WorldWideScience

Sample records for subclasses pn pr

  1. On the lower bound of monitor solutions of maximally permissive supervisors for a subclass α-S3PR of flexible manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a novel and computationally efficient method - based on a vector covering approach - to design optimal control places and an iteration approach that computes the reachability graph to obtain a maximally permissive liveness enforcing supervisor for FMS (flexible manufacturing systems) have been reported. However, it is unclear as to the relationship between the structure of the net and the minimal number of monitors required. This paper develops a theory to show that the minimal number of monitors required cannot be less than that of basic siphons in α-S3PR (systems of simple sequential processes with resources). This confirms that two of the three controlled systems by Chen et al. are of a minimal monitor configuration since they belong to α-S3PR and their number in each example equals that of basic siphons.

  2. The Essence of Subclassing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    The essence of subclassing is the ability to represent classification hierarchies reflecting domain concepts. With the right class mechanism there is no need for a separate type/subtype mechanism, and general classes may have behavior specifications so that subclassing also implies code reuse....... Sometimes the application is so well defined (known) that developers may readily start out with classes that represent domain concepts. Singular objects have been around for some time, so a new kind of language with equal support for both objects and classes would simply ask for tool support for objects...

  3. Personal Network (PN) Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, K.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  4. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  5. Retinal vasculitis revealing immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Rachid Tahiri Joutei; Rousseau, Antoine; de Monchy, Ivan; el Sanharawi, Mohamed; Gendron, Gael; Barreau, Emmanuel; Goujard, Cécile; Labetoulle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and autoimmune disorders. However, there have been no reports of ocular involvement, either inflammatory or infectious, in association with IgG subclass deficiency. The authors report the first case of retinal vasculitis that led to the diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, in a patient with a history of inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent infections of previously unknown origin.

  6. Separability-Oriented Subclass Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gongde; Wei, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical method for discriminative dimensionality reduction. The original LDA may degrade in its performance for non-Gaussian data, and may be unable to extract sufficient features to satisfactorily explain the data when the number of classes is small. Two prominent extensions to address these problems are subclass discriminant analysis (SDA) and mixture subclass discriminant analysis (MSDA). They divide every class into subclasses and re-define the within-class and between-class scatter matrices on the basis of subclass. In this paper we study the issue of how to obtain subclasses more effectively in order to achieve higher class separation. We observe that there is significant overlap between models of the subclasses, which we hypothesise is undesirable. In order to reduce their overlap we propose an extension of LDA, separability oriented subclass discriminant analysis (SSDA), which employs hierarchical clustering to divide a class into subclasses using a separability oriented criterion, before applying LDA optimisation using re-defined scatter matrices. Extensive experiments have shown that SSDA has better performance than LDA, SDA and MSDA in most cases. Additional experiments have further shown that SSDA can project data into LDA space that has higher class separation than LDA, SDA and MSDA in most cases.

  7. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Mahzoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions which are defined by differential subordination. Coefficient inequalities, some properties of neighborhoods, distortion and covering theorems, radius of starlikeness, and convexity for these subclasses are given.

  8. IgG subclass deficiencies in children: Facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahn, Volker; von Bernuth, Horst

    2017-09-01

    The chance to analyse the four IgG subclasses arose with the publication of Terry and Fahey(1) . Since then, a lot of new information on the role of subclasses and their deficiency states in humans has been obtained. This review tries to analyse critically our current knowledge of subclass deficiencies in children. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  9. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Hengcrawit, Wiriya; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Luangwedchakam, Voravich

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency may suffer from recurrent infections, mainly sino-pulmonary infection. To determine the epidemiology of IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children at a tertiary care hospital and to compare the differences between children who were diagnosed with IgG subclass deficiency by using low level criteria [less than 2 standard deviation (SD) of normal levels for age] and by using low percentage criteria (proportion of each IgG subclasses/total IgG). The study was a descriptive study of 55 children up to 15 years old with recurrent infections diagnosed as having IgG subclass deficiency but no acquired or other primary immune deficiencies except for IgA and/or IgM deficiency. Isolated IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency (56.4%). IgG3 subclass deficiency, either isolated or combined with other IgG subclass deficiency, was found in 85.5% of the cases. The common age of onset was between birth and five years of age. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis (83.6%). Majority of the cases (89.3%) were diagnosed by low percentage criteria while 12.7% were diagnosed by low level criteria. All cases with low levels of IgG subclass antibodies also had low percentages. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical manifestations and management methods between the children who were diagnosed by low level and low percentage. IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis. Although the diagnosis could be made in the patients with recurrent upper respiratory infection by using low level criteria, but the diagnosis should be considered when the low percentage criteria are met.

  10. Coefficient estimates for certain subclass of bi-univalent functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rashidah; Halim, Suzeini Abdul; Janteng, Aini

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a subclass of bi-univalent functions is introduced using subordination. Estimates on the initial coefficients and the Fekete-Szegö inequality are determined for functions in this subclass. The results would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

  11. Chronic glomerulonephritis associated with IgG subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Koichi; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Otsuka, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Makiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2007-08-01

    We experienced two patients with IgG subclass deficiency who suffered from chronic glomerulonephritis (GN). Patient 1 was a 17-year-old girl with IgG subclass deficiency (combined deficiency of IgG2 and IgG4). Renal biopsy was performed when she was aged 16 years, and she was diagnosed with membranoproliferative GN. Patient 2 was a 16-year-old girl with IgG subclass deficiency (combined deficiency of IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4). Renal biopsy was performed when she was aged 15 years, and she was diagnosed with membranous nephropathy. We examined the glomerular deposition patterns of their IgG subclasses. Furthermore, we compared their clinical and laboratory findings with those of three patients with IgG subclass deficiency without GN. Patients with GN suffered infections more frequently than those without GN. The serum levels of IgG (especially IgG1) and IgM were higher in patients with GN than in those without GN. In patient 1 IgG1 and IgG3 were deposited in a mesangiocapillary pattern, but, in patient 2, only IgG1 was deposited in a capillary pattern. Thus, the different patterns of IgG subclass deficiency between the two patients may be responsible for their different glomerular pathologies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic GN in patients with IgG subclass deficiency.

  12. Effect of Chitosan and Liposome Nanoparticles as Adjuvant Codelivery on the Immunoglobulin G Subclass Distribution in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Salsabila, Korrie; Restu, Witta Kartika; Harmami, Sri Budi; Safari, Dodi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the immunogenic properties of chitosan and liposome nanoparticles as adjuvant codelivery against a commercial pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in an animal model. The chitosan and liposome nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation and dry methods, respectively. The PCV immunization was performed intradermally in the presence of adjuvants and booster injections which were given without an adjuvant. The Quil-A® was used as a control adjuvant. The ELISA was performed to measure the antibodies against pneumococcal type 14 polysaccharide (Pn14PS). The level of total antibodies against Pn14PS antigen was no different between the mouse groups with or without adjuvant codelivery. Codelivery of the PCV with chitosan nanoparticles as well as the Quil-A adjuvant elicited IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 antibodies. Meanwhile, codelivery of liposome nanoparticles elicited mainly IgG1 antibodies against the Pn14PS. The chitosan and liposome nanoparticles as adjuvant codelivery were successfully synthesized. These nanoparticles have different shapes in particle formation, liposome nanoparticle with their unilamellar shape and chitosan nanoparticles in large shape due to the aggregation of small-size particles. Codelivery of chitosan nanoparticles has more effect on the IgG subclass antibody production than that of liposome nanoparticles in a mouse model.

  13. Objective Evaluation of Subclass Characteristics on Breech Face Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Hermsen, Rob; Mattijssen, Erwin; Pieper, Pascal; Champod, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Subclass characteristics can be found on the breech face marks left on spent cartridge cases. Even if they are assumed to be rare and their reported number is small, they can potentially lead to false associations. Subclass characteristics have been studied empirically allowing examiners to recognize them and to understand in which conditions they are produced. Until now, however, their influence on the identification process has not been studied from a probabilistic point of view. In this study, we aim at measuring the effect of these features on the strength of association derived from examinations involving subclass characteristics. The study takes advantage of a 3D automatic comparison system allowing the calculation of likelihood ratios (LRs). The similarities between cartridge case specimens fired by thirteen S&W .40S&W Sigma pistols are quantified, and their respective LRs are computed. The results show that the influence of subclass characteristics on the LRs is limited, even when these features are prevalent among the potential sources considered in a case. We show that the proportion of firearms sharing subclass characteristics should be larger than 40% of the pool of potential firearms for the effect to be significant. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  15. Comparison and Characterization of Immunoglobulin G Subclasses among Primate Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Michael H.; Dark, Robyn D.; Chodosh, James; Kennedy, Ronald C.

    1999-01-01

    Little information is available on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses expressed in the sera of nonhuman primate species. To address this issue, we compared the IgG subclasses found in humans (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) to those of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques. Cross-reactive antihuman IgG subtype-specific reagents were identified and used to analyze purified IgG from sera by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein A-purified human ...

  16. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: The Berkeley Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Williams, P.T.; Blanche, P.J.; Cavanaugh, A.; Holl, L.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Austin, M.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1992-10-01

    Data from the Berkeley Data Set was used to investigate familial correlations of HDL-subclasses. Analysis of the sibling intraclass correlation coefficient by HDL particle diameter showed that sibling HDL levels were significantly correlated for HDL{sub 2b}, HDL{sub 3a} and HDL{sub 3b} subclasses. The percentage of the offsprings` variance explained by their two parents. Our finding that parents and offspring-have the highest correlation for HDL{sub 2b} is consistent with published reports that show higher heritability estimates for HDL{sub 2} compared with HDL{sub 3}{minus} cholesterol.

  17. On a Subclass of Harmonic Convex Functions of Complex Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Magesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study a subclass of harmonic convex functions of complex order. Coefficient bounds, extreme points, distortion bounds, convolution conditions, and convex combination are determined for functions in this class. Further, we obtain the closure property of this class under integral operator.

  18. Identification of pediatric septic shock subclasses based on genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Marie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic shock is a heterogeneous syndrome within which probably exist several biological subclasses. Discovery and identification of septic shock subclasses could provide the foundation for the design of more specifically targeted therapies. Herein we tested the hypothesis that pediatric septic shock subclasses can be discovered through genome-wide expression profiling. Methods Genome-wide expression profiling was conducted using whole blood-derived RNA from 98 children with septic shock, followed by a series of bioinformatic approaches targeted at subclass discovery and characterization. Results Three putative subclasses (subclasses A, B, and C were initially identified based on an empiric, discovery-oriented expression filter and unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Statistical comparison of the three putative subclasses (analysis of variance, Bonferonni correction, P Conclusion Genome-wide expression profiling can identify pediatric septic shock subclasses having clinically relevant phenotypes.

  19. Coefficient Estimates for Certain Subclasses of Biunivalent Functions Defined by Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce two new subclasses of the function class Σ of biunivalent functions in the open disc defined by convolution. Estimates on the coefficients a2 and a3 for the two subclasses are obtained. Moreover, we verify Brannan and Clunie’s conjecture a2≤2 for our subclasses.

  20. Combining Unsupervised and Supervised Learning for Discovering Disease Subclasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, A; Bosoni, P; Bellazzi, R; Nihtyanova, S; Denton, C

    2016-01-01

    Diseases are often umbrella terms for many subcategories of disease. The identification of these subcategories is vital if we are to develop personalised treatments that are better focussed on individual patients. In this short paper, we explore the use of a combination of unsupervised learning to identify potential subclasses, and supervised learning to build models for better predicting a number of different health outcomes for patients that suffer from systemic sclerosis, a rare chronic co...

  1. Characterization of two neuronal subclasses through constellation pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Memon, Tosifa; Cox, Jeffrey L; Foulkes, Tucker; Rivier, Jean E; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2012-07-31

    Different types of neurons diverge in function because they express their own unique set or constellation of signaling molecules, including receptors and ion channels that work in concert. We describe an approach to identify functionally divergent neurons within a large, heterogeneous neuronal population while simultaneously investigating specific isoforms of signaling molecules expressed in each. In this study we characterized two subclasses of menthol-sensitive neurons from cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal-root ganglia. Although these neurons represent a small fraction of the dorsal-root ganglia neuronal population, we were able to identify them and investigate the cell-specific constellations of ion channels and receptors functionally expressed in each subclass, using a panel of selective pharmacological tools. Differences were found in the functional expression of ATP receptors, TRPA1 channels, voltage-gated calcium-, potassium-, and sodium channels, and responses to physiologically relevant cold temperatures. Furthermore, the cell-specific responses to various stimuli could be altered through pharmacological interventions targeted to the cell-specific constellation of ion channels expressed in each menthol-sensitive subclass. In fact, the normal responses to cold temperature could be reversed in the two neuronal subclasses by the coapplication of the appropriate combination of pharmacological agents. This result suggests that the functionally integrated constellation of signaling molecules in a particular type of cell is a more appropriate target for effective pharmacological intervention than a single signaling molecule. This shift from molecular to cellular targets has important implications for basic research and drug discovery. We refer to this paradigm as "constellation pharmacology."

  2. Nasal polyposis and immunoglobulin-G subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Khai Hoan, N; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P

    2014-06-01

    Study of the association between immunoglobulin-G (IgG) subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis. Longitudinal study (5 years) in a prospective cohort of 161 nasal polyposis patients. Analysis of the association between humoral immunodeficiency, rhinologic symptoms, endoscopy score and prescribed doses of local and systemic corticosteroids. The prevalence of IgG subclass deficiency was 13.7% (22/161). One patient was diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). No significant differences were observed between the groups with and without pre-treatment deficiency for symptom severity, endoscopic score or local or systemic corticosteroid regimens at baseline or during the 5 years, following initiation of medical and surgical treatment. Only the Lund-Mackay CT score was significantly higher in the pre-treatment deficiency group. There was no correlation between the presence of humoral deficiency and either symptom evolution after medical and surgical treatment or the dose of corticosteroids needed to control disease. Thus, a link between IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis seems unlikely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Subclasses of Normal Helly Circular-Arc Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min Chih; Szwarcfiter, Jayme L

    2011-01-01

    A Helly circular-arc model M = (C,A) is a circle C together with a Helly family \\A of arcs of C. If no arc is contained in any other, then M is a proper Helly circular-arc model, if every arc has the same length, then M is a unit Helly circular-arc model, and if there are no two arcs covering the circle, then M is a normal Helly circular-arc model. A Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of the arcs of a Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc model. In this article we study these subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs. We show natural generalizations of several properties of (proper) interval graphs that hold for some of these Helly circular-arc subclasses. Next, we describe characterizations for the subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs, including forbidden induced subgraphs characterizations. These characterizations lead to efficient algorithms for recognizing graphs within these classes. Finally, we show how do these ...

  4. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Esophageal Cancer: Associations With (pN+) Lymph Node Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas W; Ishwaran, Hemant; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Schipper, Paul H; Kesler, Kenneth A; Law, Simon; Lerut, E M R; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Salo, Jarmo A; Scott, Walter J; Watson, Thomas J; Allen, Mark S; Chen, Long-Qi; Rusch, Valerie W; Cerfolio, Robert J; Luketich, James D; Duranceau, Andre; Darling, Gail E; Pera, Manuel; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-01-01

    To identify the associations of lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer. Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics. Data on 5806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques. pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5 cm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones. In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status.

  6. Kernel Subclass Support Vector Description for Face and Human Action Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mygdalis, Vasileios; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Kernel Subclass Support Vector Data Description classifier. We focus on face recognition and human action recognition applications, where we argue that sub-classes are formed within the training class. We modify the standard SVDD optimization problem, so that it exploits subclass information in its optimization process. We extend the proposed method to work in feature spaces of arbitrary dimensionality. We evaluate the proposed method in publicly available face r...

  7. Agent-based Personal Network (PN) service architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo; Olesen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we proposte a new concept for a centralized agent system as the solution for the PN service architecture, which aims to efficiently control and manage the PN resources and enable the PN based services to run seamlessly over different networks and devices. The working principle......, control procedure and enabling techniques behind the agent based solution are the main focuses of this paper....

  8. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  9. IgG subclasses determine pathways of anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutier, Héloïse; Gillis, Caitlin M; Iannascoli, Bruno; Godon, Ophélie; England, Patrick; Sibilano, Riccardo; Reber, Laurent L; Galli, Stephen J; Cragg, Mark S; Van Rooijen, Nico; Mancardi, David A; Bruhns, Pierre; Jönsson, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have demonstrated that allergen-specific IgG confers sensitivity to systemic anaphylaxis that relies on IgG Fc receptors (FcγRs). Mouse IgG2a and IgG2b bind activating FcγRI, FcγRIII, and FcγRIV and inhibitory FcγRIIB; mouse IgG1 binds only FcγRIII and FcγRIIB. Although these interactions are of strikingly different affinities, these 3 IgG subclasses have been shown to enable induction of systemic anaphylaxis. We sought to determine which pathways control the induction of IgG1-, IgG2a-, and IgG2b-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis. Mice were sensitized with IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG2b anti-trinitrophenyl mAbs and challenged with trinitrophenyl-BSA intravenously to induce systemic anaphylaxis that was monitored by using rectal temperature. Anaphylaxis was evaluated in mice deficient for FcγRs injected with mediator antagonists or in which basophils, monocytes/macrophages, or neutrophils had been depleted. FcγR expression was evaluated on these cells before and after anaphylaxis. Activating FcγRIII is the receptor primarily responsible for all 3 models of anaphylaxis, and subsequent downregulation of this receptor was observed. These models differentially relied on histamine release and the contribution of mast cells, basophils, macrophages, and neutrophils. Strikingly, basophil contribution and histamine predominance in mice with IgG1- and IgG2b-induced anaphylaxis correlated with the ability of inhibitory FcγRIIB to negatively regulate these models of anaphylaxis. We propose that the differential expression of inhibitory FcγRIIB on myeloid cells and its differential binding of IgG subclasses controls the contributions of mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, and macrophages to IgG subclass-dependent anaphylaxis. Collectively, our results unravel novel complexities in the involvement and regulation of cell populations in IgG-dependent reactions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  10. Novel pneumoviruses (PnVs): Evolution and inflammatory pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glineur, Stephanie F. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Renshaw, Randall W. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Dubovi, Edward J. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Domachowske, Joseph B. [Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Rosenberg, Helene F., E-mail: hrosenberg@niaid.nih.gov [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A previous report of a novel pneumovirus (PnV) isolated from the respiratory tract of a dog described its significant homology to the rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). The original PnV–Ane4 pathogen replicated in and could be re-isolated in infectious state from mouse lung but elicited minimal mortality compared to PVM strain J3666. Here we assess phylogeny and physiologic responses to 10 new PnV isolates. The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to the characterized PVMs, and suggest division into groups A and B. While we observed significant differences in cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of BALB/c mice in response to survival doses (50 TCID{sub 50} units) of representative group A (114378-10-29-KY-F) and group B (7968-11-OK) PnVs, we observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the PnV/PnV, PVM/PnV or PVM/PVM G/glycoprotein or F/fusion protein sequence pairs. - Highlights: • We consider ten novel isolates of the pneumovirus (PnV) first described by Renshaw and colleagues. • The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to PVM. • We detect cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice in response to PnV. • We observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the gene sequence pairs.

  11. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  12. Using constellation pharmacology to define comprehensively a somatosensory neuronal subclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Memon, Tosifa; Aman, Joseph W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2014-02-11

    Change is intrinsic to nervous systems; change is required for learning and conditioning and occurs with disease progression, normal development, and aging. To better understand mammalian nervous systems and effectively treat nervous-system disorders, it is essential to track changes in relevant individual neurons. A critical challenge is to identify and characterize the specific cell types involved and the molecular-level changes that occur in each. Using an experimental strategy called constellation pharmacology, we demonstrate that we can define a specific somatosensory neuronal subclass, cold thermosensors, across different species and track changes in these neurons as a function of development. Cold thermosensors are uniformly responsive to menthol and innocuous cool temperature (17 °C), indicating that they express TRPM8 channels. A subset of cold thermosensors expressed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but not other nAChR subtypes. Differences in temperature threshold of cold thermosensors correlated with functional expression of voltage-gated K channels Kv1.1/1.2: Relatively higher expression of KV1.1/1.2 channels resulted in a higher threshold response to cold temperature. Other signaling components varied during development and between species. In cold thermosensors of neonatal mice and rats, ATP receptors were functionally expressed, but the expression disappeared with development. This developmental change occurred earlier in low-threshold than high-threshold cold thermosensors. Most rat cold thermosensors expressed TRPA1 channels, whereas mouse cold thermosensors did not. The broad implications of this study are that it is now feasible to track changes in receptor and ion-channel expression in individual neuronal subclasses as a function of development, learning, disease, or aging.

  13. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been known for more than 20 years that certain patients with IgG subclass deficiencies may develop recurrent respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia.I...; However, there are few studies of IgG subclass levels in previously healthy adult patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia,~ particularly of patients ...

  14. Micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia: resistência e implicações para o processamento de materiais de assistência à saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza; Lilian Machado Torres; Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano; Ruth Natália Teresa Turrini

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo teórico propõe uma reflexão sobre a resistência intrínseca da subclasse Coccidia, particularmente o gênero Cryptosporidium, considerado como um agente potencialmente patogênico para pacientes imunocomprometidos, e suas repercussões na prática assistencial. Atualmente, as diretrizes internacionais e nacionais aprovam como procedimento seguro a desinfecção química de alto nível de endoscópios digestivos, após sua limpeza. No entanto, estudos evidenciaram que micro-organismos da subc...

  15. Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency and infection risk in 150 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jane A; Crassini, Kyle R; Best, O Giles; Forsyth, Cecily J; Mackinlay, Naomi J; Han, Ping; Stevenson, William; Mulligan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia is a common complication of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the significance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency is unknown. We analyzed the prevalence of immunoglobulins G, A and M, IgG subclass deficiency and infection in 150 patients with CLL. Low IgG, IgA and IgM levels were observed in 27.3%, 30.7% and 56.7% of patients, respectively. IgG subclass deficiency was frequent, with reduced IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 in 28%, 19.3%, 52% and 22.7% of patients, respectively. IgG subclass deficiency (total 64.6%) and hypogammaglobulinemia (27.3%) were more prevalent than clinically significant infection (16%). Recurrent or significant infections were seen in 24 patients (16%), of whom 50% had hypogammaglobulinemia but 100% had at least one IgG subclass deficiency, indicating that half the patients with infection had IgG subclass deficiency but normal total IgG level. Deficiencies of IgG3 and IgG4 were statistically associated with infection risk. Normal immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels were seen in 26 patients (17%) and none had infections. IgG subclass deficiency is commonly observed in patients with CLL with both normal and reduced total IgG levels, and is associated with infection. Screening patients with CLL for IgG subclass deficiency may be a useful adjunct in stratifying their infection risk.

  16. Subclass mapping: identifying common subtypes in independent disease data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Hoshida

    Full Text Available Whole genome expression profiles are widely used to discover molecular subtypes of diseases. A remaining challenge is to identify the correspondence or commonality of subtypes found in multiple, independent data sets generated on various platforms. While model-based supervised learning is often used to make these connections, the models can be biased to the training data set and thus miss inherent, relevant substructure in the test data. Here we describe an unsupervised subclass mapping method (SubMap, which reveals common subtypes between independent data sets. The subtypes within a data set can be determined by unsupervised clustering or given by predetermined phenotypes before applying SubMap. We define a measure of correspondence for subtypes and evaluate its significance building on our previous work on gene set enrichment analysis. The strength of the SubMap method is that it does not impose the structure of one data set upon another, but rather uses a bi-directional approach to highlight the common substructures in both. We show how this method can reveal the correspondence between several cancer-related data sets. Notably, it identifies common subtypes of breast cancer associated with estrogen receptor status, and a subgroup of lymphoma patients who share similar survival patterns, thus improving the accuracy of a clinical outcome predictor.

  17. 19th Scientific Readings Devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Ilaltdinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific conference devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy was held in the Perm State University (January 2017. The problems of mineralogy, petrology, lithology, metallogeny and geochemistry were discussed.

  18. A 4PN-exact approximation to General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brizuela, David

    2010-01-01

    An approximation to General Relativity is presented which agrees with the Einstein field equations up to and including the fourth post-Newtonian (PN) order. This approximation is formulated in a fully constrained scheme: all involved equations are explicitly elliptic except the wave equation that describes the two independent degrees of freedom of the gravitational field. The formalism covers naturally the conformal-flat-condition (CFC) approach by Isenberg, Wilson, and Mathews and the improved second PN-order exact approach CFC+. For stationary configurations, like Kerr black holes, agreement with General Relativity is achieved even through 5PN order. In addition, we analyze in detail a particularly interesting 2PN-exact waveless approximation which results from imposing more restrictive conditions. The proposed scheme can be considered as a further development on the waveless approach suggested by Schaefer and Gopakumar [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 69}, 021501 (2004)].

  19. Quantification of serum IgG subclasses by use of subclass-specific tryptic peptides and liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Paula M; Barnidge, David R; Snyder, Melissa R; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of IgG subclasses is a useful tool for investigation of humoral immune deficiency in the presence of total IgG within reference intervals and IgG4-related disease. Nephelometry has been the method of choice for quantification. We describe an LC-MS/MS method that can multiplex all 4 subclasses along with total IgG by use of either IgG subclass-specific peptide stable isotope-labeled internal standards or a surrogate digest standard for quantification and does not rely on antigen/antibody reactions. We combined serum with labeled internal peptide standards and intact purified horse IgG. Samples were denatured, reduced, alkylated, and digested. We analyzed the digested serum by LC-MS/MS for IgG subclasses 1-4 and total IgG. We assayed 112 patient sera by LC-MS/MS and immunonephelometry. The mean of the slopes and R(2) values for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgG were 1.18 and 0.93, respectively. Interassay imprecision for the LC-MS/MS method was IgG and subclasses and was slightly improved by use of a calibrator peptide from an exogenous horse IgG. Summed total IgG correlated with the measured total IgG within 10%. Reference intervals and analytical measuring range were all similar to our previous validation data for the immunonephelometry assays. Total IgG and IgG subclasses 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be quantified by LC-MS/MS with performance comparable to nephelometry. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium Falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 19 ) and predominance of the MAD20 allelic type of MSP1 in Uganda.

  1. Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lebbe, E.K.M.; Peigneur, S.; Maiti, M.; Mille, B.G.; Prabhadevi; Ravichandran, S.; Lescrinier, E.; Waelkens, E.; DeSouza, L.; Herdewijn, P.; Tytgat, J.

    -conotoxins, acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which dysfunctions play important roles in pathologies such as epilepsy, myasthenic syndromes, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we define a new subclass of the alpha...

  2. Clinical significance of serum immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tobias; Höglund, Martin; Cherif, Honar

    2013-07-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hypogammaglobulinemia who suffer from recurrent infections can be offered prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) substitution. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of pure IgG subclass deficiency (with normal Ig levels), its correlation to risk of infection, and the clinical value of routine measurement of serum IgG subclass levels in patients with CLL. Serum levels of Ig and IgG subclasses were determined in patients with CLL at Uppsala University Hospital. Clinical data were collected through patient records and questionnaires. Hypogammaglobulinemia occurred in 52.3% out of 111 patients. These patients did not have a higher annual risk of infection than patients without hypogammaglobulinemia (79.5% vs 79.1%, p = 0.706 for all infections; 13.4% vs 11.2%, p = 0.394 for severe infection; and 1.7% vs 3.4%, p = 0.083 for sepsis). Pure subclass deficiency was uncommon and occurred in 6 patients (5.4%). The annual overall risk of infection, of severe infection, and of sepsis for these patients did not differ as compared to patients with no hypogammaglobulinemia and no subclass deficiency (70.8% vs 80.7%, p = 0.334; 11.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.497; and 8.9% vs 2.3%, p = 0.067, respectively). Pure IgG subclass deficiency is rare in patients with CLL. In this heterogeneous cohort of patients, neither hypogammaglobulinemia nor pure IgG subclass deficiency were significant risk factors for infectious complications. Measurement of serum levels of Ig may be justified in patients with recurrent severe infections, but routine analysis of IgG subclass levels in patients with CLL is probably not warranted.

  3. Production of cellulases and xylanases under catabolic repression conditions from mutant PR-22 of Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rejón, Oscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Martínez-Jiménez, Alfredo; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; de la Torre Martínez, Mayra; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Derepressed mutant PR-22 was obtained by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) mutagenic treatment of Cellulomonas flavigena PN-120. This mutant improved its xylanolytic activity from 26.9 to 40 U mg(-1) and cellulolytic activity from 1.9 to 4 U mg(-1); this represented rates almost 2 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, compared to its parent strain growing in sugarcane bagasse. Either glucose or cellobiose was added to cultures of C. flavigena PN-120 and mutant PR-22 induced with sugarcane bagasse in batch culture. The inhibitory effect of glucose on xylanase activity was more noticeable for parent strain PN-120 than for mutant PR-22. When 20 mM glucose was added, the xylanolytic activity decreased 41% compared to the culture grown without glucose in mutant PR-22, whereas in the PN-120 strain the xylanolytic activity decreased by 49% at the same conditions compared to its own control. Addition of 10 and 15 mM of glucose did not adversely affect CMCase activity in PR-22, but glucose at 20 mM inhibited the enzymatic activity by 28%. The CMCase activity of the PN-120 strain was more sensitive to glucose than PR-22, with a reduction of CMCase activity in the range of 20-32%. Cellobiose had a more significant effect on xylanase and CMCase activities than glucose did in the mutant PR-22 and parent strain. Nevertheless, the activities under both conditions were always higher in the mutant PR-22 than in the PN-120 strain. Enzymatic saccharification experiments showed that it is possible to accumulate up to 10 g l(-1) of total soluble sugars from pretreated sugarcane bagasse with the concentrated enzymatic crude extract from mutant PR-22.

  4. Subclass restriction pattern of antigen-specific antibodies in donors with defective expression of IgG or IgA subclass heavy chain constant region genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerström, L.; Carbonara, A.O.; DeMarchi, M.; LeFranc, G.; Möller, G.; Smith, C.I.E.; Zegers, B.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for the measurement of the IgG and IgA subclass distribution of antigen-specific human antibodies. The controls for the specificity of the assay include the use of a number of monoclonal human antibodies and sera from individuals with deletions of particular immunoglobulin

  5. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of periodically monitored Turkish children with IgG subclass deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Karadeniz, Cem; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2009-03-01

    IgG subclass deficiencies are common immune system disorders during childhood. The aim of this retrospective study was to review clinical findings and laboratory results of patients with IgG subclass deficiencies in order to determine the changes in serum IgG subclass levels during follow-up, the percentage and time span until normalization of the IgG subclass levels to age-corresponding normal levels, the type of infections incurred and the benefits of prophylaxis. Among the 59 pediatric patients reviewed, the most frequent defect was an IgG3 subclass deficiency (77%). Nine percent of the patients had an isolated IgG2 deficiency and 14% had an IgG2+G3 deficiency. The most common clinical presentations were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, followed by pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. Atopy was present in 15% of the patients. Ninety percent of the patients were given a prophylactic treatment (benzathine penicillin, oral antibiotics, oral bacterial lysate or intravenous immunoglobulin). The frequency of recurrent infections decreased from 13.4 +/- 7.4 per year to 5.7 +/- 3.9 in patients receiving a prophylactic regimen. Serum IgG subclass levels reached normal ranges in 30% of the patients in the IgG3 deficiency group and in 35.7% of the patients in the IgG2+G3 deficiency group. Patients with an isolated IgG2 deficiency did not reach age-related normal levels during the study period. Our study shows that IgG subclass levels may normalize in 30 to 40% of patients at about 6 years of age. We emphasize the need of monitoring IgG levels together with the clinical symptomatology in affected individuals and initiate preventive measures when appropriate.

  6. Novel Fractional Order Calculus Extended PN for Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikun Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of fractional order calculus (FOC, a novel extended proportional guidance (EPN law for intercepting the maneuvering target is proposed. In the first part, considering the memory function and filter characteristic of FOC, the novel extended PN guidance algorithm is developed based on the conventional PN after introducing the properties and operation rules of FOC. Further, with the help of FOC theory, the average load and ballistics characteristics of proposed guidance law are analyzed. Then, using the small offset kinematic model, the robustness of the new guidance law against autopilot parameters is studied theoretically by analyzing the sensitivity of the closed loop guidance system. At last, representative numerical results show that the designed guidance law obtains a better performance than the traditional PN for maneuvering target.

  7. Particle and X-ray damage in pn-CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Meidinger, N; Strüder, L

    2000-01-01

    The fully depleted pn-junction charge coupled device (pn-CCD) has been developed as a detector for X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy for the X-ray satellite missions XMM and ABRIXAS. If the detector is exposed to a particle radiation environment, the energy resolution is degraded due to charge transfer losses and a dark current increase. In a first experiment, prototype devices were irradiated with 10 MeV protons. After completion of the detector development, the proton irradiation was repeated for a quantitative study of the radiation damage, relevant for the satellite missions. The irradiation test was extended by a 5.5 MeV alpha-particle and a 6 keV X-ray exposure of the pn-CCD, including the CAMEX preamplifier chip.

  8. IgG subclass and vaccination stimulus determine changes in antigen specific antibody glycosylation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Daniela; Lux, Anja; Schaffert, Anja; Lang, Roland; Altmann, Friedrich; Nimmerjahn, Falk

    2017-08-02

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation can modulate antibody effector functions. Depending on the precise composition of the sugar moiety attached to individual IgG glycovariants either pro- or anti-inflammatory effector pathways can be initiated via differential binding to type I or type II Fc-receptors. However, an in depth understanding of how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state and how their glycosylation pattern changes during vaccination is missing. To monitor IgG subclass glycosylation during the steady state and upon vaccination of mice with different T-cell dependent and independent antigens, tryptic digests of serum, and antigen-specific IgG preparations were analyzed by reversed phase-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that there is a remarkable difference with respect to how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state. More importantly, upon T-cell dependent and independent vaccinations, individual antigen-specific IgG subclasses reacted differently with respect to changes in individual glycoforms, suggesting that the IgG subclass itself is a major determinant of restricting or allowing alterations in specific IgG glycovariants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A case of IgG subclass deficiency with the initial presentation of transient hypogammaimmuno-globulinemia of infancy and a review of IgG subclass deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettagul, R; Visitsunthorn, N; Vichyanond, P

    2003-07-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases are not common in children. The possibility of an immunological defect should be considered in any individual with repeated infections. A definite diagnosis for immodeficiency is sometimes difficult to achieve because of overlapping clinical manifestations. Immunoglobulin subclass deficiency is an immunological deficiency disease with which, one or more IgG subclasses are deficient. T cell immunity is normal. Patients may develop recurrent bacterial and respiratory infections or could remain asymptomatic. The authors report a case of immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency presenting initially as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. A 2 month-old boy presented to Siriraj Hospital with a history of chronic protracted diarrhea, disseminated scabies and sepsis. On presentation, he had generalized scaly and maculopapular rash with no palpable lymph nodes. CBC revealed WBC 22,100 cells/cm3 with PMN 42 per cent, lymphocytes 38 per cent, Eosinophils 4 per cent, Basophil 2 per cent and platelets 254,000/cm3. The immunoglobulin levels were as follows: IgG 181 mg/dl, IgA IgG became normal at 2 years of age (after 12 months of IVIG). IVIG was stopped and the diagnosis was changed to transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI). Nevertheless, during his 4 month follow-up he developed recurrent sinopulmonary infections (i.e, otitis media and pneumonia). Repeated immunoglobulin profile showed IgG 1,200 mg/dl, IgA 135 mg/dl, IgM 26 mg/dl, IgG subclass were IgG, 1,030 mg/dl (N 280-830), IgG2 30 mg/dl (N 40-2,400), IgG3 22 mg/dl (N 6-130), IgG4 3 mg/dl (N 3-120). A diagnosis of IgG2 subclass deficiency presenting early as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy was then made. Treatment with monthly IVIG was reinitiated and the patient is currently doing well. The authors present a case of IgG subclass deficiency presenting as transient hypogammaglbulinemia of infancy. Follow-up of the immune profile and clinical manifestation is

  10. The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ≤ 2.5. Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ≤ 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their

  11. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  12. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  13. Improving detection range via correlation of long PN codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Saurav; Wang, Zhonghai; Zheng, Y. Rosa

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a correlation method for detecting super-regenerative RF receivers via stimulation. Long PN sequences are used as to stimulate the unintended emissions from the RF receivers. High correlation between known PN sequence and stimulated unintended emissions from RF receivers helps improving the detection range compared to passive detection and power detection methods. Although RF receivers generate unintended emissions from their nonlinear devices, without stimulation, the power of these unintended emission is usually lower than --70dBm, as per the FCC regulations. Direct detection (passive detection) of these emissions is a challenging task specially in noisy conditions. When a stimulation signal is transmitted from distance, superregenerative receivers generate unintended emissions that contain the stimulation signal and its harmonics. Excellent correlation property of PN sequence enables us to improve the range and accuracy of detecting the super-regenerative receivers through stimulation method even in noisy conditions. The experiment involves detection of wireless doorbell, a commercially available super-regenerative receiver. USRP is used for transmitting the stimulant signal and receiving unintended stimulated emissions from the doorbell. Experiments show that the detection range of the proposed method with long PN sequences is much larger than passive detection and power detection methods.

  14. New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio JAL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.

  15. Discontinuous pn-heterojunction for organic thin film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, B.; Yu, S.H.; Kim, M.; Lee, M.H.; Huh, W.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Cho, J.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Song, Y.J.; Kang, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of discontinuous pn-oragnic heterojunction is introduced as a versatile method to improve charge transport in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The method is demonstrated by depositing n-type dioctyl perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C8) discontinuously onto base p-type

  16. [Sinonasal polyposis associated with a deficiency subclass immunoglobulin G: Place of substitution immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Nhung Tran Khai; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of the introduction of a substitution by intravenous Immunoglobulins (Ig IV) at patients with immunoglobulins G (IgG) subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Prospective study concerning five patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. Rhinologic, otologic and pulmonary symptoms, exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis and asthma as well as the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments were counted during the Ig IV substitution. To study the association between IgIV substitution and the number of exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis, asthma and the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments in patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Five patients with a IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis were substituted. The number of antibiotics and corticoids cures increased at one patient and remained stable at four others. The number of sinus, ear and lung infections as well as the global rhinologic score of symptoms and the endoscopic stage of the nasal polyposis remained stable. In the absence of efficiency of the treatment, this one was interrupted at the end of 6 months for patients n° 1 and n° 3, 24 months for patient n° 4 and 42 months for patient n° 5. The current study failed to highlight clinical improvement in patients wih IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. A previous study had not allowed to find a link between IgG subclasses deficiency and severity of nasal polyposis, what seems to be confirmed by the absence of improvement brought during the substitution of this deficit in the current study.

  17. On some subclasses of the family of Darboux Baire 1 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruda Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a subclass of the family of Darboux Baire 1 functions \\(f:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}\\ modifying the Darboux property analogously as it was done by Z. Grande in [On a subclass of the family of Darboux functions, Colloq. Math. 17 (2009, 95-104], and replacing approximate continuity with \\(\\mathcal{I}\\-approximate continuity, i.e. continuity with respect to the \\(\\mathcal{I}\\-density topology. We prove that the family of all Darboux quasi-continuous functions from the first Baire class is a strongly porous set in the space \\(\\mathcal{DB}_1\\ of Darboux Baire 1 functions, equipped with the supremum metric.

  18. Eccentric-orbit EMRI gravitational wave energy fluxes to 7PN order

    CERN Document Server

    Forseth, Erik; Hopper, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We present new results through 7PN order on the energy flux from eccentric extreme-mass-ratio binaries. The black hole perturbation calculations are made at very high accuracy (200 decimal places) using a Mathematica code based on the Mano-Suzuki-Takasugi (MST) analytic function expansion formalism. All published coefficients in the expansion through 3PN order are confirmed and new analytic and numeric terms are found to high order in $e^2$ at orders between 3.5PN and 7PN. We also show original work in finding (nearly) arbitrarily accurate expansions for hereditary terms at 1.5PN, 2.5PN, and 3PN orders. We fit to a model where at each PN order an eccentricity singular function is factored out, improving substantially the fit even as $e \\to 1$.

