29 with non-specific-SM) and 88 HU. SCC and bacteriological analysis were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis groups. MAA concentrations in milk samples were measured using a specific commercially milk ELISA kit. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant (Psubclinical mastitis and increased SCC in sheep.

  10. Influence of lactation stages and rain periods on subclinical mastitis in meat producing ewes

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    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mastitis negatively influences the survival and weight gain of ovines for meat production. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in sheep for meat production, the occurrence of subclinical mastitis in ewes at the end of lactation and beginning of the consecutive lactation and to assess the composition and cellular characteristics of milk as a function of different rainfall indices. Mammary halves (821 of Santa Ines (479 and Morada Nova (342 ewes were examined. Milk samples were collected in two different moments of lactation: at weaning and postpartum of the consecutive lactation. Sample collection periods were called "dry" or "rainy" according to the rainfall index in the month immediately before the month of collection. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis at weaning in the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes were 16.4 and 12.6% in the dry period, and 17.7 and 23.5% in the rainy period, respectively. In the consecutive lactation period, the occurrences were 26.7 and 27.7% in the dry period and 41.8 and 39.1% in the rainy period, for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes, respectively. Postpartum stage was critical for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, as compared to that at the end of the previous lactation. Occurrence of the disease negatively influenced the SCC in the milk at the beginning of lactation and changed its composition, mainly in the rainiest periods, probably due to a difficulty in maintaining hygiene in the environment where the animals remained.

  11. Development of an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis subclinical mastitis in goats.

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    Lasagno, Mirta C; Vissio, Claudina; Reinoso, Elina B; Raspanti, Claudia; Yaciuk, Raúl; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2012-01-27

    Streptococcus uberis is a major environmental mastitis-causing pathogen. The infections are predominantly subclinical and are frequently undetected and untreated for extended periods of time. More information about the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis would be useful. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to reproduce an experimentally induced S. uberis subclinical mastitis in lactating goats aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation with S. uberis. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1.7 × 10(8)cfu of S. uberis. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from challenged right mammary halves (RMH) at 4h PI. Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 20 h PI. Mean somatic cell counts in milk from the RMH peaked at 20 h PI. Inoculation with S. uberis was followed by a decrease in the mean total number of leukocytes. Signs and systemic symptoms were not evoked by intramammary inoculation. S. uberis could be isolated in tissue from all RMH. Histological examination of specimens of the RMH and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment. The histological findings correlated with the immunohistochemical detection of S. uberis in RMH. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. uberis in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and causing pathological changes, resulting in a subclinical mastitis. This investigation shows that goat might to represent a valuable model for the study of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Adiponectin with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Mexican-Mestizo Population.

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    Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Martínez-Alvarado, María Del Rocío; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Mancilla-Valenzuela, Erika Yamel; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo Celestino; González-Salazar, María Del Carmen; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Medina-Urrutia, Aida Xochitl

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADPN) is a cardioprotective adipocytokine, and its association with atherosclerosis development is controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of low ADPN plasma levels with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in a Mexican-Mestizo population without history of diabetes or coronary artery disease (CAD). In 818 subjects (53.4 ± 9 years; 49.9% women) anthropometry, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and ADPN levels were determined. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) was measured with ultrasound in B mode and the sex-age specific value higher than 75th percentile defined the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Low ADPN was considered when plasma concentrations were lower than 25th percentile (8.67 μg/mL in women, 5.30 μg/mL in men). Prevalence of low ADPN was 43.6% (42.9% in women and 44.4% in men; p = 0.66) and elevated CIMT (eCIMT) was 23.8% (25.8% in women and 21.9% in men; p = 0.184). In addition to their higher prevalence of low ADPN, subjects with eCIMT had higher values of body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and CRP. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent of these factors, low ADPN was associated with eCIMT (OR [95% CI]: 1.505 [1.051-2.153]). In the studied population, low adiponectin concentrations are associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic ancestry is associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Riestra, Pia; Khan, Rumana J; Xu, Ruihua; Musani, Solomon K; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Correa, Adolfo; Wilson, James G; Rotimi, Charles N; Davis, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether genetic ancestry was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis measures after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, inflammatory marker, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors in a large admixed African American population. Participants were drawn from the Jackson Heart Study. Participant's percent of European ancestry (PEA) was estimated based on 1747 genetic markers using HAPMIX. Association of PEA with peripheral arterial disease and common carotid intima-media thickness were investigated among 2168 participants and with coronary artery calcification >0 and abdominal aortic calcification >0 among 1139 participants. The associations were evaluated using multivariable regression models. Our results showed that a 1 SD increase in PEA was associated with a lower peripheral arterial disease prevalence after adjusting for age and sex (prevalence ratio=0.90 [95% CI, 0.82-0.99]; P=0.036). Adjustments for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors attenuated this association (prevalence ratio=0.91 [0.82-1.00]; P=0.046). There was also a nonlinear association between PEA and coronary artery calcification and abdominal aortic calcification. The lowest PEA was associated with a lower coronary artery calcification (prevalence ratio=0.75 [0.58-0.96]; P=0.022) and a lower abdominal aortic calcification [prevalence ratio=0.80 [0.67-0.96]; P=0.016) compared with the reference group (10th-90th percentile) after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, inflammatory marker, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors. However, we found no significant association between PEA and common carotid intima-media thickness. Overall, our findings indicate that genetic ancestry was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, suggesting unmeasured risk factors and interactions with genetic factors might contribute to the distribution of subclinical

  14. Epicardial fat is associated with severity of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Leonardo C; Mangili, Otavio C; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Miname, Márcio H; Harada, Paulo H; Lima, Leonardo M; Rochitte, Carlos E; Santos, Raul D

    2016-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood cholesterol, increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and high risk of premature coronary heart disease. However, this risk is not explained solely by elevated LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and other factors may influence atherosclerosis development. There is evidence that increased adiposity may predispose to atherosclerosis in FH. Epicardial fat has been associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the general population. This study evaluated the association of epicardial fat (EFV) volume with the presence and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by computed tomography angiography in FH patients. Ninety-seven FH subjects (35% male, mean age 45 ± 13 years, LDL-C 281 ± 56 mg/dL, 67% with proven molecular defects) underwent computed tomography angiography and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. EFV was measured in non-contrast images using a semi-automated method. Segment-stenosis score (SSS) and segment-involvement score (SIS) were calculated. Multivariate Poisson regression was utilized to assess an independent association of EFV with coronary atherosclerotic burden. EFV was positively associated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, the presence of the metabolic syndrome components, but not with LDL-C. After adjusting for confounders and abdominal circumference, an independent association (shown as β coefficients and 95% confidence intervals) of EVF with CAC scores [β = 0.263 (0.234; 0.292), p=0.000], SIS [β = 0.304 (0.141; 0.465) p=0.000] and SSS [β = 0.296 (0.121; 0.471), p=0.001] was found. In FH, EFV was independently associated with coronary atherosclerotic presence and severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nighttime Blood Pressure Patterns and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio, José Mario; Martinez-Bordonado, Josefina; Sánchez-Berná, Isabel; Vargas-Hitos, José Antonio; Mediavilla, Juan Diego; Navarrete-Navarrete, Nuria; Zamora-Pasadas, Mónica; Ruíz, Manuela Expósito; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2015-12-01

    To compare 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) values and patterns in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with those of a matched control group and their relationship with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. ABPM was assessed in 70 women with SLE and in 65 sex- and age-matched controls without a history of clinic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future CVD, was measured. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to determine which explanatory variables were independently associated with the non-dipper pattern and the presence of nocturnal hypertension (HTN) in women with SLE. No differences in PWV were found between patients and controls [median 7.3, interquartile range (IQR) 6.5-8.1 m/s vs median 7.1, IQR 6.5-7.8 m/s, p = 0.474]. The frequency of nondipper pattern (p = 0.025) and nocturnal HTN (p = 0.004) was significantly higher in women with SLE than in controls. White-coat and masked HTN were present in 10% and 11% of patients and in 20% and 8% of controls, respectively (p > 0.05 in all cases). The concordance between office and ambulatory HTN in the SLE and control groups was modest (κ = 0.325 and κ = 0.451, respectively). PWV and chronic kidney disease, and PWV and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index were found to be independently associated with nocturnal HTN and nondipper pattern, respectively. Women with SLE were more likely to have an altered nighttime BP pattern than controls. In women with SLE, nondipper pattern and nocturnal HTN were independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis measured by PWV.

  16. Signature of subclinical femoral artery atherosclerosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Orbe, Josune; Páramo, Jose Antonio; Badimon, Lina

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a relevant public health problem associated with increased risk of morbimortality. Most of the patients with this condition are asymptomatic. Therefore, the development of accessible biochemical markers seems to be necessary to anticipate diagnosis. Our hypothesis is that asymptomatic subjects with objectively confirmed femoral artery atherosclerosis could be distinguished from control subjects by gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 37 asymptomatic males over 50 years old were recruited at the University Clinic of Navarra (Spain). Nineteen participants were free from atherosclerotic vascular disease and 18 participants presented subclinical femoral artery atherosclerosis defined by means of Doppler ultrasound. PBMC were isolated from blood and the RNA extracted. A panel of atherosclerotic-related genes were evaluated by Taqman low-density array. In univariate logistic regression models, we found a direct relationship between IL4, ITGAM and TLR2 expression levels in PBMC and femoral atherosclerosis, even when the models were adjusted for age and hypertension prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that elevated IL4 expression levels were intimately associated with subclinical femoral atherosclerosis after adjusting for the same potential confounders. Current data suggest that gene expression in PBMC, in particular IL4 expression, could be a useful tool in the diagnosis of femoral artery atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients. Furthermore, in patients with no differences in cardiovascular risk factors except for hypertension, the results point to the immune and inflammatory deregulation as a feature of subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Lower pulmonary function and cerebral subclinical abnormalities detected by MRI: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

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    Liao, D; Higgins, M; Bryan, N R; Eigenbrodt, M L; Chambless, L E; Lamar, V; Burke, G L; Heiss, G

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the association between pulmonary function and (1) cerebral infarction and (2) white matter lesions (WMLs), identified by MRI and believed to represent subclinical lesions of arteriosclerosis, generalized hypoperfusion, or ischemia of the brain. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Two communities in the United States. A sample of 1,917 African-American and white men and women 55 to 72 years old who were selected from the second follow-up examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort. Observational study. The lung function indexes, FEV1 and FVC, were assessed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Subclinical cerebral infarction and WMLs were assessed by MRI. After adjusting for age, ethnicity, gender, height, and height squared, a 1-SD decrease of FEV1 in nonsmokers was associated with odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 2.03) of 1.63 for infarction and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for WMLs. Of those in the lowest quartile of FEV1, 15% had infarction and WMLs, in contrast to 6% of the individuals in the uppermost quartile of FEV1. Consistent associations were also observed by using FVC as an index of pulmonary function. Similar patterns of association were found among current smokers. The associations were not altered by additional adjustment of conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease, comorbidity, or cognitive function. The results from this population-based study suggest that lower pulmonary function is associated with subclinical cerebral abnormalities.

  18. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-04-01

    Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and subclinical CVD, and whether these are mediated by depression and anxiety. Subjects were 650 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, aged 20-66 years, with or without (27.5%) depressive and anxiety disorders. Life stress included childhood trauma, negative life events and recently experienced daily hassles or job strain. Subclinical CVD was measured as 1) carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and the presence of plaques) using B-mode ultrasonography, and 2) central arterial stiffness (heart rate normalized augmentation index) using calibrated radial applanation tonometry. Increased central arterial stiffness was shown in subjects who had experienced childhood trauma (per SD increase: β=.07; p=.01), or reported recently experienced daily hassles (per SD increase: β=.06; p=.02), negative life events (per SD increase: β=.05; p=.03), or job strain (high versus low: β=.09; p=.01). Associations between life stress and arterial stiffness appeared to be partly mediated by severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. No significant associations were found for childhood life events, nor between indicators of life stress and carotid atherosclerosis. Childhood trauma and recent life stress were associated with increased central arterial stiffness. This suggests that life stress - partly via depression and anxiety - might enhance the development and progression of CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between mean platelet volume levels and subclinical target organ damage in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlioglues, Mikail; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Ardic, Idris; Dogdu, Orhan; Kasapkara, Haci Ahmet; Gunturk, Ertugrul; Akpek, Mahmut; Kalay, Nihat; Dogan, Ali; Ozdogru, Ibrahim; Oguzhan, Abdurrahman