  19. Biophysical and Functional Characterization of Rhesus Macaque IgG Subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Austin W.; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Crowley, Andrew R.; Chu, Thach H.; Chan, Ying N.; Weiner, Joshua A.; Bharadwaj, Pranay; Hards, Rufus; Adamo, Mark E.; Gerber, Scott A.; Cocklin, Sarah L.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Miles, Adam R.; Eckman, Joshua W.; Belli, Aaron J.; Reimann, Keith A.; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neutralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the properties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses. Here, we evaluate the binding of MM IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 to human Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and their ability to elicit the effector functions of human FcγR-bearing cells, and unlike in humans, find a notable absence of subclasses with dramatically silent Fc regions. Biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo characterization revealed MM IgG1 exhibited the greatest effector function activity followed by IgG2 and then IgG3/4. These findings in rhesus are in contrast with the canonical understanding that IgG1 and IgG3 dominate effector function in humans, indicating that subclass-switching profiles observed in rhesus studies may not strictly recapitulate those observed in human vaccine studies. PMID:28018355

  20. Antibody isotypes, including IgG subclasses, in Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary Paragonimiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Guevara E.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ELISA test was developed to detect Paragonimus-specific antibodies, including IgG subclasses, using P. mexicanus crude water-soluble antigens. The test was standardized to detect antibodies in sera of Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis and negative controls from the endemic area. The detected mean levels of IgG (0.753, SEM: 0.074 and IgM (0.303, SEM: 0.033 were significantly elevated (P<0.05. Within the IgG subclasses, IgG4 showed the highest detected mean level (0.365, SEM: 0.116 and the other three subclasses showed considerably lower mean levels (IgG1, 0.186 SEM: 0.06; IgG2, 0.046 SEM: 0.01; IgG3, 0.123 SEM: 0.047. The number of P. mexicanus eggs found in sputum of infected individuals showed a positive correlation with the level of antibodies detected for IgM, IgG and its subclasses (P<0.001. The relevance of these findings in Ecuadorian patients suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis is discussed.

  1. Influence of immunoglobulin G-glycan and subclass variation on antibody effector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, G.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies signal to other parts of the immune system by binding of their constant domain (Fc) to receptors, such as Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) or C1q of the complement system in the case of immunoglobulin G (IgG). For these interactions the Fc-structure, influenced by subclasses or

  2. Associations between intensive diabetes therapy and NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Jenkins, Alicia J; Basu, Arpita; Stoner, Julie A; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Klein, Richard L; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    Our objective is to define differences in circulating lipoprotein subclasses between intensive versus conventional management of type 1 diabetes during the randomization phase of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSPs), which estimate molar subclass concentrations and mean particle diameters, were determined in 1,294 DCCT subjects after a median of 5 years (interquartile range: 4-6 years) of randomization to intensive or conventional diabetes management. In cross-sectional analyses, we compared standard lipids and NMR-LSPs between treatment groups. Standard total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were similar between randomization groups, while triglyceride levels were lower in the intensively treated group. NMR-LSPs showed that intensive therapy was associated with larger LDL diameter (20.7 vs. 20.6 nm, P = 0.01) and lower levels of small LDL (median: 465 vs. 552 nmol/l, P = 0.007), total IDL/LDL (mean: 1,000 vs. 1,053 nmol/l, P = 0.01), and small HDL (mean: 17.3 vs. 18.6 μmol/l, P intensive diabetes therapy was associated with potentially favorable changes in LDL and HDL subclasses in sera. Further research will determine whether these changes contribute to the beneficial effects of intensive diabetes management on vascular complications.

  3. Fekete-Szegö Inequalities of a Subclass of Multivalent Analytic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj C.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to study Fekete-Szegö problem for a certain subclass of p - valent analytic functions. Fekete-Szegö inequality of several classes are obtained as special cases from our results. Applications of the result are also obtained on the class defined by convolution.

  4. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses on a protein A monolith column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebici, Pelin; Leblebici, M Enis; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Pais, Luís S

    2014-07-01

    Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A) monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gradient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be successfully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealed that enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28min long chromatographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without any loss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Clinical Utility of Measuring IgG Subclass Immunoglobulins During Immunological Investigation for Suspected Primary Antibody Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R; Skold, Markus; Ramsden, David B; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Harding, Stephen

    2017-11-08

    Measurement of IgG subclass concentrations is a standard laboratory test run as part of a panel to investigate the suspicion of antibody deficiency. The assessment is clinically important when total IgG is within the normal age-specific reference range. The measurement is useful for diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, to aid the diagnosis of specific antibody deficiency, as a supporting test for the diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, as well as for risk stratification of patients with low IgA. The measurement of IgG subclasses may also help determine a revaccination strategy for patients and support patient management. In certain circumstances, the measurement of IgG subclasses may be used to monitor a patient's humoral immune system. In this review, we discuss the utility of measuring IgG subclass concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and risk of colorectal cancer in 2 large prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Zhang, Xuehong; Cassidy, Aedín; Song, Mingyang; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Lin, Jennifer H; Pischon, Tobias; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wu, Kana

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro. In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Polyp Prevention Trial, a higher intake of one subclass, flavonols, was statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of recurrent advanced adenoma. Most previous prospective studies on colorectal cancer evaluated only a limited number of flavonoid subclasses and intake ranges, yielding inconsistent results. In this study, we examined whether higher habitual dietary intakes of flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Using data from validated food-frequency questionnaires administered every 4 y and an updated flavonoid food composition database, we calculated flavonoid intakes for 42,478 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and for 76,364 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study. During up to 26 y of follow-up, 2519 colorectal cancer cases (1061 in men, 1458 in women) were documented. Intakes of flavonoid subclasses were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer in either cohort. Pooled multivariable adjusted RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) for flavonols, 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) for flavones, 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) for flavanones, 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) for flavan-3-ols, and 0.98 (0.81, 1.19) for anthocyanins (all P values for heterogeneity by sex >0.19). In subsite analyses, flavonoid intake was also not associated with colon or rectal cancer risk. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a higher habitual intake of any flavonoid subclass decreases the risk of colorectal cancer.

  7. IDH mutation and neuroglial developmental features define clinically distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovets, Daniel; Kannan, Kasthuri; Shen, Ronglai; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Islamdoust, Nasrin; Campos, Carl; Pentsova, Elena; Heguy, Adriana; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Chan, Timothy A; Huse, Jason T

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse gliomas represent the most prevalent class of primary brain tumor. Despite significant recent advances in the understanding of glioblastoma [World Health Organization (WHO) IV], its most malignant subtype, lower grade (WHO II and III) glioma variants remain comparatively understudied, especially in light of their notable clinical heterogeneity. Accordingly, we sought to identify and characterize clinically relevant molecular subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas. We conducted multidimensional molecular profiling, including global transcriptional analysis, on 101 lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas collected at our own institution and validated our findings using publically available gene expression and copy number data from large independent patient cohorts. We found that IDH mutational status delineated molecularly and clinically distinct glioma subsets, with IDH mutant (IDH mt) tumors exhibiting TP53 mutations, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)A overexpression, and prolonged survival, and IDH wild-type (IDH wt) tumors exhibiting EGFR amplification, PTEN loss, and unfavorable disease outcome. Furthermore, global expression profiling revealed three robust molecular subclasses within lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas, two of which were predominantly IDH mt and one almost entirely IDH wt. IDH mt subclasses were distinguished from each other on the basis of TP53 mutations, DNA copy number abnormalities, and links to distinct stages of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. This latter finding implicates discrete pools of neuroglial progenitors as cells of origin for the different subclasses of IDH mt tumors. We have elucidated molecularly distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma that dictate clinical behavior and show fundamental associations with both IDH mutational status and neuroglial developmental stage. ©2012 AACR.

  8. The subclass distribution of IgG autoantibodies in cicatricial pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Prost, C; Aucouturier, P; Durepaire, N; Denis, F; Bonnetblanc, J M

    1991-08-01

    To study the subclass distribution of autoantibodies and their complement-fixing capacity in cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) we studied the sera from 23 patients by both indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on 4-microns cryostat sections of normal human skin and immunoblotting of epidermal or dermal extracts. Monoclonal antibodies of strict specificity for human IgG subclasses were used. Sera from 20 patients with BP served as controls. In addition, total IgG subclass levels were determined by indirect competitive ELISA in all sera. Complement binding capacity was studied by IIF using antibodies to C3 after incubation of skin section with autoantibodies and source of fresh complement. CP autoantibodies reacting with the 230-240 kD and/or the 180-kD epidermal bands showed an IgG4/IgG1 subclass restriction, with a predominance of IgG4 in 10 cases, of IgG1 in four. In BP sera, IgG4 and IgG1 autoantibodies were detected with a similar frequency (100% and 83%, respectively). In EBA sera, autoantibodies reacting with the 290 kD and 145 kD dermal bands also showed an IgG1/IgG4 restriction. Concordant results were obtained by IIF. However, the IIF method had a lower sensitivity for the detection of IgG4 CP antibodies and IgG1 EBA antibodies than immunoblotting. Finally, when CP antibodies were analyzed for their complement-binding activity, it was found that sera containing IgG4 autoantibodies alone never fixed complement whereas all complement-fixing CP sera had IgG1 autoantibodies, suggesting that only this subclass of antibodies is capable of fixing complement.

  9. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P < 0.001) and LDL toward smaller particles (r = -0.15 for LDL size, P < 0.001). In addition, higher scores on this pattern were positively correlated with concentrations of small, dense HDL (r = 0.16, P < 0.001). Habitual fish intake associated negatively with VLDL particle diameter ("Fish" pattern and biomarker) and positively with HDL particle diameter (biomarker). Our results suggest that in young adults, higher habitual fish consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio J. A. L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range 3 ≤ n ≤ 6 are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.

  11. Contactless Microwave Characterization of Encapsulated Graphene p-n Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Vishal; Zihlmann, Simon; Makk, Péter; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Accessing intrinsic properties of a graphene device can be hindered by the influence of contact electrodes. Here, we capacitively couple graphene devices to superconducting resonant circuits and observe clear changes in the resonance-frequency and -widths originating from the internal charge dynamics of graphene. This allows us to extract the density of states and charge relaxation resistance in graphene p-n junctions without the need of electrical contacts. The presented characterizations pa...

  12. A Pn Spreading Model Constrained with Observed Amplitudes in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    structure. For the Tibetan Plateau, a “plateau” province was defined as the region with a Moho depth deeper than 55 km. The “platform” and “shield...penetration depths below the Moho for different distances based on ray geometry and the Earth model used by Yang et al. (2007). My calculation...heterogeneities in the mantle lid and Moho topography on Pn geometric spreading, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 101: 126–140, doi: 10.1785/0120100113. Bird, P

  13. A nanoscale pn junction in series with tunable Schottky barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspitarte, Lee; McCulley, Daniel R.; Minot, Ethan D.

    2017-10-01

    PN junctions in nanoscale materials are of interest for a range of technologies including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes. However, Schottky barriers at the interface between metal contacts and the nanomaterial are often unavoidable. The effect of metal-semiconductor interfaces on the behavior of nanoscale diodes must be understood, both to extract the characteristics of the pn junction, and to understand the overall characteristics of the final device. Here, we study the current-voltage characteristics of diodes that are formed in fully suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We utilize tunable Schottky barrier heights at the CNT-metal interface to elucidate the role of the Schottky barriers on the device characteristics. We develop a quantitative model to show how a variety of device characteristics can arise from apparently similar devices. Using our model we extract key parameters of the Schottky barriers and the pn junction, and predict the overall I-V characteristics of the device. Our equivalent circuit model is relevant to a variety of nanomaterial-based diode devices that are currently under investigation.

  14. Electron transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Kang, Yan-Zhuo; Ding, Kai-He

    2018-02-01

    We study the electronic transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions under a perpendicular magnetic field. It is found that subject to the transversely or longitudinally polarized ac field, in the p-n region, the conductance versus the on-site energy of the right electrode exhibits a characteristic structure with a zero value plateau and the followed oscillation peaks, whose widths are greatly suppressed by the ac field. In the n-n region, the conductance plateaus at G = (n + 1 / 2) (4e2 / h) (n is an integer) shrink for the transversely polarized ac field, whereas accompanied with the addition of the new quantized plateaus at G = n (4e2 / h) for the longitudinally polarized ac field. The combined influence of the ac field with the disorder can trigger a change in the mixing of the hole and electron states at the p-n interface, which leads to a destruction of the plateaus structure in the conductance versus the disorder strength with the emergence of new ones. The influence of the elliptically and circularly polarized ac field on the conductance is also shown.

  15. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-07-28

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  16. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN in Early Breast Cancer (BCa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Vitale Nuzzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005, adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04 and progesterone receptor (PgR status (p = 0.02. No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05 and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03. Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04. Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  17. Crystal Growth and Characterization of the Narrow-Band-Gap Semiconductors OsPn 2 (Pn = P, As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Do, Dat T.; Chung, Duck Young; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-09-15

    Using metal fluxes, crystals of the binary osmium dipnictides OsPn(2) (Pn = P, As, Sb) have been grown for the first time. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms that these compounds crystallize in the marcasite structure type with orthorhombic space group Pnnm. The structure is a three-dimensional framework of corner- and edge-sharing OsPn(6) octahedra, as well as [Pn(2)(-4)] anions. Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of PP single bonds, consistent with the presence of [Pn(2)(-4)] anions and formally Os4+ cations. Optical-band-gap and high-temperature electrical resistivity measurements indicate that these materials are narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The experimentally determined Seebeck coefficients reveal that nominally undoped OsP2 and OsSb2 are n-type semiconductors, whereas OsAs2 is p-type. Electronic band structure using density functional theory calculations shows that these compounds are indirect narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The bonding p orbitals associated with the Pn(2) dimer are below the Fermi energy, and the corresponding antibonding states are above, consistent with a PnPn single bond. Thermopower calculations using Boltzmann transport theory and constant relaxation time approximation show that these materials are potentially good thermoelectrics, in agreement with experiment.

  18. Sex bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L; Tschida, Barbara R; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L; Kuka, Timothy P; Moriarity, Branden S; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J; Riordan, Jesse D; Bell, Jason B; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Llovet, Josep M; Largaespada, David A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal estimated male/female ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Sex bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored sex differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both sexes and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female mice (2/9, 22%). Human single-nucleotide polymorphism data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression-based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly male (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02), and this subclass was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Sex bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in sex bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Associations of Apgar score and size at birth with lipoprotein subclasses in juvenile obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Osama H.; Vekic, Jelena; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Parıpovıc, Dusan; Gojkovıc, Tamara; Janac, Jelena; Spasojevıc-Kalımanovska, Vesna; Peco-Antıc, Amira; Mılosevskı-Lomıc, Gordana; Jelıc-Ivanovıc, Zorana; Stefanovıc, Aleksandra

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Juvenile obesity is associated with several metabolic abnormalities, one of them being atherogenic dyslipidemia. Suboptimal fetal growth is associated with obesity risk in childhood, but also with increased rate of metabolic diseases in later life. This study investigated associations of neonatal data (Apgar score, birth weight and birth length) with low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) subclasses in a group of obese children, as well as a possible impact of breastfeeding duration on obesity-associated lipoprotein subclasses distributions.Materials and methods: We included 42 obese children, aged 14.2 ± 2.1 years. LDL and HDL subfractions were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis and biochemical parameters were assessed by routine methods.Results: Compared with obese children with Apgar ≥ 9, the group with Apgar < 9 had significantly higher percentages of small, dense LDL particles (P < 0.05), due to reduced LDL I (P < 0.01) and increased LDL III subclasses (P < 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with the proportions of LDL I particles (P < 0.001), whereas birth height positively correlated with the amount of HDL 2b subclasses (P < 0.05). The group of never or less than 3 months breastfed children had significantly smaller LDL size (P < 0.01) and lower proportion of HDL 2a particles (P < 0.05) than their ≥3 months breastfed peers.Conclusion: The results showed significant associations of neonatal characteristics with LDL and HDL particle distributions in obese children. In addition, our results point toward positive aspects of longer breastfeeding duration on lipoprotein particle distributions in obese children.

  20. Phrase Structure Patterning and Licensing for English and Serbian Speaker-Oriented Adverb Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković-Telebaković Gordana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to set phrase structure rules for English and Serbian speaker-oriented adverb subclasses. Adverbs are looked at here as specifiers licensed by the semantic feature [ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE]. The results suggest that illocutionary, evaluative and evidential adverbs normally merge within the complementizer layer and the inflectional layer, and that English epistemic adverbs are in most cases preferably integrated into the inflectional layer, whereas Serbian epistemic adverbs tend to occur in the sentence-initial position.

  1. In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xinsheng; Vestergaard, Bente; Thorolfsson, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    with identical variable regions, were thoroughly analysed by the ensemble optimization method. The extended analysis of the optimized ensembles through shape clustering reveals distinct subclass-specific conformational preferences, which provide new insights for understanding the variations in physical....../chemical stability and biological function of therapeutic antibodies. Importantly, the way that specific differences in the linker region correlate with the solution structure of intact antibodies is revealed, thereby visualizing future potential for the rational design of antibodies with designated physicochemical...

  2. Association between ethnicity and obesity with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and subclass distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Blackhurst, Dee; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-05-11

    Obesity and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. Surprisingly, despite a greater prevalence of obesity and lower HDL concentrations than white women, black South African women are relatively protected against ischaemic heart disease. We investigated whether this apparent discrepancy may be related to different HDL function and subclass distribution in black and white, normal-weight and obese South African women (n = 40). HDL functionality was assessed by measuring paraoxonase (PON) activity, platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and quantification of the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule in endothelial cells. PON-1 and PAF-AH expression was determined in isolated HDL and serum using Western blotting. Levels of large, intermediate and small HDL subclasses were measured using the Lipoprint® system. PON activity was lower in white compared to black women (0.49 ± 0.09 U/L vs 0.78 ± 0.10 U/L, p Obese black women had lower PAF-AH activity (9.34 ± 1.15 U/L vs 13.89 ± 1.21 U/L, p obese white women. Compared to normal-weight women, obese women had lower large HDL, greater intermediate and small HDL; an effect that was more pronounced in white women than black women. There were no differences in antioxidant capacity or anti-inflammatory function across groups. Our data show that both obesity and ethnicity are associated with differences in HDL functionality, while obesity was associated with decreases in large HDL subclass distribution. Measuring HDL functionality and subclass may, therefore, be important factors to consider when assessing cardiovascular risk.

  3. A subclass of harmonic univalent functions with positive coefficients associated with fractional calculus operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we are defining a subclass of harmonic univalent functions with positive coefficients in unit disc $U$ by using fractional calculus operator. Further we obtain distortion bounds, extreme points and radii of convexity for functions belonging to this class and discuss a class preserving integral operator. Here we also determine that the class studied in this paper is closed under convolution and convex combinations.

  4. Subclasses of Starlike Functions Associated with Fractional q-Calculus Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murugusundaramoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Making use of fractional q-calculus operators, we introduce a new subclass ℳq(λ,γ,k of starlike functions and determine the coefficient estimate, extreme points, closure theorem, and distortion bounds for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k. Furthermore we discuss neighborhood results, subordination theorem, partial sums, and integral means inequalities for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k.

  5. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: A meta-analysis of 10 interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A; Burton, Jeffrey; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S; Després, Jean-Pierre; Hagberg, James M; Landers-Ramos, Rian; Leon, Arthur S; Mikus, Catherine R; Rao, D C; Seip, Richard L; Skinner, James S; Slentz, Cris A; Thompson, Paul D; Wilund, Kenneth R; Kraus, William E; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-12-01

    The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N = 106), DREW (N = 385), GERS (N = 79), HERITAGE (N = 715), STRRIDE I (N = 168) and II (N = 102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group. Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value. Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-prandial alterations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Trepp, Roman; Berneis, Kaspar; Christ, Emanuel R

    2008-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that lipoproteins generated during the post-prandial phase are highly atherogenic, with modifications in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) size and density. In the present study we assessed post-prandial variations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We studied in 12 hypopituitary patients with GHD and 10 healthy control subjects matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI) post-prandial variations after a standardized meal consisting of 35% fat, 45% carbohydrate and 20% of protein (Clinutren Mix, Nestlé) and containing calories corresponding to 1/3 of estimated basal metabolic rate. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4h to measure plasma lipids and LDL size and subclasses by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. At baseline patients had similar plasma lipids than controls, with the exception of higher triglycerides (1.2+/-0.8 vs. 0.7+/-0.4mmol/L, p=.0024). Baseline LDL size was similar between the two groups and LDL subclass analysis revealed a small increase in LDL-IIIA (p=.0046). During post-prandial phase no significant differences were found in LDL size and subclasses in patients vs. controls with the sole exception of increased levels of LDL-IVB after 2h (p=.0295) and LDL-IIIB after 4h (p=.0478). It is, therefore, unlikely that a post-prandial variation in levels of small, dense LDL may significantly contribute to the atherogenic potential in hypopituitary patients with GHD.

  7. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: a meta-analysis of 10 interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Burton, Jeffrey; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Hagberg, James M.; Landers-Ramos, Rian; Leon, Arthur S.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Rao, D.C.; Seip, Richard L.; Skinner, James S.; Slentz, Cris A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Kraus, William E.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts. Methods Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1,555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N=106), DREW (N=385), GERS (N=79), HERITAGE (N=715), STRRIDE I (N=168) and II (N=102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group. Results Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value. Conclusions Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26520888

  8. Reinventing the PN Junction: Dimensionality Effects on Tunneling Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    state tunneling probability is 10-6. 2.3.2 Conclusion This device exploits a unique heterostructure and surface quantum well to create a new...pn junction describes tunneling [9] within a nanowire or carbon nanotube junction as schematically represented in Figure 6.3(a). Tunneling is...6.5 0D-1D JUNCTION A 0d to 1d junction represents tunneling from a quantum dot to a nanowire as shown in Figure 6.6(a). Our main goal in analyzing

  9. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-08-04

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  10. Detection of herbicide subclasses by an optical multibiosensor based on an array of photosystem II mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Guzzella, Licia; Euzet, Pierre; Rouillon, Regis; Esposito, Dania

    2005-07-15

    Massive use of herbicides in agriculture over the last few decades has become a serious environmental problem. The residual concentration of these compounds frequently exceeds the maximum admissible concentration in drinking water for human consumption and is a real environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystem. Herbicides inhibiting photosynthesis via targeting photosystem II function still represent the basic means of weed control. A multibiosensor was constructed for detecting herbicides using as biosensing elements photosynthetic preparations coupled to an optical fluorescence transduction system (Giardi et al. EU patent EP1134585, 01830148.1-2204); this paper is about its application in the detection of herbicide subclasses in river water. Photosynthetic material was immobilized on a silicio septum inside a series of flow cells, close to diodes so as to activate photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. The principle of the detection was based on the factthat herbicides selectively modify PSII fluorescence activity. The multibiosensor has the original feature of being able to distinguish the subclasses of the photosynthetic herbicides by using specific immobilized biomediators isolated from mutated organisms. This setup resulted in a reusable, portable multibiosensor for the detection of herbicide subclasses with a half-life of 54 h for spinach thylakoids and limit of detection of 3 x 10(-9) M for herbicides present in river water.

  11. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decewicz, David J; Neatrour, David M; Burke, Amy; Haberkorn, Mary Jane; Patney, Heather L; Vernalis, Marina N; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2009-06-29

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p lifestyle change program were not confounded by lipid-lowering medications. In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to women.

  12. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patney Heather L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. Results The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p Conclusion In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to women.

  13. Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a severe disease characterized by various symptoms of immune dysfunction. CFS onset is typically with an infection and many patients suffer from frequently recurrent viral or bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin and mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are frequent causes for increased susceptibility to infections. In this study we retrospectively analysed 300 patients with CFS for immunoglobulin and MBL levels, and B-cell subset frequencies. 25% of the CFS patients had decreased serum levels of at least one antibody class or subclass with IgG3 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies as most common phenotypes. However, we found elevated immunoglobulin levels with an excess of IgM and IgG2 in particular in another 25% of patients. No major alteration in numbers of B cells and B-cell subsets was seen. Deficiency of MBL was found in 15% of the CFS patients in contrast to 6% in a historical control group. In a 2nd cohort of 168 patients similar frequencies of IgG subclass and MBL deficiency were found. Thus, humoral immune defects are frequent in CFS patients and are associated with infections of the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency is the major phenotype of primary immunodeficiency in a Korean adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Han-Jung; Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Ye, Young-Min; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim

    2010-06-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) is a rare disorder in adults. Most often, serious forms are detected during infancy or childhood. However, mild forms of PID may not be diagnosed until later in life, and some types of humoral immunodeficiency may occur in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical features of PID in Korean adults. A retrospective study was performed on 55 adult patients who were diagnosed as PID between January 1998 and January 2009 at a single tertiary medical center in Korea. IgG subclass deficiency was the most common phenotype (67%, 37/55), followed by total IgG deficiency (20%, 11/55), IgM deficiency (7%, 4/55), common variable immunodeficiency (2%, 1/55), and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (2%, 1/55). IgG3 and IgG4 were the most affected subclasses. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (76%) were the most frequently observed symptoms, followed by multiple site infection (11%), urinary tract infection, and colitis. Bronchial asthma, rhinitis, and several autoimmune diseases were common associated diseases. IgG and IgG subclass deficiency should be considered in adult patients presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in those with respiratory allergies or autoimmune diseases.

  15. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,plipid content (r = 0.303,plipid content, particularly in men. Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  16. Anti-food and anti-microbial IgG subclass antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anke; Mandić, Ana D; Bennek, Eveline; Frehn, Lisa; Verdier, Julien; Tebrügge, Irene; Lutz, Holger; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), is associated with increased microbial-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas alterations of anti-food antibodies are still disputed. The knowledge about IgG subclass antibodies in IBD is limited. In this study we analysed IgG subclass antibodies specific for nutritional and commensal antigens in IBD patients and controls. Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 specific for wheat and milk extracts, purified ovalbumin, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed by ELISA in patients with CD (n = 56), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (n = 12) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 62). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) of all IgG subclasses and anti-B. fragilis IgG1 levels were increased in CD patients compared to UC patients and controls. The discriminant validity of ASCA IgG2 and IgG4 was comparable with that of ASCA pan-IgG and IgA, whereas it was inferior for ASCA IgG1/IgG3 and anti-B. fragilis IgG1. Complicated CD defined by the presence of perianal, stricturing or penetrating disease phenotypes was associated with increased ASCA IgG1/IgG3/IgG4, anti-B. fragilis IgG1 and anti-E. coli IgG1 levels. Anti-food IgG subclass levels were not different between IBD patients and controls and did not correlate with food intolerance. In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, food-specific IgG responses were predominately of the IgG4 isotype and all food-specific IgG subclass levels correlated negatively with age. Our study supports the notion that the adaptive immune recognition of food and commensal antigens are differentially regulated.

  17. Ion implanted GaAs nanowire pn junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Katharina; Stichtenoth, Daniel; Ronning, Carsten [II. Institute of Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany); Gutsche, Christoph; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz Josef [Solid-State Electronics Department, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam doping of materials offers advantages in comparison to doping during growth or by diffusion. First, the impurity concentration as well as the lateral and depth distributions of the dopants are precisely controllable, and secondly, almost all elements can be implanted isotope-selective even beyond any solubility limit. We present studies on ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire pn junctions. Nominal intrinsic GaAs nanowires were grown by the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles on top of GaAs(100) substrates. Sulphur, being a donor in GaAs, was implanted into the nanowires using different ion energies resulting in a uniform concentration profile. The now n-type doped nanowires were then reinserted into the metal organic vapour phase epitaxy system. After an annealing procedure, the growth of the nanowires was continued under the addition of an acceptor. Finally, the fabricated nanowire pn junctions were shaved from the growth substrate and processed with contacts on top of insulating carrier substrates. First results on the electrical characterization of these structures are shown.

  18. Partial correlation properties of pseudonoise /PN/ codes in noncoherent synchronization/detection schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    This concise paper considers the effect on the autocorrelation function of a pseudonoise (PN) code when the acquisition scheme only integrates coherently over part of the code and then noncoherently combines these results. The peak-to-null ratio of the effective PN autocorrelation function is shown to degrade to the square root of n, where n is the number of PN symbols over which coherent integration takes place.

  19. Polaron absorption for photovoltaic energy conversion in a manganite-titanate pn heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucke, Gesine; Norpoth, Jonas; Jooss, Christian; Su, Dong; Zhu, Yimei

    2012-04-01

    The relation among structure, electric transport, and photovoltaic effect is investigated for a pn heterojunction with strong correlation interactions. A perovskite interface is chosen as a model system consisting of the p-doped strongly correlated manganite Pr0.64Ca0.36MnO3 (PCMO) and the n-doped titanate SrTi1-yNbyO3 (y=0.002 and 0.01). High-resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy reveal a nearly dislocation-free, epitaxial interface and give insight into the local atomic and electronic structure. The presence of a photovoltaic effect under visible light at room temperature suggests the existence of mobile excited polarons within the band-gap-free PCMO absorber. The temperature-dependent rectifying current-voltage characteristics prove to be mainly determined by the presence of an interfacial energy spike in the conduction band and are affected by the colossal electroresistance effect. From the comparison of photocurrents and spatiotemporal distributions of photogenerated carriers (deduced from optical absorption spectroscopy), we discuss the range of the excited polaron diffusion length.

  20. Micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia: resistência e implicações para o processamento de materiais de assistência à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teórico propõe uma reflexão sobre a resistência intrínseca da subclasse Coccidia, particularmente o gênero Cryptosporidium, considerado como um agente potencialmente patogênico para pacientes imunocomprometidos, e suas repercussões na prática assistencial. Atualmente, as diretrizes internacionais e nacionais aprovam como procedimento seguro a desinfecção química de alto nível de endoscópios digestivos, após sua limpeza. No entanto, estudos evidenciaram que micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia, especificamente o Cryptosporidium, responsável por infecção entérica, são mais resistentes que as micobactérias e não são inativados pelos desinfetantes químicos de alto nível, exceto pelo Peróxido de Hidrogênio a 6% e 7,5%, formulação ainda não disponível no Brasil. Conclui-se que a legislação deve incluir este agente entre os micro-organismos teste para aprovação de desinfetantes químicos de alto nível e que as autoridades sanitárias devem se esforçar para garantir que os estabelecimentos de assistência à saúde tenham acesso a produtos eficazes contra o Cryptosporidium.

  1. Electrical/thermal transport and electronic structure of the binary cobalt pnictides CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Goto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the electrical and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb between 300 and 900 K. CoAs2 shows semiconducting electrical transport up to 900 K, while CoSb2 exhibits degenerate conduction. Sign inversion of the Seebeck coefficient is observed at ∼310 and ∼400 K for CoAs2 and CoSb2, respectively. Thermal conductivity at 300 K is 11.7 Wm−1K−1 for CoAs2 and 9.4 Wm−1K−1 for CoSb2. The thermoelectric power factor of CoAs2 is ∼10 μWcm−1K−2, although the dimensionless figure of merit is limited to ∼0.1 due to relatively high thermal conductivity. Using electronic structure calculations, the band gap value is calculated to be 0.55 eV for CoAs2 and 0.26 eV for CoSb2.

  2. Focusing RKKY interaction by graphene P-N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhu, Jia-Ji; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The carrier-mediated RKKY interaction between local spins plays an important role for the application of magnetically doped graphene in spintronics and quantum computation. Previous studies largely concentrate on the influence of electronic states of uniform systems on the RKKY interaction. Here we reveal a very different way to manipulate the RKKY interaction by showing that the anomalous focusing—a well-known electron optics phenomenon in graphene P-N junctions—can be utilized to refocus the massless Dirac electrons emanating from one local spin to the other local spin. This gives rise to rich spatial interference patterns and symmetry-protected non-oscillatory RKKY interaction with a strongly enhanced magnitude. It may provide a new way to engineer the long-range spin-spin interaction in graphene.

  3. Nanofibrous p-n Junction and Its Rectifying Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randomly oriented tin oxide (SnO2 nanofibers and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PEDOT:PSS/PVP nanofibers were prepared by a two-step electrospinning technique to form a layered fibrous mat. The current-voltage measurement revealed that the fibrous mat had an obvious diode-rectifying characteristic. The thickness of the nanofiber layers was found to have a considerable influence on the device resistance and rectifying performance. Such an interesting rectifying property was attributed to the formation of a p-n junction between the fibrous SnO2 and PEDOT:PSS/PVP layers. This is the first report that a rectifying junction can be formed between two layers of electrospun nanofiber mats, and the resulting nanofibrous diode rectifier may find applications in sensors, energy harvest, and electronic textiles.

  4. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra, E-mail: acbose@nitt.edu [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli – 620 015 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  5. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate parenteral nutrition (PN) may potentially reverse liver disease in long-term PN-dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...... carbohydrates. The fat-free PN, containing 314 kJ/ml, was provided 5-6 times a week and fat, including essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2 times a week. Enteral feeding was continued according to individual tolerance. RESULTS: The study included 10 infants with short bowel syndrome (six...

  6. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  7. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  8. Catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Hans L.; Fishkin, Ben G.; Grey, Howard M.

    1968-01-01

    The rates of catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of subclasses γG1, γG2, γG3, and γG4 were studied by determining the rates of elimination from the circulation of pairs of 131I-and 125I-labeled γG-myeloma proteins in 57 patients suffering from cancer other than multiple myeloma. On the average, γG1-, γG2-, and γG4-myeloma proteins were catabolized at a rate similar to that of normal γG-immunoglobulin, whereas γG3-myeloma proteins were catabolized more rapidly than normal γG-immunoglobulin. The average half-lives for the myeloma proteins were 12.3 days for normal γG, 11.6 days for γG1, 12.4 days for γG2, 8.2 days for γG3, and 11.3 days for γG4. However, significant differences in catabolic rates were observed when individual myeloma proteins of a single subclass were compared. These individual variations were present within all four heavy chain subclasses. The extent of differences ranged from 10 to 47%. The catabolic rate of normal γG was in an intermediate range when compared with myeloma proteins of relatively long and short half-lives. The rate of catabolism of an individual myeloma protein did not correlate with its light chain type, Gm factor, carbohydrate content, or electrophoretic mobility. These findings indicate that the structure(s) related to the catabolism of γG-immunoglobulins are complex and differ from one immunoglobulin molecule to another. Images PMID:4175542

  9. Lipid subclasses profiles and oxidative stress in aggressive periodontitis before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibali, L; Rizzo, M; Li Volti, G; D'Aiuto, F; Giglio, R V; Barbagallo, I; Pelekos, G; Donos, N

    2015-12-01

    Associations between dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and periodontitis have emerged in recent years. However, there is a lack of studies investigating these associations in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid and oxidative stress profiles in patients with AgP, and to relate them to clinical variables and interleukin (IL)-6 genetic variants. Twelve non-smoking Caucasian patients with AgP selected based on their IL6 haplotypes underwent periodontal non-surgical and surgical treatment. Peripheral blood samples taken at baseline and at six different time-points after treatment were processed to determine IL-6 circulating levels, lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] subclasses) and oxidative stress markers (glutathione and total lipid hydroperoxide levels). HDLs were the most prevalent lipoproteins, followed by intermediate-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein and LDL. The LDL subclasses consisted mainly of the less atherogenic large LDL. The lipid profile did not consistently change after treatment up to 3 mo after surgery. Periodontal disease severity was associated with LDL levels and size. The IL6 haplotypes were associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL subclasses after adjusting for confounders. IL-6 circulating levels were associated with both very-low-density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Based on these data, we conclude that both periodontal disease severity and IL6 haplotypes may influence lipid profiles in AgP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoli; Yu, Lili; You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58-0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71-1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger's test (p = 0.26). This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted.

  11. Manganese spread in Ursa Minor as a proof of sub-classes of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescutti, G.; Kobayashi, C.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Recently, new sub-classes of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) were discovered, including SNe Iax. The suggested progenitors of SNe Iax are relatively massive, possibly hybrid C+O+Ne white dwarfs, which can cause white dwarf winds at low metallicities. There is another class that can potentially occur at low or zero metallicities; sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions in single and/or double degenerate systems of standard C+O white dwarfs. These explosions have different nucleosynthesis yields compared to the normal, Chandrasekhar mass explosions. Aims: We test these SN Ia channels using their characteristic chemical signatures. Methods: The two sub-classes of SNe Ia are expected to be rarer than normal SNe Ia and do not affect the chemical evolution in the solar neighbourhood; however, because of the shorter delay time and/or weaker metallicity dependence, they could influence the evolution of metal-poor systems. Therefore, we have included both in our stochastic chemical evolution model for the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Results: The model predicts a butterfly-shape spread in [Mn/Fe] in the interstellar medium at low metallicity and - at the same time - a decrease of [α/Fe] ratios at lower [Fe/H] than in the solar neighbourhood, both of which are consistent with the observed abundances in stars of Ursa Minor. Conclusions: The surprising agreement between our models and available observations provides a strong indication of the origins of these new sub-classes of SNe Ia. This outcome requires confirmation by future abundance measurements of manganese in stars of other satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. It will be vital for this project to measure not the most extreme metal-poor tail, as more commonly happens, but the opposite; the metal-rich end of dwarf spheroidals.

  12. Gender bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W.; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tschida, Barbara R.; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L.; Kuka, Timothy P.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Bell, Jason B.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Llovet, Josep M.; Largaespada, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal HCC male to female estimated ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Gender bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored gender differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both genders and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female animals (2/9, 22%). Human SNP data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly males (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Gender bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in gender bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. PMID:22899566

  13. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chang; Qi, Xie; Qianyong, Zhang; Xiaoli, Peng; Jundong, Zhu; Mantian, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc.) and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones) and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st), 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91) compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02), flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03), anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08) or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12) intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. The present study suggests the intake of flavonols and flavones, but not other flavonoid subclasses or total

  14. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  15. Acute effects of interleukin-6 infusion on apo-B-containing lipoprotein subclasses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdade, John; Pedersen, Bente K; Schwenke, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    IL-6 is believed to mediate the elevation in plasma TG and VLDL lipids in patients with sepsis. Previous studies of lipoprotein density fractions do not reveal the extent to which cytokines change the immunochemically distinct TG-rich (LpB:C, LpB:C:E, LpAII:B:C:D:E) and cholesterol-rich (LpB, Lp...... unchanged by IL-6, the distribution of TG-rich subclasses was significantly altered. Compared to baseline values, LpB:E + LpB:C:E increased significantly at 0.5 h (p

  16. Subclass-based Multi-task Learning for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Il eSuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a novel subclass-based multi-task learning method for feature selection in computer-aided Alzheimer's Disease (AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI diagnosis. Unlike the previous methods that often assumed a unimodal data distribution, we take into account the underlying multipeak distribution of classes. The rationale for our approach is that it is highly likely for neuroimaging data to have multiple peaks or modes in distribution, e.g., mixture of Gaussians, due to the inter-subject variability. In this regard, we use a clustering method to discover the multipeak distributional characteristics and define subclasses based on the clustering results, in which each cluster covers a peak in the underlying multipeak distribution. Specifically, after performing clustering for each class, we encode the respective subclasses, i.e., clusters, with their unique codes. In encoding, we impose the subclasses of the same original class close to each other and those of different original classes distinct from each other. By setting the codes as new label vectors of our training samples, we formulate a multi-task learning problem in a l21-penalized regression framework, through which we finally select features for classification. In our experimental results on the ADNI dataset, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed method by improving the classification accuracies by 1% (AD/Normal Control: NC, 3.25% (MCI/NC, 5.34% (AD/MCI, and 7.4% (MCI Converter: MCI-C/MCI Non-Converter: MCI-NC compared to the competing single-task learning method. It is remarkable for the performance improvement in MCI-C/MCI-NC classification, which is the most important for early diagnosis and treatment. It is also noteworthy that with the strategy of modality-adaptive weights by means of a multi-kernel support vector machine, we maximally achieved the classification accuracies of 96.18% (AD/NC, 81.45% (MCI/NC, 73.21% (AD/MCI, and 74.04% (MCI

  17. Unified Model for P-N Junction Current-Voltage Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cristea, Miron J.

    2009-01-01

    The current-voltage p-n junction characteristics were mainly analyzed until now at low injection levels and high level injection separately. This work unifies the low injection, medium injection, high injection levels and the ohmic region of the I/V characteristics. Keywords: p-n junctions, current-voltage characteristics, low injection and high injection levels, ohmic region.