    2011-04-01

    Significant numbers of asymptomatic hypertensive patients are attacked by subclinical target organ damage (TOD) such as proteinuria, left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid atherosclerosis. Platelets become activated in uncontrolled hypertension and play a crucial role in increased thrombotic tendency. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is one of the markers that correlate closely with platelet activity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MPV levels and subclinical TOD in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. 80 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed for all patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured as indices of cardiac, vascular and renal damage, respectively. MPV was measured from blood samples collected in EDTA tubes and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured by using nephlometer. MPV was significantly correlated with 24-h systolic-diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.52 and r = 0.55, respectively). Correlation analysis indicated that MPV was moderately related with UACR, LVMI, carotid IMT and hs-CRP (r = 0.50, r = 0.55, r = 0.60 and r = 0.69, respectively, p = 0.0001). Multivariable analysis identified that MPV levels were independently associated with severity of proteinuria, carotid IMT and LVMI (p = 0.001). Our findings suggested that MPV levels were associated with severity of subclinical TOD including; carotid atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy and renal damage, in hypertensive patients. In addition to this, MPV levels were significantly correlated with hs-CRP levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

  1. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism during first trimester of pregnancy in North India

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    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common occurrence in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There are limited data on prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy from India. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction especially hypothyroidism during first trimester in a large public hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive first trimester pregnant women attending Lok Nayak and Kasturba Hospitals were enrolled in the study after institutional ethics approval and consent from the study subjects. The pregnant women with diagnosed thyroid disease and on thyroid medications were excluded from the study. Morning samples of study participants were analyzed for thyroid hormone profile which included free T3, free T4, TSH, and TPO Ab. In addition, all study participants were tested for CBC, LFT, KFT, and lipid profile. Results: A total of 1000 women were enrolled for this prospective observational study. The mean (SD age of study subjects was 25.6 (11.1 years, and mean (SD gestational age was 10.3 (3.4 weeks. One hundred and forty-three (14.3% subjects had TSH values more than 4.5 mIU/L above the cutoff used for definition of hypothyroidism. Out of these, 135 had normal free T4 and therefore labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 7 had low free T4 suggestive of overt hypothyroidism. TPO Ab was positive in 68 (6.82% of total, 25 (18.5% of subclinical and 5 (71% of overt hypothyroid patients. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism, especially subclinical, is common in North Indian women during first trimester. Further countrywide studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of hypothyroidism to prevent maternal and fetal adverse effects of hypothyroidism in India.

  2. Five-year follow-up for women with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; Knight, Bridget A; Hill, Anita V; Hattersley, Andrew T; Vaidya, Bijay

    2013-12-01

    Increasing numbers of women are being treated with l-thyroxine in pregnancy for mild thyroid dysfunction because of its association with impaired neuropsychological development in their offspring and other adverse obstetric outcomes. However, there are limited data to indicate whether treatment should be continued outside of pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism and maternal hypothyroxinemia resolve postdelivery. A total of 523 pregnant healthy women with no known thyroid disorders were recruited during routine antenatal care and provided blood samples at 28 weeks of pregnancy and at a mean of 4.9 years postpregnancy. TSH, free T₄, free T₃, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured in serum taken in pregnancy and at follow-up. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy (TSH >3 mIU/L) was present in 65 of 523 (12.4%) women. Of these, 49 (75.4%) women had normal thyroid function postpregnancy; 16 of 65 (24.6%) had persistent high TSH (TSH >4.5 mIU/L postpregnancy) with 3 women receiving l-thyroxine treatment. A total of 44 of 523 (8.4%) women had isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy (free T₄ 4.5 mIU/L outside pregnancy. Of the women with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy with antibody measurements available, those with thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnancy were more likely to have persistently elevated TSH or be receiving l-thyroxine replacement after pregnancy (6 of 7 [86%] vs 10 of 57 [18%], P hypothyroidism in pregnancy are transient, so treatment with l-thyroxine in these patients should be reviewed because it may not be warranted after pregnancy.

  3. Frailty and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korada, Sai Krishna C; Zhao, Di; Tibuakuu, Martin; Brown, Todd T; Jacobson, Lisa P; Guallar, Eliseo; Bolan, Robert K; Palella, Frank J; Margolick, Joseph B; Martinson, Jeremy J; Budoff, Matthew J; Post, Wendy S; Michos, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Frailty and cardiovascular disease share many risk factors. We evaluated whether frailty is independently associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and whether any relationships differ by HIV-serostatus. We studied 976 [62% HIV-infected] male participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who underwent assessment of frailty and non-contrast cardiac CT scanning; of these, 747 men also underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Frailty was defined as having ≥3 of 5 of the following: weakness, slowness, weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was assessed by non-contrast CT, and total plaque score (TPS), mixed plaque score (MPS), and non-calcified plaque score (NCPS) by CCTA. Multivariable-adjusted regression was used to assess the cross-sectional associations between frailty and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Mean (SD) age of participants was 54 (7) years; 31% were black. Frailty existed in 7.5% and 14.3% of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men, respectively. After adjustment for demographics, frailty was significantly associated with prevalence of any CAC (CAC>0), any plaque (TPS>0), and mixed plaque (MPS>0) in HIV-uninfected but not in HIV-infected men (p-interactionHIVfrailty was significantly associated only with CAC>0 [Prevalence Ratio 1.27 (95%CI 1.02, 1.59)] and TPS>0 [1.19 (1.06, 1.35)]. No association was found for NCPS. Frailty was independently associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis among HIV-uninfected men, but not among HIV-infected men. Further work is needed to ascertain mechanisms underlying these differences and whether interventions that improve frailty (i.e. strength training) can improve cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis at the time of liver transplantation does not impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Damhnaic P; Leithead, Joanna A; Gunson, Bridget K; Ferguson, James W

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients are often screened for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis during the immediate preoperative evaluation to determine medical fitness to proceed. However, it is unknown whether subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis impacts on post-transplant outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis detected at the preoperative evaluation influences the decision to proceed, and subsequent postoperative morbidity and mortality. This study is a single-centre study of 1231 adults attending for possible first elective single-organ liver transplantation between January 2000 and December 2011. A total of 434 patients underwent ascitic fluid sampling on 460 occasions. Nineteen samples fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (4.8%), including one that was culture positive (Candida spp.). Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had a higher serum bilirubin level than nonspontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients (P=0.018). Out of the 19 patients, 16 (84.2%) with a positive sample proceeded to transplantation on that occasion; the ascitic microscopy result did not influence the decision to proceed in any clinically stable patient. The 30-day post-transplant survival was 93.8% for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients and 96.2% for nonspontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients (P=0.478). After adjusting for recipient age, UK Score for Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) and donor risk index, there was no association between a positive tap and death within 30 days (P=0.649). Subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is rare in patients admitted for elective liver transplantation, does not influence the decision to proceed and is not associated with increased post-transplant mortality. Our findings suggest that routine preoperative ascitic fluid sampling is not indicated in clinically stable potential transplant recipients.

  6. Circulating Tryptase as a Marker for Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mast cells participate in atherogenesis by releasing cytokines to induce vascular cell protease expression. Tryptase is expressed highly in human atherosclerotic lesions and the inhibition of tryptase activity hampers its capacity to maintain cholesterol inside macrophague foam cells. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating tryptase levels and subclinical atherosclerosis through estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) as surrogate marker for increased cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese subjects. Methods Circulating tryptase levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 228 subjects. Atherosclerosis (c-IMT>0.9 mm) was evaluated ultrasonographically. Results Significant positive associations were evident between circulating tryptase levels and BMI, fat mass, glycated haemoglobin, fasting insulin, HOMAIR, fasting triglycerides and ultrasensitive PCR (p<0.05 from linear-trend ANOVA). The positive association between tryptase levels and insulin resistance parameters, suggested a glucose homeostasis impairment in individuals with higher tryptase levels. The negative asociation between tryptase levels and HDL-cholesterol supports the proatherogenic role of this protease (p<0.0001). Circulating tryptase levels were strongly associated with c-IMT measurements (p<0.0001 from linear-trend ANOVA), and were higher in subjects with presence of carotid plaque (p<0.0001). Tryptase levels (beta = 0.015, p = 0.001) contributed independently to subclinical atherosclerosis variance after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol). Conclusions Circulating tryptase level is associated to obesity related parameters and has a close relation with various metabolic risk factors. Moreover, serum tryptase level was independently associated with c-IMT, suggesting its potential use as a surrogate marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in obese subjects. PMID:24830464

  7. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  8. Subclinical peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetic adolescents and its relationship with metabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajić Silvija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional management of paediatric diabetology, according to consensus guidelines, involves the screening of micro-vascular complications at puberty. The subclinical form of peripheral neural dysfunction in diabetic teenagers is reported with a frequency of 50-88%, by different authors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of subclinical distal neuropathy (DSMN in type 1 diabetic pediatric patients during the second decade of life, and its relationship with metabolic control. The Endocrinology Department and the Neurology-Physiology Laboratory of the Pediatric Clinic in Belgrade carried out a longitudinal follow-up study (lasting 18 months, beginning in November 2000 on a selection of patients with poor metabolic control. During routine clinical treatment, patients were evaluated using the electrophysiological diagnostic method on peripheral neural dysfunction, a subclinical form of neuropathy. Metabolic control was manifested through HbA1c levels, measured every 3 months, using ion-exchange chromatography. Finally, here is the data collected from the clinical follow-up investigation of 60 children, aged 13-19 (median 1S.S±2.2, with duration of diabetes from 2-16 years (median b.3±3.b, and on the following therapies: 43 CT-conventional and 17 IIT-intensive, and insulin dose/day, median 1.02 (0.6-2.1 U/kg. Detected DSMN parameters at the beginning and at the end of the study were also noted. DSMN frequency was positive, at 64% for HbA1c of 9.44; DSMN dysfunction was reversed in 5% of the patients, for HbA1c of 10.17; the worst result was the progression of DSMN at 6.7% for HbA1c of 10.52; 6.7% had negative DSMN, with improved metabolic control, for HbA1c of 8.4; 15% of the examinations were unfinished (+/*. ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant statistical relationship between metabolic control (HbA1c levels and DSMN neuropathy (sig. 0.043, p<0.05. There was no significant relationship between the reversion of

  9. Impact of hypertension on various markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in early type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatab, Sudabeh; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Sharifi, Farshad; Mostashfi, Ali; Mirarefin, Mojde; Badamchizadeh, Zohreh; Tagalizadehkhoob, Yaser

    2014-01-29

    Presence of Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study was aimed to determine the influence of hypertension (HTN) on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in a population of patients with early type 2 diabetes. 125 diabetic subjects drawn from Dr. Shariati outpatient's clinic list and 153 non- diabetic subjects who were the relatives in law of diabetic participants were recruited. Participants with type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and renal involvement. Two groups of diabetic and control were further divided into two subgroups of hypertensive (known case of HTN or blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) and normotensive, and anthropometric characteristics, metabolic biomarkers as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) were measured. Diabetic group with a mean age of 49.9 ± 7.5 years had significantly higher CIMT (0.64 ± 0.14 vs 0.76 ± 0.19, p = 0.001) and lower FMD (16.5 ± 8.1 vs 13.3 ± 7.1, p = 0.003) and ABI (1.2 ± 0.1 vs 1.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.01) than control with mean age of 52.9 ± 10.1 years. 34% of control and 59.2% of diabetic were hypertensive. Fasting blood sugar, insulin levels and calculated insulin resistance index of HOMA IR. of hypertensive subjects were higher than normotensive subjects in both groups of diabetic and non-diabetic. Similar pattern was presented for measured inflammatory mediators of hs-CRP and IL-6. Among subclinical atherosclerosis markers, only CIMT was significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive subjects in both groups. In adjusted linear regression analysis, a constant significant association existed between age and CIMT, ABI and FMD in non-diabetic, while in diabetic, age only correlated with CIMT and not the other two markers. In multiple regression model, HTN was recognized as

  10. Non-invasive imaging for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with peripheral artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjaer, Andreas; Hesse, Birger

    2014-01-01

    of subclinical coronary artery disease varies widely in patients with peripheral artery disease, it could include more than half of patients. No consensus exists to date on either the rationale for screening patients with peripheral artery disease for coronary atherosclerosis or the optimal algorithm and method......Patients with peripheral artery disease are at high risk of coronary artery disease. An increasing number of studies show that a large proportion of patients with peripheral artery disease have significant coronary atherosclerosis, even in the absence of symptoms. Although the reported prevalence...