  18. IgA deficiency: clinical correlates with IgG subclass and mannan-binding lectin deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella, María L; Peredo, Rubén; Disdier, Orville M

    2005-06-01

    To characterize an IgA deficient population in terms of the incidence of IgG subclass and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiencies and the type and severity of infections and other associated disorders. Selective IgA deficiency is probably the commonest of the primary immunodeficiency disorders and although it may lead to an increased risk for respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and associated to various autoimmune diseases, it may also be asymptomatic. Several studies have suggested the need of a concomitant defect in order for manifestation of its symptoms. A total of 27 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of selective IgA deficiency were evaluated for IgG subclass and MBL deficiencies after a thorough medical history, physical examination and pertinent evaluation for concomitant medical conditions. The overall incidence of IgG subclass deficiency found in the IgA deficient group was 18.5%. MBL deficiency was found to be 3.7%. These frequencies may have been influenced by the age group evaluated and the size of the population studied. Severe infections were more common in patients with combined deficiencies, either IgA and any of the IgG subclasses or IgA and MBL deficiency. Atopy was widely represented in the patients studied. The observed relationship between combined deficiencies Ig A, IgG subclasses and MBL and the increased representation of severe infections needs to be corroborated in a larger sample of patients with an inclusion of pediatric patients.

  19. A new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal–ligand cooperative catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaifeng

    2014-12-01

    Work on a new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis is reviewed. While the field of the pyridine-based PN3-transition metal pincer complexes is still relatively young, many important applications of these complexes have already emerged. In several cases, the PN3-pincer complexes for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis result in significantly improved or unprecedented activities. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of PN3-pincer ligands are briefly summarized first to cover the synthetic routes for their preparation, followed by a focus review on their applications in catalysis. A specific emphasis is placed on the later section about the role of PN3-pincer ligands\\' dearomatization-rearomatization steps during the catalytic cycles. The mechanistic insights from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also discussed.

  20. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  1. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  2. IgG Subclasses and Allotypes: From Structure to Effector Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsson, Gestur; Dekkers, Gillian; Rispens, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Of the five immunoglobulin isotypes, immunoglobulin G (IgG) is most abundant in human serum. The four subclasses, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, which are highly conserved, differ in their constant region, particularly in their hinges and upper CH2 domains. These regions are involved in binding to both IgG-Fc receptors (FcγR) and C1q. As a result, the different subclasses have different effector functions, both in terms of triggering FcγR-expressing cells, resulting in phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and activating complement. The Fc-regions also contain a binding epitope for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), responsible for the extended half-life, placental transport, and bidirectional transport of IgG to mucosal surfaces. However, FcRn is also expressed in myeloid cells, where it participates in both phagocytosis and antigen presentation together with classical FcγR and complement. How these properties, IgG-polymorphisms and post-translational modification of the antibodies in the form of glycosylation, affect IgG-function will be the focus of the current review. PMID:25368619

  3. Physical activity versus sedentary behavior: associations with lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Aadland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SED may have independent effects on health and disease. This might be due to PA and SED having distinct effects on lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine associations between lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations (-P and accelerometer-measured SED and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA in a sample of healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, whereas SED and MVPA were measured using Agtigraph GT1M and GT3X+ accelerometers. We obtained valid data in 73 subjects (30 men and 43 women, age 40.5 ± 10.6 years; body mass index 24.0 ± 2.8. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine associations (partial correlations with lipoproteins. RESULTS: Positive associations were detected between SED and small VLDL-P, large LDL-P and TG (partial r = 0.24 to 0.25, p .355. On the contrary, MVPA was positively associated with large HDL-P, average HDL size, Apo A1 and HDL-cholesterol (partial r = 0.28 to 0.50, p .607. CONCLUSION: There might be a specific effect of SED versus MVPA on lipoprotein metabolism. However, our results must be interpreted carefully due to possible effect-modification by gender and a low sample size. Thus, our findings should be viewed as preliminary.

  4. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  5. Gas Sensors Based on Ceramic p-n Heterocontacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic p-n heterocontacts based on CuO/ZnO were successfully synthesized and a systematic study of their hydrogen sensitivity was conducted. The sensitivity and response rates of CuO/ZnO sensors were studied utilizing current-voltage, current-time, and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The heterocontacts showed well-defined rectifying characteristics and were observed to detect hydrogen via both dc and ac measurements. Surface coverage data were derived from current-time measurements which were then fit to a two-site Langmuir adsorption model quite satisfactorily. The fit suggested that there should be two energetically different adsorption sites in the system. The heterocontacts were doped in an attempt to increase the sensitivity and the response rate of the sensor. First, the effects of doping the p-type (CuO) on the sensor characteristics were investigated. Doping the p-type CuO with both acceptor and isovalent dopants greatly improved the hydrogen sensitivity. The sensitivity of pure heterocontact observed via I-V measurements was increased from ~2.3 to ~9.4 with Ni doping. Dopants also enhanced the rectifying characteristics of the heterocontacts. Small amounts of Li addition were shown to decrease the reverse bias (saturation) current to 0.2 mA at a bias level of -5V. No unambiguous trends were observed between the sensitivity, the conductivity, and the density of the samples. Comparing the two phase microstructure to the single phase microstructure there was no dramatic increase in the sensitivity. Kinetic studies also confirmed the improved sensor characteristics with doping. The dopants decreased the response time of the sensor by decreasing the response time of one of the adsorption sites. The n-type ZnO was doped with both acceptor and donor dopants. Li doping resulted in the degradation of the p-n junction and the response time of the sensor. However, the current-voltage behavior of Ga-doped heterocontacts showed the best rectifying characteristics

  6. The Challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency--a Dutch Pediatric Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatorjé, Ellen J H; de Jong, Everieke; van Hout, Roeland W N M; García Vivas, Yumely; de Vries, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a Western-European nor in a mainly non-tertiary cohort until now. Therefore, we performed this observational cohort study in children recruited from secondary and tertiary pediatric practices all over The Netherlands. Dutch pediatricians were monthly asked to report patients with IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected. Separate informed consent was asked from parents and children (≥ 12 years of age) for annual update of the medical status. 49 children with confirmed IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD were included. The majority of children (69%) was reported by four (out of 12) secondary hospitals with a pediatric immunologist in the staff. 45 children had ≥ 1 low IgG-subclass level and 11 had SPAD. IgG2 deficiency was the most prevalent IgG-subclass deficiency (37/49;76%). 10% of these children already showed bronchiectasis. Two-thirds were male (33/49;67%, p = 0.015). From 10 years of age, only boys were left and only boys showed progressive immunodeficiency during follow-up (11/24; 46%). This is the first Western-European mainly non-tertiary cohort of children with IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD. The disease course is not always benign, especially in boys. Most children were reported and managed in secondary hospitals with a pediatric immunologist in the staff. To identify more patients, the awareness of these diseases among general pediatricians should increase.

  7. Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alivov, Yahya, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5 V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) with sensitivity of 0.19 A/W at reverse bias of −5 V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  8. Ionic PN and PNP junctions -- Diodes and Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Eric; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Apel, Pavel; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2008-03-01

    There are well-known devices for controlling the transport of electrons, but very few control ions in a solution. We have prepared ionic diodes and transistors that function in a similar manner to their semiconductor analogues. Ionic PN junctions were created by surface patterning single conical nanopores in polymer films, so that the pore walls are split into two sections: one with positive charge, and the other with negative. These diodes can achieve rectification degrees of several hundreds. Ionic PNP junctions were created by surface patterning single double-conical nanopores in polymer films with tip diameter between 2 and 6 nm, so that the pore walls are split into three sections: the two areas near the large pore openings which are positively charged, while the center of the pore, near the pore tip, is negatively charged. This device works in a similar fashion to a semiconducting BJT transistor, and we show that we can control the electric potential chemically in a manner sufficient to gate the ion current through the device.

  9. 2PN light propagation and measurement in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X.-M.; Huang, T.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    As a sensitive and useful tool in gravitational physics, especially for some high order effects, the propagation of light carries lots of information about the nature of spacetime and plays an important role in high- precision experiments and measurements. Three methods can be used in this issue. First is mainly developed by Kopeikin & Schafer (1999) and Kopeikin & Makarov (2007) and so on. Second is mainly developed by Brumberg (1991) and Klioner & Kopeikin (1992) and so on. Recently, Linet & Teyssandier (2002) and Le Poncin-Lafitte & Teyssandier (2008) and others used Synge's world function to investigate the light propagation avoiding the integration of geodesic equations. We adopt the second one. In this paper, the second post-Newtonian (2PN) framework for light propagation is developed with two additional parameters σ and η besides the two parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters γ and β. For a precision level of a few microarcsecond for space astrometry missions in the near future, started from the definition of a measurable quantity, a gauge-invariant angle between the directions of two incoming photons for a differential measurement in astrometric observation is discussed.

  10. Upper mantle structure at Walvis Ridge from Pn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Trond; Braeuer, Benjamin; Weber, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Passive continental margins offer the unique opportunity to study the processes involved in continental extension and break-up. Within the LISPWAL (LIthospheric Structure of the Namibian continental Passive margin at the intersection with the Walvis Ridge from amphibious seismic investigations) project, combined on- and offshore seismic experiments were designed to characterize the Southern African passive margin at the Walvis Ridge in northern Namibia. In addition to extensive analysis of the crustal structures, we carried out seismic investigations targeting the velocity structure of the upper mantle in the landfall region of the Walvis Ridge with the Namibian coast. Upper mantle Pn travel time tomography from controlled source, amphibious seismic data was used to investigate the sub-Moho upper mantle seismic velocity. We succeeded in imaging upper mantle structures potentially associated with continental break-up and/or the Tristan da Cunha hotspot track. We found mostly coast-parallel sub-Moho velocity anomalies, interpreted as structures which were created during Gondwana break-up.

  11. Dissecting the relationships of IgG subclasses and complements in membranous lupus nephritis and idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Woong; Yi, Kijong; Song, Young Soo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2017-01-01

    Membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are kidney diseases with similar morphology, but distinct etiologies, both producing glomeruli with immune deposits. Immunoglobulins and complements, the main components of the deposits, can be detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Previous researches characterized the immune deposits only individually, but not the interactions between them. To study these relationships we analyzed an IF profile of IgG subclasses and complements (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, C3, C1q, and C4) in 53 and 95 cases of biopsy-confirmed MLNs and IMNs, respectively, mainly using information theory and Bayesian networks. We identified significant entropy differences between MLN and IMN for all markers except C3 and IgG1, but mutual information (a measure of mutual dependence) were not significantly different for all the pairs of markers. The entropy differences between MLN and IMN, therefore, were not attributable to the mutual information. These findings suggest that disease type directly and/or indirectly influences the glomerular deposits of most of IgG subclasses and complements, and that the interactions between any pair of the markers were similar between the two diseases. A Markov chain of IgG subclasses was derived from the mutual information about each pair of IgG subclass. Finally we developed an integrated disease model, consistent with the previous findings, describing the glomerular immune deposits of the IgG subclasses and complements based on a Bayesian network using the Markov chain of IgG subclasses as seed. The relationships between the markers were effectively explored by information theory and Bayesian network. Although deposits of IgG subclasses and complements depended on both disease type and the other markers, the interaction between the markers appears conserved, independent from the disease type. The disease model provided an integrated and intuitive representation of the

  12. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode...... revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis...... and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine....

  13. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode re...... and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine....... revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis...

  14. Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; van der Zande, Arend M; Chen, Wenchao; Li, Yilei; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F; Guo, Jing; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are essential building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic devices. In conventional p-n junctions, regions depleted of free charge carriers form on either side of the junction, generating built-in potentials associated with uncompensated dopant atoms. Carrier transport across the junction occurs by diffusion and drift processes influenced by the spatial extent of this depletion region. With the advent of atomically thin van der Waals materials and their heterostructures, it is now possible to realize a p-n junction at the ultimate thickness limit. Van der Waals junctions composed of p- and n-type semiconductors--each just one unit cell thick--are predicted to exhibit completely different charge transport characteristics than bulk heterojunctions. Here, we report the characterization of the electronic and optoelectronic properties of atomically thin p-n heterojunctions fabricated using van der Waals assembly of transition-metal dichalcogenides. We observe gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and a photovoltaic response across the p-n interface. We find that the tunnelling-assisted interlayer recombination of the majority carriers is responsible for the tunability of the electronic and optoelectronic processes. Sandwiching an atomic p-n junction between graphene layers enhances the collection of the photoexcited carriers. The atomically scaled van der Waals p-n heterostructures presented here constitute the ultimate functional unit for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Core Gene Set As the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis of the Subclass Actinobacteridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Butler, Ray W.; Hanrahan, Finnian; Delcher, Arthur L.; Drancourt, Michel; Shinnick, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic sequencing is shedding new light on bacterial identification, taxonomy and phylogeny. An in silico assessment of a core gene set necessary for cellular functioning was made to determine a consensus set of genes that would be useful for the identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of the species belonging to the subclass Actinobacteridae which contained two orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales. The subclass Actinobacteridae comprised about 85% of the actinobacteria families. The following recommended criteria were used to establish a comprehensive gene set; the gene should (i) be long enough to contain phylogenetically useful information, (ii) not be subject to horizontal gene transfer, (iii) be a single copy (iv) have at least two regions sufficiently conserved that allow the design of amplification and sequencing primers and (v) predict whole-genome relationships. We applied these constraints to 50 different Actinobacteridae genomes and made 1,224 pairwise comparisons of the genome conserved regions and gene fragments obtained by using Sequence VARiability Analysis Program (SVARAP), which allow designing the primers. Following a comparative statistical modeling phase, 3 gene fragments were selected, ychF, rpoB, and secY with R2>0.85. Selected sets of broad range primers were tested from the 3 gene fragments and were demonstrated to be useful for amplification and sequencing of 25 species belonging to 9 genera of Actinobacteridae. The intraspecies similarities were 96.3–100% for ychF, 97.8–100% for rpoB and 96.9–100% for secY among 73 strains belonging to 15 species of the subclass Actinobacteridae compare to 99.4–100% for 16S rRNA. The phylogenetic topology obtained from the combined datasets ychF+rpoB+secY was globally similar to that inferred from the 16S rRNA but with higher confidence. It was concluded that multi-locus sequence analysis using core gene set might represent the first consensus and valid approach for

  16. IgG subclass distribution of autoantibodies differs between renal and extra-renal relapses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M.; Dijstelbloem, H. M.; Oost, W. W.; Bootsma, H.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Aten, J.; Limburg, P. C.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. IgG subclasses of autoantibodies differ in their potential to induce an inflammatory response as they interact differentially with complement and Fcgamma receptors. Methods. The IgG subclass distribution of anti-nucleohistone and anti-dsDNA antibodies was analysed longitudinally in

  17. Long-term survival of patients with pN2 lung cancer according to the pattern of lymphatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Antoine; Mordant, Pierre; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2014-04-01

    N2 involvement has dramatic consequences on the prognosis and management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). N2-NSCLC may present with or without N1 involvement, constituting non-skip (pN1N2) and skip (pN0N2) diseases, respectively. As the prognostic impact of this subclassification is still a matter of debate, we analyzed the prognosis of pN2 patients according to the pN1-involvement and the number of N2-stations concerned. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pN2-NSCLC in 2 French centers between 1980 and 2009 were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Patients undergoing induction therapy, exploratory thoracotomy, incomplete mediastinal lymphadenectomy, or incomplete resections were excluded. The prognoses of pN1N2 and pN0N2 patients were first compared, and then deciphered according to the number of N2 stations involved (single-station: 1S, multi-station: 2S). All together, 871 patients underwent first-line complete surgical resection for pN2-NSCLC during the study period, including 258 pN0N2 (29.6%) and 613 pN1N2 (70.4%) patients. Mean follow-up was 72.8±48 months. Median, 5- and 10-year survivals were, respectively, 30 months, 34%, and 24% for pN0N2 and 20 months, 21%, and 14% for pN1N2 patients (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed 3 different prognostic groups; ie, favorable in pN0N2-1S disease, intermediate in pN0N2-2S and pN1N2-1S diseases, and poor in pN1N2-2S disease (p<0.001). Among pN2 patients, the combination of N1 involvement (pN0N2 vs pN1N2) and number of involved N2 stations (1S vs 2S) are independent prognostic factors. These results might be taken into consideration to sub-classify the heterogeneous pN2-NSCLC group of patients. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetics of dengue virus-specific serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses correlate with clinical outcome of infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C. Suharti (Catarina); T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); C.E. Hack (Erik); M. Juffrie; J. Sutaryo; G.M. van der Meer; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe kinetics of dengue virus (DEN)-specific serum immunoglobulin classes (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) and subclasses (IgG1 to IgG4) were studied in patients suffering from dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Serum samples from non-DEN

  19. Rituximab impairs immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) responses after influenza vaccination in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J.; van Assen, S.; Wilting, K. R.; Land, J.; Horst, G.; de Haan, A.; Bijl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients severely hampers humoral response after influenza vaccination as determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). It is not known whether HI reflects both immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) influenza response, and whether IgM

  20. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying TAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods  Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results  The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions  The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.

  2. The Challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency--a Dutch Pediatric Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, Ellen J H; de Jong, Everieke; van Hout, Roeland W N M; García Vivas, Yumely; de Vries, Esther

    PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a

  3. The challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency : A Dutch pediatric cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, E.J.H.; de Jong, E.; van Hout, R.; García Vivas, Y.; de Vries, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a

  4. PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S., C.T. Driscoll...

  5. PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S.,...

  6. Locally hydrazine doped WSe2 p-n junction toward high-performance photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengxing; Xie, Dan; Sun, Yilin; Li, Weiwei; Ren, Tianling

    2018-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials have shown great potential in the photodetection and other optoelectronic applications. Exploiting 2D materials to form p-n junctions enables effective generation and separation of carriers excited by light, thus creating high-performance optoelectronic devices. This paper demonstrates a lateral WSe2 p-n junction through a locally hydrazine doping method. Good current-rectifying characteristics, including a high rectification ratio of ∼103, have been observed; this indicates that a high-quality p-n junction has been formed by chemical doping. Under light illumination, the device shows improved photoresponse capabilities with a responsivity of 30 mA W‑1, a detectivity of 6.18 × 108 Jones, photocurrent/dark current ratio of 103 and a response time of 2 ms. These results suggest an effective way to get a p-n junction and reveal the application potential of the device for next generation photodetectors.

  7. Single gate p-n junctions in graphene-ferroelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnefeld, J. Henry; Mason, Nadya, E-mail: nadya@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Xu, Ruijuan; Pandya, Shishir; Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rogers, Steven; Shim, Moonsub [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Graphene's linear dispersion relation and the attendant implications for bipolar electronics applications have motivated a range of experimental efforts aimed at producing p-n junctions in graphene. Here we report electrical transport measurements of graphene p-n junctions formed via simple modifications to a PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} substrate, combined with a self-assembled layer of ambient environmental dopants. We show that the substrate configuration controls the local doping region, and that the p-n junction behavior can be controlled with a single gate. Finally, we show that the ferroelectric substrate induces a hysteresis in the environmental doping which can be utilized to activate and deactivate the doping, yielding an “on-demand” p-n junction in graphene controlled by a single, universal backgate.

  8. Comparison of the pp → π+pn and pp → π+d production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäldt, G.; Wilkin, C.

    2017-07-01

    Fully constrained bubble chamber data on the pp →π+ pn and pp →π+ d reactions are used to investigate the ratio of the counting rates for the two processes at low pn excitation energies. Whereas the ratio is in tolerable agreement with that found in a high resolution spectrometer experiment, the angular distribution in the final pn rest frame shows that the deviation from the predictions of final state interaction theory must originate primarily from higher partial waves in the pn system. These considerations might also be significant for the determination of the S-wave Λp scattering length from data on the pp →K+ Λp reaction.

  9. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can be used to...

  10. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can...

  11. Antimitochondrial antibodies of immunoglobulin G3 subclass are associated with a more severe disease course in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Davies, Edward T; Bogdanos, Dimitrios-Petrou; Liaskos, Christos; Mytilinaiou, Maria; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N; Vergani, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterised by the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), which are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) using composite rodent tissue substrate. The IgG subclass distribution and clinical significance of IFL-detected AMA in patients with PBC have not been previously studied in detail. We have examined IgG subclass-specific AMA detected by IFL on rodent liver, kidney and stomach tissue substrate using affinity-purified IgG subclass monospecific antisera as revealing reagents in 95 AMA-positive PBC patients from Greece. AMA of any of the IgG1, IgG2 or IgG3 subclasses were present in 89/95 (93.7%) patients. Among those 89, 55 (61.8%) had IgG1, 2, 3 AMA positivity; eight (9%) had IgG1, 2; seven (7.9%) had IgG2, 3; eight (9%) had IgG1, 3; nine (10.1%) had IgG1 subclass and two (2.2%) single IgG3 AMA reactivity. IgG4 AMA was absent. IgG3 titres were higher than IgG2 and IgG1 (P<0.001) and IgG1 higher than IgG2 (P<0.001). IgG3 AMA-positive patients had a histologically more advanced disease (P<0.01) and were more frequently cirrhotic compared with those who were negative (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between AMA IgG3 titre and Mayo risk score (r=0.55, P=0.009, Spearman's correlation). Our findings suggest that AMA are not restricted to a specific IgG subclass. AMA of the IgG3 subclass are associated with a more severe disease course, possibly reflecting the peculiar ability of this isotype to engage mediators of damage.

  12. Sex differences in the associations of visceral adiposity, HOMA-IR, and BMI with lipoprotein subclass analysis in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch-Stein, Jacquelyn A; Kelly, Andrea; Gidding, Samuel S; Zemel, Babette S; Magge, Sheela N

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship of lipoprotein particle subclasses to visceral adipose tissue area (VAT-area) in obese children has not been examined previously. Objectives The study aims were to compare the relationships of VAT-area, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI) with lipids and lipoprotein subclasses in obese adolescents, and to determine if these relationships vary by sex. Methods This cross-sectional study of obese adolescents (BMI≥95th percentile), ages 12-18y, measured VAT-area by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMI, fasting lipids, lipoprotein subclasses, and HOMA-IR. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of VAT-area, HOMA-IR, and BMI with lipid cardiometabolic risk factors. Sex-stratified analyses further explored these associations. Results Included were 127 adolescents (age=14.4±1.5 years; 53.5% female; 88.2% African-American), mean BMI=34.0±5.1 kg/m2. VAT-area was negatively associated with LDL particle (−P) size (β=−0.28, p=0.0001), HDL-P size (β=−0.33, p<0.0001) and large HDL-P concentration (β=−0.29, p<0.0001), and positively associated with small LDL-P concentration (β=0.23, p=0.0005) and small HDL-P concentration (β=0.25, p=0.05). When VAT-area, HOMA-IR, and BMI associations were compared, VAT-area had the strongest associations with most of the lipoprotein subclasses. After sex-stratification, the associations of VAT-area with HDL cholesterol, LDL-P size, and large LDL-P concentration were significant only for females (all p<0.05). Conclusions In a cohort of largely African-American obese adolescents, VAT-area was associated with a more atherogenic lipoprotein subclass profile. When compared to HOMA-IR and BMI, VAT-area had the strongest associations with most lipoprotein subclasses. The relationships between VAT-area and certain lipoprotein subclasses are significantly different in males versus females. PMID:27578105

  13. Effects of lipid-lowering drugs on high-density lipoprotein subclasses in healthy men-a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner K Berthold

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on HDL subclasses has shown ambiguous results. This study assessed the effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, and their combination on HDL subclass distribution. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-center randomized parallel 3-group open-label study was performed in 72 healthy men free of cardiovascular disease with a baseline LDL-cholesterol of 111±30 mg/dl (2.9±0.8 mmol/l and a baseline HDL-cholesterol of 64±15 mg/dl (1.7±0.4 mmol/l. They were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n = 24, simvastatin (40 mg/day, n = 24 or their combination (n = 24 for 14 days. Blood was drawn before and after the treatment period. HDL subclasses were determined using polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the influence of treatment and covariates on changes in HDL subclass composition. RESULTS: Baseline HDL subclasses consisted of 33±10% large, 48±6% intermediate and 19±8% small HDL. After adjusting for baseline HDL subclass distribution, body mass index, LDL-C and the ratio triglycerides/HDL-C, there was a significant increase in large HDL by about 3.9 percentage points (P<0.05 and a decrease in intermediate HDL by about 3.5 percentage points (P<0.01 in both simvastatin-containing treatment arms in comparison to ezetimibe. The parameters obtained after additional adjustment for the decrease in LDL-C indicated that about one third to one half of these effects could be explained by the extent of LDL-C-lowering. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy men, treatment with simvastatin leads to favorable effects on HDL subclass composition, which was not be observed with ezetimibe. Part of these differential effects may be due to the stronger LDL-C-lowering effects of simvastatin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317993.

  14. The Influence of Neocate in Paediatric Short Bowel Syndrome on PN Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Greef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical management of short bowel syndrome remains a multistage process. Although PN is crucial, early introduction of enteral feeding is mandatory. We describe retrospectively 4 patients with an ultrashort bowel who could be weaned off PN on very short terms after introduction of an amino-acid-based formula (Neocate. Patient 1 had congenital short bowel with 50 cm small bowel and 30 cm colon. He had persistent diarrhoea on a semielementary formula. When Neocate was introduced he could be weaned from PN within 6 months. Patient 2 needed multiple surgical interventions because of NEC at D 27. He maintained 40 cm small bowel and an intact colon and remained PN dependent on semielemental formula. After introducing Neocate, PN could be weaned within 3 months. In the next 2 patients, Neocate was introduced as initial enteral feeding after bowel resection following antenatal midgut volvulus. Patient 3 had 20 cm small bowel and an intact colon. PN was weaned after 2 months. Patient 4 had 9 cm small bowel and an intact colon. PN was weaned after 13 months. In all patients Ileocaecal valve (ICV was preserved. No consensus is reached on the type of formula to use for short bowel syndrome. Compared to recent data in the literature, the weaning period in these 4 patients was significantly shortened on an aminoacid based formula. The reason for this may lie in the antiallergic properties of this formula. We recommend the use of an amino-acid-based formula to induce earlier weaning of PN.

  15. Temporal variation in HIV-specific IgG subclass Abs during acute infection differentiates spontaneous controllers from chronic progressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanand, Saheli; Das, Jishnu; Chung, Amy W; Schoen, Matthew K; Lane, Sophie; Suscovich, Todd J; Streeck, Hendrik; Smith, Davey; Little, Susan; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Richman, Douglas; Alter, Galit

    2017-12-12

    Given the emerging appreciation for the role of antibody-dependent effector functions and IgG subclass distribution among spontaneous controllers of HIV, we sought to determine whether antibody-associated features diverged in early HIV infection between subjects who ultimately became controllers versus those who became progressors. IgG was purified from plasma from nine acutely infected subjects who subsequently controlled HIV spontaneously (controllers) and ten acutely infected individuals who did not control viremia (progressors). Antibody profiles were compared at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 post-infection. Levels of clade B gp120-, gp140-and gp41-specific IgG antibody subclasses were measured. Additionally, gp120-specific antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), rapid fluorescent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC), and antibody-dependent cellular viral inhibition (ADCVI) were all assessed. While no single Ab-related measurement was significantly associated with long-term HIV control, combinations of Ab-associated variables were able to accurately differentiate controllers and progressors. In contrast to controllers, progressors showed greater dynamic changes in gp120-specific subclass selection profiles, with increasing levels of Env-specific IgG2 Abs and losses in Env-specific IgG3 Abs. Moreover, progressors, but not controllers, lost ADCVI function over time. Together, these results highlight changes in IgG subclass selection profiles in progressive, but not controlled, HIV infection. This study suggests that the temporal variation and maintenance of Env-specific IgG subclasses during acute HIV infection are predictive of eventual disease control. The maintenance of gp120-specific and gp140-specific IgG3 may contribute to control of disease in spontaneous controllers. Thus, strategies to induce stable IgG3 responses may preserve control of the viral reservoir.

  16. Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Britton W. H.; Churchill, Hugh O. H.; Yang, Yafang; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    The p-n junction is the functional element of many electronic and optoelectronic devices, including diodes, bipolar transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. In conventional p-n junctions, the adjacent p- and n-type regions of a semiconductor are formed by chemical doping. Ambipolar semiconductors, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and organic molecules, allow for p-n junctions to be configured and modified by electrostatic gating. This electrical control enables a single device to have multiple functionalities. Here, we report ambipolar monolayer WSe2 devices in which two local gates are used to define a p-n junction within the WSe2 sheet. With these electrically tunable p-n junctions, we demonstrate both p-n and n-p diodes with ideality factors better than 2. Under optical excitation, the diodes demonstrate a photodetection responsivity of 210 mA W-1 and photovoltaic power generation with a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.2%, promising values for a nearly transparent monolayer material in a lateral device geometry. Finally, we demonstrate a light-emitting diode based on monolayer WSe2. These devices provide a building block for ultrathin, flexible and nearly transparent optoelectronic and electronic applications based on ambipolar dichalcogenide materials.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of p-n homojunction-containing zinc oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Mouti, Anas; Chang, Yao-Jen; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Strachan, Douglas R.; Guiton, Beth S.

    2013-02-01

    We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters.We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr31639d

  18. Chronic rhinosinusitis and recurrent nasal polyps in two children with IgG subclass deficiency and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Tunsuriyawong, Prayuth; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Luangwedchakarn, Voravich; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2005-11-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of mucosa of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. Two major forms of CRS can be differentiated; CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). The pathophysiology and etiology of nasal polyps (NPs) are partly understood. IgG subclass deficiency was shown to be associated with an increased susceptibility to infections. However the association between NPs and IgG subclass deficiency has never been reported. To report two cases of recalcitrant CRS and recurrent NPs with IgG subclass deficiency. Two children (6 and 8 year-old boys) were referred to the Pediatric Allergy/Immunology Clinic, Siriraj Hospital due to a prolonged history of CRS and recurrent NPs. Both of them were treated with aggressive medical (topical and systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, leukotriene antagonist, nasal irrigation) as well as surgical therapy, without significant improvement. Immunologic investigation in both patients showed that IgG, IgA, and IgM level were normal. IgG subclasses level in patient No. 1 were IgG1 1,235 (280-1120) mg/dl (79%), IgG2 235 (30-630) mg/dl (23.5%), IgG3 27.3 (40-250) mg/dl (1.74%), and IgG4 92.4 (11-620) mg/dl (5.9%). IgG subclasses level in patient No. 2 were IgG1 1,139 (280-1120) mg/dl (82.5%), IgG2 170 (30-630) mg/dl (12.3%), IgG3 5.6 (40-250) mg/dl (0.4%), IgG4 65.7 (11-620) mg/dl (4.8%). The diagnosis of CRS and recurrent NPs with IgG3 subclass deficiency in the first patient and IgG2/IgG3 subclass deficiency in the second patient were made. Patient No. 1 was given monthly IVIG therapy for the total of 7 courses and medications were gradually tapered. Currently, the patient is doing well after the cessation of IVIG therapy for 3 months. Patient No. 2 denied the IVIG treatment and was lost to follow up. We reported two cases of recalcitrant CRS and recurrent NPs in children. Immunologic work up revealed IgG subclass deficiency. The treatment with monthly IVIG improved

  19. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of the Zintl phases Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}Sr{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4}, and Na{sub 3}Eu{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Suen, Nian-Tzu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Kunene, Thabiso; Stoyko, Stanislav [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    15 new quaternary Zintl phases have been synthesized by solid-state reactions from the respective elements, and their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with the non-centrosymmetric space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186). The structure represents a variant of the K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4} structure type (Pearson index hP22) and features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. The nominal formula rationalization [Na{sup +}]{sub 3}[E{sup 2+}]{sub 3}[TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} follows the octet rule, suggesting closed-shell configurations for all atoms and intrinsic semiconducting behavior. However, structure refinements for several members hint at disorder and mixing of cations that potentially counteract the optimal valence electron count. - Graphical abstract: The hexagonal, non-centrosymmetric structure of Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. - Highlights: • 15 quaternary phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides are synthesized and structurally characterized. • The structure is a variant of the hexagonal K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4}-type, with distinctive pattern for the cations. • Occupational and/or positional disorder of yet unknown origin exists for some members of the series.

  1. Classification of a Subclass of Two-Dimensional Lattices via Characteristic Lie Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullin, Ismagil; Poptsova, Mariya

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the article is testing a new classification algorithm. To this end we apply it to a relevant problem of describing the integrable cases of a subclass of two-dimensional lattices. By imposing the cut-off conditions u_{-1}=c_0 and u_{N+1}=c_1 we reduce the lattice u_{n,xy}=α(u_{n+1},u_n,u_{n-1})u_{n,x}u_{n,y} to a finite system of hyperbolic type PDE. Assuming that for each natural N the obtained system is integrable in the sense of Darboux we look for α. To detect the Darboux integrability of the hyperbolic type system we use an algebraic criterion of Darboux integrability which claims that the characteristic Lie rings of such a system must be of finite dimension. We prove that up to the point transformations only one lattice in the studied class passes the test. The lattice coincides with the earlier found Ferapontov-Shabat-Yamilov equation. The one-dimensional reduction x=y of this lattice passes also the symmetry integrability test.

  2. Synthesis of some members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwa, Albert; Zhang, Hongjun

    2007-03-30

    The total synthesis of several members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family has been carried out. (+/-)-Lycoricidine and (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin were assembled through a one-pot Stille/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade to construct the core skeleton. The initially formed [4+2]-cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by a deprotonation/reprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give a rearranged hexahydroindolinone on further heating at 160 degrees C. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the side arm of the tethered vinyl group oriented exo with respect to the oxygen bridge. The resulting cycloadduct was used for the stereocontrolled installation of the remaining functionality present in the C-ring of the target molecules. Key features of the synthetic strategy include (1) a lithium hydroxide induced tandem hydrolysis/decarboxylation/elimination sequence to introduce the required pi-bond in the C-ring of (+/-)-lycoricidine, and (2) conversion of the initially formed Diels-Alder adduct into an aldehyde intermediate which then undergoes a stereospecific decarbonylation reaction mediated by Wilkinson's catalyst to set the trans-B-C ring junction of (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin.

  3. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  4. Fractal analysis reveals subclasses of neurons and suggests an explanation of their spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela, Luis H; Coey, Charles A; Griff, Edwin R; Richardson, Michael J

    2016-07-28

    The present work used fractal time series analysis (detrended fluctuation analysis; DFA) to examine the spontaneous activity of single neurons in an anesthetized animal model, specifically, the mitral cells in the rat main olfactory bulb. DFA bolstered previous research in suggesting two subclasses of mitral cells. Although there was no difference in the fractal scaling of the interspike interval series at the shorter timescales, there was a significant difference at longer timescales. Neurons in Group B exhibited fractal, power-law scaled interspike intervals, whereas neurons in Group A exhibited random variation. These results raise questions about the role of these different cells within the olfactory bulb and potential explanations of their dynamics. Specifically, self-organized criticality has been proposed as an explanation of fractal scaling in many natural systems, including neural systems. However, this theory is based on certain assumptions that do not clearly hold in the case of spontaneous neural activity, which likely reflects intrinsic cell dynamics rather than activity driven by external stimulation. Moreover, it is unclear how self-organized criticality might account for the random dynamics observed in Group A, and how these random dynamics might serve some functional role when embedded in the typical activity of the olfactory bulb. These theoretical considerations provide direction for additional experimental work. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. The photoirradiation induced p-n junction in naphthylamine-based organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Linyi; Gao, Qiang; Xia, Youyi; Ang, Chung Yen; Bose, Purnandhu; Tan, Si Yu; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-09-21

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) plays an indispensable role in organic photovoltaics, and thus has been investigated extensively in recent years. While a p-n heterojunction is usually fabricated using two different donor and acceptor materials such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), it is really rare that such a BHJ is constructed by a single entity. Here, we presented a photoirradiation-induced p-n heterojunction in naphthylamine-based organic photovoltaic cells, where naphthylamine as a typical p-type semiconductor could be oxidized under photoirradiation and transformed into a new semiconductor with the n-type character. The p-n heterojunction was realized using both the remaining naphthylamine and its oxidative product, giving rise to the performance improvement in organic photovoltaic devices. The experimental results show that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices could be achieved up to 1.79% and 0.43% in solution and thin film processes, respectively. Importantly, this technology using naphthylamine does not require classic P3HT and PCBM to realize the p-n heterojunction, thereby simplifying the device fabrication process. The present approach opens up a promising route for the development of novel materials applicable to the p-n heterojunction.

  7. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine.

  8. Magnetic properties of the layered oxypnictides (LnOMnAs (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the rare earth elements dependence on the magnetism to understand the contribution to physical properties of the 4f electrons of (LnOMnAs (Pn = La, Ce, Pr, Nd. (CeOMnAs, (PrOMnAs and (NdOMnAs shows the antiferromagnetic behaviors at low temperature. (CeOMnAs and (NdOMnAs have the magnetic anomalies around 34 K and 24 K, respectively. So, it is speculated that the anomalies depend on the Mn -Mn distance directly

  9. A new subclass of intrinsic aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases, ANT(3")-II, is horizontally transferred among Acinetobacter spp. by homologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Chao; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Shuangjiang

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. have been investigated extensively. Most studies focused on the multiple antibiotic resistance genes located on plasmids or genomic resistance islands. On the other hand, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are still not well understood. In this study, we identified the novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase ANT(3")-II in Acinetobacter spp., which comprised numerous variants distributed among three main clades. All members of this subclass can inactivate streptomycin and spectinomycin. The three ant(3")-II genes, encoding for the three ANT(3")-II clades, are widely distributed in the genus Acinetobacter and always located in the same conserved genomic region. According to their prevalence, these genes are intrinsic in Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii, and Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. We also demonstrated that the ant(3")-II genes are located in a homologous recombination hotspot and were recurrently transferred among Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of natural resistance in Acinetobacter spp., identified a novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase and provided new insight into the evolutionary history of intrinsic resistance genes. PMID:28152054

  10. A new subclass of intrinsic aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases, ANT(3")-II, is horizontally transferred among Acinetobacter spp. by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Chao; Yahara, Koji; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Shuangjiang; Feng, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. have been investigated extensively. Most studies focused on the multiple antibiotic resistance genes located on plasmids or genomic resistance islands. On the other hand, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are still not well understood. In this study, we identified the novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase ANT(3")-II in Acinetobacter spp., which comprised numerous variants distributed among three main clades. All members of this subclass can inactivate streptomycin and spectinomycin. The three ant(3")-II genes, encoding for the three ANT(3")-II clades, are widely distributed in the genus Acinetobacter and always located in the same conserved genomic region. According to their prevalence, these genes are intrinsic in Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii, and Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. We also demonstrated that the ant(3")-II genes are located in a homologous recombination hotspot and were recurrently transferred among Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of natural resistance in Acinetobacter spp., identified a novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase and provided new insight into the evolutionary history of intrinsic resistance genes.

  11. [Multicenter study of commercial kits for the determination of human IgG subclasses, using the ELISA technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontet, F; Pressac, M; Musset, L; Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Jehl, C; Cailliez, M; Bienvenu, F

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated two commercially available sandwich type Elisa procedures for the measurement of IgG subclasses in human serum. Assay kits from The Binding Site and the Central Laboratory of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service were tested in six laboratories. The performance of spectrophotometers, pipettes and dilutors were assessed at each center. Within-run precision was estimated according to the Valtec method (Société Française de Biologie Clinique). The overall coefficient of variation ranged from 4 to 50% depending on subclass and kit. We also evaluated the IgG2 and IgG4 specificity using four sera containing a monoclonal IgG2 or IgG4 (kappa or lambda type). Using total IgG and immunoelectrophoresis as a comparative technique, IgG2 kappa and IgG4 kappa were both underestimated, IgG2 lambda was overestimated while IgG4 lambda compared favorably. Polyclonal IgG subclasses were frequently overestimated in these sera suggesting cross-reactions with either monoclonal IgG or other polyclonal IgG. Antigen excess was investigated and not encountered with either kit. Our results demonstrate that these procedures are insufficiently accurate or precise for routine clinical use.

  12. Regio- and stereo-selective polymerization of 1,3-butadiene catalyzed by phosphorus–nitrogen PN3-pincer cobalt(ii) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2016-11-11

    A new family of cobalt complexes (CoCl2-H, CoCl2-Me, CoCl2-iPr, CoBr2-H, CoBr2-Me, CoBr2-iPr, CoI2-H, CoI2-Me, and CoI2-iPr) supported by a PN3 ligand (6-(N,N′-di-t-butylphosphino)-2-pyrazol-yl-aminopyridine) have been prepared and fully characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, and X-ray analysis. The X-ray analysis reveals a trigonal bipyramidal conformation in the solid state for all representative complexes, CoCl2-H, CoBr2-H, CoBr2-iPr and CoI2-Me. The cobalt center is chelated by the PN3 ligand through the pyridinyl nitrogen, the pyrazol nitrogen and the phosphorus donor, with a long Co-P bond distance indicating a labile character. On activation with AlEt2Cl, Al2Et3Cl3, MAO, [Ph3C]+[B(C6F5)4]-/AliBu3 or AliBu3, cis-1,4 selective butadiene polymerization was achieved with up to 98.6% selectivity. The polymerization results show that the cis-1,4 selectivity is influenced by the steric hindrance, increasing with the bulkiness of the substituent groups (CoX2-iPr > CoX2-Me > CoX2-H) at the 3,5-positions of the pyrazole moiety, together with a slight decrease in activity. The activity changes in the order CoCl2L ≈ CoBr2L > CoI2L (for the same ligand L) when MAO is used as the activator, while the high level of cis-1,4 selectivity is maintained. It is possible to switch the selectivity from cis-1,4 to syndiotactic-1,2 by adding PPh3 © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Electronic structure and transport properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb): An efficient materials for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies - Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV, which confute the finding of the previous TB-LMTO-ASA calculation that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} is a poor metal. It has been found that there are subtle difference in band desperations of the two compounds, resulting in significant influence on the electronic and transport properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. Calculation show that there exists a strong hybridization between the orbitals which may lead to form covalent bonding which is more favorable for the transport of the carriers than ionic one. The electronic structure, the anisotropy and the inter-atomic interactions are further analyzed by calculating the valence electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes. The semi-classical Boltzmann theory as incorporated in BoltzTraP code was used to calculate the transport properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3} and Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} at different temperatures and chemical potentials to ascertain the influence of temperatures and substituting As by Sb on the transport properties. The carries mobility decreases with increasing the temperature also with increasing the carriers concentration. We have observed that substituting As by Sb lead to increase the carries mobility of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} along the whole temperature interval and the carries concentration range. It has been found that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3} exhibit higher carriers concentration, electronic electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient than that of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} along the investigated temperature range. The highest value of Seebeck coefficient occurs at 300 K, which show good agreement with the experimental data. The power factor increases linearly with

  14. The Peptide PnPP-19, a Spider Toxin Derivative, Activates μ-Opioid Receptors and Modulates Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. N. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 comprehends 19 amino acid residues and it represents part of the primary structure of the toxin δ-CNTX-Pn1c (PnTx2-6, isolated from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Behavioural tests suggest that PnPP-19 induces antinociception by activation of CB1, μ and δ opioid receptors. Since the peripheral and central antinociception induced by PnPP-19 involves opioid activation, the aim of this work was to identify whether this synthetic peptide could directly activate opioid receptors and investigate the subtype selectivity for μ-, δ- and/or κ-opioid receptors. Furthermore, we also studied the modulation of calcium influx driven by PnPP-19 in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and analyzed whether this modulation was opioid-mediated. PnPP-19 selectively activates μ-opioid receptors inducing indirectly inhibition of calcium channels and hereby impairing calcium influx in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. Interestingly, notwithstanding the activation of opioid receptors, PnPP-19 does not induce β-arrestin2 recruitment. PnPP-19 is the first spider toxin derivative that, among opioid receptors, selectively activates μ-opioid receptors. The lack of β-arrestin2 recruitment highlights its potential for the design of new improved opioid agonists.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of p-n homojunction-containing zinc oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Mouti, Anas; Chang, Yao-Jen; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Strachan, Douglas R; Guiton, Beth S

    2013-03-21

    We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters.

  16. The ZnO p-n homojunctions modulated by ZnMgO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we fabricated the ultrathin ZnO p-n homojunctions, which modulated by ZnMgO asymmetrical double barriers (ADB. The ADB p-n homojunctions displays step-like curve in the absorption spectrums, this is the first time that quantum confinement effect has been observed in the absorption spectrums at room temperature (RT. The Hall-effect data confirm there is 2-dimensional electron gas in the interface of the ZnMgO ADB p-n junctions. The quantum confinement effect enhances the hall-mobility μ to 103 cm2V −1s−1 based on the polarity of the films. There was no rectification property in the ZnO homojunctions with thickness of 250nm, however, when the ADB was added in the n-type layer of the homojunctions, it displays a typical Zener diode rectification property in the I-V curve.

  17. Nanoscale imaging of the photoresponse in PN junctions of InGaAs infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Li, Tian-Xin; Tang, Heng-Jing; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xue; Gong, Hai-Mei; Lu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Electronic layout, such as distributions of charge carriers and electric field, in PN junction is determinant for the photovoltaic devices to realize their functionality. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to the carrier profiling of this specific region with Scanning Probe Microscope, yet reliable analysis was impeded by the difficulty in resolving carriers with high mobility and the unclear surface effect, particularly on compound semiconductors. Here we realize nanometer Scanning Capacitance Microscopic study on the cross-section of InGaAs/InP photodetctors with the featured dC/dV layout of PN junction unveiled for the first time. It enables us to probe the photo-excited minority carriers in junction region and diagnose the performance deficiency of the diode devices. This work provides an illuminating insight into the PN junction for assessing its basic capability of harvesting photo-carriers as well as blocking leakage current in nanoscopic scale.

  18. Monocyte Recruitment by HLA IgG‐Activated Endothelium: The Relationship Between IgG Subclass and FcγRIIa Polymorphisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela, N. M; Trinh, K. R; Mulder, A; Morrison, S. L; Reed, E. F

    2015-01-01

    ...RIIa polymorphisms, the authors show the ability of different human IgG subclasses to cause endothelial activation and recruitment of monocytes, and evaluate therapeutic potential of IgG with two...

  19. A high performance charge plasma PN-Schottky collector transistor on silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Rafat, M.; Alamoud, Abdul Rehman M.; Abbasi, Shuja A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new high performance PN-Schottky collector (PN-SC) lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The proposed device addresses the problem of poor speed of conventional lateral PNP-BJT device by using a Schottky collector. Further, it does not use the conventional ways of ion implantation/diffusion to realize n and p type doped region. However, it uses metal electrodes of different work functions to create n and p type charge plasma in an undoped silicon film. The simulation study of the proposed lateral PN-SC bipolar charge plasma transistor on SOI (PN-SC-BCPT) device has shown a significant improvement in current gain (β), cutoff frequency (f T) and switching performance in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT and PNP-bipolar charge plasma transistor (PNP-BCPT) devices. A significantly high β is obtained in the proposed PN-SC-BCPT (˜2100) in comparison to PNP-BCPT (˜1450) and the conventional BJT (˜9) devices, respectively. It has been observed that there is 89.56% and 153.5% increase in f T for the proposed PN-SC-BCPT device (2.18 GHz) in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT (1.15 GHz) and PNP-BCPT (0.86 GHz) devices, respectively. Further, reductions of 24.6% and 15.4% in switching ON-delay and 66% and 30.76% in switching OFF-delay have been achieved in the proposed device based inverters in comparison to PNP-BCPT and the conventional BJT devices based inverters, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed device does not face doping related issues and the requirement of high temperature processing is absent.

  20. Affinity separation of immunoglobulin G subclasses on dye attached poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Handan; Akgöl, Sinan; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2006-11-15

    Poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) [poly(HPMA)] gel beads with an average size of 150-200 micro m were prepared by suspension polymerization of hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). The poly(HPMA) gel beads were characterized by swelling studies, surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. Poly(HPMA) gel beads had a specific surface area of 88.6 m(2)/g. The dye Reactive Green HE 4BD was chemically attached to yield dye-poly(HPMA) gel beads at an average concentration of 44.3 micro mol dye/g bead with a swelling ratio of 75%. These dye attached gel beads were used in the separation of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) through adsorption-elution studies. The non-specific adsorption of IgG on the poly(HPMA) gel beads was 0.5 mg/g. The attachment of Reactive Green HE 4BD significantly increased the adsorption of IgG up to 71 mg/g. The Langmuir adsorption model was found to be applicable in interpretation of data pertaining to the adsorption studies of IgG with Reactive Green HE 4BD attached to the poly(HPMA) gel beads. The adsorption of IgG was found to be optimal at pH 7.0. The adsorption of IgG was observed to decrease by about 76% as the NaCl concentration was increased from 0.001 to 0.1 M. The IgG adsorption capacity of the dye attached poly(HPMA) gel beads was determined for a commercially available IgG solution to be 4.2 mg/g for IgG(1), 64.5 mg/g for IgG(2), 7.1 mg/g for IgG(3) and 10.8 mg/g for IgG(4). The Reactive Green HE 4BD attached poly(HPMA) gel beads have a significant adsorption capacity for IgG(2). The quantity of adsorbed IgG(2) is three times higher than the quantity of the other subclasses, IgG(1), IgG(3) and IgG(4). A similar adsorption behaviour was observed when the albumin free human plasma was used. The quantity of adsorbed IgG(2) is higher than the quantity of the other subclasses, IgG(1), IgG(3) and IgG(4). Adsorption capacities for albumin free human plasma were obtained as 6.4 mg/g for IgG(1), 67.8 mg/g for IgG(2

  1. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  2. Differential effects of calcium antagonist subclasses on markers of nephropathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Weir, Matthew R; Secic, Michelle; Campbell, Brett; Weis-McNulty, Annette

    2004-06-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (DCAs) and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs) have differential antiproteinuric effects. Proteinuria reduction is a correlate of the progression of renal disease. In an earlier systematic review, calcium antagonists were shown as effective antihypertensive drugs, but there was uncertainty about their renal benefits in patients with proteinuria and renal insufficiency. A systematic review was conducted to assess the differential effects of DCAs and NDCAs on proteinuria in hypertensive adults with proteinuria, with or without diabetes, and to determine whether these differential effects translate into altered progression of nephropathy. Studies included in the review had to be randomized clinical trials with at least 6 months of treatment, include a DCA or NDCA treatment arm, have one or more renal end points, and have been initiated after 1986. Summary data were extracted from 28 studies entered into two identical but separate databases, which were compared and evaluated by independent reviewers. The effects of each drug class on blood pressure (N= 1338) and proteinuria (N= 510) were assessed. After adjusting for sample size, study length, and baseline value, there were no statistically significant differences in the ability of either class of calcium antagonist to decrease blood pressure. The mean change in proteinuria was +2% for DCAs and -30% for NDCAs (95% CI, 10% to 54%, P= 0.01). Consistently greater reductions in proteinuria were associated with the use of NDCAs compared with DCAs, despite no significant differences in blood pressure reduction or presence of diabetes. This analysis supports (1) similar efficacy between subclasses of calcium antagonists to lower blood pressure, and (2) greater reductions in proteinuria by NDCAs compared to DCAs in the presence or absence of diabetes. Based on these findings, NDCAs, alone or in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme

  3. Rotavirus-specific subclass antibody and cytokine responses in Bangladeshi children with rotavirus diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Tasnim; Zaki, M Hasan; Podder, Goutam; Sultana, Novera; Salam, M Abdus; Rahman, S Moshfiqur; Sefat-e-Khuda; Sack, David A

    2003-02-01

    Rotavirus-specific subclass antibody responses and cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and IL-10, were measured in children 7-24 months of age with rotavirus diarrhoea (n = 29); the responses were compared with children with watery diarrhoea from whom no enteric pathogens were isolated (controls; n = 11). All children had diarrhoea for or = 4-fold rise in antibody titre between the acute and convalescent stages were considered to have a response. The numbers of children with rotavirus-specific IgA and IgA1 responses in stool were similar in the two groups of children. In the plasma, more children with rotavirus diarrhoea had rotavirus-specific IgA, IgA1, IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 responses than did control children (P = 0.049, 0.007, 0.001, 0.002, and 0.012, respectively). IgA2 was not detectable. Among cytokines measured in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultured for 6 and 24 hr, IFN-gamma was the only cytokine that was higher in children with rotavirus diarrhoea compared with controls (P = 0.013). Severity of illness did not correlate with nutritional status or antibody titres, but severity did correlate with TNF-alpha during the acute stage of illness. IFN-gamma correlated positively with IgG1 titres. These findings suggest a role for IFN-gamma in the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection, but this needs confirmation by other studies. The immune responses described are relevant to future vaccine trials, as immune responses in vaccinees should mimic those in natural infection.

  4. Effects of Immunoglobulin Replacement on Asthma Exacerbation in Adult Asthmatics with IgG Subclass Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young Min; Ban, Ga Young; Shin, Yoo Seob; Lee, Hyun Young; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Soo Keol; Cho, You Sook; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki Suck; Park, Hae Sim

    2017-11-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infection is a common manifestation of primary immunodeficiency disease, and respiratory viruses or bacteria are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Asthma often coexists with humoral immunodeficiency in adults, and some asthmatics with immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) suffer from recurrent exacerbations. Although some studies suggest a benefit from Ig replacement, others have failed to support its use. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ig replacement on asthma exacerbation caused by respiratory infection as well as the asthma control status of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. This is a multi-center, open-label study of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. All patients received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for 6 months and were evaluated regarding asthma exacerbation related to infection, asthma control status, quality of life, and lung function before and after IVIG infusion. A total of 30 patients were enrolled, and 24 completed the study. Most of the patients had a moderate degree of asthma severity with partly (52%) or uncontrolled (41%) status at baseline. IVIG significantly reduced the proportion of patients with asthma exacerbations, lowered the number of respiratory infections, and improved asthma control status, compared to the baseline values (P<0.001). The mean asthma-specific quality of life and asthma control test scores were improved significantly (P=0.009 and P=0.053, respectively); however, there were no significant changes in lung function. IVIG reduced the frequency of asthma exacerbations and improved asthma control status in adult asthmatics with IgGSCD, suggesting that IVIG could be an effective treatment option in this population.

  5. Integrative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Common Molecular Subclasses of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Nijman, Sebastian M.B.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Chan, Jennifer A.; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Chiang, Derek Y.; Villanueva, Augusto; Newell, Philippa; Ikeda, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro; Gabriel, Stacey; Friedman, Scott L.; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Llovet, Josep M.; Golub, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and prior attempts to develop genomics-based classification for HCC have yielded highly divergent results, indicating difficulty to identify unified molecular anatomy. We performed a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in datasets from 8 independent patient cohorts across the world. In addition, aiming to establish the real world applicability of a classification system, we profiled 118 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an additional patient cohort. A total of 603 patients were analyzed, representing the major etiologies of HCC (hepatitis B and C) collected from Western and Eastern countries. We observed 3 robust HCC subclasses (termed S1, S2, and S3), each correlated with clinical parameters such as tumor size, extent of cellular differentiation, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. An analysis of the components of the signatures indicated that S1 reflected aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway, S2 was characterized by proliferation as well as MYC and AKT activation, and S3 was associated with hepatocyte differentiation. Functional studies indicated that the WNT pathway activation signature characteristic of S1 tumors was not simply the result of beta-catenin mutation, but rather was the result of TGF-beta activation, thus representing a new mechanism of WNT pathway activation in HCC. These experiments establish the first consensus classification framework for HCC based on gene-expression profiles, and highlight the power of integrating of multiple datasets to define a robust molecular taxonomy of the disease. PMID:19723656

  6. Increases in serum immunoglobulins to age-related normal levels in children with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutukculer, Necil; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Demircioglu, Ozlem; Aksu, Guzide

    2007-03-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) A and G subclass deficiencies are common immune system disorders which cause morbidity especially between 2 and 6 yr of age. Prognosis of these defects and therapeutic approach is unclear. The aim of the present retrospective study was to review the clinical and laboratory records of 87 children with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency to determine whether these patients experience changes in serum Ig concentrations during follow-up and to give more clinic and laboratory information to the families about the course of these diseases. Among 87 patients studied, the most frequent defect was partial IgA deficiency combined with IgG3 subclass deficiency (41%). The other groups were as follows; partial IgA deficiency (32%), selective IgA deficiency (8%), partial IgA combined with IgG2-G4 subclass deficiency (6%), and IgG subclass deficiency (13%). The commonest clinical presentations were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (76%), pneumonia (14%), acute gastroenteritis (3%), urinary tractus infection (3%), sinusitis (2%), and acute otitis media (2%). Atopy was widely represented in the patients studied (24%). The number of patients who were given prophylactic treatment with benzathine penicilline, prophylactic oral antibiotic, or oral bacterial extract to prevent infections was 68 (78%). Frequency of recurrent infections decreased from 7.9 +/- 4.9 per year to 2.5 +/- 2.3 in 68 patients receiving any prophylactic regimen; however, decrease in frequency of infections did not show any significant difference between different prophylactic groups. None of the patients in the selective IgA deficiency group had reached normal serum levels of IgA. At the age of 58.3 +/- 21.4 months, 52% of patients in partial IgA deficiency group and 51% of patients in partial IgA + IgG subclass deficiency group, serum IgA increased to normal ranges. Serum IgG subclass levels increased to normal range for age in 67% of patients in partial IgA + IgG subclass

  7. Catalytic growth of vertically aligned SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrauw, Aaron; Armstrong, Rebekka; Rahman, Ajara A.; Ogle, Jonathan; Whittaker-Brooks, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    Nanowire arrays of SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions are grown on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coated-glass and Si/SiO2 substrates via chemical vapor transport (CVT). The nanowire arrays are comprised of individual SnS/SnS2 heterostructures that are highly oriented with their lengths and morphologies controlled by the CVT conditions (i.e. reaction temperature, flow rate, and reaction time). The growth and optoelectronic characterization of these well-defined SnS/SnS2 p-n heterostructures pave the way for the fabrication of highly efficient solar cell devices.

  8. Impact of temperature and nitrogen composition on the growth of GaAsPN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Keisuke; Mugikura, Shun; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Goto, Masaya; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the impact of temperature and nitrogen-composition on the growth mode and crystallinity of GaAsPN alloys. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction results combined with transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that maintaining two-dimensional (2-D) growth required higher temperatures when nitrogen composition increased. Outside the 2-D growth windows, stacking faults and micro-twins were preferentially formed at {1 1 1} B planes rather than at the {1 1 1} A planes and anomalous growth was observed. The photoluminescence spectra of GaAsPN layers implies that the higher temperature growth is effective for reducing the nitrogen-related point defects.

  9. Two southern planetary nebulae ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M

    1980-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations show that two newly discovered southern objects, ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3, are planetary nebulae. ESO 263-PN 02 has a high excitation at the center and the 15/sup m/ central star is of very early type. SchuWe-3 has ring-shape, is reddened (A /sub V/ approximately 1/sup m/) and has a low excitation and electron density in the ring. The distance is estimated between 0.6 and 5 kpc, but is probably closer to the lower value. The measured velocities are +33+or-20 and -194+or-15 km s/sup -1/, respectively. (10 refs).

  10. pn karimi'*, sm maru', jm bururia', kam kuria' and pa odhiamboz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National. Hospital, Nairobi. P.N. KARIMI'*, S.M. ... choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients. Key words: Prevalence ... poisoning, toxic shock syndrome and scalded skin syndrome [2]. Nasal carriage of ...

  11. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube–MoS2 heterojunction p-n diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Deep; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Wu, Chung-Chiang; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Geier, Michael L.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The p-n junction diode and field-effect transistor are the two most ubiquitous building blocks of modern electronics and optoelectronics. In recent years, the emergence of reduced dimensionality materials has suggested that these components can be scaled down to atomic thicknesses. Although high-performance field-effect devices have been achieved from monolayered materials and their heterostructures, a p-n heterojunction diode derived from ultrathin materials is notably absent and constrains the fabrication of complex electronic and optoelectronic circuits. Here we demonstrate a gate-tunable p-n heterojunction diode using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and single-layer molybdenum disulfide as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. The vertical stacking of these two direct band gap semiconductors forms a heterojunction with electrical characteristics that can be tuned with an applied gate bias to achieve a wide range of charge transport behavior ranging from insulating to rectifying with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios exceeding 104. This heterojunction diode also responds strongly to optical irradiation with an external quantum efficiency of 25% and fast photoresponse <15 μs. Because SWCNTs have a diverse range of electrical properties as a function of chirality and an increasing number of atomically thin 2D nanomaterials are being isolated, the gate-tunable p-n heterojunction concept presented here should be widely generalizable to realize diverse ultrathin, high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:24145425

  12. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S

    1985-01-01

    The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-......AO has a high yet incomplete brain extraction yielding a flow dominated initial distribution with limitations mentioned.......The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99......m PnAO was injected i.v. as a bolus of 15 to 25 mCi. The distribution was followed over 10-sec intervals using a highly sensitive, rapidly rotating SPECT (Tomomatic 64) and compared to 133Xe flow maps. Upon arrival of the PnAO bolus to the brain, a high uptake was found in brain tissue with high...

  13. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jun [College of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Chi, Feng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Huhehaote 010023 (China); College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Guo, Yong [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-28

    Spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction is studied by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with the tight-binding Hamiltonian. We find that the thermal bias ΔT can generate spin thermopower when a local exchange field is applied on one edge of the germanene nano-ribbon. The magnitude of the spin thermopower can be modulated by the potential drop across the two terminals of the p-n junction. When the value of the potential drop is smaller than the spin-orbit interaction strength, the spin thermopower is enhanced by two orders of magnitude larger as compared to the case of zero p-n voltage. Optimal temperature corresponding to maximum spin thermopower is insensitive to the potential drop. In the p-n region, maximum spin thermopower can be obtained at relatively higher temperatures. When the value of the potential drop is larger than that of the spin-orbit interaction, however, the spin Seebeck effect decays rapidly with increasing potential drop or temperature. By optimizing the structure parameters, the magnitude of the spin thermopower can be remarkably enhanced due to the coexistence of the exchange field and the potential drop.

  14. Gamma rays from the 31P(n, γ)32P reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, G. van

    1967-01-01

    The 31P(n, γ)32P reaction is studied with a 5 cm3 Ge(Li) counter. Altogether, 54 γ-rays are detected with experimental energy errors between 0.4 and 3.0 keV. The Q-value of the reaction is determined as Q = 7936.8±0.8 keV.

  15. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  16. THE REGULATION AND TREND OF PARTICIPATORY NOTES (PN) IN INDIA-- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. S. Selvakumar*

    2016-01-01

    India allowed Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) to buy stocks listed on Indian exchanges. However, all investors, whether institutions or individuals, were required to register themselves with the capital markets regulator, SEBI. To get around these restrictions, FIIs started to issue so-called participatory notes. This paper attempts to review the problems, regulations, growth and the recent trends in PN investments.

  17. Estimating p-n Diode Bulk Parameters, Bandgap Energy and Absolute Zero by a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Dejene, F. B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward but interesting experimental method for p-n diode characterization. The method differs substantially from many approaches in diode characterization by offering much tighter control over the temperature and current variables. The method allows the determination of important diode constants such as temperature…

  18. The 2H(e, e' p)n reaction at large energy transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willering, Hendrik Willem

    2003-01-01

    At the ELSA accelerator facillity in Bonn, Germany, we have measured the deutron "breakup" reaction 2H(e,e' p)n at four-momentum transfers around Q2 = -0 .20(GeV/c)2 with an electron beam energy of E0 = 1.6 GeV. The cross section has been determined for energy transfers extending from the

  19. Cycle multiplicity of total graph of Cn, Pn, and K1,n | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cycle multiplicity of a graph G is the maximum number of edge disjoint cycles in G. In this paper, we find the cycle multiplicity of total graph of cycles Cn, paths Pn, and star graph K1,n respectively. Keywords: cycle multiplicity, total graph, cycle, path, star graph.

  20. Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, M.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S

  1. Photocurrent spectroscopy of exciton and free particle optical transitions in suspended carbon nanotube pn-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shun-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Theiss, Jesse; Hazra, Jubin; Aykol, Mehmet; Kapadia, Rehan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Cronin, Stephen B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    We study photocurrent generation in individual, suspended carbon nanotube pn-junction diodes formed by electrostatic doping using two gate electrodes. Photocurrent spectra collected under various electrostatic doping concentrations reveal distinctive behaviors for free particle optical transitions and excitonic transitions. In particular, the photocurrent generated by excitonic transitions exhibits a strong gate doping dependence, while that of the free particle transitions is gate independent. Here, the built-in potential of the pn-junction is required to separate the strongly bound electron-hole pairs of the excitons, while free particle excitations do not require this field-assisted charge separation. We observe a sharp, well defined E{sub 11} free particle interband transition in contrast with previous photocurrent studies. Several steps are taken to ensure that the active charge separating region of these pn-junctions is suspended off the substrate in a suspended region that is substantially longer than the exciton diffusion length and, therefore, the photocurrent does not originate from a Schottky junction. We present a detailed model of the built-in fields in these pn-junctions, which, together with phonon-assistant exciton dissociation, predicts photocurrents on the same order of those observed experimentally.

  2. Electrostatics of lateral p-n junctions in atomically thin materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipane, Ankur; Jayanti, Sirisha; Borah, Abhinandan; Teherani, James T.

    2017-11-01

    The lack of analytical expressions for the electrostatics of asymmetrically doped 2D lateral junctions complicates the design and analysis of devices based on atomically thin materials. In this work, we provide analytical expressions for the electric field, electrostatic potential, and depletion width across 2D lateral p-n junctions with arbitrary, but spatially uniform doping configurations. We also extend these expressions for use in lateral 3D metal-2D semiconductor junctions and lateral 2D heterojunctions. The results show a significantly larger depletion width (˜2 to 20×) for our 2D method compared to a conventional 3D approach due to the presence of a large out-of-plane electric field. For asymmetrically doped p-n junctions, the 2D depletion width shows a logarithmic dependence on the doping density of the highly doped side, in sharp contrast with conventional electrostatics for 3D junctions. Further, we show that 2D lateral depletion widths can be significantly modulated by changing the surrounding dielectric environment and, hence, can be tuned to realize optimum device structures. Finally, we show that even though the long depletion tails in 2D lateral p-n junctions carry a significant amount of total net charge, they do not significantly affect the electric field and electrostatic potential profiles, supporting the validity of the depletion approximation in analytical modeling of 2D lateral p-n junctions.

  3. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene superlattice p-n junction with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Benliang; Yao, Yagang; Zhou, Guanghui; Hu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon p-n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength. Interestingly, a metal to semiconductor transition occurs as the number of the superlattice for a crossed superlattice p-n junction increases, and its spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than that for the T-shaped one around the zero Fermi energy. Furthermore, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed systems can be much pronounced and their maximum absolute value can reach 528 μV K-1 by choosing optimized parameters. Besides, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed p-n junction is strongly enhanced around the zero Fermi energy for a weak magnetic field. Our results provide theoretical references for modulating the thermoelectric properties of a graphene superlattice p-n junction by tuning its geometric structure and physical parameters.

  4. Hydrogenation of esters catalyzed by ruthenium PN3-Pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2014-08-11

    Hydrogenation of esters under mild conditions was achieved using air-stable ruthenium PN3-pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm. High efficiency was achieved even in the presence of water. DFT studies suggest a bimolecular proton shuttle mechanism which allows H2 to be activated by the relatively stable catalyst with a reasonably low transition state barrier. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  6. Models of the iron-only hydrogenase: a comparison of chelate and bridge isomers of Fe2(CO)4{Ph2PN(R)PPh2}(μ-pdt) as proton-reduction catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Holt, Katherine B; Richards, Idris; Richmond, Michael G; Sanchez, Ben E; Unwin, David

    2013-05-21

    Reactions of Fe2(CO)6(μ-pdt) (pdt = SCH2CH2CH2S) with aminodiphosphines Ph2PN(R)PPh2 (R = allyl, (i)Pr, (i)Bu, p-tolyl, H) have been carried out under different conditions. At room temperature in MeCN with added Me3NO·2H2O, dibasal chelate complexes Fe2(CO)4{κ(2)-Ph2PN(R)PPh2}(μ-pdt) are formed, while in refluxing toluene bridge isomers Fe2(CO)4{μ-Ph2PN(R)PPh2}(μ-pdt) are the major products. Separate studies have shown that chelate complexes convert to the bridge isomers at higher temperatures. Two pairs of bridge and chelate isomers (R = allyl, (i)Pr) have been crystallographically characterised together with Fe2(CO)4{μ-Ph2PN(H)PPh2}(μ-pdt). Chelate complexes adopt the dibasal diphosphine arrangement in the solid state and exhibit very small P-Fe-P bite-angles, while the bridge complexes adopt the expected cisoid dibasal geometry. Density functional calculations have been carried out on the chelate and bridge isomers of the model compound Fe2(CO)4{Ph2PN(Me)PPh2}(μ-pdt) and reveal that the bridge isomer is thermodynamically favourable relative to the chelate isomers that are isoenergetic. The HOMO in each of the three isomers exhibits significant metal-metal bonding character, supporting a site-specific protonation of the iron-iron bond upon treatment with acid. Addition of HBF4·Et2O to the Fe2(CO)4{κ(2)-Ph2PN(allyl)PPh2}(μ-pdt) results in the clean formation of the corresponding dibasal hydride complex [Fe2(CO)4{κ(2)-Ph2PN(allyl)PPh2}(μ-H)(μ-pdt)][BF4], with spectroscopic measurements revealing the intermediate formation of a basal-apical isomer. A crystallographic study reveals that there are only very small metric changes upon protonation. In contrast, the bridge isomers react more slowly to form unstable species that cannot be isolated. Electrochemical and electrocatalysis studies have been carried out on the isomers of Fe2(CO)4{Ph2PN(allyl)PPh2}(μ-pdt). Electron accession is predicted to occur at an orbital that is anti-bonding with respect to

  7. Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn infants using IgG subclasses against two Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henryque de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of ELISA-based testing of total IgG (IgGt antibodies and its subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 against soluble (STAg and recombinant (rSAG1 and rMIC3 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii for diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis. Sera from 217 newborns initially testing positive for specific IgM in filter paper dried blood spots were tested for specific IgM and IgG by ELFA-VIDAS®. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 175 and ruled out in 42 infants. The validity of the ELISA tests was determined using the persistence of IgG antibodies (ELFA-VIDAS® kit at the end of 12 months, which is considered the reference test for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The frequency of positivity with IgGt against STAg, rSAG1 and rMIC3 was found in 97.2%, 96.3% and 80.2%, respectively, of the newborns with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. IgG1 reacted with all three antigens, while IgG3 and IgG4 reacted preferentially with rMIC3. Higher mean values of reactivity (sample optical density/cut-off were found for all subclasses when using rMIC3. All of the antigens showed high sensitivity and low specificity in detecting anti-T. gondii IgGt and IgG1 and low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting IgG3 and IgG4. In conclusion, the combined detection of IgG antibody subclasses against recombinant toxoplasmic antigens may be useful for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nu; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Oriol Sunyer, J; Zhang, Yong-An

    2017-05-01

    As the teleost specific immunoglobulin, IgT plays important roles in systemic and mucosal immunity. In the current study, in rainbow trout, we have cloned the heavy chain (Igτ) genes of a secretory form of IgT2 as well as the membrane and secretory forms of a third IgT subclass, termed IgT3. Conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues that are crucial for the folding of the immunoglobulin domain as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues within CART motif were identified in all IgT subclasses. Through analysis of the rainbow trout genome assembly, Igτ3 gene was found localized upstream of Igτ1 gene, while Igτ2 gene situated on another scaffold. At the transcriptional level, Igτ1 was mainly expressed in both systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues, while Igτ2 was largely expressed in systemic lymphoid organs. After LPS and poly (I:C) treatment, Igτ1 and Igτ2 genes exhibited different expression profiles. Interestingly the transcriptional level of Igτ3 was negligible, although its protein product could be identified in trout serum. Importantly, a previously reported monoclonal antibody directed against trout IgT1 was able to recognize IgT2 and IgT3. These data demonstrate that there exist three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout, and that their heavy chain genes display different expression patterns during stimulation. Overall, our data reflect the diversity and complexity of immunoglobulin in trout, thus provide a better understanding of the IgT system in the immune response of teleost fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The different effector function capabilities of the seven equine IgG subclasses have implications for vaccine strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Melanie J.; Wagner, Bettina; Woof, Jenny M.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were expressed in CHO cells. All assembled into intact immunoglobulins stabilised by disulphide bridges, although, reminiscent of human IgG4, a small proportion of equine IgG4 and IgG7 were held together by non-covalent bonds alone. All seven IgGs were N-glycosylated. In addition IgG3 appeared to be O-glycosylated and could bind the lectin jacalin. Staphylococcal protein A displayed weak binding for the equine IgGs in the order: IgG1 > I...

  10. The isotype and IgG subclass distribution of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Myrthe A M; Verheul, Marije K; Burgers, Leonie E; Derksen, Veerle F A M; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; van der Woude, Diane; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2017-08-15

    Anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies have recently been reported to occur in around 45% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to have prognostic and diagnostic properties. At present, the breadth and molecular make-up of the anti-CarP antibody response is ill defined. To understand the anti-CarP antibody immune response and potential immune effector mechanisms it can recruit, we determined the anti-CarP antibody isotype and IgG-subclass usage in RA patients. Anti-CarP antibody IgM, IgA, and IgG or IgG subclasses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 373 unselected RA patients and 196 healthy controls. An additional 114 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and anti-CarP IgG double-positive patients were selected to study the concomitant presence of both antibody systems. Anti-CarP IgG was present in around 45% of the patients and comprised all anti-CarP IgG subclasses. The presence of anti-CarP IgG1 particularly associates with radiological damage. Anti-CarP IgM was detected in 16% of RA patients, even in anti-CarP IgG-positive individuals, and is indicative of an actively ongoing immune response. Around 45% of the patients were positive for IgA which included ACPA-positive cases but also 24% of the ACPA-negative cases. In ACPA and anti-CarP double-positive patients, the distribution and number of isotypes and IgG subclasses was similar for both autoantibodies at the group level, but substantial variation was observed within individual patient samples. In RA, the anti-CarP antibody response uses a broad spectrum of isotypes and seems to be an actively ongoing immune reaction. Furthermore, the anti-CarP and ACPA autoantibody responses seems to be differentially regulated.

  11. Effects of pregnancy and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Taylor, Diane W

    2005-01-01

    , the levels of VSA(PAM)-specific antibodies either were very low or negative or were very high, whereas the levels of the antibodies specific for non-PAM type VSA were uniformly high. Interestingly, the levels of VSA(PAM)-specific IgG1 increased with increasing gestational age, while the levels...... status, parity, gestational age, and parasite transmission intensity, whereas only the parasite transmission intensity influenced the levels of IgG specific for non-PAM type VSA. For both types of VSA, the responses were dominated by the cytophilic subclass IgG1, followed by IgG3. In pregnant women...

  12. Immunological mimicry of PrPC-PrPSc interactions: antibody-induced PrP misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guest, Will; Huang, Alan; Plotkin, Steven S; Cashman, Neil R

    2009-08-01

    Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to an abnormal protease-resistant conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) by template-directed conversion. The interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) is mediated by specific sites which have been mapped to six putative 'binding and conversion domains' (PrP-BCD) through peptide and antibody competition studies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the bityrosine motif Tyr-Tyr-Arg (YYR) specifically recognize PrP(Sc) and other misfolded PrP species. Here, we report that select bead-bound PrP-BCD mAbs induce exposure of bityrosine epitopes on mouse brain PrP. By competition immunoprecipitation, we show that PrP-BCD mAb-induced bityrosine exposure occurs at alpha-helices 1 and 3. However, PrP-BCD mAb-induced PrP(C) misfolding is not accompanied by beta-sheet dissociation, a key event in PrP(C) conversion to PrP(Sc), and is not associated with acquisition of protease resistance, or the capacity to recruit additional molecules of PrP. Our data suggest that mAb mimics of the physical interaction of PrP(C) with PrP(Sc) can induce unfolding of specific PrP domains, but that subsequent processes (including the energetically unfavorable beta-sheet dissociation) effect isoform conversion in prion disease.

  13. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Schure, Rose-Minke; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; de Greeff, S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-09-16

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 months, 4 years and 9 years as well as in children who have been infected with Bordetella pertussis. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay was used for the measurement of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses against pertussis toxin, filamentous heamagglutinin and pertactin. Although IgG1 was the predominant subclass for all pertussis antigens in both healthy and infected children, elevated IgG4 levels were only present in children who had received repeated number of acellular pertussis vaccinations. IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies did not contribute to the IgG response. No differences in IgG-subclasses between healthy vaccinated or infected children were found. The pertussis vaccine used for priming seems to determine the IgG-subclass composition elicited after a secondary antibody response either induced by pertussis vaccination or infection. The pronounced anti-pertussis IgG4 response might reflect the Th2-skewing of the immune response after aP vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Préface

    OpenAIRE

    Cazanove, Olivier de; Scheid, John

    2015-01-01

    Le 8 Mars 1890, au Trinity College de Cambridge, un ethnologue de trente-six ans, James George Frazer, achève et signe la préface de l’œuvre en deux volumes à laquelle il travaille depuis le printemps précédent. Cette première version du Rameau d’Or sera, comme on sait, suivie de plusieurs autres, qui porteront cette « étude séparée » sur « la règle, jusqu’ici inexpliquée, de la prêtrisd’Aricie » aux dimensions monumentales de la troisième édition (1911-1915) en douze volumes. Il nous a sembl...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the Subclass Peniculia (Oligohymenophorea, Ciliophora) inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strüder-Kypke, M C; Wright, A D; Fokin, S I; Lynn, D H

    2000-01-01

    Peniculine ciliates have been recognized as a distinct higher taxon of ciliates for almost 50 years. However, phylogenetic relationships within the Subclass Peniculia are still unsettled. To contribute to our understanding of their phylogeny and provide evidence for the position of Urocentrum turbo, we sequenced its small subunit (SS) rRNA gene and the SSrRNA genes from Lembadion bullinum, Frontonia sp., Paramecium caudatum, Paramecium multimicronucleatum, Paramecium putrinum, and Paramecium woodruffi. Urocentrum turbo was the only one of these species not to exhibit a shortened Helix E10_1, which we conclude characterizes the "higher" peniculines. Except for U. turbo, the peniculines are strongly supported as a monophyletic clade with Lembadion, Frontonia, and Paramecium species forming separate and strongly supported clades by bootstrap analysis using distance matrix, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. Urocentrum turbo is associated with different lineages, depending upon the analysis used. The Paramecium species form at least four clades with the Paramecium aurelia subgroup being the most derived. We conclude that the Subclass Peniculia should be divided into two orders, the Order Urocentrida and Order Peniculida, with the latter order having two suborders, the Suborder Frontoniina and Peniculina. We place U. turbo with the peniculines because of shared morphological and stomatogenetic features.

  16. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P liver fat accumulation leads to a differential partitioning of hepatic TAG into large and small VLDL subclasses, in response to high and low intakes of sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (pcholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (pcholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  18. PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Goyal, Garima; Bi, Changhao; Poust, Sean; Sharma, Monica; Mutalik, Vivek; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-08-15

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  19. Cathodoluminescence analysis of cleaved facets of a ZnSe p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; As, D. J.; Buda, B.; Lübbers, M.; Schikora, D.; Mimkes, J.; Lischka, K.

    2000-04-01

    ZnSe diodes grown on (100) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated using cathodoluminesence (CL) measurements at sample temperatures between 50 and 300 K. The CL line scans at different photon energies were performed on cleaved p-n junctions at 50 and 300 K, respectively. Taking into account surface recombination, carrier generation volume, carrier diffusion and internal built-in electric field and related carrier drift, the CL measurements from cleaved p-n junctions could be qualitatively explained. The charge depletion layer has a strong influence on the CL measurements. The calculated charge depletion width is in good agreement with CL measurements. The experimental data from the spatially resolved CL on the cleaved ZnSe diodes revealed important information of the carrier dynamics and recombination processes in these devices.