  11. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2015-01-01

    to euthyroidism were 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.21) for stroke events (combined fatal and nonfatal stroke) and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.80-1.42) for fatal stroke. Stratified by age, the HR for stroke events was 3.32 (95% CI, 1.25-8.80) for individuals aged 18-49 years. There was an increased risk of fatal...... of increased risk of fatal stroke with higher TSH concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although no overall effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on stroke could be demonstrated, an increased risk in subjects younger than 65 years and those with higher TSH concentrations was observed....

  12. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Mwangi, Raphael; McCoy, Rozalina G; Yao, Xiaoxi; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; De Ycaza, Ana E Espinosa; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Coddington, Charles C; Stan, Marius N; Brito, Juan P; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-25

     To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.  Retrospective cohort study.  Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.  5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L.  Thyroid hormone therapy.  Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes.  Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (PPregnancy loss was significantly less common among treated women (n=89; 10.6%) than among untreated women (n=614; 13.5%) (Ppregnancy loss (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.82) but higher odds of preterm delivery (1.60, 1.14 to 2.24), gestational diabetes (1.37, 1.05 to 1.79), and pre-eclampsia (1.61, 1.10 to 2.37); other pregnancy related adverse outcomes were similar between the two groups. The adjusted odds of pregnancy loss were lower in treated women than in untreated women if their pre-treatment TSH concentration was 4.1-10 mIU/L (odds ratio 0.45, 0.30 to 0.65) but not if it was 2.5-4.0 mIU/L (0.91, 0.65 to 1.23) (Ppregnancy loss among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, especially those with pre-treatment TSH concentrations of 4.1-10 mIU/L. However, the increased risk of other pregnancy related adverse outcomes calls for additional studies evaluating the safety of thyroid hormone treatment in this patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Anesthetic Management of a Surgical Patient with Chronic Renal Tubular Acidosis Complicated by Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Yoshioka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old man with chronic renal tubular acidosis and subclinical hypothyroidism underwent lower leg amputation surgery under general anesthesia. Perioperative acid-base management in such patients poses many difficulties because both pathophysiologies have the potential to complicate the interpretation of capnometry and arterial blood gas analysis data; inappropriate correction of chronic metabolic acidosis may lead to postoperative respiratory deterioration. We discuss the management of perioperative acidosis in order to achieve successful weaning from mechanical ventilation and promise a complete recovery from anesthesia.

  14. Recurrent exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

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    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and causes cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were injected with intraperitoneal saline (control, low dose LPS (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, or moderate dose LPS (10 or 20 mg/kg, once a week for 3 months. Left ventricular (LV function (echocardiography, hemodynamics (tail cuff pressure and electrocardiograms (telemetry were measured. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by picrosirius red staining and LV expression of fibrosis related genes (QRT-PCR. Adult cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS injections transiently increased heart rate and blood pressure (<6 hours and mildly decreased LV function with full recovery by 24 hours. Mice tolerated weekly LPS for 2-3 months with no change in activity, appearance, appetite, weight, blood pressure, LV function, oximetry, or blood chemistries. Mortality increased after 60-90 days with moderate, but not low dose LPS. Arrhythmias occurred a few hours before death. LV collagen fraction area increased dose-dependently from 3.0±0.5% (SEM in the saline control group, to 5.6±0.5% with low dose LPS and 9.7±0.9% with moderate dose LPS (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS, and each LPS dose vs control. LPS increased LV expression of collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, periostin and IL-6 (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS and vs control. LPS increased α-SMA immunostaining of myofibroblasts. LPS dose-dependently increased IL-6 in isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis.

  15. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinical, functional and neurohormonal aspects to implement the concept to prevent subclinical atherosclerosis in a short-term and long-term prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hinhuliak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the prevention of subclinical atherosclerosis in a short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 year) prognosis according to functional and neurohormonal markers of atherogenesis 164 patients have been examined with clinical signs of subclinical atherosclerosis and atypical clinical.

  17. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moricke, E.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Beuker, K.T.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in

  18. Use of serum amyloid A and milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Gabriele; Bernardini, Daniele; Azzurra Elia, Carla; Ferrari, Vanni; Iob, Luciano; Segato, Severino

    2009-11-01

    Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease in dairy herds, as it negatively affects yield and milk quality. The presence of clinical mastitis is quite easy to asses, whereas the diagnosis of the subclinical form can be more difficult and requires laboratory assays. Somatic cell count (SCC) is widely used as a rapid and low-cost indicator of mastitis, even if is not useful in discriminating between the clinical and subclinical form. As amyloid A has been investigated as a marker of mastitis, the aim of this study was to assess the potential value of measuring amyloid A in serum and milk and the correlation with SCC in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. The reliability of two different ELISA kits for the measurement of amyloid A in milk was also tested. During a 1-month trial period, 21 cows were assigned to three experimental groups according to their health status: 6 cows with clinical mastitis (CM), 10 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) and 5 healthy cows (HE). Amyloid A was measured both in serum (SAA) and in quarter milk samples (mAA) with a serum ELISA kit, and in quarter milk samples (MAA) with a milk ELISA kit. SCC, total microbial count (TMC) and bacterial examination of the milk were also carried out. After a log transformation, the data were submitted to ANOVA and linear regression. TMC was significantly higher in cows with clinical mastitis, while no differences were observed between the other two experimental groups. SCC and MAA levels were significantly different among the three groups. mAA concentrations were similar between cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, and SAA was not affected by mastitis. A significant correlation between SCC and MAA or mAA was detected, while no correlation was recorded between SAA and mAA. A close relationship between MAA and mAA was noticeable even at low concentrations, suggesting MAA as a potential physiological marker of subclinical mastitis.