  20. Fabrication and electrical properties of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Shuai; Zhang, Xia; Yan, Xin; Chen, Xiong; Li, Liang; Cui, Jian-Gong; Huang, Yong-Qing; Ren, Xiao-Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the fabrications and characterizations of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays. The nanowires are grown on n-doped GaAs (111)B substrates using the Au-catalyzed vapor—liquid—solid mechanism by metal—organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Diethyl—zinc and silane are used as p- and n-type dopant precursors, respectively. Both the axial and radial diodes exhibit diode-like J—V characteristics and have similar performances under forward bias. Under backward bias, the axial diode has a large leakage current, which is attributed to the bending of the pn junction interface induced by two doping mechanisms in Au-catalyzed nanowires. The low leakage current and high rectification ratio make the radial diode more promising in electrical and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Equilibration of quantum hall edge states and its conductance fluctuations in graphene p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Kuiri, Manabendra; Das, Anindya

    2018-02-01

    We report an observation of conductance fluctuations (CFs) in the bipolar regime of quantum hall (QH) plateaus in graphene (p-n-p/n-p-n) devices. The CFs in the bipolar regime are shown to decrease with increasing bias and temperature. At high temperature (above 7 K) the CFs vanishes completely and the flat quantized plateaus are recovered in the bipolar regime. The values of QH plateaus are in theoretical agreement based on full equilibration of chiral channels at the p-n junction. The amplitude of CFs for different filling factors follows a trend predicted by the random matrix theory. Although, there are mismatch in the values of CFs between the experiment and theory but at higher filling factors the experimental values become closer to the theoretical prediction. The suppression of CFs and its dependence has been understood in terms of time dependent disorders present at the p-n junctions.

  2. Draft User Functionalities and Interfaces of PN Services (Low-Fi Prototyping)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamolegkos, P.; Larsen, J. E.; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Internal report of WP1 Task 4 activities from January 2006 to August 2006. This report describes the draft user functionalities and coming user interfaces for PN services. It is a working document to be handed over to WP1 Task1 and Task3 for guidelines on specification. State of the art usability...... and user experience, conceptual design work on the two pilot services, MAGNET.CARE and Nomadic@Work, is described.......Internal report of WP1 Task 4 activities from January 2006 to August 2006. This report describes the draft user functionalities and coming user interfaces for PN services. It is a working document to be handed over to WP1 Task1 and Task3 for guidelines on specification. State of the art usability...

  3. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Kipp, M. A.; Koehler, M. C.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Johnson, B.; Buick, R.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean - presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere.

  4. Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.

  5. Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Song, Xiaodong; Li, Jiangtao

    2017-02-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its surrounding areas are geologically highly heterogeneous from the interactions of multiple plates in Southeast Asia (Eurasian plate, Indian-Australian plate, Philippine Sea plate, and Pacific plate). To understand the tectonics at depth, here we combined bulletin and handpicked data to conduct Pn tomography of the region. The results show distinct features that are correlated with the complex geology at surface, suggesting a lithosphere-scale tectonics of the region. Low Pn velocities are found along a belt of the western Pacific transpressional system from the Okinawa Trough and eastern East China Sea, across central and eastern Taiwan orogeny, to the island arcs of the Luzon Strait and the entire Philippine Islands, as well as under the Palawan Island and part of the continental margin north of the Pearl River Basin. High velocities are found under Ryukyu subduction zone, part of the Philippine subduction zone, part of the Eurasian subduction beneath the southwestern Taiwan, and the continent-ocean boundary between the south China and the SCS basin. The Taiwan Strait, the Mainland SE coast, and the main SCS basin sea are relatively uniform with average Pn values. Crustal thicknesses show large variations in the study region but also coherency with tectonic elements. The Pn pattern in Taiwan shows linear trends of surface geology and suggests strongly lithosphere-scale deformation of the young Taiwan orogenic belt marked by the deformation boundary under the Western Foothill and the Western Coastal Plain at depth, and the crustal thickness shows a complex pattern from the transpressional collision. Our observations are consistent with rifting and extension in the northern margin of the SCS but are not consistent with mantle upwelling as a mechanism for the opening and the subsequent closing of the SCS. The Philippine island arc is affected by volcanisms from both the Asian and Philippine Sea subductions in the south but mainly from

  6. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA; Syed Tauqeer ul Islam RIZVI; Syed Irtiza Ali SHAH

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS) guidance and proportional navigation (PN) guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been ...

  7. Oscillating Magnetoresistance in Graphene p-n Junctions at Intermediate Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweg, Hiske; Eggimann, Hannah; Liu, Ming-Hao; Varlet, Anastasia; Eich, Marius; Simonet, Pauline; Lee, Yongjin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Richter, Klaus; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    We report on the observation of magnetoresistance oscillations in graphene p-n junctions. The oscillations have been observed for six samples, consisting of single-layer and bilayer graphene, and persist up to temperatures of 30 K, where standard Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are no longer discernible. The oscillatory magnetoresistance can be reproduced by tight-binding simulations. We attribute this phenomenon to the modulated densities of states in the n- and p- regions.

  8. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Zhao, Yuning; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Bader, Samuel; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-12-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  9. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  10. P-N junctions dynamics in graphene channel induced by ferroelectric domains motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strikha, Maksym V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-01-01

    The p-n junctions dynamics in graphene channel induced by stripe domains nucleation, motion and reversal in a ferroelectric substrate is explored using self-consistent approach based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology combined with classical electrostatics. We revealed the extrinsic size effect in the dependence of the graphene channel conductivity on its length. For the case of perfect electric contact between the ferroelectric and graphene, relatively low gate voltages are required...

  11. Nanoscale imaging of the photoresponse in PN junctions of InGaAs infrared detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Xia; Tian-Xin Li; Heng-Jing Tang; Liang Zhu; Xue Li; Hai-Mei Gong; Wei Lu

    2016-01-01

    Electronic layout, such as distributions of charge carriers and electric field, in PN junction is determinant for the photovoltaic devices to realize their functionality. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to the carrier profiling of this specific region with Scanning Probe Microscope, yet reliable analysis was impeded by the difficulty in resolving carriers with high mobility and the unclear surface effect, particularly on compound semiconductors. Here we realize nanometer Scanning Cap...

  12. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, M.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped Ge nanowire pn junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Son T.; Dayeh, S.; Picraux, S. T.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid growth of and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped pn junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) during growth, resulting in an axial pn junction. Contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography, followed by Ni metallization. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio of more than two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the NW pn junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed gate control of the NW junction current using the substrate as a back gate. Observed current modulation is in good agreement with the electrostatic depletion of the NWs as a function of diameter and doping.

  14. FSHR polymorphism p.N680S mediates different responses to FSH in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Moriondo, Valeria; Marino, Marco; Adversi, Francesca; Capodanno, Francesco; Grisolia, Chiarina; La Marca, Antonio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2014-08-05

    The single nucleotide polymorphism p.N680S of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR) is a discrete marker of ovarian response but previous in vitro studies failed to demonstrate differences in the response to FSH between N and S carrier cells. Here we demonstrate that p.N680S mediates different kinetics of the response to FSH in vitro. Intracellular cAMP production is faster in p.N680S N than in S homozygous human granulosa cells (45 versus 90 min to achieve the plateau, respectively; Mann-Whitney's U-test; p < 0.005; n = 4). Reflecting the cAMP kinetics, phospho-ERK1/2 and -CREB activation, AREG and STARD1 gene expressions and progesterone production were qualitatively and quantitatively different in N versus S homozygous cells. Finally, the blockade of ERK pathway by U0126 abolishes the genotype-mediated different effects on gene expression and progesterone production (Mann-Whitney's U-test; p ≥ 0.005; n = 3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D; Kent, Thomas F; Phillips, Patrick J; Mills, Michael J; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C

    2012-02-08

    Almost all electronic devices utilize a pn junction formed by random doping of donor and acceptor impurity atoms. We developed a fundamentally new type of pn junction not formed by impurity-doping, but rather by grading the composition of a semiconductor nanowire resulting in alternating p and n conducting regions due to polarization charge. By linearly grading AlGaN nanowires from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al, we show the formation of a polarization-induced pn junction even in the absence of any impurity doping. Since electrons and holes are injected from AlN barriers into quantum disk active regions, graded nanowires allow deep ultraviolet LEDs across the AlGaN band-gap range with electroluminescence observed from 3.4 to 5 eV. Polarization-induced p-type conductivity in nanowires is shown to be possible even without supplemental acceptor doping, demonstrating the advantage of polarization engineering in nanowires compared with planar films and providing a strategy for improving conductivity in wide-band-gap semiconductors. As polarization charge is uniform within each unit cell, polarization-induced conductivity without impurity doping provides a solution to the problem of conductivity uniformity in nanowires and nanoelectronics and opens a new field of polarization engineering in nanostructures that may be applied to other polar semiconductors. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  17. Growth and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaslavsky, Alexander [BROWN U; Le, Son T [BROWN U

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and electrical properties of axial in-situ doped p-n junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) together with GeH{sub 4} in the growth process. By changing dopant sources during growth, a p-n junction can be realized along the axis of the NWs. Metal contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography patterning, followed by 100 nm Ni sputter deposition and lift-off. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio up to two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the p-n junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed backgate control of the NW junction current.

  18. The N-Glycosylation of Mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Fragment Crystallizable Differs Between IgG Subclasses and Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Noortje; Reiding, Karli R; Krištić, Jasminka; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Lauc, Gordan; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc)-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice. To characterize the glycosylation profile of murine IgG-Fc and in addition evaluate the systematic glycosylation differences between mouse strains, sexes, and IgG subclasses, we used nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS(/MS)) to look at the subclass-specific IgG Fc-glycopeptides of male and female mice from the strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and Swiss Webster. The structural analysis revealed the presence of predominantly fucosylated, diantennary glycans, with varying amounts of galactosylation and α2,6-sialylation. In addition, we report glycosylation features not previously reported in an Fc-specific way on murine IgG, including monoantennary, hybrid, and high mannose structures, as well as diantennary structures without a core fucose, with a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, or with α1,3-galactosylation. Pronounced differences were detected between strains and the IgG subclasses within each strain. Especially the large spread in galactosylation and sialylation levels found between both strains and subclasses may vastly influence IgG effector functions. Mouse strain-based and subclass-specific glycosylation differences should be taken into account when designing and interpreting immunological and glycobiological mouse studies involving IgG effector functions.

  19. The N-Glycosylation of Mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG-Fragment Crystallizable Differs Between IgG Subclasses and Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje de Haan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice. To characterize the glycosylation profile of murine IgG-Fc and in addition evaluate the systematic glycosylation differences between mouse strains, sexes, and IgG subclasses, we used nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS(/MS to look at the subclass-specific IgG Fc-glycopeptides of male and female mice from the strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and Swiss Webster. The structural analysis revealed the presence of predominantly fucosylated, diantennary glycans, with varying amounts of galactosylation and α2,6-sialylation. In addition, we report glycosylation features not previously reported in an Fc-specific way on murine IgG, including monoantennary, hybrid, and high mannose structures, as well as diantennary structures without a core fucose, with a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, or with α1,3-galactosylation. Pronounced differences were detected between strains and the IgG subclasses within each strain. Especially the large spread in galactosylation and sialylation levels found between both strains and subclasses may vastly influence IgG effector functions. Mouse strain-based and subclass-specific glycosylation differences should be taken into account when designing and interpreting immunological and glycobiological mouse studies involving IgG effector functions.

  20. Overcoming recurrent spontaneous abortions in women suffering from IgG subclass deficiency: high efficiency of low dose intravenous immunoglobulins treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, G; Dell'Aera, L; Liguori, R

    2015-05-01

    It's well known that iv. immunoglobulins may be useful to overcome habitual abortions, but the mechanisms at the base of a successful outcome and the likelihoods are still unknown. In one hundred and sixty women with habitual abortions and one hundred and sixty healthy mothers, we evaluated blood IgG subclasses; among the patients, sixteen merely showed IgG subclass deficiency, after leaving out any autoimmunity and/or coagulation disorders. All the patients (100%) showed IgG3, twelve (75%) IgG1, eight (50%) IgG4 and six (37,5%) IgG2 deficiency; healthy control people's IgG subclasses fell in normal range in 156 women, but just four women showed IgG2 and IgG4 deficiency with neither immune deficiency's clinical marks nor increased vulnerability to infections. All the patients were treated with whole immunoglobulins iv. infusion (200 mg/kg/monthly) all over the pregnancy. The successful pregnancy rate is very high (>90%): 100% out of women showing IgG1 (12/12), 87,5% of IgG3 (14/16), 75% of IgG4 (6/8) and 66% of IgG2 deficiency (4/6) had successful pregnancies. The Odd's Ratio between IgG subclass deficiency and recurrent abortions is 4,33 with confidence interval of 95%; chi square value is 7.68 (pIgG subclass deficiency without autoimmunity and/or coagulation disorders, likely restoring idiotype-antiidiotype network; showing evidence of IgG subclasses deficiency (mostly IgG1 and IgG3) may help identify patients who can benefit from iv. immunoglobulin treatment.

  1. The influence of replacing the pnicogens As by Sb on the optical properties of the Zintl phases Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-11-05

    We explored the influence of changing the pnicogens by substituting As by Sb on the optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb). Calculation show that there exists subtle difference in the electronic structures when we substitute As by Sb, which lead to significant influence on the optical properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV. The optical properties explore that these material have negative uniaxial anisotropy, negative birefringence and considerable anisotropy between the optical components in the polarization directions [100], [010] and [001] with respect to the crystal axis. Furthermore, the optical properties confirm that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} possess a band gap which is smaller than that of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3}. The optical properties helps to get deep insight into the electronic structure. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) were investigated. • The subtle difference in electronic structures influence the optical properties. • Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) are narrow band gap semiconductors. • The investigated compounds exhibit negative uniaxial anisotropy and birefringence.

  2. Calculation of Initial Short-Circuit Currents in Medium Voltage Networks According to the Standard PN-EN 60909

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Księżyk; Tomasz Zdun

    2013-01-01

    Determining the short-circuit currents is usually conducted by network analyses. An important feature of this calculation is carried out according to the recommendations of the standard PN EN 60909...

  3. Efficient transfer hydrogenation reaction Catalyzed by a dearomatized PN 3P ruthenium pincer complex under base-free Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-03-01

    A dearomatized complex [RuH(PN 3P)(CO)] (PN 3PN, N′-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) (3) was prepared by reaction of the aromatic complex [RuH(Cl)(PN 3P)(CO)] (2) with t-BuOK in THF. Further treatment of 3 with formic acid led to the formation of a rearomatized complex (4). These new complexes were fully characterized and the molecular structure of complex 4 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In complex 4, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry around the ruthenium center was observed, with the CO ligand trans to the pyridinic nitrogen atom and the hydride located in the apical position. The dearomatized complex 3 displays efficient catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer of ketones in isopropanol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison between variable and fixed dwell-time PN acquisition algorithms. [for synchronization in pseudonoise spread spectrum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Pseudo noise (PN) spread spectrum systems require a very accurate alignment between the PN code epochs at the transmitter and receiver. This synchronism is typically established through a two-step algorithm, including a coarse synchronization procedure and a fine synchronization procedure. A standard approach for the coarse synchronization is a sequential search over all code phases. The measurement of the power in the filtered signal is used to either accept or reject the code phase under test as the phase of the received PN code. This acquisition strategy, called a single dwell-time system, has been analyzed by Holmes and Chen (1977). A synopsis of the field of sequential analysis as it applies to the PN acquisition problem is provided. From this, the implementation of the variable dwell time algorithm as a sequential probability ratio test is developed. The performance of this algorithm is compared to the optimum detection algorithm and to the fixed dwell-time system.

  5. Acceptance Data Package: SXI Stepper Motor/Encoder. Aeroflex P/N 16187. A; Engineering Drawings and Associated Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Acceptance data package - engineering drawings and associated lists for fabrication, assembly and maintenance (cleaning, fluidized bed coating, bounding and staking) motor/encoded solar x-ray imager (SXI) (Aeroflex p/n 16187) were given.

  6. Neutron Scattering from fcc Pr and Pr3Tl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1972-01-01

    Elastic-neutron-scattering measurements on the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3 Tl are reported. Both exhibit magnetic phase transitions, possibly to a simple ferromagnetic state at 20 and 11.6 °K, respectively. The transitions appear to be of second order although that in fcc Pr ...... is clearly anomalous. Additional information on the inelastic scattering studies of the Γ1-Γ4 excitons in these systems is presented. dhcp Pr is also briefly discussed....

  7. Peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma-mediated leafy flower symptoms and abnormal vascular bundles development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Te; Huang, Hsin-Mei; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    The peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma causes virescence symptoms such as phyllody (leafy flower) in infected peanuts. However, the obligate nature of phytoplasma limits the study of host-pathogen interactions, and the detailed anatomy of PnWB-infected plants has yet to be reported. Here, we demonstrate that 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining can be used to track PnWB infection. The DAPI-stained phytoplasma cells were observed in phloem/internal phloem tissues, and changes in vascular bundle morphology, including increasing pith rays and thinner cell walls in the xylem, were found. We also discerned the cell types comprising PnWB in infected sieve tube members. These results suggest that the presence of PnWB in phloem tissue facilitates the transmission of phytoplasma via sap-feeding insect vectors. In addition, PnWB in sieve tube members and changes in vascular bundle morphology might strongly promote the ability of phytoplasmas to assimilate nutrients. These data will help further an understanding of the obligate life cycle and host-pathogen interactions of phytoplasma.

  8. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  9. PR, Lobbyism and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida; Pedersen, Leif Hemming

    2017-01-01

    The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector. In this st......The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector....... In this study, we have constructed a data set of all members of the Danish Parliament who have left politics from 1981 to 2015 (n= 613) and identified the number and type of job positions they have taken up subsequently (n= 1094). We find that especially from the 1990s we can register revolving door activity...

  10. Immunization of humans with polysaccharide vaccines induces systemic, predominantly polymeric IgA2-subclass antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, A; Lue, C; Moldoveanu, Z; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R; Mestecky, J

    1990-05-15

    Ig class- and IgA subclass-specific immune responses to protein and polysaccharide Ag were studied in serum, external secretions, and at the single cell level in peripheral blood of systemically immunized adults. Immunization with tetanus toxoid induced predominantly IgG antibody responses in serum and in the PBMC. The IgA antibody response was low, and was mostly of the IgA1 subclass. In contrast, immunization with polysaccharide Ag (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, C, Y, W-135, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides) elicited a major IgA response predominantly of the IgA2 isotype. Analysis of the molecular forms of secreted IgA antibodies indicated that polymers were produced early after immunization, irrespective of the nature of the Ag. When compared with serum antibody and to PBMC cell responses, systemic immunization with polysaccharides induced a minor salivary response dominated by IgG and IgM antibodies. In contrast, the presence of antipolysaccharide antibodies in bile, irrespective of their isotype, paralleled the serum response 14 days after the immunization with polysaccharide Ag. These results suggest that biliary Ig were mostly derived from serum. Different patterns of the expression of MHC class II Ag on T cells, B cells, and monocytes during the course of immunization with protein or polysaccharide Ag were observed: whereas protein Ag induced a high frequency of HLA-DP- and HLA-DR-expressing cells early in the course of immunization, polysaccharide vaccines elicited low and protracted increases of HLA-DP+ T cells. Polysaccharide vaccine covalently coupled to a protein carrier induced a higher frequency of antipolysaccharide antibody-secreting cells in peripheral blood and increased the IgG to IgA ratio among polysaccharide-specific antibody-secreting cells.

  11. Predictors of shingles reports at diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency and selective immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in 212 Alabama adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine predictors of shingles reports in adults with common variable immunodeficiency or immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (CVID/IgGSD. We tabulated observations at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD in 212 white adult index patients (165 women, 47 men who responded to a question about having had shingles. None had been vaccinated for herpes zoster. We analyzed age, sex, and shingles reports; blood levels of CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ mononuclear cells; serum levels of IgG subclasses, IgA, and IgM; and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and -B haplotypes. Cell counts and immunoglobulin levels were normalized with loge (ln transformation for analyses. Thirty-one patients (14.6% reported shingles; 11 reported recurrent or disseminated shingles. Patients with shingles reports had greater mean age at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD [54±13 (standard deviation years vs. 47±12 years; P=0.0130] and a greater prevalence of HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity (35.5% vs. 17.7%; P=0.0227. In a 13-factor logistic regression model, there was a positive association of age with shingles reports [P=0.0151; odds ratio (1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.08]. HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity was also positively associated with shingles reports [P=0.0480; odds ratio 2.61 (1.00, 6.81]. During a mean followup interval of 7.5 years after CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, the prevalence of recurrent shingles was almost five-fold greater in patients with previous shingles reports. In conclusion, in white adults at CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, age at diagnosis and positivity for HLA-A*01, B*08 have significant positive associations with reports of previous shingles.

  12. Development of a fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay to determine immunoglobulin G subclass responses to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    A fluorescent-particle-based multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (MIA) for the detection of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and two IgG subclasses, IgG1 and IgG2, specific for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A ( MenA) and C (MenC) polysaccharides ( PS) was developed. The assay comprised three

  13. Analysis of gene expression data from non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines reveals distinct sub-classes from those identified at the phenotype level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available Microarray data from cell lines of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC can be used to look for differences in gene expression between the cell lines derived from different tumour samples, and to investigate if these differences can be used to cluster the cell lines into distinct groups. Dividing the cell lines into classes can help to improve diagnosis and the development of screens for new drug candidates. The micro-array data is first subjected to quality control analysis and then subsequently normalised using three alternate methods to reduce the chances of differences being artefacts resulting from the normalisation process. The final clustering into sub-classes was carried out in a conservative manner such that sub-classes were consistent across all three normalisation methods. If there is structure in the cell line population it was expected that this would agree with histological classifications, but this was not found to be the case. To check the biological consistency of the sub-classes the set of most strongly differentially expressed genes was be identified for each pair of clusters to check if the genes that most strongly define sub-classes have biological functions consistent with NSCLC.

  14. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad...

  15. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2004-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgG antibodies induced by specific immunotherapy (SIT) interfere with the allergen-IgE interaction, and act as blocking antibodies in vitro. It has been hypothesised that IgG4, as opposed to other IgG subclasses, is particularly important in this function, which may play a role...

  16. Global Mapping of Traditional Chinese Medicine into Bioactivity Space and Pathways Annotation Improves Mechanistic Understanding and Discovers Relationships between Therapeutic Action (Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zuraidah Mohamad Zobir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM still needs more scientific rationale to be proven for it to be accepted further in the West. We are now in the position to propose computational hypotheses for the mode-of-actions (MOAs of 45 TCM therapeutic action (subclasses from in silico target prediction algorithms, whose target was later annotated with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and to discover the relationship between them by generating a hierarchical clustering. The results of 10,749 TCM compounds showed 183 enriched targets and 99 enriched pathways from Estimation Score ≤ 0 and ≥ 5% of compounds/targets in a (subclass. The MOA of a (subclass was established from supporting literature. Overall, the most frequent top three enriched targets/pathways were immune-related targets such as tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2 and digestive system such as mineral absorption. We found two major protein families, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, and protein kinase family contributed to the diversity of the bioactivity space, while digestive system was consistently annotated pathway motif, which agreed with the important treatment principle of TCM, “the foundation of acquired constitution” that includes spleen and stomach. In short, the TCM (subclasses, in many cases share similar targets/pathways despite having different indications.

  17. Common, low-frequency, and rare genetic variants associated with lipoprotein subclasses and triglyceride measures in Finnish men from the METSIM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Davis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and lipoprotein subclasses are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, yet the genetic contributions to variability in subclass traits are not fully understood. We conducted single-variant and gene-based association tests between 15.1M variants from genome-wide and exome array and imputed genotypes and 72 lipid and lipoprotein traits in 8,372 Finns. After accounting for 885 variants at 157 previously identified lipid loci, we identified five novel signals near established loci at HIF3A, ADAMTS3, PLTP, LCAT, and LIPG. Four of the signals were identified with a low-frequency (0.005subclass traits. 30 established lipid-associated loci had a stronger association for a subclass trait than any conventional trait. These novel association signals provide further insight into the molecular basis of dyslipidemia and the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  18. Antiperovskite nitridophosphate oxide Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O by high-pressure metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloss, Simon D.; Weidmann, Niels; Schnick, Wolfgang [Department of Chemistry, University of Munich (LMU), Butenandtstrasse 5-13, 81377, Munich (Germany)

    2017-04-03

    Rare-earth nitridophosphates are a recently discovered class of materials, which are accessible by high-pressure metathesis. Antiperovskite-type Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O was synthesized from HoF{sub 3}, LiPN{sub 2}, Li{sub 3}N, and Li{sub 2}O at 5 GPa and ca. 1025 C by this method and the multianvil technique. Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O contains rarely observed isolated PN{sub 4} tetrahedra and can be derived by the hierarchical substitution of the ABX{sub 3} perovskite, in which Ho occupies the X positions, O occupies the B position, and the PN{sub 4} tetrahedra occupy the A position. The structure was refined on the basis of powder diffraction data [I4/mcm, a = 6.36112(3), c = 10.5571(1) Aa, Z = 4, R{sub wp} = 0.04, R{sub Bragg} = 0.01, χ{sup 2} = 2.275] starting from the structural model of isotypic Gd{sub 3}[SiN{sub 3}O]O. To characterize Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O, elemental analyses were performed through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O is paramagnetic down to low temperatures with μ{sub eff} = 10.43(1) μ{sub B} and a Curie temperature (Θ) of 0.11(4) K. It shows the optical characteristics of Ho{sup 3+} ions and vibrations corresponding to isolated PN{sub 4} tetrahedra. On the basis of DFT calculations [generalized gradient approximation (GGA)], Ho{sub 3}[PN{sub 4}]O has an indirect band gap of 1.87 eV. We demonstrate the versatility of high-pressure metathesis by attaining the low end of the P/N atomic ratio κ = 1/4. This confirms the previous assumption that rare-earth nitridophosphates with κ = 1/2 to 1/4 are feasible by this method. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. What is the net effect of introducing vitrification for cryopreservation of surplus 2PN oocytes in an IVF program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golakov, Manja; Depenbusch, Marion; Schultze-Mosgau, Askan; Schoepper, Beate; Hajek, Jennifer; Neumann, Kay; Griesinger, Georg

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to accurately describe outcome differences (cryo-survival, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, both per ET and cumulatively), between the vitrification method and slow-freezing method of surplus 2PN oocytes in an IVF program. In 2004, the freezing method for 2PN oocytes was changed from slow-cooling to vitrification. The data of 711 patients (timespan: 1/1999-7/2011; 410 vitrification and 301 slow-cooling events) undergoing a first IVF/ICSI cycles with freezing of 2PN oocytes were retrospectively analyzed. The outcome of one, the first, IVF cycle per patient was explored. The data were analyzed per freezing-thawing attempt as well as cumulatively per one complete IVF cycle, taking pregnancy occurrence after a fresh embryo transfer preceding the cryo-cycle(s) and other confounders (such as female age, elective vs. surplus 2PN cryopreservation) into account by means of exploratory regression analyses. In the vitrification and slow-cooling group, 756 and 376, respectively, attempts of thawing 2PN oocytes were recorded. Each attempt of thawing 2PN oocytes showed statistically significantly higher mean cryo-survival rates after vitrification (effect size approximately 30-40%, with vitrification cryo-survival consistently above 90% in all thawing attempts). Furthermore, the incidence of "zero survival" was lower after vitrification (0.5 vs. 7.3%, p IVF cycle (fresh and frozen transfers combined) with vitrification of 2PN oocytes is increased approximately 1.4-fold (OR of 1.405, 95% CI 0.968-2.038; p = 0.07); however, statistical significance was not achieved due to sample size. Female age and elective cryopreservation of all 2PN oocytes without a fresh transfer (e.g., hyperresponders) were found to be negatively and positively, respectively, associated with the chance of achieving a live birth. The introduction of vitrification has a measurable impact on the efficacy of an IVF program. However, this effect is not large despite the

  20. IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency in children with recurrent respiratory infections and its relationship with chronic pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, H; Atlihan, F; Genel, F; Targan, S; Gunvar, T

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency are asymptomatic but some may suffer from frequent mainly respiratory infections. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiencies and the rate of chronic pulmonary damage secondary to recurrent pulmonary infections in these children. Serum IgA and IgG subclass levels were measured in 225 children aged 6 months to 6 years with recurrent sinopulmonary infections (44 with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 100 with recurrent pulmonary infections and 81 with recurrent bronchiolitis). In order to determine chronic pulmonary damage due to recurrent infections in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections CT scans of thorax were also obtained. The overall frequency of antibody defects was found to be 19.1%. IgA deficiency was observed in 9.3%, IgG subclass deficiency in 8.4% and IgA + IgG subclass deficiency in 1.4%. The prevalance of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency was 25% in patients with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 22% in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and 12.3% in patients with recurrent bronchiolitis (p>0.05). Chronic pulmonary damage in lungs was determined radiologically in 17 of 100 cases with recurrent pulmonary infection. In IgG subclass deficiencies sequel changes, although not statistically significant, were observed five times more frequently than that of IgA deficiencies. CT scans revealed pulmonary sequels in 5 of the 22 (22.7%) patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and immunodeficiency (bronchiectasis in 2 patients with IgG3 deficiency, fibrotic changes in one with IgA deficiency and in one with IgG3 deficiency, bronchiolitis obliterans in one with IgG2 + IgG3 deficiency). On the other hand, pulmonary sequels were observed in 12 patients (15.4%) with normal immunoglobulin levels. Eight of them were bronchiolitis obliterans, 2 of them were atelectasia and 1 of them was bronchiectasia. We therefore suggest

  1. Doping GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Berg, Alexander; Borgström, Magnus T.

    2015-01-01

    The doping process in GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions using different precursors is evaluated by mapping the nanowires' electrostatic potential distribution by means of off-axis electron holography. Three precursors, triethyltin (TESn), ditertiarybutylselenide, and silane are investigated......, ditertiarybutylselenide and silane for n-type doping of the shell and that the concentration of p-type dopants is higher in the region of core grown parasitically by vapor-solid mechanism due to unintentional carbon doping from trimethylgallium precursor....

  2. Model of human breathing reflected signal received by PN-UWB radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mohamed; Rajan, Sreeraman; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z

    2014-01-01

    Human detection is an integral component of civilian and military rescue operations, military surveillance and combat operations. Human detection can be achieved through monitoring of vital signs. In this article, a mathematical model of human breathing reflected signal received in PN-UWB radar is proposed. Unlike earlier published works, both chest and abdomen movements are considered for modeling the radar return signal along with the contributions of fundamental breathing frequency and its harmonics. Analyses of recorded reflected signals from three subjects in different postures and at different ranges from the radar indicate that ratios of the amplitudes of the harmonics contain information about posture and posture change.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of 3D pn junction structure for radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinlong; Lin, Jilei; Chen, Xiaoming; Guo, Xinglong; Xin, Peisheng; Xu, Shaohui; Xue, Weijia; Wang, Lianwei

    2008-02-01

    In this report, p-type macroporous silicon has been prepared by anodization. A phosphorus diffusion step is employed for the formation of three dimensional pn junction structures on this macroporous silicon. I-V and C-V measurement were employed to characterize the electrical properties. The results were compared with numeric simulation with T-SUPREM4 and MEDICI. It has been demonstrated that three-dimensional structure can increase the effective junction area and the collective efficiency remarkably, and hence improve the performance of semiconductor radiation detector.

  4. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring...... temperatures and oxidative atmosphere....... temperature induced failure. In our proof-of-principle demonstration a p-n junction device made from nanocrystalline silicon is at least comparable in its efficiency and power output to conventional devices of the same material and fabrication process, but with the advantage of sustaining high hot side...

  5. Uncooled CMOS terahertz imager using a metamaterial absorber and pn diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorcia, Ivonne; Grant, James; Gough, John; Cumming, David R S

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate a low-cost uncooled terahertz (THz) imager fabricated in a standard 180 nm CMOS process. The imager is composed of a broadband THz metamaterial absorber coupled with a diode microbolometer sensor where the pn junction is used as a temperature sensitive device. The metamaterial absorber array is integrated in the top metallic layers of a six metal layer process allowing for complete monolithic integration of the metamaterial absorber and sensor. We demonstrate the capability of the detector for stand-off imaging applications by using it to form transmission and reflection images of a metallic object hidden in a manila envelope.

  6. A P-N Sequence Generator Using LFSR with Dual Edge Trigger Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Naghwal Nitin Kumar; Kumar Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    This paper represents the design and implementation of a low power 4-bit LFSR using Dual edge triggered flip flop. A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is assembled by N number of flip flops connected in series and a combinational logic generally xor gate. An LFSR can generate random number sequence which acts as cipher in cryptography. A known text encrypted over long PN sequence, in order to improve security sequence made longer ie 128 bit; require long chain of flip flop leads to more p...

  7. Hybrid PN-SN Calculations with SAAF for the Multiscale Transport Capability in Rattlesnake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Two interface conditions, the Lagrange multiplier method and the upwinding method, for hybrid \\pn-\\sn calculations is proposed for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation of the transport equation using the continuous finite element method (FEM) for spatial discretization. These interface conditions are implemented in Rattlesnake, the radiation transport application built on MOOSE, for the on-going multiscale transport simulation effort at INL. For smoothing the solution at the interface for the Lagrange multiplier method, a method based on \\sn Lagrange interpolation on the sphere is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the interface conditions give the expected convergence.

  8. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  9. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Haber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Les articles réunis dans ce dossier de la revue Astérion portent sur la première génération de la Théorie critique (dont Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse et Erich Fromm constituent sans doute les figures principales. Ils se concentrent plus précisément sur les contributions philosophiques qui marquèrent la période ouverte par l’accession de Horkheimer à la direction de l’Institut de recherches sociales (1931 et close par la publication en 1944 de Dialektik...

  10. Prólogo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pin, Víctor

    1999-01-01

    Prólogo del número dedicado a Descartes Múltiples instituciones culturales y académicas del mundo entero (la UNESCO en primer lugar) celebraron en 1996 un singular acontecimiento: el nacimiento en 1596 del universalmente conocido como matemático y filósofo René Descartes. Escribo intencionalmente "universalmente conocido", en lugar de umversalmente reconocido por la sencilla razón de que no está claro que Descartes goce de lo que se entiendo por universal reconocimiento. Una simple encuest...

  11. Prólogo

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    2003-01-01

    Prólogo al libro: Cabezas Pérez, Francisco (2003): Las fuentes y el agua en Aguilar de la Frontera. (S. XVI al XIX). Aguilar, Excma. Diputación Provincial de Córdoba e Ilustrísimo Ayuntamiento de Aguilar, págs. 11-16 El contenido del libro que se prologa se desarrolla mediante un amplio recorrido histórico por las fuentes y manantiales históricos de Aguilar de la Frontera (Córdoba), con referencia asimismo a los problemas de abastecimiento que, en cada momento, se fueron produciendo. Ad...

  12. Interlayer Exciton Optoelectronics in a 2D Heterostructure p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jason S; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-02-08

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid-state-based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures have enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and a long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p-n junctions in a MoSe 2 -WSe 2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p-n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller than the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to the opposite layers. These results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  13. High-Speed Scalable Silicon-MoS2 P-N Heterojunction Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Veerendra; Das, Samaresh

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for ultrasensitive photodetector owing to its favourable band gap and high absorption coefficient. However, their commercial applications are limited by the lack of high quality p-n junction and large wafer scale fabrication process. A high speed Si/MoS2 p-n heterojunction photodetector with simple and CMOS compatible approach has been reported here. The large area MoS2 thin film on silicon platform has been synthesized by sulfurization of RF-sputtered MoO3 films. The fabricated molecular layers of MoS2 on silicon offers high responsivity up to 8.75 A/W (at 580 nm and 3 V bias) with ultra-fast response of 10 μsec (rise time). Transient measurements of Si/MoS2 heterojunction under the modulated light reveal that the devices can function up to 50 kHz. The Si/MoS2 heterojunction is found to be sensitive to broadband wavelengths ranging from visible to near-infrared light with maximum detectivity up to ≈1.4 × 1012 Jones (2 V bias). Reproducible low dark current and high responsivity from over 20 devices in the same wafer has been measured. Additionally, the MoS2/Si photodetectors exhibit excellent stability in ambient atmosphere. PMID:28281652

  14. Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Furchi, Marco M; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The limitations of the bulk semiconductors currently used in electronic devices-rigidity, heavy weight and high costs--have recently shifted the research efforts to two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene and atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides. These materials have the potential to be produced at low cost and in large areas, while maintaining high material quality. These properties, as well as their flexibility, make two-dimensional atomic crystals attractive for applications such as solar cells or display panels. The basic building blocks of optoelectronic devices are p-n junction diodes, but they have not yet been demonstrated in a two-dimensional material. Here, we report a p-n junction diode based on an electrostatically doped tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayer. We present applications as a photovoltaic solar cell, a photodiode and a light-emitting diode, and obtain light-power conversion and electroluminescence efficiencies of ∼ 0.5% and ∼ 0.1%, respectively. Given recent advances in the large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals, we expect them to profoundly impact future developments in solar, lighting and display technologies.

  15. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  16. Flexible Photodiodes Based on Nitride Core/Shell p-n Junction Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hezhi; Dai, Xing; Guan, Nan; Messanvi, Agnes; Neplokh, Vladimir; Piazza, Valerio; Vallo, Martin; Bougerol, Catherine; Julien, François H; Babichev, Andrey; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Bescond, Marc; Michelini, Fabienne; Foldyna, Martin; Gautier, Eric; Durand, Christophe; Eymery, Joël; Tchernycheva, Maria

    2016-10-05

    A flexible nitride p-n photodiode is demonstrated. The device consists of a composite nanowire/polymer membrane transferred onto a flexible substrate. The active element for light sensing is a vertical array of core/shell p-n junction nanowires containing InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown by MOVPE. Electron/hole generation and transport in core/shell nanowires are modeled within nonequilibrium Green function formalism showing a good agreement with experimental results. Fully flexible transparent contacts based on a silver nanowire network are used for device fabrication, which allows bending the detector to a few millimeter curvature radius without damage. The detector shows a photoresponse at wavelengths shorter than 430 nm with a peak responsivity of 0.096 A/W at 370 nm under zero bias. The operation speed for a 0.3 × 0.3 cm(2) detector patch was tested between 4 Hz and 2 kHz. The -3 dB cutoff was found to be ∼35 Hz, which is faster than the operation speed for typical photoconductive detectors and which is compatible with UV monitoring applications.

  17. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph; Maculewicz, Franziska; Stoetzel, Julia; Wiggers, Hartmut; Thanh Hung, Le; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Span, Gerhard; Wolf, Dietrich E.; Schmechel, Roland; Schierning, Gabi

    2018-01-01

    In many industrial processes, a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal–semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against temperature induced failure. In our proof-of-principle demonstration, a p-n junction device made from nanocrystalline silicon is at least comparable in its efficiency and power output to conventional devices of the same material and fabrication process, but with the advantage of sustaining high hot side temperatures and oxidative atmosphere.

  18. Horizontal Silicon Nanowires with Radial p-n Junctions: A Platform for Unconventional Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Pinion, Christopher W; Christesen, Joseph D; Flynn, Cory J; Celano, Thomas A; Cahoon, James F

    2013-06-20

    The silicon p-n junction is the most successful solar energy technology to date, yet it accounts for a marginal percentage of worldwide energy production. To change the status quo, a disruptive technological breakthrough is needed. In this Perspective, we discuss the potential for complex silicon nanowires to serve as a platform for next-generation photovoltaic devices. We review the synthesis, electrical characteristics, and optical properties of core/shell silicon nanowires that are subwavelength in diameter and contain radial p-n junctions. We highlight the unique features of these nanowires, such as optical antenna effects that concentrate light and intense built-in electric fields that enable ultrafast charge-carrier separation. We advocate a paradigm in which nanowires are arranged in periodic horizontal arrays to form ultrathin devices. Unlike conventional planar silicon, nanowire structures provide the flexibility to incorporate multiple semiconductor, dielectric, and metallic materials in a single system, providing the foundation for a disruptive, unconventional solar energy technology.

  19. The problem of crowd crimes: the approach of P.N. Obninskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbatov D.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the specific approach to crowd crimes proposed by prominent Russian lawyer and public figure of the XIX century P.N. Obninskiy. We clarify its fundamental differences from other concepts of Russian and foreign psychologists and lawyers. Particular attention is paid to the P.N. Obninskiy treatment of possible sanity and responsibility of participants of mass cholera riots of the late XIX century in various regions of the Russian Empire. We reveal the moral potential of his views. Crowd as a social associations, the personality changes in the crowd, the crowd propensity to violate the law, the issue of punishment for crimes committed by it – these are some of the questions that interested the public opinion of the time. The article emphasizes that the lack of trust and lack of equal dialogue between representatives of different social groups have played a negative role in the development of «contagion morale», and later became reasons for the even more tragic events of Russian history.