  19. Risk factors for the occurrence of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L L; Thaler Neto, A; Souza, G N; Picinin, L C A; Felipus, N C; Reche, N L M; Schmidt, F A; Werncke, D; Simon, E E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors for new and chronic subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) using the monthly somatic cells count of dairy cows. The study took place at 30 dairy herds with approximately 1,700 cows in lactation. Data characterizing the dairy farms and their milking management were obtained from a survey questionnaire. The somatic cells count values from 2 consecutive months were used to classify cows as either healthy or with new or chronic infections. A chi-squared test was used in the analysis of subclinical IMI to evaluate associations between each independent variable, followed by logistic regression to estimate the risk of a new infection in healthy cows and of chronic infection in cows with new infections. Factors increasing the odds ratio of a cow developing a new case of subclinical mastitis were (1) cows with more than 3 lactations, (2) cows with a mean hyperkeratosis score above 3, (3) cows with the udder below the hock, (4) cows with very dirty udders, and (5) milking of infected animals before healthy cows. Factors increasing the risk of a subclinical chronic infection compared with new cases of subclinical mastitis were (1) a lack of regular maintenance of milking machinery, (2) cows over 100 d in lactation, and (3) cows with the udder on or below the hock. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in IMI control programs to reduce the frequency of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism requires assessment of small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saric Maida Seferovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Usually both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are related to the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease development. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism has been widely investigated but the findings remain controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo in comparison to controls and to determine the association of SHypo and dyslipidemia in attempt to find importance of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C in atherosclerosis. Material and methods. In this study we included 100 women, aged 30 to 70 years that were divided into subgroups according to their age. According to the values of levels of thyroid hormones they were divided into euthyroid (control group (n = 64 and (newly discovered subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo group (n = 36. A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and lipid profile, including small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C were determined. Body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. History of the current illness, medication, alcohol consumption and cigarettes smoking were noted. Results. Changed lipid profile as well as elevated triglycerides and sdLDL-C were observed in the group with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to the control group. Conclusions. It is important to determine serum lipid levels, especially serum sdLDL-C levels at an early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism, since they represent atherogenic LDL particles and are better indicators for dyslipidaemia in subclinical hypothyroidism and the development of atherosclerosis with potential complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

  1. Bulk tank somatic cell counts analyzed by statistical process control tools to identify and monitor subclinical mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J M; Hawkins, D M; Kinsel, M L; Reneau, J K

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank SCC data were collected for 12 mo of 2003 from 275 Upper Midwest dairy herds. Herds were divided into 5 herd production categories. A linear score [LNS = ln(BTSCC/100,000)/0.693147 + 3] was calculated for each individual bulk tank SCC. For both the raw SCC and the transformed data, the mean and sigma were calculated using the statistical quality control individual measurement and moving range chart procedure of Statistical Analysis System. One hundred eighty-three herds of the 275 herds from the study data set were then randomly selected and the raw (method 1) and transformed (method 2) bulk tank SCC mean and sigma were used to develop models for predicting subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates. Herd production category was also included in all models as 5 dummy variables. Models were validated by calculating estimates of subclinical mastitis and new infection rates for the remaining 92 herds and plotting them against observed values of each of the dependents. Only herd production category and bulk tank SCC mean were significant and remained in the final models. High R2 values (0.83 and 0.81 for methods 1 and 2, respectively) indicated a strong correlation between the bulk tank SCC and herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence. The standard errors of the estimate were 4.02 and 4.28% for methods 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased with increasing herd production. As a case study, Shewhart Individual Measurement Charts were plotted from the bulk tank SCC to identify shifts in mastitis incidence. Four of 5 charts examined signaled a change in bulk tank SCC before

  2. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Liu, Lingjiao; Xu, Aimin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Long, Zhaofeng; Tu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoyan; Tang, Weili; Huang, Gan; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-06-06

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a glucose and lipid metabolic regulator, has recently been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as carotid atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and carotid artery plaques. However, the relationship between circulating FGF21 and subclinical atherosclerosis or atherosclerosis of other arteries such as the femoral and iliac artery remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the association of serum FGF21 with intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum FGF21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 212 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. IMT of the carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, which was defined as having an IMT > 1.0 mm and/or plaque on one or more of the three arteries without any clinical manifestations. The relationship between serum FGF21 levels and subclinical atherosclerosis was analyzed. Serum FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis compared to those without [261.3 (135.1-396.4) versus 144.9 (95.9-223.0) ng/L, P subclinical atherosclerosis compared to their respective groups without [men: 243.2 (107.6-337.0) versus 136.8 (83.6-212.8) ng/L, P = 0.048; women: 292.4 (174.2-419.9) versus 160.4 (115.3-258.5) ng/L, P = 0.001]. Moreover, serum FGF21 levels showed a significantly positive correlation with carotid IMT in women (r = 0.23, P = 0.018) and with iliac IMT in both genders (women: r = 0.27, P = 0.005; men: r = 0.22, P = 0.024). Multiple logistic regression analysis further showed that serum FGF21 was an independent impact factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum FGF21 is elevated in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and positively correlates with

  3. Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Elevated in HIV Infection but Not Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, Judith M; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Knudsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    with viral replication, immune activation, coagulation, platelet function, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, marker of endothelial dysfunction) and soluble CD14 (sCD14, marker of monocyte activation) were measured in plasma from two previously established cross....... CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV infection and in untreated compared with treated HIV infection. In untreated HIV infection, the main driver of endothelial dysfunction was viral replication. Importantly, in treated HIV infection, ADMA was not associated with subclinical...... atherosclerosis. Thus, our data question the potential of ADMA as a useful biomarker of early atherosclerosis in treated HIV infection....

  4. Perceived supervisor’s subclinical psychopathy, and subordinate’s organizational commitment, job satisfaction and satisfaction with executive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELŻBIETA SANECKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the correlations between supervisor`s perceived subclinical psychopathy and subordinate`s organizational commitment, overall job satisfaction and particularly satisfaction with his/her supervisor. The results, based on a sample of 153 employees, showed that subordinates working with leaders, who can be defined as organizational (or industrial, corporate psychopaths, tended to adopt more negative work attitudes. Supervisor`s perceived subclinical psychopathy had a negative impact on subordinates’ job satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor and their organizational commitment. The paper discusses the results and limitations of the study, and offers suggestions for future research. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;

  5. Reactivity to social stress in subclinical social anxiety: Emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behavior and physiology

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    Liviu George Crisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD. This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that, in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples.

  6. Serum uric acid: a marker of metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyun; Bian, Luqin; Choi, Yoonho

    2012-08-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. We assessed the relationship between SUA and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men (n = 3010). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and ultrasonographic measurements of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), respectively, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) of CAC score and cIMT across SUA levels were 1.101 (P = .046) and 1.266 (P = .002), respectively, after adjustment for several variables. The independent association between CAC and cIMT was observed (OR = 1.231, P uric acid was independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) with an OR of 1.415 (P Metabolic syndrome was only independently associated with cIMT, with an OR of 2.103 (P = .003). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was positively correlated with SUA (r = .125, P uric acid level is independently associated with CAC, cIMT, and MetS in Korean men.

  7. Increased higher-order optical aberrations after laser refractive surgery: a problem of subclinical decentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Kaemmerer, M; Mierdel, P; Seiler, T

    2001-03-01

    To study the clinical and theoretical effects of subclinical decentrations on the optical performance of the eye after photorefractive laser surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Ocular aberrations were determined before and 1 month after uneventful photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the Multiscan laser (Schwind) in 10 eyes of 8 patients. The corrections ranged from -2.5 to -6.0 diopters, and ablation zones of 6.0 mm and larger were used. The measured wavefront errors were compared to numerical simulations using the individually determined decentrations and currently used ablation profiles. The PRK-induced aberrations were significantly greater than the preoperative aberrations. The numerically calculated increase in the higher-order optical aberrations correlated with the clinical results, demonstrating a major increase in coma- and spherical-like aberrations. Subclinical decentration (less than 1.0 mm) was found to be a major factor in increased coma-like and spherical-like aberrations after corneal laser surgery. To minimize higher-order optical errors, special efforts to center the ablation zone are necessary; for example, by eye-tracking systems that consider the visual axis.

  8. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in PCOS: Impact on Presentation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Risk

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    Qun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. To assess status of thyroid function and thyroid disorders particularly subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and impact of SCH on various clinical and biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk in PCOS. Methods. Hundred females diagnosed with PCOS as per Rotterdam criteria and 100 normal controls were recruited and were subjected to elaborate anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessment. Results. Notable findings included significantly higher frequency of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.0002, autoimmune thyroiditis (p<0.001, and goitre (p=0.02 in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects compared to control subjects. Further SCH PCOS subjects were found to harbor significantly higher HOMA-IR (p<0.05 and frequency of subjects with dyslipidemia (p<0.05 compared to both euthyroid PCOS and euthyroid control subjects. Though frequency of subjects with cardiovascular risk factors was higher in SCH PCOS group than euthyroid PCOS group, it failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion. We concluded that PCOS is associated with high incidence of SCH and AIT compared to normal population and SCH poses increased risk of cardiovascular disorder in PCOS.

  9. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

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    S. Cozma

    Full Text Available Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  10. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Ghiciuc, C M; Pasquali, V; Saponaro, A; Patacchioli, F R

    2017-02-06

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  11. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men.

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    Otto Mølby Henriksen

    Full Text Available Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF.The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94 and poorer (Group B, n = 95 on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF.Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed.We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy.

  12. Comparison of two diets of varying glycemic index on carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Vacca, Maria; De Marco, Donata; Cinquegrana, Giorgio; Laccetti, Marco; Bresciani, Alessandro; Covetti, Giuseppe; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Rubba, Paolo; Parillo, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness. Increased carotid wall thickening and rigidity are considered markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of two hypocaloric diets of varying glycemic index on weight loss and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children. Seventy consecutive obese children attending the Outpatient Weight Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics were invited to participate in an intensive dietary protocol. Twenty-six accepted and were randomly assigned to two different groups: the first group followed a hypocaloric low-glycemic index diet and the second a hypocaloric high-glycemic index diet. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were performed in all children. Quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans were used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameters of the common carotid artery. Considering both groups together, at 6 months, body mass index decreased from 28.3 +/- 3.1 to 25.8 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), systolic blood pressure from 119 +/- 12 to 110 +/- 11 mmHg (Pglycemic index diet. These results justify the advice to obese children to follow a low-glycemic index diet in order to improve their cardiometabolic profile.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk

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    A. Bourabah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on mastitis causing bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the agar incorporation method. Results: The results showed that both Micrococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to Streptomycin and tetracycline, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci (CNS were preferentially susceptible to Streptomycin. However, Streptococcus D was the most resistant to the tested antibiotics whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to all the studied antibiotics. As regards to the antimicrobial activity of honey, the measured values were comprised between 11 and 14%. Conclusion: The results reveal that antimicrobial drugs susceptibility tests in goat subclinical mastitis might be necessary before the treatment. Algerian honey exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against different isolated bacteria in goat mastitis.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in milk from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, A R E O; Almeida, A C; Souza, C N; Silva, L M V; Ruas, A X A; Sanglard, D A; Júnior, A F M; Oliveira, A M E; Xavier, M A S

    2017-06-29

    The Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolated microorganism in ruminant animal species diagnostic with clinical or subclinical mastitis. Dairy herds with these diseases can transfer S. aureus into the milk supply, which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of femA gene, the genetic relationships among isolates of S. aureus obtained from milk originating from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis in nine rural properties in the northern of Minas Gerais State. To this end, 498 samples of bovine milk tested positive for the California mastitis test (CMT) were subjected to morphological methods and biochemical patterns for microbiological presumptive identification of S. aureus. The PCR test with the genetic marker femA was used to confirm the species S. aureus. All the 26 isolates presumptively identified as S. aureus amplified a fragment of 132 bp corresponding to the femA gene. The profile of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the disk-diffusion methodology and two isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. The drug multiresistence was found in 80.76% of the isolates. The determination of the genetic profile and the clonal relationship among the isolates was performed by the method of DNA RAPD-PCR polymorphism. The S. aureus isolates were divided into two groups with 26 distinct subgroups. The analysis of RAPD-PCR showed no genetic diversity among them, heterogeneous profile and absence of clonality.