  20. Infrared detector based on interband transition of semiconductor quantum well within p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Jie; Jia, Haiqiang; Wang, Wenxin; Wang, Lu; Chen, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Resonant excited carriers in quantum well will relax to the ground states and cannot escape from quantum wells to form photocurrent. However, it was recently observed that most of the photo-excited carriers in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells within a p-n junction escape from quantum wells and form photocurrent rather than relax to the ground state of the quantum wells. The absorption coefficient of multiple quantum wells is also enhanced by a p-n junction. According to the phenomenon, a novel photon detector based on interband transition of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells was fabricated. Without an anti-reflection layer, the external quantum efficiency up to 31% with only 100 nm absorption thickness was measured, corresponding an absorption coefficient of 3.7×104 cm-1 that is obviously higher than previously reported values. The room temperature detectivity of the device was 1.43×1013 cm Hz1/2 W-1. For strained InAsSb/GaSb quantum wells material system, the detector showed a narrow response range from 2.1 μm to 3.0 μm with a peak around 2.6 μm at 200 K and a wide response range from 3.5 μm to 5.7 μm. The photon detectors based on interband transition show great potential applications in infrared detection operating at high temperature.

  1. Fabrication of a GaN p/n lateral polarity junction by polar doping selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazo, Ramon; Mita, Seiji; Rice, Anthony; Dalmau, Rafael; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Wellenius, Patrick; Muth, John [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The difference in surface energy between the Ga-polar orientation and the N-polar orientation of GaN translates into a completely different behavior for the incorporation of intentional and unintentional impurities. Oxygen is found to be an impurity with higher concentration in N-polar films than in Ga-polar films and is the cause for the high carrier concentration observed in N-polar films. We fabricated a lateral p/n junction in GaN by the simultaneous growth of p- and n-type regions, utilizing the doping selectivity of the two different polar domains, which resulted in an n-type carrier concentration of 1.7x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} with an electron Hall mobility of 99 cm{sup 2}/Vs in the N-polar domains, and a p-type carrier concentration of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} with a hole Hall mobility of 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs in the Ga-polar domains. These junctions showed the characteristics that define a p/n junction: current rectification, electroluminescence, and photo-effect. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. XSHOOTER spectroscopy of the enigmatic PN Lin49 in the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Ochsendorf, Bram B.; Peeters, Els; Scicluna, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C60-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal-deficient PN (Z~0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25 M ⊙ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001. By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photoionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ~1-5 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star.

  3. Lateral MoS2 p-n junction formed by chemical doping for use in high-performance optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Sup; Qu, Deshun; Lee, Daeyeong; Liu, Xiaochi; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yoo, Won Jong

    2014-09-23

    This paper demonstrates a technique to form a lateral homogeneous 2D MoS2 p-n junction by partially stacking 2D h-BN as a mask to p-dope MoS2. The fabricated lateral MoS2 p-n junction with asymmetric electrodes of Pd and Cr/Au displayed a highly efficient photoresponse (maximum external quantum efficiency of ∼7000%, specific detectivity of ∼5 × 10(10) Jones, and light switching ratio of ∼10(3)) and ideal rectifying behavior. The enhanced photoresponse and generation of open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) were understood to originate from the formation of a p-n junction after chemical doping. Due to the high photoresponse at low VD and VG attributed to its built-in potential, our MoS2 p-n diode made progress toward the realization of low-power operating photodevices. Thus, this study suggests an effective way to form a lateral p-n junction by the h-BN hard masking technique and to improve the photoresponse of MoS2 by the chemical doping process.

  4. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Rydberg Sterner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI assesses gender identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the PN-SRI in a population of 70-year-olds within the Gothenburg H70-study in Sweden. The overarching objective of testing the PN-SRI within the H70-study was to evaluate its usability to further study gender identity in large population-based samples of older adults. A total of 1124 individuals participated in the psychometric testing. A sub-sample of these (n = 406 provided a comprehensive survey regarding societal norms on femininity and masculinity. Reliability and validity tests were performed using Cronbach’s Alpha and factor analyses. The Cronbach’s α coefficients (0.734–0.787 indicated a satisfactory level of internal consistency, and the four-factor model (Model 2 fitted the data at an acceptable level (root-mean-square error of approximation, RMSEA = 0.068, standardized root-mean-square residual, SRMR = 0.07. This cross-cultural adaptation of the PN-SRI indicates that it may be applicable in a Swedish research setting comprising older adults. Future research is needed to further test the psychometric properties of this scale. Adding the PN-SRI to population-based studies will contribute to providing a nuanced way of analyzing differences and similarities among men and women.

  5. Common variable immunodeficiency and IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama hemochromatosis probands homozygous for HFE C282Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Acton, Ronald T

    2003-01-01

    Eight hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity had frequent, severe, or unusual infections and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) or immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD). Thus, we performed serum Ig isotyping and other characterization of 43 additional unselected probands, 5 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings, and 240 consecutive CVID or IgGSD index patients. C282Y allele frequencies were estimated in 58 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in 341 controls. HLA-A and -B haplotypes and frequencies were determined in all 51 probands, 186 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes, and 751 controls. Thirteen unselected probands (30%) had CVID or IgGSD. Among all 21 hemochromatosis probands with CVID (n = 4) or IgGSD (n = 17), Ig subclass deficiency patterns were IgG(1) (n = 5), IgG(1) and IgG(3) (n = 6), IgG(3) (n = 9), and IgG(1), IgG(3), and IgG(4) (n = 1). IgG(2) or IgA deficiency was not detected; one proband had IgM deficiency. Mean values of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(3) were significantly lower in probands with CVID or IgGSD. Mean values of age, transferrin saturation, and ferritin at diagnosis and phlebotomy units required to induce iron depletion were similar in probands with or without CVID or IgGSD; phlebotomy had no apparent effect on IgG levels. C282Y frequencies were similar in CVID or IgGSD index cases without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in controls. There was concordance of Ig and hemochromatosis phenotypes in probands and respective HLA-identical siblings. Eight of 240 CVID or IgGSD index patients had hemochromatosis phenotypes and C282Y homozygosity (3 vs 0.7% and 0.2% controls; P IgG abnormalities characteristic of CVID or IgGSD are common in hemochromatosis probands, and that the prevalence of hemochromatosis is increased in CVID and IgGSD index cases. These observations could be explained by the increased frequencies of HLA-A*03-B*07 in C282Y

  6. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ménard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La piraterie est un phénomène fort complexe qui remonte à la nuit des temps. Déjà 5 000 ans avant J.-C., des exactions sont mentionnées en mer Egée et Méditerranée. Jules César en sera même l’une des célèbres victimes, mais saura prendre, au moment voulu, sa revanche. Tout au long des siècles, le processus restera récurrent (Atlantique, Antilles…, trouvant son apogée dans le premier quart du XIXe siècle avec l’intervention directe de l’U.S. Navy sous la férule de Thomas Jefferson, Président ...

  7. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Petite

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux auteurs, depuis une quinzaine d’années, n’ont cessé de diagnostiquer une inflation patrimoniale (Choay, 1996 ; Rautenberg, 2003 ; Heinich, 2009 qu’ils ont attribué à l’élargissement considérable tant des types d’objets susceptibles d’être patrimonialisés que du champ temporel que ceux-ci pouvaient représenter. Ce numéro spécial de la Revue de géographie alpine s’intéresse à cet élargissement typologique et chronologique du patrimoine. Plus précisément, les quatre contributions s’...

  8. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le changement climatique revêt en ce début de millénaire les habits de « mal du siècle » prédisant, à l’horizon 2100, un véritable cataclysme pour les sociétés humaines et leur organisation. Par delà le catastrophisme, les bouleversements induits par l’évolution du climat sur nos pratiques de gestion des territoires sont une réalité. Plus que de céder aux sirènes d’un discours alarmiste, il devient indispensable de se doter d’une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes de ces changements et d’e...

  9. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arondel Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En juillet 2001, s’est tenu à Strasbourg un colloque de recherche sur les lipides des plantes. Nous présentons ici des articles correspondant à cinq des conférences qui y ont été données. Un point déterminant la qualité des huiles de plantes réside dans leur degré d’insaturation. Cette caractéristique est déterminée par des enzymes appelées désaturases et les gènes codant pour ces enzymes peuvent être utilisés comme marqueurs moléculaires….

  10. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh N’Guirane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le 18 Mars 2011, une journée d’étude sur le thème : « Le parti Libéral au Royaume-Uni hier et aujourd’hui / The Liberal Party in Britain 1906-­1924 Past and Present » était organisée conjointement par le MIMMOC (Université de Poitiers et le Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Américaines de Tours (GRAAT. Nous en proposons ci-dessous un compte rendu qui ne restitue qu’une partie seulement des nombreuses et riches échanges de cette journée.À partir d’une brève présentation des intervenants, Susan Find...

  11. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Duvillard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le moment est opportun, la question foncière est de retour, légitimée par presque une décennie (2001-2008 d’augmentation continue des prix de l’immobilier. De « sommets » , en articles de presse, la montagne et les Alpes en particulier font l’objet, dans ce domaine, d’une attention toute particulière. Le contexte est ici délicat. Les sociétés alpines sont partagées entre désir de préservation d’une forte identité montagnarde et crainte d’une « déprise » économique (agricole, touristique et/...

  12. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Monod Becquelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches présentées dans ce volume sont issues des travaux de chercheurs qui se réunissent régulièrement depuis 2005 sur le thème de l’« Agentivité ». Ce groupe rassemble des ethnologues et des linguistes du Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (umr 7186, cnrs/université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, du Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale (umr 7130, Collège de France/ehess Paris/cnrs, de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, de l’Institut des hautes étude...

  13. STRATEGIJSKA ULOGA PR U SPORTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Tomić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PR in the modern world are developed with rapid speed and become important aspect of strategic management. Modern menagers are very interesting in PR and they observe that there is not successful strategy without experiance theory and practice in PR. The goals must be defined, basic phylosophy to, and managers must take responsability and describe everithing what they have to do. It must be financial fond and evaluation must be done

  14. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leger Claude-Louis

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce qui frappe aujourd’hui, c’est une évolution rapide des connaissances sur les quatre vitamines liposolubles qui font l’objet des revues générales présentées dans ce dossier, et plus particulièrement peut-être sur les vitamines A, D et E. On savait ces vitamines indispensables en raison de leur implication dans les réactions cellulaires, pas uniquement métaboliques d’ailleurs, mais on ne pouvait les soupçonner d’intervenir dans des phénomènes complexes touchant aux régulations cellulaires et à l’expression des gènes avant l’explosion des techniques de biologie moléculaire. Ces trois vitamines ont ainsi, entre autres, la capacité de réguler la prolifération et la différenciation cellulaire selon des mécanismes qui peuvent paraître différents aujourd’hui dans certains cas (pour la vitamine E par exemple, ou souvent proches (cas des vitamine A et D. Les quatre vitamines sont capables en revanche d’intervenir dans la mort cellulaire programmée (apoptose. Dans le cas du tissu osseux, ce sont les vitamines A, D et K qui agissent sur l’accrétion calcique. La vitamine E, quant à elle, pourrait prévenir, au moins théoriquement, l’ostéoporose.

  15. Simulation and parametric analysis of graphene p-n junctions with two rectangular top gates and a single back gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforidis, Ioannis; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.; Dimitrakis, Panagiotis

    2018-02-01

    Graphene p-n junctions could be the building blocks of future nanoelectronic circuits. While the conductance modulation of graphene p-n junctions formed in devices with one bottom and one top gate have received much attention, there is comparatively little work done on devices with two top gates. Here, we employ tight-bind Hamiltonians and non-equilibrium Green function method to compute in a systematic way the dependence of the conductance of graphene p-n junctions, formed in a device with two top gates, on the device parameters. We present our results in a compact and systematic way, so that the effect of each parameter is clearly shown. Our results show that the device conductance can be effectively modulated, and that graphene devices with two top gates may be used as basic elements in future carbon-based nanoelectronic circuits.

  16. A livelock control policy for a flexible manufacturing system modeling with a subclass of generalized Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Hou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Livelocks, like deadlocks, can result in the serious problems in running process of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs as well. Current deadlock control policies based on the approaches of siphon detection and control, cannot cope with livelocks in a system of sequential systems with shared resources (S4R, a typical subclass of Petri nets that can model FMSs. On the basis of the mixed integer programming method, this study proposes a livelock control policy (LCP that can not only solve the new smart siphons (NSSs associated with livelocks or deadlocks in an S4R system directly, but also make the solved NSSs max′-controlled by adding the corresponding control places (CPs. As a result, an original S4R system with livelocks or deadlocks can be turned into the live controlled one in which no NSSs can be found. The related theoretical analysis and several examples are given to demonstrate the proposed LCP. Compared with the existing methods in the literature, the proposed one is more general and powerful.

  17. Probing the specificity of the subclass B3 FEZ-1 metallo-beta-lactamase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Paola Sandra; García-Sáez, Isabel; De Vriendt, Kris; Thamm, Iris; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Dideberg, Otto; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Frère, Jean-Marie; Galleni, Moreno

    2004-08-06

    The subclass B3 FEZ-1 beta-lactamase produced by Fluoribacter (Legionella) gormanii is a Zn(II)-containing enzyme that hydrolyzes the beta-lactam bond in penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. FEZ-1 has been extensively studied using kinetic, computational modeling and x-ray crystallography. In an effort to probe residues potentially involved in substrate binding and zinc binding, five site-directed mutants of FEZ-1 (H121A, Y156A, S221A, N225A, and Y228A) were prepared and characterized using metal analyses and steady state kinetics. The activity of H121A is dependent on zinc ion concentration. The H121A monozinc form is less active than the dizinc form, which exhibits an activity similar to that of the wild type enzyme. Tyr156 is not essential for binding and hydrolysis of the substrate. Substitution of residues Ser221 and Asn225 modifies the substrate profile by selectively decreasing the activity against carbapenems. The Y228A mutant is inhibited by the product formed upon hydrolysis of cephalosporins. A covalent bond between the side chain of Cys200 and the hydrolyzed cephalosporins leads to the formation of an inactive and stable complex.

  18. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS

  19. Construction of two-dimensional MoS₂/CdS p-n nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Zhenping; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-08-18

    2D MoS2 nanosheets have been utilized to fabricate 2D MoS2/CdS p-n nanohybrids through a one-pot solvothermal process. Due to the unique p-n junction heterostructure, large specific surface area, and decreased band gap, MoS2/CdS nanohybrids manifested a superior H2 -production rate of ~137 μmol h(-1) under visible-light irradiation and an apparent quantum yield of 10.5% at 450 nm. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHUL,RANDY J.; ZHANG,LEI; BACA,ALBERT G.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE; HAN,JUNG; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.

    1999-11-03

    Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3}/Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions ({le} 500 W), pressures {ge}2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V.

  1. ZnO PN Junctions for Highly-Efficient, Low-Cost Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Norton; Stephen Pearton; Fan Ren

    2007-09-30

    By 2015, the US Department of Energy has set as a goal the development of advanced solid state lighting technologies that are more energy efficient, longer lasting, and more cost-effective than current technology. One approach that is most attractive is to utilize light-emitting diode technologies. Although III-V compound semiconductors have been the primary focus in pursuing this objective, ZnO-based materials present some distinct advantages that could yield success in meeting this objective. As with the nitrides, ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor whose gap energy (3.2 eV) can be tuned from 3.0 to 4 eV with substitution of Mg for higher bandgap, Cd for lower bandgap. ZnO has an exciton binding energy of 60 meV, which is larger than that for the nitrides, indicating that it should be a superior light emitting semiconductor. Furthermore, ZnO thin films can be deposited at temperatures on the order of 400-600 C, which is significantly lower than that for the nitrides and should lead to lower manufacturing costs. It has also been demonstrated that functional ZnO electronic devices can be fabricated on inexpensive substrates, such as glass. Therefore, for the large-area photonic application of solid state lighting, ZnO holds unique potential. A significant impediment to exploiting ZnO in light-emitting applications has been the absence of effective p-type carrier doping. However, the recent realization of acceptor-doped ZnO material overcomes this impediment, opening the door to ZnO light emitting diode development In this project, the synthesis and properties of ZnO-based pn junctions for light emitting diodes was investigated. The focus was on three issues most pertinent to realizing a ZnO-based solid state lighting technology, namely (1) achieving high p-type carrier concentrations in epitaxial and polycrystalline films, (2) realizing band edge emission from pn homojunctions, and (3) investigating pn heterojunction constructs that should yield efficient light

  2. Spin-Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometry in Topological Insulator p-n Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Roni; de Juan, Fernando; Moore, Joel E

    2015-08-28

    Transport in three-dimensional topological insulators relies on the existence of a spin-momentum locked surface state that encloses the insulating bulk. In this work we show how, in a topological insulator p-n junction, a magnetic field turns this surface state into an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Transmission of the junction can be tuned from zero to unity, resulting in virtually perfect visibility of the interference pattern, and the reflected and transmitted currents carry opposite spin polarization so that the junction also acts as a spin filter. Our setup therefore realizes a novel and highly tunable spintronic device where the effects of spin-momentum locking in topological insulator surface states can be probed directly in a transport experiment.

  3. Complete gate control of supercurrent in graphene p-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Gil-Ho; Park, Sunghun; Jeong, Dongchan; Lee, Jeong-O; Sim, H-S; Doh, Yong-Joo; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In a conventional Josephson junction of graphene, the supercurrent is not turned off even at the charge neutrality point, impeding further development of superconducting quantum information devices based on graphene. Here we fabricate bipolar Josephson junctions of graphene, in which a p-n potential barrier is formed in graphene with two closely spaced superconducting contacts, and realize supercurrent ON/OFF states using electrostatic gating only. The bipolar Josephson junctions of graphene also show fully gate-driven macroscopic quantum tunnelling behaviour of Josephson phase particles in a potential well, where the confinement energy is gate tuneable. We suggest that the supercurrent OFF state is mainly caused by a supercurrent dephasing mechanism due to a random pseudomagnetic field generated by ripples in graphene, in sharp contrast to other nanohybrid Josephson junctions. Our study may pave the way for the development of new gate-tuneable superconducting quantum information devices.

  4. Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Blake; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2016-01-01

    [abridged] Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but nonnegligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasi-circular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. The quasi-Keplerian formalism provides an elegant but complex description of the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit the non-periodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be ex...

  5. PEMBATALAN MEREK DI PENGADILAN NIAGA MEDAN (Studi Putusan No. 03/Merek/2008/PN.Niaga/Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandras Mandras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Filosofi perlindungan atas kekayaan intelektual yang bermanfaat bagi pengembangan ekonomi dan teknologi bagi mayarakat lokal yang pertama A Normative Justification dan Kedua A Nationalistic Justification. Adapun manfaat yang bisa dirasakan oleh masyarakat, yaitu mereka mendapatkan barang yang asli, bukan tiruan. Akan tumbuh juga di dalam masyarakat semangat untuk terus berkreasi karena telah merasakan manfaat positifnya. Adanya kreativitas yang tinggi di antara sesama produsen diharapkan bisa meningkatkan daya saing produk karena selalu ada inovasi. Merek diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 15 Tahun 2001, dimana merek sendiri merupakan bagian salah satu Hak Kekayaan Intelektual, yang merupakan ”hak milik” seseorang/beberapa orang secara bersama-sama bersifat mutlak, eksklusif serta mempunyai jangka waktu yang terbatas. Sebagai kekayaan bagi pemiliknya, merek mempunyai manfaat dan berguna bagi kehidupan manusia serta bernilai ekonomis. Sebagai hak kekayaan intelektual merek juga memiliki aspek sengketa, dimana dalam kajian ini akan dibahas tentang pembatalan merek dengan menganalisis Putusan No. 03/Merek/2008/PN.Niaga/Medan.

  6. Are serum levels of immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses involved in delayed pulmonary complications induced by sulfur mustard? Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Mostafaie, Ali; Yaraee, Roya; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Rezaei, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Soroush, Mohammad R; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2013-11-01

    Respiratory complications are the foremost long term debilitating effects after sulfur mustard toxicity. The underlying immunological mechanisms of sulfur mustard induced lung damage are still poorly understood. The question of the involvement of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in delayed pulmonary complications induced by SM was addressed in this study as a part of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).In SICS, 372 male participants who were exposed to SM 20 years earlier were compared with 128 unexposed age-matched controls. At the time of study (2007), the clinical evaluations and spirometry was performed for all subjects according to the American Thoracic Society Criteria, and at the same time, the sera were isolated, labeled and aliquots were kept frozen in -80°C. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) were measured using quantitative Elisa method. It was found that among immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses only IgM and IgG4 were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of exposed cases. IgM level also positively correlated with FEV1 only in the SM exposed group. These results indicated a weak but significant role for IgA in control of the delayed pulmonary complications. There were no strong correlations between other immunoglobulin classes or IgG subclasses with pulmonary disease severity in sulfur mustard intoxicated subjects. The authors proposed that systemic levels of immunoglobulins do not exert essential roles in severity of delayed pulmonary complications following SM toxicity. However, more studies on local and systemic levels of immunoglobulins in more severe groups are suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pattern of pre-existing IgG subclass responses to a panel of asexual stage malaria antigens reported during the lengthy dry season in Daraweesh, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasr, A; Iriemenam, N C; Troye-Blomberg, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-malarial IgG immune response during the lengthy and dry season in areas of low malaria transmission as in Eastern Sudan is largely unknown. In this study, ELISA was used for the measurement of pre-existing total IgG and IgG subclasses to a panel of malaria antigens, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27...

  8. Sudan ebolavirus long recovered survivors produce GP-specific Abs that are of the IgG1 subclass and preferentially bind FcγRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinsky, Olga; Edri, Avishay; Brusilovsky, Michael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Sobarzo, Ariel; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Lutwama, Julius; Dye, John; Lobel, Leslie; Porgador, Angel

    2017-07-20

    Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs. We developed a cell-based reporter system to quantitate pathogen-specific antibody binding to FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB and FcγRI. With this system, we demonstrate that anti-GP-specific stimulation of the FcγRI reporter by survivors' sera was substantially high one year after acute infection, with a slight reduction in activity over a decade post infection. We further demonstrate that GP-specific IgG1 is by far the seroprevalent subclass that retained and even enhanced its presence in the sera, over ten years post infection; the prevalence of other GP-specific IgG subclasses was considerably reduced over time. In accordance, GP-specific FcγRI reporter response and GP-specific total IgG1 subclass correlated in the studied group of Ebola survivors. These observations are important for further informing Ebola vaccine and therapeutic development.

  9. PR's involvement in International Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1995-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the Research Station for Cattle, Sheep and Horse Husbandry (in Dutch abbreviated as PR) bridges the gap between more basic and disciplinary research done at universities and research institutes on the one hand and the extension service and the farmers on the other hand. The PR

  10. p-n Heterojunction of doped graphene films obtained by pyrolysis of biomass precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Primo, Ana; Atienzar, Pedro; Forneli, Amparo; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-02-25

    Nitrogen-doped graphene [(N)G] obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C of nanometric chitosan films exhibits a Hall effect characteristic of n-type semiconductors. In contrast, boron-doped graphene [(B)G] obtained by pyrolysis of borate ester of alginate behaves as a p-type semiconductor based also on the Hall effect. A p-n heterojunction of (B)G-(N)G films is built by stepwise coating of a quartz plate using a mask. The heterojunction is created by the partial overlapping of the (B)G-(N)G films. Upon irradiation with a xenon lamp of aqueous solutions of H(2) PtCl(6) and MnCl(2) in contact with the heterojunction, preferential electron migration from (B)G to (N)G with preferential location of positive holes on (B)G is established by observation in scanning electron microscopy of the formation of Pt nanoparticles (NP) on (N)G and MnO(2) NP on (B)G. The benefits of the heterojunction with respect to the devices having one individual component as a consequence of the electron migration through the p-n heterojunction are illustrated by measuring the photocurrent in the (B)G-(N)G heterojunction (180% current enhancement with respect to the dark current) and compared it to the photocurrent of the individual (B)G (15% enhancement) and (N)G (55% enhancement) components. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S; Begnaud, M; Ballard, S; Pasyanos, M; Phillips, W S; Ramirez, A; Antolik, M; Hutchenson, K; Dwyer, J; Rowe, C; Wagner, G

    2009-03-19

    We develop a Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model and methods to account for the first-order effect of the three-dimensional crust and upper mantle on travel times. The model parameterization is a global tessellation of nodes with a velocity profile at each node. Interpolation of the velocity profiles generates a 3-dimensional crust and laterally variable upper mantle velocity. The upper mantle velocity profile at each node is represented as a linear velocity gradient, which enables travel time computation in approximately 1 millisecond. This computational speed allows the model to be used in routine analyses in operational monitoring systems. We refine the model using a tomographic formulation that adjusts the average crustal velocity, mantle velocity at the Moho, and the mantle velocity gradient at each node. While the RSTT model is inherently global and our ultimate goal is to produce a model that provides accurate travel time predictions over the globe, our first RSTT tomography effort covers Eurasia and North Africa, where we have compiled a data set of approximately 600,000 Pn arrivals that provide path coverage over this vast area. Ten percent of the tomography data are randomly selected and set aside for testing purposes. Travel time residual variance for the validation data is reduced by 32%. Based on a geographically distributed set of validation events with epicenter accuracy of 5 km or better, epicenter error using 16 Pn arrivals is reduced by 46% from 17.3 km (ak135 model) to 9.3 km after tomography. Relative to the ak135 model, the median uncertainty ellipse area is reduced by 68% from 3070 km{sup 2} to 994 km{sup 2}, and the number of ellipses with area less than 1000 km{sup 2}, which is the area allowed for onsite inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, is increased from 0% to 51%.

  12. The catabolism of human γG immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses. III. The catabolism of heavy chain disease proteins and of Fc fragments of myeloma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, H. L.; Fishkin, B. G.

    1972-01-01

    The catabolism of 131I and 125I paired labelled Fc fragments of myeloma proteins and of H chain disease proteins of different heavy chain subclasses was studied in men and monkeys. In contrast to the previously demonstrated catabolic heterogeneity of intact γG immunoglobulins, the Fc fragments and H chain disease proteins of all subclasses tested were catabolized at a similar rate. These data suggest that structures not present on the Fc fragments are responsible for the faster turnover rate of γG3 immunoglobulins and for the differences in half-lives of myeloma proteins within a given subclass. The catabolic features of the H chain disease proteins differed from those of intact γG. Although the whole body half-lives of the two proteins were similar, the fractional turnover rate of the H chain disease proteins was higher than that of γG, on the average 8% of the intravascular pool/day as compared to 4% for γG. One-half to 1% of the intravascular pool of the H chain disease protein and less than 0·1% of the γG was excreted into the urine. An average of 24% of the H chain disease proteins and 44% of the γG equilibrated into the intravascular compartment. PMID:4624553

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black coral Chrysopathes formosa (Cnidaria:Anthozoa:Antipatharia) supports classification of antipatharians within the subclass Hexacorallia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugler, Mercer R; France, Scott C

    2007-03-01

    Black corals comprise a globally distributed shallow- and deep-water taxon whose phylogenetic position within the Anthozoa has been debated. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the antipatharian Chrysopathes formosa to further evaluate its phylogenetic relationships. The circular mitochondrial genome (18,398 bp) consists of 13 energy pathway protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNAs, but only two transfer RNA genes (trnM and trnW), as well as a group I intron within the nad5 gene that contains the only copies of nad1 and nad3. No novel genes were found in the antipatharian mitochondrial genome. Gene order and genome content are most similar to those of the sea anemone Metridium senile (subclass Hexacorallia), with differences being the relative location of three contiguous genes (cox2-nad4-nad6) and absence (from the antipatharian) of a group I intron within the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple protein-coding genes support classifying the Antipatharia within the subclass Hexacorallia and not the subclass Ceriantipatharia; however, the sister-taxon relationships of black corals within Hexacorallia remain inconclusive.

  14. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  15. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  16. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-suppressing major kafirin sub-classes is fundamental to improved protein digestibility and nutritional value of sorghum. The improvement is linked to an irregularly invaginated phenotype of protein bodies....

  17. Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyeon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.

  18. Electrostatically tunable lateral MoTe2 p-n junction for use in high-performance optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Feng; Yin, Lei; Huang, Yun; Xu, Kai; Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; He, Jun

    2016-07-21

    Because of their ultimate thickness, layered structure and high flexibility, pn junctions based on layered two-dimensional semiconductors have been attracting increasing attention recently. In this study, for the first time, we fabricated lateral pn junctions (LPNJs) based on ultrathin MoTe2 by introducing two separated electrostatic back gates, and investigated their electronic and photovoltaic performance. Pn, np, nn, and pp junctions can be easily realized by modulating the conductive channel type using gate voltages with different polarities. Strong rectification effects were observed in the pn and np junctions and the rectification ratio reached ∼5 × 10(4). Importantly, we find a unique phenomenon that the parameters for MoTe2 LPNJs experience abrupt changes during the transition from p to n or n to p. Furthermore, a high performance photovoltaic device with a filling factor of above 51% and electrical conversion efficiency (η) of around 0.5% is achieved. Our findings are of importance to comprehensively understand the electronic and optoelectronic properties of MoTe2 and may further open up novel electronic and optoelectronic device applications.

  19. Formation of a Stable p-n Junction in a Liquid-Gated MoS2 Ambipolar Transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Ye, J. T.; Yornogida, Y.; Takenobu, T.; Iwasa, Y.

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has gained attention because of its high mobility and circular dichroism. As a crucial step to merge these advantages into a single device, we present a method that electronically controls and locates p-n junctions in liquid-gated ambipolar MoS2 transistors. A

  20. The behavior of series resistance of a p-n junction: the diode and the solar cell cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Poliana H.; Costa, Diogo F.; Eick, Alexander; Carvalho, André; Monteiro, Davies W. L.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the impact of the internal parasitic series resistance of a p-n junction, as seen from the microelectronics and photovoltaic communities. The elusive thermal behavior of the aforementioned resistance gave this work its origin. Each community uses a different approach to interpret the operational current-voltage behavior of a p-n junction, which might lead to confusion, since scientists and engineers of these two realms seldom interact. An improvement in the understanding of the different approaches will help one to better model the performance of devices based on p-n junctions and therefore it will favor the performance predictions of photovoltaic cells. For diodes, series resistance is usually determined from a specific forward-bias region of the I-V curve on a semi-logarithmic scale. However, in Photovoltaics this region is not commonly reported and therefore other methods to determine Rs are employed. We mathematically modeled an experimentally obtained I-V curve with various pairs of the ideality factor and Rs and found that more than one pair accurately synthesizes the measured curve. We can conclude that the reported series resistance not only depends on physical parameters, e.g. temperature or irradiance, but also on fitting parameters, i.e. the ideality factor. Generally the behavior of a p-n junction depends on its operating conditions and electrical modeling.

  1. The PN.S elliptical galaxy survey : Data reduction, planetary nebula catalog, and basic dynamics for NGC 3379

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, N. G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Coccato, L.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K. C.; Merrett, H. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Capaccioli, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results from Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN. S) observations of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 and a description of the data reduction pipeline. We detected 214 planetary nebulae, of which 191 are ascribed to NGC 3379 and 23 to the companion galaxy NGC 3384. Comparison with data from

  2. The effect of PN-1, a Traditional Chinese Prescription, on the Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1 consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and Aβ levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future.

  3. Lipoprotein subclass patterns in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with equally insulin-resistant women without PCOS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, N

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more insulin resistant and display an atherogenic lipid profile compared with normal women of similar body mass index (BMI). Insulin resistance (IR) at least partially underlies the dyslipidemia of PCOS, but it is unclear whether PCOS status per se confers additional risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a case-control design, we compared plasma lipids and lipoprotein subclasses (using polyacrylamide gel tube electrophoresis) in 70 women with PCOS (National Institutes of Health criteria) and 70 normal women pair matched for age, BMI, and IR (homeostasis model assessment-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and the Avignon Index). Subjects were identified as having a (less atherogenic) type A pattern consisting predominantly of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions or a (more atherogenic) non-A pattern consisting predominantly of small-dense LDL subfractions. RESULTS: Total, high-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, or triacylglycerol did not differ between the groups, but very low-density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05) were greater in women with PCOS, whereas a non-A LDL profile was seen in 12.9% compared with 2.9% of controls (P<0.05, chi2). Multiple regression analysis revealed homeostasis model assessment-IR and waist circumference to be independent predictors of very low-density lipoprotein together explaining 40.2% of the overall variance. Logistic regression revealed PCOS status to be the only independent determinant of a non-A LDL pattern (odds ratio 5.48 (95% confidence interval 1.082-27.77; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with women matched for BMI and IR, women with PCOS have potentially important differences in lipid profile with greater very low-density lipoprotein levels and increased rates of a more atherogenic non-A LDL pattern.

  4. Differential suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells by several subclasses of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Long; Chen, Chun-ye; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Qian-yong; Zhu, Jun-dong; Mi, Man-tian

    2012-09-01

    Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for vascular endothelial dysfunction, a key step in the initiating of atherosclerosis (AS). The antioxidant activity of flavonoids has been suggested to contribute to AS prevention. However, The association of the structure characteristics to antioxidant capacities in relation to the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction has not been well established. In this study, four subclasses of flavonoids with similar structures, including two anthocyanins (delphinidin and cyanidin), two flavonols (myricetin and quercetin), two flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and two isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) were examined for their inhibitory effects on intracellular ROS-mediated signaling pathway in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell EA.hy926. Cells were pretreated with different flavonoids for 2 h and then exposed to oxLDL of 100 μg/ml for another 24 h. It was found that treatment with different flavonoids alone had no notable effects on cell viability. However, the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, generation of O(2)(·-) and ROS, p38MAPK activation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB-modulated transcriptional activity as well as the mRNA expression of genes including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were notably inhibited by the pretreatment of different flavonoids through blunting ROS-triggered signaling pathway, in spite of apparent differences. And the number of hydroxyl groups in total, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl in B-ring and 3-hydroxyl group in C-ring of flavonoids were important structure characteristics for the inhibitory effects. Thus, anthocyanins and flavonols such as delphinidin and myricetin exert higher ROS scavenging activities and more significant endothelium-protective effects compared to the other compounds. Our results provide evidence for AS prevention and a basis for designing the potent anti-atherosclerotic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  5. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, Tayssir

    2005-05-01

    Né simultanément à Mulhouse et à Beyrouth en 1996 dans le cadre d'une collaboraiion franco-libanaise sur une initiative personnelle de Monsieur Tayssir HAMIEH. le Colloque Franco-Libanais sur la Science des Matériaux (CSM), qui s'inscrit dans le cadre des relations étroites entre la France et le Liban, est très vite devenu une occasion très importante de rencontre entre scientifiques de haut niveau, non seulement, du contour méditerranéen mais également des pays européens, américains et arabes. La quatrieme édition CSM4 est une véritable réussite grâce à la participation des chercheurs confirmés dans tous les domaines des sciences de matériaux et venant de plusieurs pays tels que la France, I'Algérie, Le Liban, la Syrie, le Maroc, la Tunisie, l'Italie, l'Espagne, le Portugal, le Royaume Uni, les États-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne, le Japon et I'Inde ; pour présenter plus de 350 communications orales et par affiche et couvrant presque toutes les disciplines des systèmes des matériaux. Le choix des diffèrents thèmes du colloque sur la science des matériaux a été dicté par l'importance capitale de cette discipline dans notre civilisation moderne. En fait, les matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication artisanale ou industrielle d'objets, de produits et de systèmes ainsi que pour la réalisation de constructions et d'équipements ont de tout temps défini le niveau de notre civilisation technique. La réalisation des objectifs communs de notre monde en plein développement, pour ne pas dire en pleine mutation, est en grande partie tributaire de la mise au point de nouveaux matériaux et de procédés de transformation et d'assemblages nouveaux, présentant des performances et des qualités améliorées. Le colloque a illustré et traduit, de manière remarquables, l'excellente collaboration entre chercheurs libanais et français. Le partenariat est exemplaire par la qualité des laboratoires impliqués et par le niveau scientifique des r

  6. Prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Suzzane Hooker Blandford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen No. 20, presenta una compilación estructurada en 5 secciones, las cuales comprenden 9 artículos, en el área de Educación: Estrategias de evaluación en la enseñanza de los algoritmos de factorización en noveno grado de Educación Secundaria. La segunda sección, en Ciencias Sociales: 2 Alianza estratégica entre Venezuela y Nicaragua para la construcción de una refinería petrolera; 3 Breves consideraciones sobre el código aduanero del MERCOSUR (CAM. Fuentes y antecedentes de creación; 4. Plan de Desarrollo Municipal como herramienta de gestión pública de la ciudad de Siuna, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua. En la tercera sección, Salud: 5 Hombres creole y cáncer de próstata en Bluefields, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua. En la cuarta sección, Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente: 6 Calidad del agua potable y su efecto en la salud de la comunidad de Kamla, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua; 7 Gobernanza forestal en el territorio Twi Waupasa, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua. En la quinta sección, Agropecuaria: 8 Germinación del coco (Cocos nucifera, utilizando tres tipos de cortes en Sandy Bay Sirpi, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua; 9 Manejo de pastizales en sistemas de producción ganaderos de Nueva Guinea, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua  Los resultados de estas investigaciones aportan significativamente a la praxis in- novadora de la comunidad universitaria, y constituyen un medio educativo y de comunicación para compartir con la comunidad de profesores, investigadores y estudiantes del mundo, en una expresión crítica, autónoma y de emancipación en un ambiente de interculturalidad.

  7. Serpine2/PN-1 Is Required for Proliferative Expansion of Pre-Neoplastic Lesions and Malignant Progression to Medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Catherine; Kool, Marcel; Schwarzentruber-Schauerte, Alexandra; Méreau, Hélène; Cabuy, Erik; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Pfister, Stefan; Zuniga, Aimée; Frank, Stephan; Zeller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Medulloblastomas are malignant childhood brain tumors that arise due to the aberrant activity of developmental pathways during postnatal cerebellar development and in adult humans. Transcriptome analysis has identified four major medulloblastoma subgroups. One of them, the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup, is caused by aberrant Hedgehog signal transduction due to mutations in the Patched1 (PTCH1) receptor or downstream effectors. Mice carrying a Patched-1 null allele (Ptch1∆/+) are a good model to study the alterations underlying medulloblastoma development as a consequence of aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity. Results Transcriptome analysis of human medulloblastomas shows that SERPINE2, also called Protease Nexin-1 (PN-1) is overexpressed in most medulloblastomas, in particular in the SHH and WNT subgroups. As siRNA-mediated lowering of SERPINE2/PN-1 in human medulloblastoma DAOY cells reduces cell proliferation, we analyzed its potential involvement in medulloblastoma development using the Ptch1∆/+ mouse model. In Ptch1∆/+ mice, medulloblastomas arise as a consequence of aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity. Genetic reduction of Serpine2/Pn-1 interferes with medulloblastoma development in Ptch1∆/+ mice, as ~60% of the pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) fail to develop into medulloblastomas and remain as small cerebellar nodules. In particular the transcription factor Atoh1, whose expression is essential for development of SHH subgroup medulloblastomas is lost. Comparative molecular analysis reveals the distinct nature of the PNLs in young Ptch1∆/+Pn-1Δ/+ mice. The remaining wild-type Ptch1 allele escapes transcriptional silencing in most cases and the aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity is normalized. Furthermore, cell proliferation and the expression of the cell-cycle regulators Mycn and Cdk6 are significantly reduced in PNLs of Ptch1∆/+Pn-1Δ/+ mice. Conclusions Our analysis provides genetic evidence that aberrant Serpine2/Pn-1 is required for

  8. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  9. Political PR is dying. Long live business PR! / Ilyn Oleg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oleg, Ilyn

    2005-01-01

    Vene suurima suhtekorraldusagentuuri Imageland Public Relations rahvusvaheliste suhete juhi hinnangul on Venemaal peamisteks probleemideks PR professionaalide vähesus, nende kehv haritus oma erialal, samuti vähene teadlikkus suhtekorralduse tähtsusest äris

  10. Uppermost mantle seismic velocity and anisotropy in the Euro-Mediterranean region from Pn and Sn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the

  11. GaAs Nanowire pn-Junctions Produced by Low-Cost and High-Throughput Aerotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrigón, E; Hultin, O; Lindgren, D; Yadegari, F; Magnusson, M H; Samuelson, L; Johansson, L I M; Björk, M T

    2018-02-14

    Semiconductor nanowires could significantly boost the functionality and performance of future electronics, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, realizing this potential requires growth methods that enable high-throughput and low-cost production of nanowires with controlled doping. Aerotaxy is an aerosol-based method with extremely high growth rate that does not require a growth substrate, allowing mass-production of high-quality nanowires at a low cost. So far, pn-junctions, a crucial element of solar cells and light-emitting diodes, have not been realized by Aerotaxy growth. Here we report a further development of the Aerotaxy method and demonstrate the growth of GaAs nanowire pn-junctions. Our Aerotaxy system uses an aerosol generator for producing the catalytic seed particles, together with a growth reactor with multiple consecutive chambers for growth of material with different dopants. We show that the produced nanowire pn-junctions have excellent diode characteristics with a rectification ratio of >10 5 , an ideality factor around 2, and very promising photoresponse. Using electron beam induced current and hyperspectral cathodoluminescence, we determined the location of the pn-junction and show that the grown nanowires have high doping levels, as well as electrical properties and diffusion lengths comparable to nanowires grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Our findings demonstrate that high-quality GaAs nanowire pn-junctions can be produced using a low-cost technique suitable for mass-production, paving the way for industrial-scale production of nanowire-based solar cells.