  15. Estimation of Mineral and Trace Element Profile in Bubaline Milk Affected with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Sharma, Anshu; Garg, V K; Mittal, Dinesh

    2017-04-01

    The milk samples from buffaloes of Murrah breed at mid lactation stage, reared at an organised dairy farm, were screened for subclinical mastitis based on bacteriological examination and somatic cell count following International Dairy Federation criteria. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis infected and healthy buffaloes were analysed to evaluate physicochemical alterations in terms of protein, fat, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, minerals (sodium, potassium and calcium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and selenium). In the present study, protein, fat, zinc, iron, calcium and selenium content was significantly lower (P < 0.001), while pH and electrical conductivity were significantly higher in mastitic milk as compared to normal milk. Concentration of electrolytes mainly sodium and chloride significantly increased with higher somatic cell count in mastitic milk and to maintain osmolality; potassium levels decreased proportionately. Correlation matrix revealed significantly positive interdependences of somatic cell count with pH, electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride. However, protein, fat, calcium and potassium were correlated negatively with elevated somatic cell count in mastitic milk. It is concluded that udder infections resulting in elevated somatic cells may alter the mineral and trace element profile of milk, and magnitude of changes may have diagnostic and prognostic value.

  16. High prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic arthritis patients: a study based on carotid ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Bosch, Rosario; Restrepo-Velez, Juliana; Medina-Malone, Miguel; Garrido-Courel, Laura; Paniagua-Zudaire, Inmaculada; Loza-Cortina, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Analyse the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic arthritis patients (PsA). A cross-sectional study of 53 patients with PsA and 53 controls matched for age and sex was designed. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the presence of carotid plaques (CP) were assessed with carotid ultrasound. Data on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors were collected. Patients with PsA had a higher prevalence rate of obesity and tobacco smoking. CP were detected more frequently in patients with PsA than in controls with an OR of 4.15, 95% CI 1.4-12.1, which adjusted for smoking and those with history of CV disease gave an OR of 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.7, p = 0.026. Carotid IMT was significantly higher in patients with PsA adjusted for age and tobacco smoking. According to ultrasound data, 30.2% of patients with PsA had carotid atherosclerosis (presence of CP and/or carotid IMT > 0.90 mm) compared with 9.4% of controls. The SCORE index (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) underestimated the CV risk in these patients: most patients with CP had an intermediate CV risk. According to carotid ultrasound data, PsA patients have a high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis. These results support the importance of screening for CV risk and to include carotid ultrasound in CV prevention strategies in these patients.

  17. Subclinical Cardiovascular System Changes in Obese Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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    Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to determine the prevalence of excess body mass in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA children and to investigate the influence of obesity into the early, subclinical changes in cardiovascular system in these patients. Methods. Fifty-eight JIA patients, aged median 13 years, were compared to 36 healthy controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFα, adiponectin were studied together with IMT (intima-media thickness, FMD (flow mediated dilation, and LVMi (left ventricle mass index as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Thirteen JIA children (22% were obese and had increased systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, hsCRP, and IL-6 compared to nonobese JIA and controls. FMD was decreased compared to nonobese JIA and controls, whereas IMT and LVMi were increased. In multivariate regression analysis, TNFα, SDS-BMI, and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of early CV changes in JIA. Conclusions. Coincident obesity is common in JIA children and is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers leading to early changes in cardiovascular system. Thus, medical care of children with JIA should include strategies preventing cardiovascular disease by maintenance of adequate body weight.

  18. Microalbuminuria and its Association with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Mexican Mestizo population: the GEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Martínez-Alvarado, Rocío; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is an early marker of atherosclerosis. Ethnic differences for both conditions have been reported. We studied microalbuminuria prevalence and its association with coronary artery calcification as an early atherosclerosis marker in a Mexican-Mestizo population free of diabetes and hypertension (healthy), as well as in hypertensive and diabetic subjects. In 1,472 adults (53.3 ± 9.4 years old, 50.3% women), anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile were determined. A spot urine sample was used to quantify the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and to define microalbuminuria (20-200 mg/g in men, and 30-300 mg/g in women). A coronary artery calcification score was obtained by electron-beam computed tomography and subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a score > 0. Overall microalbuminuria prevalence was 9.3% (5.4% in healthy, 11.6% in obese, 12% in hypertensive, and 25% in diabetic subjects). Compared to "healthy" subjects without microalbuminuria, those with microalbuminuria had a ∼3-fold higher prevalence of coronary artery calcification > 0, while normal-high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (OR: 1.8; p 0 only among diabetic subjects. Microalbuminuria and high-normal albumin-to-creatinine ratio were independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, suggesting that they may confer a higher risk of future cardiovascular events.

  19. The Association Between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Metabolic Syndrome as Defined by the ATP III Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekharzadeh, Anita; Khamseh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Farshchi, Amir; Malek, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a matter of debate. In this study, we aimed to examine the risk of MetS in SCH through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of published literature up to September 2015 was conducted. General population studies were included if they had considered SCH as the independent variable. After data extraction, a meta-analysis was run to assess the odds ratio (OR) of MetS and its components between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid groups. Only studies employing Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria for MetS were included in the meta-analysis. In the SCH group, female gender was more prevalent [OR = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.29-2.13]. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference in MetS prevalence between SCH and euthyroid individuals (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34). However, the prevalence of central obesity (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.96) was significantly higher in the SCH group. On the other hand, hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in the female-only SCH subgroup. In conclusion, although we found some MetS components to be more prevalent in SCH, the prevalence of MetS as defined by ATP III criteria was not increased in SCH. Considerable heterogeneity observed may have influenced the results on MetS components.

  20. [Subclinical and manifested hypothyroidism as a consequence of thyroid autoimmune disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Dragoslav P; Djurica, Snezana; Davidović, Mladen; Stević, Radmila; Rajić, Miodrag; Marković, Natasa

    2005-10-01

    Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) is a slowly developing persistent inflamation of the thyroid gland, which frequently leads to hypothyroidism. Some of the up-to-date knowledge about hypothyroidism, both subclinical and manifested, caused by autoimmune disease, was presented. Autoimmune thyroid gland disease can occur at any age, but predominantly affects women after periods of high emotional and physical stress or accidents, as well as during periods of hormonal changes. It can also