  12. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Perko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières décennies où l’on assiste à une refondation de la morphologie, la discipline s’intéresse de plus en plus à des phénomènes « périphériques », « marginaux », « irréguliers » ou « extragrammaticaux », à des phénomènes n’appartenant pas aux « régions nodales » de la morphologie. Le présent numéro de Linguistica, premier numéro thématique de notre revue, réunit des études qui s’intéres- sent aux frontières internes et externes de la morphologie. La diversité et la richesse des thèmes abordés et des approches proposées témoignent d’un intérêt croissant que les linguistes, non pas uniquement les morphologues, portent à cette thématique. Les articles proposés s’articulent autour de cinq axes majeurs. Un premier axe rassemble les articles qui étudient les frontières entre différentes composantes de la morphologie. L’étude de Michel Roché examine les contraintes lexicales et morphophonologiques sur le paradigme des dérivés en –aie. Les résultats de son analyse remettent en question la notion de « règle de construction des lexèmes ». Irena Stramljič Breznik et Ines Voršič se penchent sur les néologismes de sport en slovène et essaient d’évaluer la productivité ou la créativité des procédés morphologiques en jeu. Dans une étude d’inspiration cognitiviste, Alexandra Bagasheva aborde l’hétérogénéité des verbes composés en anglais. En s’appuyant sur les données fournies par les para- digmes verbaux du maltais, Maris Camilleri examine la complexité du phénomène de classes flexionnelles basées sur les radicaux. Trois travaux concernent des procédés typiquement « extragrammaticaux » servant à former le plus souvent des occasionnalismes: Arnaud Léturgie tente de dégager des propriétés prototypiques de l’amalgamation lexicale en français, notamment celles de la création des mots-valises; Silvia Cacchiani analyse, à l

  13. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörgen Stevefelt, Henri Bachau Et

    2003-06-01

    UVX 2002, sixième édition du “Colloque sur les Sources Cohérentes et Incohérentes UV, VUV, et X : Applications et Développements Récents" s'est tenu du 11 au 14 juin 2002 au Centre CAES du CNRS “La Vieille, Perrotine", à Saint-Pierre d'Oléron. Le colloque a réunni une centaine de chercheurs et d'industriels et a permis de faire le point sur la production, la caractérisation et l'utilisation de rayonnement dans un domaine spectral s'étendant de l'ultraviolet aux rayons X. Les participants ont pu assister a trente conférences et une table ronde autour des problèmes locaux de pollution, une cinquantaine d'affiches ont été présentées au travers de deux sessions. Une douzaine d'industriels ont exposé leurs produits durant les séances d'affiches.Conformément aux éditions précédentes, les domaines couverts par le colloque UVX 2002 sont très variés et il est impossible de les résumer en quelques lignes. Parmi les activités en développement rapide on notera les lasers femtosecondes dont les applications se multiplient dans les laboratoires (propriétés des molécules, agrégats et solides), dans l'industrie (usinage, ablation...) et en médecine. L'absence de thermalisation ou de diffusion thermique ouvre aussi des perspectives pour la réalisation de films minces par ablation laser, un domaine où les lasers excimères sont traditionnellement utilisés, avec des applications importantes dans le secteur des télécommunications. Dans le domaine de l'extrème UV, des progrès significatifs ont été réalisés par plusieurs groupes dans la gamme de longueur d'onde de 5 à 20 nm, ouvrant ainsi la voie au développement industriel de la lithographie EUV. On note les progrès dans la réalisation des sources UV et X (laser X, génération d'harmoniques, laser a électrons libres) et la nécessité de développer des optiques adaptées. Une perspective intéressante, ouverte par la génération d'harmoniques, est la production d

  14. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncorgé, R.

    2006-12-01

    Cette nouvelle édition du Colloque UVX avait pour objectifs de : - réunir les chercheurs et les industriels intéressés par les applications et les développements les plus récents obtenus sur les sources UV, VUV et X, cohérentes ou incohérentes, et les optiques et matériaux associés ; - dresser un bilan des sources de photons à haute énergie et de leurs applications courantes et futures ; - susciter de nouvelles collaborations ; - ouvrir de nouveaux champs disciplinaires. Elle a été organisée par le laboratoire CIRIL au VVF de Colleville-sur-Mer, dans le département du Calvados, du 6 au 9 juin 2006, la journée du 5 juin ayant été consacrée à une réunion de travail du GDR CNRS SAXO, ce GDR regroupant une majorité de scientifiques concernés par le Colloque UVX. La manifestation a réuni ainsi une centaine de participants dont une dizaine d'exposants industriels. Parmi ces participants, trente étaient invités à donner une conférence orale. Une sélection a été faite également parmi les meilleures communications soumises par affiches pour qu'elles soient présentées oralement. Une trentaine de ces communications ont été préparées sous la forme d'articles de 6 à 12 pages et font l'objet de cet ouvrage. De nombreux travaux récents ont été exposés tant au niveau des sources que des techniques de caractérisation et des applications, ceci dans des domaines très divers allant de la physique des lasers et de la mise en forme spatiale et temporelle des faisceaux au domaine de l'imagerie médicale et biologiques en passant par les techniques de fabrication des cristaux, fibres et films minces organiques et inorganiques. Plusieurs résultats marquants en sont ressortis. Dans le domaine des sources, la mise en forme spatiale du faisceau laser utilisé pour la production d'harmoniques d'ordre élevé dans les gaz, ceci à l'aide de lames de phase peu onéreuses et simples d'utilisation, semble être une bonne solution pour accroître les

  15. PR Crisis Melalui Media Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Carlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is communication, new media, PR and PR Crisis. Fourth of this background has a close relationship, starting from communication, human in everyday life would require communication to receive and convey information, human can not be released from human life. The advancement of the times and the development of technology, causing people to communicate easily and the development of this era caused a new challenge for the PR and PR Crisis of a company, they should be able to maintain a positive image of the company in the minds of people. In this study using descriptive qualitative methodology, it contains many writings and drawings compared to the numbers. The purpose of this research is to know the strategy used by Pizza Hut in dealing with the issue of expired food. Penelitin results, social media is very positive impact on Pizza Hut in the recovery of food issues expired. The strategy used by the Pizza Hut Crisis PR is to utilize social media. Visible from the issue of expired food that disappeared in public and Pizza Hut restaurant until now crowded visited. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini yaitu komunikasi, media baru, PR dan PR Krisis. Keempat dari latar belakang ini mempunyai hubungan yang erat, dimulai dari komunikasi, manusia di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari tentunya memerlukan komunikasi untuk menerima dan menyampaikan informasi, manusia tidak bisa dilepaskan dari kehidupan manusia. Majunya perkembangan zaman dan perkembangan teknologi, menyebabkan manusia melakukan komunikasi dengan mudah dan perkembangan zaman ini menyebabkan adanya tantangan baru bagi para PR dan PR Krisis sebuah perusahaan, mereka harus bisa mempertahankan citra positif perusahaan di benak masyarakat. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif deksriptif, memuat banyak tulisan dan gambar dibandingkan angka-angka. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui strategi yang digunakan oleh Pizza Hut dalam menangani isu makanan

  16. A P-N Sequence Generator Using LFSR with Dual Edge Trigger Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghwal Nitin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the design and implementation of a low power 4-bit LFSR using Dual edge triggered flip flop. A linear feedback shift register (LFSR is assembled by N number of flip flops connected in series and a combinational logic generally xor gate. An LFSR can generate random number sequence which acts as cipher in cryptography. A known text encrypted over long PN sequence, in order to improve security sequence made longer ie 128 bit; require long chain of flip flop leads to more power consumption. In this paper a novel circuit of random sequence generator using dual edge triggered flip flop has been proposed. Data has been generated on every edge of flip flop instead of single edge. A DETFF-LFSR can generate random number require with less number of clock cycle, it minimizes the number of flip flop result in power saving. In this paper we concentrates on the designing of power competent Test Pattern Generator (TPG using four dual edge triggered flip-flops as the basic building block, overall there is reduction of power around 25% by using these techniques.

  17. UNUSUAL CARBONACEOUS DUST DISTRIBUTION IN PN G095.2+00.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Mori, Tamami I. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyata, Takashi; Asano, Kentaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuura, Mikako [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Building, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kaneda, Hidehiro, E-mail: ohsawa@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Sciences, G. Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in the young Galactic planetary nebula PN G095.2+00.7 based on mid-infrared observations. The near- to mid-infrared spectra obtained with the AKARI/IRC and the Spitzer/IRS show the PAH features as well as the broad emission feature at 12 {mu}m usually seen in proto-planetary nebulae (pPNe). The spatially resolved spectra obtained with Subaru/COMICS suggest that the broad emission around 12 {mu}m is distributed in a shell-like structure, but the unidentified infrared band at 11.3 {mu}m is selectively enhanced at the southern part of the nebula. The variation can be explained by a difference in the amount of the UV radiation to excite PAHs, and does not necessarily require the chemical processing of dust grains and PAHs. It suggests that the UV self-extinction is important to understand the mid-infrared spectral features. We propose a mechanism which accounts for the evolutionary sequence of the mid-infrared dust features seen in a transition from pPNe to PNe.

  18. Pronounced Photovoltaic Response from Multilayered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides PN-Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memaran, Shahriar; Pradhan, Nihar R; Lu, Zhengguang; Rhodes, Daniel; Ludwig, Jonathan; Zhou, Qiong; Ogunsolu, Omotola; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Smirnov, Dmitry; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Balicas, Luis

    2015-11-11

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are layered semiconductors with indirect band gaps comparable to Si. These compounds can be grown in large area, while their gap(s) can be tuned by changing their chemical composition or by applying a gate voltage. The experimental evidence collected so far points toward a strong interaction with light, which contrasts with the small photovoltaic efficiencies η ≤ 1% extracted from bulk crystals or exfoliated monolayers. Here, we evaluate the potential of these compounds by studying the photovoltaic response of electrostatically generated PN-junctions composed of approximately 10 atomic layers of MoSe2 stacked onto the dielectric h-BN. In addition to ideal diode-like response, we find that these junctions can yield, under AM-1.5 illumination, photovoltaic efficiencies η exceeding 14%, with fill factors of ~70%. Given the available strategies for increasing η such as gap tuning, improving the quality of the electrical contacts, or the fabrication of tandem cells, our study suggests a remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications based on TMDs.

  19. Room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence from boron-diffused silicon pn junction diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon pn junction diodes with different doping concentrations were prepared by boron diffusion into Czochralski (CZ n-type silicon substrate. Their room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence (EL was measured. In the EL spectra of the heavily boron doped diode, a luminescence peak at ~1.6 m (0.78 eV was observed besides the band-to-band line (~1.1eV under the condition of high current injection, while in that of the lightly boron doped diode only the band-to-band line was observed. The intensity of peak at 0.78 eV increases exponentially with current injection with no observable saturation at room temperature. Furthermore, no dislocations were found in the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image, and no dislocation-related luminescence was observed in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra. We deduce the 0.78 eV emission originates from the irradiative recombination in the strain region of diodes caused by the diffusion of large number of boron atoms into silicon crystal lattice.

  20. Tuning a circular p-n junction in graphene from quantum confinement to optical guiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhang; Mao, Jinhai; Moldovan, Dean; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Li, Guohong; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Peeters, Francois M.; Andrei, Eva Y.

    2017-11-01

    The photon-like propagation of the Dirac electrons in graphene, together with its record-high electronic mobility, can lead to applications based on ultrafast electronic response and low dissipation. However, the chiral nature of the charge carriers that is responsible for the high mobility also makes it difficult to control their motion and prevents electronic switching. Here, we show how to manipulate the charge carriers by using a circular p-n junction whose size can be continuously tuned from the nanometre to the micrometre scale. The junction size is controlled with a dual-gate device consisting of a planar back gate and a point-like top gate made by decorating a scanning tunnelling microscope tip with a gold nanowire. The nanometre-scale junction is defined by a deep potential well created by the tip-induced charge. It traps the Dirac electrons in quantum-confined states, which are the graphene equivalent of the atomic collapse states (ACSs) predicted to occur at supercritically charged nuclei. As the junction size increases, the transition to the optical regime is signalled by the emergence of whispering-gallery modes, similar to those observed at the perimeter of acoustic or optical resonators, and by the appearance of a Fabry-Pérot interference pattern for junctions close to a boundary.

  1. Optimization and modeling of avalanche photodiode structures - Application to a new class of superlattice photodetectors, the p-i-n, p-n homojunction, and p-n heterojunction APD's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    1987-08-01

    A general device model is used to optimize designs for three superlattice device avalanche photodiodes (APDs), the p-i-n, p-n homojunction, and p-n heterojunction devices. The gain, excess noise factor, bandwidth, and gain-bandwidth product are calculated in a first principles Monte Carlo investigation of the impact ionization probabilities of the electrons and holes. The performances of the three APDs are analyzed in the context of lightwave communications systems (where high gain at low noise and large bandwidth are the most critical performance criteria) and in digital applications (where devices must operate at or below 5V, in addition to providing gain at low internal noise and at large bandwidth).

  2. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  3. Stability of monoclonal antibodies at high-concentration: head-to-head comparison of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergaard, Martin S; Nielsen, Anders D; Parshad, Henrik; Van De Weert, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have so far directly compared the impact of antibody subclass on protein stability. This case study investigates two mAbs (one IgG1 and one IgG4 ) with identical variable region. Investigations of mAbs that recognize similar epitopes are necessary to identify possible differences between the IgG subclasses. Both physical and chemical stability were evaluated by applying a range of methods to measure formation of protein aggregates [size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-HPLC and UV340 nm], structural integrity (circular dichroism and FTIR), thermodynamic stability (differential scanning calorimetry), colloidal interactions (dynamic light scattering), and fragmentation and deamidation (SEC-HPLC and capillary isoelectric focusing). The impact of pH (4-9) and ionic strength (10 and 150 mM) was investigated using highly-concentrated (150 mg/mL) mAb formulations. Lower conformational stability was identified for the IgG4 resulting in increased levels of soluble aggregates. The IgG1 was chemically less stable as compared with the IgG4 , presumably because of the higher flexibility in the IgG1 hinge region. The thermodynamic stability of individual mAb domains was also addressed in detail. The stability of our mAb molecules is clearly affected by the IgG framework, and this study suggests that subclass switching may alter aggregation propensity and aggregation pathway and thus potentially improve the overall formulation stability while retaining antigen specificity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Præjudikat eller ikke præjudikat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    Denne artikel behandler præjudikatværdien af EU-Domstolens og Højesterets afgørelser i Ajos-sagen. Artiklen belyser navnlig den manglende præjudikatværdi af Højesterets obiter dictum udtalelse om EU’s Charter om grundlæggende rettigheder, hvor Højesteret antog, at de grundlæggende rettigheder i...... Chartret, heriblandt diskriminationsforbuddet i artikel 21 ikke har direkte, horisontal virkning i Danmark. Efter forfatternes opfattelse er EU-Domstolens dom i Ajos-sagen, der fastholder tidligere EU-praksis (Mangold-og Kücükdeveci-dommene), præjudikat for, at Chartret har direkte, horisontal virkning i...

  5. Transition region width of nanowire hetero- and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Tan, Teh Y.; Gösele, U.

    2008-03-01

    The transition region width of nanowire heterojunctions and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) processes has been modeled. With two constituents or dopants I and II, the achievable width or abruptness of the junctions is attributed to the residual I atom/molecule stored in the liquid droplet at the onset of introducing II to grow the junction, and the stored I atom/molecule consumption into the subsequently grown crystal layers. The model yields satisfactory quantitative fits to a set of available Si-Ge junction data. Moreover, the model provides a satisfactory explanation to the relative junction width or abruptness differences between elemental and compound semiconductor junction cases, as well as a guideline for achieving the most desirable pn-junction widths.

  6. Mapping electrostatic profiles across axial p-n junctions in Si nanowires using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Perea, Daniel E.; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Tom Picraux, S.; Smith, David J.; McCartney, Martha R.

    2013-10-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) with axial p-n junctions were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron holography were used to characterize the microstructure and electrostatic properties. Measurement of the potential profile showed the presence of a p-n junction with a height of 1.0 ± 0.3 V. A Schottky barrier was observed at the end of the NW due to the Au catalyst particle. Comparison with simulations indicated dopant concentrations of 1019 cm-3 for donors and 1017 cm-3 for acceptors. These results confirm the benefit of combining off-axis electron holography with simulations for determining localized information about the electrically active dopant distributions in nanowire structures.

  7. Mapping Electrostatic Profiles Across Axial p-n Junctions in Si Nanowires using Off-Axis Electron Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Perea, Daniel E.; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Picraux, Samuel T.; Smith, David J.; Mccartney, Martha R.

    2013-10-07

    Si nanowires (NWs) with axial p-n junctions were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron holography were used to characterize the microstructure and electrostatic properties. Measurement of the potential profile showed the presence of a p-n junction with a height of 1.0±0.3V. A Schottky barrier was observed at the end of the NW due to the Au catalyst particle. Comparison with simulations indicated dopant concentrations of 1019cm-3 for donors and 1017cm-3 for acceptors. These results confirm the benefit of combining off-axis electron holography with simulations for determining localized information about the electrically active dopant distributions in nanowire structures.

  8. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboure, Vincent M.; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids [1] in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment [2], in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework [3] using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  9. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent M. Laboure; Yaqi Wang; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment, in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  10. Electrical characterization of ZnO/NiO p-n junction prepared by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merih Akyuzlu, A.; Dagdelen, Fethi; Gultek, Ahmet; Hendi, A. A.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2017-04-01

    ZnO and NiO films were synthesized on fluourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by the sol-gel method. The surface morphology of the films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. The optical band gaps of the ZnO and NiO films were found to be 3.198 and 3.827eV, respectively. A ZnO/NiO p-n junction diode was prepared and electrical charge transport mechanism of the diode was analyzed using thermionic emission and Norde functions. The ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance of the diode were determined to be 6.46, 1.036eV and 39.1 M {Ω} , respectively. The obtained results indicate that ZnO/NiO p-n junction can be used as transparent diode for optic communications.

  11. Electrolysis as a controllable method for establishing p-n junctions in multi-nanolayer films of amorphous selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Joshua D.; Saito, Ichitaro; Ochiai, Jun; Toyama, Ryo; Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Yamada, Takatoshi; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Okano, Ken

    2017-08-01

    We present a controllable way of establishing a p-n junction in amorphous selenium (a-Se) using electrolysis. Amorphous selenium is used as an anode in the electrolysis of NaCl solution. By varying the duration of the electrolysis, we can make the contact to a-Se either Ohmic or rectifying and control the built-in potential and full depletion voltage of the contacts and junctions formed in the a-Se. I-V and C-V measurements show that after electrolysis rectification occurs and that as the duration of electrolysis increases, the direction of rectification changes, with the magnitudes of the built-in potential and the full depletion becoming higher. From the results, we present a model for the electrochemical process of forming the p-n junction and highlight the dependence on the duration of the electrolysis.

  12. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  13. Diffused junction p(+)-n solar cells in bulk GaAs. II - Device characterization and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, R.; Sundaram, L. M. G.; Rode, H.; Bhat, I.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of p(+)-n junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are presented in detail. Quantum efficiency measurements were analyzed and compared to computer simulations of the cell structure in order to determine material parameters such as diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and junction depth. From the results obtained it is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells to close to 20 percent.

  14. Frequency-Dependent Nature of Pn in Western China: Gaussian Beam Modeling of Data from the Hi-CLIMB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    with respect to depth below the Moho interface (Cerveny and Ravindra, 1971; Hill, 1971; Menke and Richards, 1980). These interfering waves can simply...the Moho can affect the propagation of Pn. A) The model for P-wave speeds. The linear gradient beneath the Moho can simply arise from the spherical...nature of the earth. B) Paths of the primary, diving rays (pure head waves are not shown). C) Paths of the first set of sub- Moho interference wave. D

  15. Direct determination of minority carrier diffusion lengths at axial GaAs nanowire p-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Christoph; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Lysov, Andrey; Prost, Werner; Ronning, Carsten; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2012-03-14

    Axial GaAs nanowire p-n diodes, possibly one of the core elements of future nanowire solar cells and light emitters, were grown via the Au-assisted vapor-liquid-solid mode, contacted by electron beam lithography, and investigated using electron beam induced current measurements. The minority carrier diffusion lengths and dynamics of both, electrons and holes, were determined directly at the vicinity of the p-n junction. The generated photocurrent shows an exponential decay on both sides of the junction and the extracted diffusion lengths are about 1 order of magnitude lower compared to bulk material due to surface recombination. Moreover, the observed strong diameter-dependence is well in line with the surface-to-volume ratio of semiconductor nanowires. Estimating the surface recombination velocities clearly indicates a nonabrupt p-n junction, which is in essential agreement with the model of delayed dopant incorporation in the Au-assisted vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Surface passivation using ammonium sulfide effectively reduces the surface recombination and thus leads to higher minority carrier diffusion lengths. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Chemically fixed p-n heterojunctions for polymer electronics by means of covalent B-F bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Corey V; Wang, Huiping; Elbing, Mark; Garner, Logan; Winkelhaus, Daniel; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2010-03-01

    Widely used solid-state devices fabricated with inorganic semiconductors, including light-emitting diodes and solar cells, derive much of their function from the p-n junction. Such junctions lead to diode characteristics and are attained when p-doped and n-doped materials come into contact with each other. Achieving bilayer p-n junctions with semiconducting polymers has been hindered by difficulties in the deposition of thin films with independent p-doped and n-doped layers. Here we report on how to achieve permanently fixed organic p-n heterojunctions by using a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte with fluoride counteranions and an underlayer composed of a neutral conjugated polymer bearing anion-trapping functional groups. Application of a bias leads to charge injection and fluoride migration into the neutral layer, where irreversible covalent bond formation takes place. After the initial charging and doping, one obtains devices with no delay in the turn on of light-emitting electrochemical behaviour and excellent current rectification. Such devices highlight how mobile ions in organic media can open opportunities to realize device structures in ways that do not have analogies in the world of silicon and promise new opportunities for integrating organic materials within technologies now dominated by inorganic semiconductors.

  17. A new pnCCD-based color X-ray camera for fast spatial and energy-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordavo, I., E-mail: ivan.ordavo@pnsensor.de [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); PNDetector GmbH, Emil-Nolde-Strasse 10, 81735 Muenchen (Germany); Ihle, S. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Arkadiev, V. [Institut fuer angewandte Photonik e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Scharf, O. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Soltau, H. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Buzanich, G. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Gubzhokov, R.; Guenther, A. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, R.; Holl, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Kimmel, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Kuehbacher, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lang, M. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Langhoff, N. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Liebel, A. [PNDetector GmbH, Emil-Nolde-Strasse 10, 81735 Muenchen (Germany); Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    We present a new high resolution X-ray imager based on a pnCCD detector and a polycapillary optics. The properties of the pnCCD like high quantum efficiency, high energy resolution and radiation hardness are maintained, while color corrected polycapillary lenses are used to direct the fluorescence photons from every spot on a sample to a corresponding pixel on the detector. The camera is sensitive to photons from 3 to 40 keV with still 30% quantum efficiency at 20 keV. The pnCCD is operated in split frame mode allowing a high frame rate of 400 Hz with an energy resolution of 152 eV for Mn K{alpha} (5.9 keV) at 450 kcps. In single-photon counting mode (SPC), the time, energy and position of every fluorescence photon is recorded for every frame. A dedicated software enables the visualization of the elements distribution in real time without the need of post-processing the data. A description of the key components including detector, X-ray optics and camera is given. First experiments show the capability of the camera to perform fast full-field X-Ray Fluorescence (FF-XRF) for element analysis. The imaging performance with a magnifying optics (3x) has also been successfully tested.

  18. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Li, Ming-Yang; Retamal, José Ramón Durán; Lam, Kai-Tak; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazu; Chen, Lih-Juann; Liang, Gengchiau; Li, Lain-Jong; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-01

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe2 -MoS2 lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2017-06-26

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe-MoS lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics.

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F06

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 109) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409 S/N F06, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  1. Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Hazem

    2011-05-20

    A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)

  2. The influence of allotypes on the IgG subclass response to chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Pressler, T; Pandey, J P

    1997-01-01

    Sera from 70 adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed for seven GM and two KM allotype determinants. IgG class and all four IgG subclasses of antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Ps. aeruginosa (a beta ab) were measured...... in all 70 CF patients in a cross-sectional study. The a beta ab IgG subclass response in sera collected during the first 11 years of chronic infection from 20 CF patients (10 patients with G3M*5 G1M*3/G3M*5 G1M*3 genotype and 10 patients with G3M*21 G1M*1/G3M*21 G1M*1 genotype) was analysed...... in a longitudinal study. Increased levels of IgG2 were associated with the presence of GM 23 allotype. IgG3 a beta ab levels were the lowest for subjects with the GM 1,2,3,17 23 5,21 and GM 1,3,17 21 phenotypes and the highest in subjects with GM 3,23,5 and GM 3,5. No significant differences in IgG1 and IgG4 a beta...

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of HMB-1, a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase found in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigwerth, Niels; Lange, Felix; Belmar Campos, Cristina; Hentschke, Moritz; Gatermann, Sören G; Kaase, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To characterize a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) found in an MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The isolate P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was recovered in 2012 from an anal swab from a patient hospitalized in Northern Germany and showed high MICs of carbapenems. MBL production was analysed by several phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization of the novel bla gene and MLST was performed by WGS. The novel bla gene was expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 and the enzyme was subjected to biochemical characterization to determine the kinetic parameters K m and k cat . P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was resistant to all tested β-lactams and showed an MBL phenotype. Shotgun cloning experiments yielded a clone producing a novel subclass B1 enzyme with only 74.3% identity to the next nearest relative, KHM-1. The novel MBL was named HMB-1 (for Hamburg MBL). Analysis of WGS data showed that the bla HMB-1 gene was chromosomally located as part of a Tn 3 family transposon that was named Tn 6345 . Expression of bla HMB-1 in E. coli TOP10 led to increased resistance to β-lactams. Determination of K m and k cat revealed that HMB-1 had different hydrolytic characteristics compared with KHM-1, with lower hydrolytic rates for cephalosporins and a higher rate for imipenem. The identification of HMB-1 further underlines the ongoing spread and diversification of carbapenemases in Gram-negative human pathogens and especially in P. aeruginosa .

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Antenna Drive Subsystem METSAT AMSU-A2 (PN:1331200-2, SN:108)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Antenna Drive Subassembly, Antenna Drive Subsystem, METSAT AMSU-A2 (P/N 1331200-2, SN: 108), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  5. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies switch to immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 subclasses and preserve their restricted epitope pattern after 131I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism: the activity of autoimmune disease influences subclass distribution but not epitope pattern of autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, F; Ricci, D; Montanelli, L; Piaggi, P; Mazzi, B; Bianchi, F; Brozzi, F; Santini, P; Fiore, E; Marinò, M; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-12-01

    The subclass distribution of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is debated, whereas their epitope pattern is restricted. Radioidine ((131)I) treatment for Graves' disease (GD) induces a rise in TgAb levels, but it is unknown whether it modifies subclass distribution and epitope pattern of TgAb as well. We collected sera from GD patients before (131) I treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. We measured total TgAb, TgAb light chains and TgAb subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 25 patients. We characterized the TgAb epitope pattern in 30 patients by inhibiting their binding to (125-) (I) Tg by a pool of four TgAb-Fab (recognizing Tg epitope regions A, B, C and D) and to Tg in ELISA by each TgAb-Fab. Total TgAb immunoglobulin (Ig)G rose significantly (P = 0.024). TgAb κ chains did not change (P = 0.052), whereas TgAb λ chains increased significantly (P = 0.001) and persistently. We observed a significant rise in IgG1 and IgG3 levels after (131)I (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively), while IgG2 and IgG4 levels did not change. The rise of IgG1 was persistent, that of IgG3 transient. The levels of inhibition of TgAb binding to Tg by the TgAb-Fab pool were comparable. A slight, non-significant reduction of the inhibition by the immune-dominant TgAb-Fab A was observed 3 and 6 months after (131)I. We conclude that (131)I treatment for GD increases the levels of the complement-activating IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and does not influence significantly the epitope pattern of TgAb. In autoimmune thyroid disease subclass distribution of autoantibodies is dynamic in spite of a stable epitope pattern. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Comparison between TRMM PR and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first active satellite microwave instrument for measuring three-dimensional ... This study considered Brazilian regions where there was a dense ANEEL rain gauge concentration. However, it is instructive to investigate the potentialities and limitations of ... validate TRMM PR rainfall estimates over specific continental regions ...

  7. Credibility Discourse of PR Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Maria; Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm

    2008-01-01

    to giving assurance of their expertise, trustworthiness and empathy, thus confirming our overall expectation that corporate credibility discourse is relatively uniform from a European perspective. However, contrary to our assumptions, the results of our study show that PR credibility discourse demonstrates...

  8. Separation of Flip and Non-Flip parst of Charge Exchange np->pn at energies Tn = 0.5 - 2.0 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Shindin, R A; Chernykh, E V; Guriev, D K; Nomofilov, A A; Prytkov, V Yu; Sharov, V I; Strunov, L I

    2008-01-01

    The new Delta-Sigma experimental data on the ratio $R_{dp}$ allowed separating the Flip and Non-Flip parts of the differential cross section of $np\\to pn$ charge exchange process at the zero angle by the Dean formula. The PSA solutions for the $np\\to np$ elastic scattering are transformed to the $np\\to pn$ charge exchange representation using unitary transition, and good agreement is obtain.

  9. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-07

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells.

  10. Avaliação normativa do pré-natal em uma maternidade filantrópica de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hostim Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal com 301 gestantes atendidas, em 2009, em uma maternidade filantrópica da cidade de São Paulo (Pré-Natal do Amparo Maternal - PN-AM, com os objetivos de avaliar o pré-natal, segundo a idade gestacional de início, o número de consultas realizadas e a continuidade do atendimento e relacionar a adequação com as variáveis sociodemográficas, obstétricas e locais de início do pré-natal. O critério de análise utilizado foi o início até 120 dias da gestação e a realização de, no mínimo, seis consultas. A relação entre as variáveis foi analisada pelo Teste Qui-Quadrado. Os resultados mostraram que 41,5% das gestantes iniciaram o pré-natal em outro serviço de saúde e transferiram-se espontaneamente para o PN-AM; 74,1% iniciaram precocemente e 80,4% realizaram, pelo menos, seis consultas; 63,1% atenderam aos dois critérios simultaneamente. O pré-natal adequado apresentou diferença estatística significante para idade materna, parceiro fixo, trabalho, local de residência, acompanhante à consulta e local de início do pré-natal.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T

    1996-01-01

    lung infection with P aeruginosa was further investigated by correlating the a beta ab IgG subclasses with pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass a beta ab were investigated by western blotting and quantified by laser scanning densitometry......BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic....... A longitudinal study on 43 consecutive patients with cystic fibrosis who developed chronic lung infection with P aeruginosa was performed. RESULTS: IgG subclass a beta ab appeared in all patients with chronic infection with P aeruginosa. Eleven years after the onset of infection all the patients had IgG1, 79...

  12. Hydrogen Passivation of N(+)P and P(+)N Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Davis, W. C.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n(+)p and p(+)n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)p and p(+)n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5 - 7 x 10(exp 14)/cc, down to 3 - 5 x 10(exp 12)/cc. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal With no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approx. 100 fold decrease In reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)n structures. ln addition to being passivated,dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  13. Hydrogen passivation of N(+)-P and P(+)-N heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Basab; Davis, William C.; Ringel, Steve A.; Hoffman, Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n-p and p-n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)-p and p(+)-n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5-7 x 10(exp 14) cm(exp -3), down to 3-5 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3). All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. One to five analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 100 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)-n structures. In addition to being passivated, dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  14. Simulating and modeling the breakdown voltage in a semi-insulating GaAs P+N junction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resfa, A.; Menezla, Brahimi. R.; Benchhima, M.

    2014-08-01

    This work aims to determine the characteristic I (breakdown voltage) of the inverse current in a GaAs PN junction diode, subject to a reverse polarization, while specifying the parameters that influence the breakdown voltage of the diode. In this work, we simulated the behavior of the ionization phenomenon by impact breakdown by avalanche of the PN junctions, subject to an inverse polarization. We will take into account both the trapping model in a stationary regime in the P+N structure using like material of basis the III-V compounds and mainly the GaAs semi-insulating in which the deep centers have in important densities. We are talking about the model of trapping in the space charge region (SCR) and that is the trap density donor and acceptor states. The carrier crossing the space charge region (SCR) of W thickness creates N electron—hole pairs: for every created pair, the electron and the hole are swept quickly by the electric field, each in an opposite direction, which comes back, according to an already accepted reasoning, to the crossing of the space charge region (SCR) by an electron or a hole. So the even N pair created by the initial particle provoke N2 ionizations and so forth. The study of the physical and electrical behaviour of semiconductors is based on the influence of the presence of deep centers on the characteristic I(V) current-tension, which requires the calculation of the electrostatic potential, the electric field, the integral of ionization, the density of the states traps, the diffusion current of minority in the regions (1) and (3), the current thermal generation in the region (2), the leakage current in the surface, and the breakdown voltage.

  15. Cancer de la próstata

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Lupi Alejandro; Fundación Valle de Lili; Gutierrez, María Carolina; López Cardona, Arturo

    1997-01-01

    ¿Qué es la próstata?/¿Qué es la hiperplasia benigna de próstata?/El cáncer de próstata/¿Se hereda el cáncer de próstata?/¿Cómo se presenta y hacia donde se disemina el cáncer de próstata?/¿Cómo de descubre el cáncer de próstata?/¿Qué estudia la ultrasonografía transrectal o ecografía a través de recto?/¿Cómo se analizan los niveles de PSA?/¿Cómo se clasifica el cáncer de próstata?¿Cómo se determina la terapia más adecuada para un cáncer de próstata?/¿Cuáles son las opciones de tratamiento par...

  16. Gamow-Teller strength in deformed nuclei within self-consistent pnQRPA with the Gogny force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA calculations using finite range Gogny force have been performed to study electromagnetic excitations of several axially-symmetric deformed nuclei up to the 238U. Here we present the extension of this approach to the charge-exchange nuclear excitations (pn-QRPA. In particular we focus on the Gamow-Teller (GT excitations. A comparison of the predicted GT strength distribution with existing experimental data is presented The role of nuclear deformation is shown. Special attention is paid to β-decay half-lives calculations for which experimental data exist.

  17. Growth, electrical rectification, and gate control in axial in situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Son T.; Jannaty, P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Dayeh, S. A.; Picraux, S. T.

    2010-06-01

    We report on vapor-liquid-solid growth and electrical properties of axial in situ doped p-n junction Ge sub-100 nm diameter nanowires. Room temperature four-point measurements show current rectification of two to three orders of magnitude depending on nanowire doping and diameter. We observe strong backgate control of reverse-bias current of up to three orders of magnitude and explain it by band-to-band tunneling modulated by the backgate-controlled electric field, as confirmed qualitatively via a quasi-three-dimensional Schrödinger-Poisson simulation.

  18. Novel InGaAsN pn Junction for High-Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allerman, A.A.; Chang, P.C.; Gee, J.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Hou, H.Q.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-03-26

    We report the application of a novel material, InGaAsN, with bandgap energy of 1.05 eV as a junction in an InGaP/GaAs/InGaAsN/Ge 4-junction design. Results of the growth and structural, optical, and electrical properties were demonstrated, showing the promising perspective of this material for ultra high efficiency solar cells. Photovoltaic properties of an as-grown pn diode structure and improvement through post growth annealing were also discussed.

  19. Design and development of quasi-monoenergetic neutron source using the inverse kinematics of (p,n) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Hachiya, S.; Nakamura, H.; Tanaka, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Department of Advanced Energy Engineering and Science, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, N.; Sagara, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2000-03-01

    We has started to develop a new quasi-monoenergetic neutron source using the inverse kinematics of (p,n) reaction at Kyushu University Tandem Laboratory. A preliminary experiment was performed for a neutron source using the {sup 1}H({sup 13}C,n){sup 13}N reaction at an incident energy of 59.3 MeV. It was experimentally observed that monoenergetic neutrons with about 7 MeV were produced at 0deg in the laboratory system and the produced neutrons were collimated to a forward cone restricted by the kinematics. (author)

  20. Single-Crystal N-polar GaN p-n Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Yongjin; Hu, Zongyang; Nomoto, Kazuki; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2017-01-01

    N-polar GaN p-n diodes are realized on single-crystal N-polar GaN bulk wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth. The current-voltage characteristics show high-quality rectification and electroluminescence characteristics with a high on/off current ratio and interband photon emission. The measured electroluminescence spectrum is dominated by strong near-band edge emission, while deep level luminescence is greatly suppressed. A very low dislocation density leads to a high reverse...

  1. Hybrid van der Waals p-n Heterojunctions based on SnO and 2D MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2016-08-30

    A p-type oxide/2D hybrid van der Waals p-n heterojunction is demonstrated for the first time between SnO (tin monoxide) (the p-type oxide) and 2D MoS2 (molybdenum disulfide), showing an ideality factor of 2 and rectification ratio up to 10(4) . The reported heterojunction is gate-tunable with typical anti-ambipolar transfer characteristics. Surface potential mapping is performed and a current model for such a heterojunction is proposed.

  2. N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, P G [Centre for High-Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

    2012-12-31

    A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 - 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  3. Competency profile of PR professional in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Gazdíková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Title: Competency profile of PR professional in sport Objective: The objective is to identify competencies required to a position of PR professional in sport. The aim of a survey is to verify the level of competencies which follows compiling competency profile and comparison with existing profile of PR specialist. Methods: The objective is achieved using survey, interview and analysis of competency models database. Results: The result of this paper is competency profile of PR professional in ...

  4. Increased cavernosal relaxation by Phoneutria nigriventer toxin, PnTx2-6, via activation at NO/cGMP signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K.P.; Wynne, B.M.; Cordeiro, M.N.; Borges, M.H.; Richardson, M; Leite, R.; DeLima, M.E.; Webb, R. C

    2011-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction mechanisms in diabetic patients are multifactorial and often lead to resistance to current therapy. Animal toxins have been used as pharmacological tools to study penile erection. Human accidents involving the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer spider are characterized by priapism. We hypothesize that PnTx2-6 potentiates cavernosal relaxation in diabetic mice by increasing cGMP. This effect is nNOS dependent. Cavernosal strips were contracted with phenylephrine (10−5 M) and relaxed by electrical field stimulation (EFS, 20V, 1–32 Hz) in the presence or absence of PnTx2-6 (10−8 M).Cavernosal strips from nNOS and eNOS knocaut (KO) mice, besides nNOS inhibitor (10−5M), were used to evaluate the role of this enzyme in the potentiation effect evoked by PnTx2-6. Tissue cGMP levels were determined after stimulation with PnTx2-6 in presence or absence of L-NAME (10−4M) and ω-conotoxin GVIA (10−6M), an N-type calcium channel inhibitor. Results showed PnTx2-6 enhanced cavernosal relaxation in diabetic mice (65%) and eNOS KO mice, but not in nNOS KO mice. The toxin effect in the cavernosal relaxation was abolished by nNOS inhibitor. cGMP levels are increased by PnTx2-6, however L-NAME abolished this enhancement as well as ω-conotoxin GVIA. We conclude PnTx2-6 facilitates penile relaxation in diabetic mice through a mechanism dependent on nNOS, probably via increasing NO/cGMP production. PMID:21975567

  5. Structure determination of an organometallic 1-(diazenylaryl)ethanol: a novel toxin subclass from the web of the spider Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; Mendes, Maria Anita; Tormena, Cláudio Francisco; Souza, Bibiana M; Ribeiro, Susan P; Rittner, Roberto; Palma, Mario S

    2004-06-01

    A novel chemical subclass of toxin, [1-(3-diazenylphenyl)ethanol]iron, was identified among the compounds present in the web of the spider Nephila clavipes. This type of compound is not common among natural products, mainly in spider-venom toxins; it was shown to be a potent paralytic and/or lethal toxin applied by the spider over its web to ensure prey capture only by topical application. The structure was elucidated by means of ESI mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometry, and ICP spectrometry. The structure of [1-(3-diazenylphenyl)ethanol]iron and the study of its insecticidal action may be used as a starting point for the development of new drugs for pest control in agriculture.

  6. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Velkova

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi – parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  7. IgG antibody subclasses, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma levels in patients with type II lepra reaction on thalidomide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Sanchez, S; Favila-Castillo, L; Pedraza-Sanchez, S; Gomez-Melgar, M; Saul, A; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-Garcia, I

    1998-05-01

    A group of 9 Mexican lepromatous leprosy patients was studied at the beginning of a type II reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL) and after 1 or 2 months of thalidomide treatment. ENL patients at the onset of the reaction had slightly higher amounts of anti-Mycobacterium leprae IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, compared to similar lepromatous patients that did not develop ENL. Neither these antibody levels nor IgM and the other IgG subclasses were importantly modified after thalidomide treatment. Serum TNF was significantly higher in the patients that developed ENL compared to those that did not develop the reaction. TNF levels were slightly decreased after 1 month of thalidomide treatment and significantly decreased after 2 months of treatment. Serum IFN-gamma was significantly lower in patients at the onset of ENL and was increased after 1 and 2 months of thalidomide treatment.

  8. A computational approach to the description of individual immune responses. IgE and IgG-subclass allergen-specific antibodies formed during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1991-01-01

    Detailed evaluation of the IgE and IgG-subclass immune response during immunotherapy can now be performed by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE). Some new concepts are introduced facilitating the handling of the vast amount of data obtained by quantitating the immune response. These concepts...... are "distance" between antibody responses and "immune response width". The 20 patients included in this study were pollen-allergic patients who underwent specific immunotherapy in a 3-year prospective study. It was found that the immune response during immunotherapy was restricted to IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies...... and decreased towards six. For the IgG4 antibodies the number of reactions increased towards 15 antigens and decreased towards four. The increase is generally paralleled by an increase in quantitative immune response as well. For some of the antigens a rise in the IgE antibodies is contrasted by a fall...

  9. Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of intestine in selective IgG 2 subclass deficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vikas; Lipka, Seth; Rizvon, Kaleem; Singh, Jaspreet; Rashid, Sadat; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Diffuse Nodular Lymphoid Hyperplasia (DNLH) of the intestine is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain etiology, which is characterized by the presence of multiple nodular lesions. It can present as an asymptomatic disease or manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, occult bleeding or rarely intestinal obstruction. DNLH has been seen in association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) where it poses a risk of malignant transformation. We present a case of diffuse lymphoid nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in a patient who was presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea, and was later found to have IgG2 subclass immunodeficieny, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Hashimoto's (autoimmune) thyroiditis. Through this report, we wish to review current literature as well as share our clinical experience in managing this rare entity.

  10. Bruken av nasjonale prøver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver resultater fra en omfattende evaluering af brugen af de nationale prøver i norsk grundskole. De nationale prøver er blevet modtaget positivt af mange kommuner og skoleledere og i mindre grad af lærerne. Resultaterne viser også, at prøverne er styrende for undervisningen, at bru...

  11. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirte Scherpenisse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. METHODS: Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. RESULTS: Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (p<0.0001. IgG1 and IgG3 were found to be the predominant subclasses observed after HPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. CONCLUSION: Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  12. Cytokines, IgG subclasses and costimulation in a mouse model of thyroid autoimmunity induced by injection of fibroblasts co-expressing MHC class II and thyroid autoantigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X-M; Guo, J; Pichurin, P; Tanaka, K; Jaume, J C; Rapoport, B; Mclachlan, S M

    2000-01-01

    AKR/N mice injected with fibroblasts expressing MHC class II (RT4.15HP cells) and the TSH receptor (TSHR) develop antibodies similar to those in Graves' disease. We were unable to analyse the subclass of these antibodies because of unexpectedly high non-specific binding by ELISA or flow cytometry. The non-specific binding reflected generalized immune activation which occurred even when the fibroblasts did not express the TSHR. However, the IgG subclasses were determined for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies induced using TPO-expressing RT4.14HP cells and found to be IgG2a > IgG1. This Th1 pattern is consistent with spontaneous secretion of interferon-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-10) by splenocytes from injected mice. The Th1 bias was related to fibroblast injection because conventional immunization of the same mouse strain with purified TPO and adjuvant induced a Th2 response (IgG1 >> IgG2a). Further, untransfected fibroblasts themselves induced powerful, non-specific proliferative responses when used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) in vitro. Flow cytometry revealed that the RT4.15HP fibroblasts (and TSHR- and TPO-transfected derivatives) expressed B7-1. Unexpected constitutive expression of this key molecule may bypass the requirement for up-regulation of other costimulatory molecules involved in T cell stimulation. Our data support the concept that RT4.15HP fibroblasts present the TSHR (or TPO), at least for initiating the immune response. However, the accompanying generalized immune stimulation creates difficulties for analysis of TSHR-specific T and B lymphocytes. On the other hand, extension of the model to TPO, an easier antigen to study, will facilitate analysis of murine T cell responses likely to resemble those in human thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:11091271

  13. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  14. 210Po and 210Pb disequilibrium at the PN section in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kaijun; Du, Jinzhou; Baskaran, Mark; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Lead-210 and 210Po have been widely used as tracers for quantifying particulate scavenging in the upper layer of the oceanic water column. In this study, we investigated the 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium in the water column of the PN section in the East China Sea (ECS) during autumn 2013. In most of the water column, a deficiency of 210Po was observed with respect to its parent nuclide 210Pb (i.e., a 210Po/210Pb activity ratio < 1.0). The (210Po/210Pb)dissolved, (210Po/210Pb)particulate and (210Po/210Pb)total activity ratios ranged from 0.29 to 0.71 (average: 0.53 ± 0.13, n = 27), 0.31 to 1.42 (average: 0.70 ± 0.27, n = 27) and 0.22 to 0.62 (average: 0.50 ± 0.12, n = 27), respectively. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of 210Po and 210Pb were 12.1× 104 ml g-1 and 8.8× 104 ml g-1, with an average (210Po/210Pb) total activity ratio of (0.50 ± 0.12, n = 27). However, over the continental shelf, planktonic detritus and fecal pellets appear to be the main carriers for 210Po, which preferentially scavenges 210Po and produces a lower (210Po/210Pb) total activity ratio (0.49 ± 0.12, n = 22) with a Kd for 210Po of 13.8× 104 ml g-1 in the water column. The variations in the fractionation factor (1.48 ± 0.66) of 210Po/210Pb reveal distinct differences between the distribution and scavenging of 210Po and 210Pb by particulate matter in different marine environments: in the estuarine zone (a high turbidity area), terrigenous suspended particulate matter scavenges 210Pb from the water column, while in areas dominated by biogenic particular matter, 210Po is preferentially scavenged from the water column. Using the 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium in the water column, we estimated the removal fluxes of POC from the upper waters downward to be 25.0 mg C m-2 d-1, comparable to those in other marginal seas. Moreover, a decreasing trend of POC removal fluxes was observed with increasing distance offshore. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. P-n junction diodes with polarization induced p-type graded In x Ga1-x N layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Yuuki; Gupta, Chirag; Keller, Stacia; Nakamura, Shuji; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, p-n junction diodes with polarization induced p-type layer are demonstrated on Ga polar (0001) bulk GaN substrates. A quasi-p-type region is obtained by linearly grading the indium composition in un-doped In x Ga1-x N layers from 0% to 5%, taking advantage of the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization fields which exist in group III-nitride heterostructures grown in the typical (0001) or c-direction. The un-doped graded In x Ga1-x N layers needed to be capped with a thin Mg-doped In x Ga1-x N layer to make good ohmic contacts and to reduce the on-resistance of the p-n diodes. The Pol-p-n junction diodes exhibited similar characteristics compared to reference samples with traditional p-GaN:Mg layers. A rise in breakdown voltage from 30 to 110 V was observed when the thickness of the graded InGaN layer was increased from 100 to 600 nm at the same grade composition.

  16. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  17. A simplified boron diffusion for preparing the silicon single crystal p-n junction as an educational device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Koki; Kai, Kazuho; Nagaoka, Shiro; Tsuji, Takuto; Wakahara, Akihiro; Rusop, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The educational method which is including designing, making, and evaluating actual semiconductor devices with learning the theory is one of the best way to obtain the fundamental understanding of the device physics and to cultivate the ability to make unique ideas using the knowledge in the semiconductor device. In this paper, the simplified Boron thermal diffusion process using Sol-Gel material under normal air environment was proposed based on simple hypothesis and the feasibility of the reproducibility and reliability were investigated to simplify the diffusion process for making the educational devices, such as p-n junction, bipolar and pMOS devices. As the result, this method was successfully achieved making p+ region on the surface of the n-type silicon substrates with good reproducibility. And good rectification property of the p-n junctions was obtained successfully. This result indicates that there is a possibility to apply on the process making pMOS or bipolar transistors. It suggests that there is a variety of the possibility of the applications in the educational field to foster an imagination of new devices.

  18. Enhancement of the Si p-n diode NIR photoresponse by embedding β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlyagin, A V; Goroshko, D L; Chusovitin, E A; Galkin, K N; Galkin, N G; Gutakovskii, A K

    2015-10-05

    By using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, a p(+)-Si/p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(111) diode structure was fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy data confirmed a well-defined multilayered structure with embedded nanocrystallites of two typical sizes: 3-4 and 15-20 nm, and almost coherent epitaxy of the nanocrystallites with the Si matrix. The diode at zero bias conditions exhibited a current responsivity of 1.7 mA/W, an external quantum efficiency of about 0.2%, and a specific detectivity of 1.2 × 10(9) cm × Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 1300 nm at room temperature. In the avalanche mode, the responsivity reached up to 20 mA/W (2% in terms of efficiency) with a value of avalanche gain equal to 5. The data obtained indicate that embedding of β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites into the depletion region of the Si p-n junction results in expansion of the spectral sensitivity up to 1600 nm and an increase of the photoresponse by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with a conventional Si p-n junction. Thereby, fabricated structure combines advantage of the silicon photodiode functionality and simplicity with near infrared light detection capability of β-FeSi2.

  19. A simplified boron diffusion for preparing the silicon single crystal p-n junction as an educational device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Koki, E-mail: a14510@sr.kagawa-nct.ac.jp; Kai, Kazuho; Nagaoka, Shiro, E-mail: nagaoka@es.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, Kagawa, Mitoyo, Takuma, Koda 551 (Japan); Tsuji, Takuto [National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College, Mie, Suzuka, Shiroko (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi, Tenpaku, Hibarigaoka 1-1 (Japan); Rusop, Mohamad [University Technology Mara, Selangor, Shah Alam, 40450 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The educational method which is including designing, making, and evaluating actual semiconductor devices with learning the theory is one of the best way to obtain the fundamental understanding of the device physics and to cultivate the ability to make unique ideas using the knowledge in the semiconductor device. In this paper, the simplified Boron thermal diffusion process using Sol-Gel material under normal air environment was proposed based on simple hypothesis and the feasibility of the reproducibility and reliability were investigated to simplify the diffusion process for making the educational devices, such as p-n junction, bipolar and pMOS devices. As the result, this method was successfully achieved making p+ region on the surface of the n-type silicon substrates with good reproducibility. And good rectification property of the p-n junctions was obtained successfully. This result indicates that there is a possibility to apply on the process making pMOS or bipolar transistors. It suggests that there is a variety of the possibility of the applications in the educational field to foster an imagination of new devices.

  20. Enhancement of the Si p-n diode NIR photoresponse by embedding β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlyagin, A. V.; Goroshko, D. L.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Galkin, K. N.; Galkin, N. G.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    By using solid phase epitaxy of thin Fe films and molecular beam epitaxy of Si, a p+-Si/p-Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites/n-Si(111) diode structure was fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy data confirmed a well-defined multilayered structure with embedded nanocrystallites of two typical sizes: 3–4 and 15–20 nm, and almost coherent epitaxy of the nanocrystallites with the Si matrix. The diode at zero bias conditions exhibited a current responsivity of 1.7 mA/W, an external quantum efficiency of about 0.2%, and a specific detectivity of 1.2 × 109 cm × Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 1300 nm at room temperature. In the avalanche mode, the responsivity reached up to 20 mA/W (2% in terms of efficiency) with a value of avalanche gain equal to 5. The data obtained indicate that embedding of β-FeSi2 nanocrystallites into the depletion region of the Si p-n junction results in expansion of the spectral sensitivity up to 1600 nm and an increase of the photoresponse by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with a conventional Si p-n junction. Thereby, fabricated structure combines advantage of the silicon photodiode functionality and simplicity with near infrared light detection capability of β-FeSi2. PMID:26434582

  1. Forward $\\pi^{+-}$ production in p-$O_2$ and p-$N_2$ interactions at 12 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M.G.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Meurer, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Sorel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of double-differential charged pion production cross-sections in interactions of 12 GeV/c protons on O_2 and N_2 thin targets are presented in the kinematic range 0.5 GeV/c < p_{\\pi} < 8 GeV/c and 50 mrad < \\theta_{\\pi} < 250 mrad (in the laboratory frame) and are compared with p--C results. For p--N_2 (p--O_2) interactions the analysis is performed using 38576 (7522) reconstructed secondary pions. The analysis uses the beam instrumentation and the forward spectrometer of the HARP experiment at CERN PS. The measured cross-sections have a direct impact on the precise calculation of atmospheric neutrino fluxes and on the improved reliability of extensive air shower simulations by reducing the uncertainties of hadronic interaction models in the low energy range. In particular, the present results allow the common hypothesis that p--C data can be used to predict the p--N_2 and p--O_2 pion production cross-sections to be tested.

  2. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    The subclass of individual human IgA B cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays permitting analysis of all IgA-secreting cells as well as of cells secreting IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Center cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence...

  3. Axial pn-junctions formed by MOVPE using DEZn and TESn in vapor-liquid-solid grown GaAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolin, I.; Gutsche, C.; Lysov, A.; Blekker, K.; Li, Zi-An; Spasova, M.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on axial pn-junctions in GaAs nanowires. The nanowires were grown by MOVPE on (1 1 1)B GaAs substrates using the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in combination with Au seed particles. At the low growth temperature of 400 °C any additional growth on the nanowire sidewalls can be excluded such that a pure axial pn-junction is realized. p-Type doping was provided by diethyl zinc, while tetraethyl tin was introduced for n-type doping. The impact of dopant supply was investigated both on structural properties and on carrier density. The carrier type was independently verified by processed nanowire metal-insulator FETs. The lengths of the whole pn-GaAs nanowires reach up to 20 μm while their diameters are up to a few 100 nm, as defined by the Au seed particles used. The pn-GaAs nanowire device exhibits diode-like I- V characteristics and strong electroluminescence. While the reverse current is in the low pA-regime, the forward current reaches a few μA, limited by the n-doped side. A diffusion voltage VD=1.4 V is determined, which corresponds to the GaAs band gap energy. To our knowledge this is the first axial GaAs pn-diode realized in a single GaAs nanowire.

  4. Configuration-dependent anti-ambipolar van der Waals p-n heterostructures based on pentacene single crystal and MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ji; Liu, Fengjing; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Molin; Wen, Yao; Wang, Liang; Wang, Gongtang; He, Jun; Jiang, Chao

    2017-06-08

    Recently, van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) have trigged intensive interest due to their novel electronic and optoelectronic properties. The vdWHs could be achieved by stacking two dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) on top of another and vertically kept by van der Waals forces. Furthermore, organic semiconductors are also known to interact via van der Waals forces, which offer an alternative for the fabrication of organic-inorganic p-n vdWHs. However, the performances of organic-inorganic p-n vdWHs produced so far are rather poor, owing to the unmatched electrical property between the 2DLMs and organic polycrystalline films. To make improvements in such novel heterostructure architectures, here we adopt high quality organic single crystals instead of polycrystalline films to construct a pentacene/MoS 2 p-n vdWH. The vdWHs show a much higher current density and better anti-ambipolar characteristics with a highest transconductance of 211 nS. Moreover, device configuration-dependent transfer characteristics are demonstrated and a mechanism of a gate bias modulated vertical space charge zone existing at the vertical p-n vdWHs interface is proposed. These findings provide a new route to optimize the organic-inorganic p-n vdWHs and a guideline for studying the intrinsic properties of vdWHs.

  5. Nano-engineering of p-n CuFeO2-ZnO heterojunction photoanode with improved light absorption and charge collection for photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Keshab; Sarkar, Ayan; Mandal, Kalyan; Gopal Khan, Gobinda

    2017-08-01

    The effective utilization of abundant visible solar light for photoelectrochemical water splitting is a green approach for energy harvesting, to reduce the enormous rise of carbon content in the atmosphere. Here, a novel efficient design strategy for p-n type nano-heterojunction photoanodes is demonstrated, with the goal of improving water splitting efficiency by growing low band gap p-CuFeO2 nanolayers on n-ZnO nanorods by an easy and scalable electrochemical route. The photoconversion efficiency of p-n CuFeO2/ZnO photoanodes is found to be ˜450% higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorod electrodes under visible solar light illumination (λ > 420 nm, intensity 10 mW cm-2). The p-n CuFeO2/ZnO nano-engineering not only boosts the visible light absorption but also resolves limitations regarding effective charge carrier separation and transportation due to interfacial band alignment. This photoanode also shows remarkably enhanced stability, where the formation of p-n nano-heterojunction enhances the easy migration of holes to the electrode/electrolyte interface, and of electrons to the counter electrode (Pt) for hydrogen generation. Therefore, this work demonstrates that p-n nano-engineering is a potential strategy to design light-harvesting electrodes for water splitting and clean energy generation.

  6. Changes in screen-printed ZnO/CuInSe2 p-n junction before and after laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurcovs, A.; Gerbreders, Vj; Tamanis, E.; Gerbreders, A.

    2015-06-01

    In the experiments, ZnO and CuInSe2 semiconductor powders were used (the latter produced by the high-temperature synthesis method). Microstructural properties of the powders were analyzed using X-Ray diffraction and SEM. The experimental ZnO/CuInSe2 samples were prepared by the screen printing technique. The V-I measurements of the samples indicated the presence of a p-n junction in the ZnO/CuInSe2 contact zone. The samples were exposed to artificial solar radiation, during which an exponential decay of photo-emf was observed. It was shown that the starting conductive properties of the p-n junction restores in ˜ 15 min after the exposition. Laser ablation technique was applied to ZnO/CuInSe2 p-n junction with purpose to improve its performance and quality. After several attempts, significant changes in electrical properties of samples was observed. Improvenent of p-n junction can be achieved only at single attempt at certain amount of delivered energy. Futherablation attempt leads to degradation of p-n junction of samples.

  7. The Structure of PrPSc Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Wille

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PrPSc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer, as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrPSc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. While the structure of PrPC is well studied, the structure of PrPSc resisted high-resolution determination due to its general insolubility and propensity to aggregate. Cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, and a variety of other approaches defined the structure of PrPSc as a four-rung β-solenoid. A high-resolution structure of PrPSc still remains to be solved, but the four-rung β-solenoid architecture provides a molecular framework for the autocatalytic propagation mechanism that gives rise to the alternative conformation of PrPSc. Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure of PrPSc and speculate about the molecular conversion mechanisms that leads from PrPC to PrPSc.

  8. The Structure of PrPScPrions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Holger; Requena, Jesús R

    2018-02-07

    PrP Sc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein) prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrP Sc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrP C , which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. While the structure of PrP C is well studied, the structure of PrP Sc resisted high-resolution determination due to its general insolubility and propensity to aggregate. Cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, and a variety of other approaches defined the structure of PrP Sc as a four-rung β-solenoid. A high-resolution structure of PrP Sc still remains to be solved, but the four-rung β-solenoid architecture provides a molecular framework for the autocatalytic propagation mechanism that gives rise to the alternative conformation of PrP Sc . Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure of PrP Sc and speculate about the molecular conversion mechanisms that leads from PrP C to PrP Sc .

  9. Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Devaraj, Arun; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-07-30

    The p-n junction can be regarded as the most important electronic structure that is responsible for the ubiquity of semiconductor microelectronics today. Efforts to continually scale down the size of electronic components is guiding research to explore the use of nanomaterials synthesized from a bottom-up approach - group-IV semiconductor nanowires being one such material. However, Au-catalyzed synthesis of Si/Si1-x-Gex semiconductor nanowire heterojunctions using the commonly-used vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique results in diffuse heterojunction interfaces [1], leading to doubts of producing compositionally-sharp p-n junctions using this approach. However, we have recently reported the ability to increase Ge-Si nanowire heterojunction abruptness by VLS synthesis from a Au(1-x)Ga(x) catalyst alloy as shown by EDX analysis in an SEM [2]. In this work, we have extended the use of a AuGa catalyst alloy to produce more compositionally abrupt p-n junction interfaces compared to using pure Au as directly measured by atom probe tomography. As shown in Figure 1(a-b), individual Ge-Si heterostructured nanowires were grown vertically atop Ge(111) microposts. Direct growth on the microposts provides a facile approach to nanowire analysis which circumvents the need to use FIB-based sample preparation techniques. Both nanowires grown from pure Au and a AuGa catalyst alloy were analyzed. The corresponding 3D APT reconstruction of an individual heterostructured nanowire is shown in Figure 1(c) with the corresponding materials labeled. A 1-dimensional composition profile along the analysis direction in Figure 1(d) confirms an increase in heterojunction abruptness for nanowires grown from AuGa (~10nm) compared to nanowires grown from pure Au (~65nm). Analysis of the P distribution within the Si region (Figure 1(e)) indicates that P reaches a constant distribution over approximately 10nm when incorporated through the AuGa catalyst, whereas it continually increases over 100

  10. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide semiconductors by a facile co-electroplating-annealing method and formation of ZnO/CuO pn heterojunctions with rectifying behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkdogan, Sunay; Kilic, Bayram

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a unique growth method and demonstrated the growth of CuO and ZnO semiconductor materials and the fabrication of their pn heterojunctions in ambient atmosphere. The pn heterojunctions were constructed using inherently p-type CuO and inherently n-type ZnO materials. Both p- and n-type semiconductors and pn heterojunctions were prepared using a simple but versatile growth method that relies on the transformation of electroplated Cu and Zn metals into CuO and ZnO semiconductors, respectively and is capable of a large-scale production desired in most of the applications. The structural, chemical, optical and electrical properties of the materials and junctions were investigated using various characterization methods and the results show that our growth method, materials and devices are quite promising to be utilized for various applications including but not limited to solar cells, gas/humidity sensors and photodetectors.

  11. The p-n junction formation in Hg{sub 1-x}Cd {sub x}Te by laser annealing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanski, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland)]. E-mail: lukasz@omeganet.internetdsl.pl; Bester, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Virt, I.S. [Section of Experimental Physics, Pedagogical University, Franco 24, 82-100 Drogobych (Ukraine); Institute of Biotechnology, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Kuzma, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland)

    2006-04-30

    The formation of p-n junctions in Hg{sub 1-x}Cd {sub x}Te is still an open research task. In this paper, laser treatment of n-type Hg{sub 1-x}Cd {sub x}Te samples resulting in the formation of a p-n junction is studied. The YAG:Nd{sup 3+} laser with pulse duration of 250 {mu}s or 40 ns was used. The energy density of laser beam was below the threshold of sample surface melting. The interpretation of the results is based on a model of defects formation related to interstitial mercury diffusion following laser irradiation. The Hall measurements clearly point out to a simple p-n junction. The resistance of samples shows the long time relaxation described by the 1/2 power law, which is attributable to the defect diffusion processes, but not to the changes in the electron-hole systems.

  12. Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christesen, Joseph D; Zhang, Xing; Pinion, Christopher W; Celano, Thomas A; Flynn, Cory J; Cahoon, James F

    2012-11-14

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a developing platform for electronic and photonic technologies, and many demonstrated devices utilize a p-type/n-type (p-n) junction encoded along either the axial or radial directions of the wires. These miniaturized junctions enable a diverse range of functions, from sensors to solar cells, yet the physics of the devices has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here, we present finite-element modeling of axial and radial Si NW p-n junctions with total diameters of ~240 nm and donor/acceptor doping levels ranging from 10(16) to 10(20) cm(-3). We evaluate the photovoltaic performance of horizontally oriented NWs under 1 sun illumination and compare simulated current-voltage data to experimental measurements, permitting detailed analysis of NW performance, limitations, and prospect as a technology for solar energy conversion. Although high surface-to-volume ratios are cited as detrimental to NW performance, radial p-n junctions are surprisingly insensitive to surface recombination, with devices supporting open-circuit voltages (V(OC)) of ~0.54 V and internal quantum efficiencies of 95% even with high surface recombination velocities (SRVs) of 10(5) cm/s. Axial devices, in which the depletion region is exposed to the surface, are far more sensitive to SRV, requiring substantially lower values of 10(3)-10(4) cm/s to produce the same level of performance. For low values of the SRV (0.70 V if the bulk minority carrier lifetime is 1 μs or greater. Experimental measurements on NWs grown by a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism yield V(OC) of 0.23 and 0.44 V for axial and radial NWs, respectively, and show that axial devices are limited by a SRV of ~7 × 10(3) cm/s while radial devices are limited by a bulk lifetime of ~3 ns. The simulations show that with further development the electrical characteristics of 200-300 nm Si NWs are sufficient to support power-conversion efficiencies of 15-25%. The analysis presented here can be generalized to other

  13. C-H and H-H Bond Activation via Ligand Dearomatization/Rearomatization of a PN3P-Rhodium(I) Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2015-04-13

    A neutral complex PN3P-Rh(I)Cl (2) was prepared from a reaction of the PN3P pincer ligand (1) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Upon treatment with a suitable base, H–H and Csp2–H activation reactions can be achieved through the deprotonation/reprotonation of one of the N–H arms and dearomatization/rearomatization of the central pyridine ring with the oxidation state of Rh remaining I.

  14. Quelle préposition ?

    CERN Document Server

    Grevisse, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    Pour bien parler ou bien écrire, il faut avant tout posséder un bon vocabulaire, puis savoir bien remuer les mots, leur faire exprimer quelque chose et agencer adroitement les propositions. Il faut aussi - et cela n'est pas négligeable - amener congrûment les divers compléments des noms, des adjectifs ou des verbes ; quand ces compléments sont de construction indirecte, c'est-à-dire quand ils doivent être introduits par une préposition, on hésite parfois sur la bonne manière de les accrocher. Ne pas négliger le bon choix! Cela ne crée pas le style, sans doute, mais peut, pour une part, témoigner de sa bonne qualité.

  15. ESO PR Highlights in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Among the many astronomical highlights of 2003, the Transit of Mercury certainly attracted great attention as shown by the record number of hits the ESO web page received on that day. But this was a mere rehearsal of an even bigger event we will enjoy in 2004: the Venus Transit. ESO, in partnership with several institutions, is organising a major educational event in connection with it. During 2003, the ESO Educational Office was also involved in various other programmes. They included the web-based "Catch a Star!" and the "Physics and Life" projects, organised with EC sponsorship in connection with the 2003 European Science and Technology Week. The ALMA project, an European-North American collaboration to build an array of 64 12-m submillimetre antennas, moved forward with the signature of the agreement between ESO and the NSF and with the Ground-breaking at Chajnantor. Conceptual studies of a 100-m optical/infrared telescope (OWL) also proceeded well. Several new instruments were installed at ESO telescopes, e.g. HARPS . And the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) received a powerful Adaptive Optics System and made the first detection through infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object. A rapidly increasing number of new scientific results were obtained on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. A number of beautiful images were published. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2003 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  16. Relationship of baseline HDL subclasses, small dense LDL and LDL triglyceride to cardiovascular events in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, John J; Slee, April; Fleg, Jerome L; O'Brien, Kevin D; Marcovina, Santica M

    2016-08-01

    Previous results of the AIM-HIGH trial showed that baseline levels of the conventional lipid parameters were not predictive of future cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. The aims of this secondary analysis were to examine the levels of cholesterol in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses (HDL2-C and HDL3-C), small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL-C), and LDL triglyceride (LDL-TG) at baseline, as well as the relationship between these levels and CV outcomes. Individuals with CV disease and low baseline HDL-C levels were randomized to simvastatin plus placebo or simvastatin plus extended release niacin (ERN), 1500 to 2000 mg/day, with ezetimibe added as needed in both groups to maintain an on-treatment LDL-C in the range of 40-80 mg/dL. The primary composite endpoint was death from coronary disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or symptom-driven coronary or cerebrovascular revascularization. HDL-C, HDL3-C, sdLDL-C and LDL-TG were measured at baseline by detergent-based homogeneous assays. HDL2-C was computed by the difference between HDL-C and HDL3-C. Analyses were performed on 3094 study participants who were already on statin therapy prior to enrollment in the trial. Independent contributions of lipoprotein fractions to CV events were determined by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Baseline HDL3-C was protective against CV events (HR: 0.84, p = 0.043) while HDL-C, HDL2-C, sdLDL-C and LDL-TG were not event-related (HR: 0.96, p = 0.369; HR: 1.07, p = 0.373; HR: 1.05, p = 0.492; HR: 1.03, p = 0.554, respectively). The results of this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH Study indicate that levels of HDL3-C, but not other lipoprotein fractions, are predictive of CV events, suggesting that the HDL3 subclass may be primarily responsible for the inverse association of HDL-C and CV disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkova, Emilija

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subclasses to IgG anti-D on the intensity of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN) at 45 fetuses/newborns with symptoms of mild and severe HDFN in Republic of Macedonia. In retrospective and prospective studies, in a period of 10 years, from 2004 to 2014, there have been immunohemathology tests performed on 22 009 samples on serums of pregnant women. At 37.78% of the total number of tested patients, IgG1 and IgG3 was the reason for severe HDFN. At 17.77% of the total number of tested patients, which had only IgG1detected, was the reason for serious intensity of HDFN. The correlation of the titer to anti-D antibodies in the mother's serum and the intensity of HDFN were researched in 48 newborns. The titers between 1:8 and 1:32 resulted in 3 cases of HDFN with symptoms of severe disease and in 4 cases there were no signs of HDFN. At 12 women that had a titre between 1:32 and 1:512, five of the newborns developed severe HDFN, and seven had symptoms of mild and weak intensity form. In 3 cases the titer was higher than 512, and out of them one newborn had weak symptoms of HDFN, one developed severe HDFN and one ended with foetal death. Only in one case the titer reached a value higher than 1000, and it ended with a fetal death. The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi - parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  18. An optimum PN code search technique for a given apriori signal location density. [PseudoNoise in radar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. K.; Woo, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for optimizing (minimizing) the acquisition time for a PN-type spread spectrum system when the a priori probability density function is not uniform. For an assumed a priori Gaussian density function, calculations show that the acquisition time, when the 0.5 probability acquisition time is used as a measure of acquisition time, is reduced by 40% for a cell detection probability of 0.25 and when three sweeps are used. For the same parameters and with four sweeps the acquisition time is reduced by 41%. When the acquisition time probability is set to 0.9 instead of 0.5, the reduction is 25% of the uniform sweep time.

  19. GaN nanowire/thin film vertical structure p-n junction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Beom Park, Jun; Jin An, Sung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report vertical-type GaN nanowire-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by the metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. The nickel-catalyzed VLS process yielded both n-GaN nanowires and GaN nanoislands on substrates. The nanoislands markedly deteriorated the diode and electroluminescent characteristics in n-nanowire/p-film LED structures because of parasitic resistance and deep level emission caused by nanoislands. By burying the nanoislands with an insulating layer and adopting coaxial p-n junction nanowire structures, nanowire-based LEDs were shown to exhibit superior device performance, including highly rectifying and monochromatic electroluminescent characteristics. Thus, the undesirable effects associated with nanoislands were considerably suppressed. This work provides a rationale for designing high-performance vertical nanowire-based LEDs.

  20. Current rectification in a single GaN nanowire with a well-defined p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guosheng; Kolmakov, Andrei; Zhang, Youxiang; Moskovits, Martin; Munden, Ryan; Reed, Mark A.; Wang, Guangming; Moses, Daniel; Zhang, Jinping

    2003-08-01

    This letter discusses Mg incorporation in GaN nanowires with diameters ˜35 nm, fabricated by vapor-liquid-solid synthesis in p-type nanowires. Turning on the Mg doping halfway through the synthesis produced nanowires with p-n junctions that showed excellent rectification properties down to 2.6 K. The nanowires are shown to possess good-quality, crystalline, hexagonal GaN inner cores surrounded by an amorphous GaN outer layer. Most wires grow such that the crystalline c axis is normal to the long axis of the nanowire. The temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics is consistent with electron tunneling through a voltage-dependent barrier.

  1. Physically processed Ag-doped ZnO nanowires for all-ZnO p-n diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Won; Kim, Kyoungwon; Ahn, Jae Pyoung; Jang, Gun-Eik; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2009-07-08

    We synthesize and analyze Ag-doped ZnO (SZO) nanowires (NWs) via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in a physical vapor deposition. The process condition for the SZO NW formation is optimized by adjusting the kinetic energy and the flux of the laser-ablated particles by hot-wall control. Electron microscopes ensure excellent morphologies of the doped NWs obtained. We confirm p-type doping effects, with low temperature photoluminescence used to trace the A(0)X peak. We realize diodes with all-ZnO-based p-n junctions of SZO NWs and Ga-doped ZnO thin films, resulting in asymmetric I-V characteristics with the turn on voltage of 3.8 V.

  2. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge- up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  3. ANALISIS PUTUSAN HAKIM NOMOR: 113/Pid.B/2007/PN.Pml TENTANG TINDAK PIDANA PENYALAHGUNAAN NARKOTIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono Hanadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decree Number: 113/Pid.B/2007/PN.Pml relating with the case of abuse of narcotic that conducted by Bambang Suroto alias Gentolet bin Rifa’i. In this case, public Prosecutor assert with laminated assertion which are Primer Assertion by article 81 sentence (1 letter a Law No.22 Year 1997 and subsidiary assertion by article 85 letter a Law No.22 Year 1997 concerning Narcotic. In this case, the decree cannot be told as a progressive decree because it not considering article 47 Law No. 12 Year 1997 concerning Narcotic. Judge ought to be considering the way to solve the problem by commanding the defendant to have the rehabilitation as a prevention without punishment to influencing views of society on crime.

  4. Analisis Putusan No. 55/PID.B/2015/PN-BNA tentang Tindak Pidana Pencurian dengan Pemberatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhafifah Nurhafifah

    2016-08-01

    ABSTRACT. Based on the provisions of Article 143 paragraph (2 b KUHAP, declare that the material terms of the indictment must describe accurately, clear and complete for the offenses charged by the state the time and place the criminal act was carried out. In the indictment the Prosecution of decision No.55/PID.B/2015/PN-BNA, clear elements referred to in the article has not fulfilled. Likewise in the legal considerations of the judge's decision, which does not contain clear about the facts revealed at the hearing juridical. The charges filed by the Public Prosecutor has not elaborate on the description carefully and clearly in accordance with Article 143 paragraph (2 b KUHAP. Similarly, in the legal considerations of the judge's decision, which does not pay attention juridical facts revealed in court. Not fulfilled the provisions of Article 143 paragraph (92 letter b KUHAP resulted in the indictment null and void.

  5. ANALISIS PUTUSAN HAKIM NOMOR: 113/Pid.B/2007/PN.Pml TENTANG TINDAK PIDANA PENYALAHGUNAAN NARKOTIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono Hanadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decree Number: 113/Pid.B/2007/PN.Pml relating with the case of abuse of narcotic that conducted by Bambang Suroto alias Gentolet bin Rifa’i. In this case, public Prosecutor assert with laminated assertion which are Primer Assertion by article 81 sentence (1 letter a Law No.22 Year 1997 and subsidiary assertion by article 85 letter a Law No.22 Year 1997 concerning Narcotic. In this case, the decree cannot be told as a progressive decree because it not considering article 47 Law No. 12 Year 1997 concerning Narcotic. Judge ought to be considering the way to solve the problem by commanding the defendant to have the rehabilitation as a prevention without punishment to influencing views of society on crime. Keyword: abuse of narcotic, progressive decree and rehabilitation

  6. Efficiently Harvesting Sun Light for Silicon Solar Cells through Advanced Optical Couplers and A Radial p-n Junction Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Cheng Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based solar cells (SCs promise to be an alternative energy source mainly due to: (1 a high efficiency-to-cost ratio, (2 the absence of environmental-degradation issues, and (3 great reliability. Transition from wafer-based to thin-film SC significantly reduces the cost of SCs, including the cost from the material itself and the fabrication process. However, as the thickness of the absorption (or the active layer decreases, the energy-conversion efficiency drops dramatically. As a consequence, we discuss here three techniques to increase the efficiency of silicon-based SCs: (1 photonic crystal (PC optical couplers and (2 plasmonic optical couplers to increase efficiency of light absorption in the SCs, and (3 a radial p-n junction structure, decomposing light absorption and diffusion path into two orthogonal directions. The detailed mechanisms and recent research progress regarding these techniques are discussed in this review article.

  7. Single-crystal N-polar GaN p-n diodes by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, YongJin; Hu, Zongyang; Nomoto, Kazuki; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2017-06-01

    N-polar GaN p-n diodes are realized on single-crystal N-polar GaN bulk wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth. The current-voltage characteristics show high-quality rectification and electroluminescence characteristics with a high on currents ˜10 kA/cm2, low off currents 109, and interband photon emission. The measured electroluminescence spectrum is dominated by a strong near-band edge emission, while deep level luminescence is greatly suppressed. A very low dislocation density leads to a high reverse breakdown electric field of ˜2.2 MV/cm without fields plates—the highest reported for N-polar epitaxial structures. The low leakage current N-polar diodes open up several potential applications in polarization-engineered photonic and electronic devices.

  8. Inorganic-organic p-n heterojunction nanotree arrays for a high-sensitivity diode humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Qian, Xuemin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Yongjun; Liu, Huibiao

    2013-06-26

    Large-area and ordered arrays (16 cm(2)) of an inorganic-organic p-n heterojunction nanotree (NT) were successfully fabricated. The nanotree arrays consist of ZnO nanorods (NRs) as backbones and CuTCNQ (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) NRs as branches. The sizes of CuTCNQ NRs can be tuned by the thickness of the Cu layer deposited on the surface of ZnO NR. The CuTCNQ/ZnO NT arrays displayed excellent diode nature and obvious size-dependent rectification ratios were observed. Moreover, the CuTCNQ/ZnO NT arrays were first applied for the fabrication of a diode-type humidity sensor, which displayed ultrahigh sensitivity and quick response/recovery properties at room temperature. The detection limitation of this new diode-type humidity sensor lowers to 5% relative humidity (RH).

  9. Operando x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy for studying forward and reverse biased silicon p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, N., E-mail: nick.barrett@cea.fr; Gottlob, D. M.; Mathieu, C.; Lubin, C. [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Passicousset, J. [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); IFP Energies nouvelles, Rond-point de l’échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Renault, O.; Martinez, E. [University Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    Significant progress in the understanding of surfaces and interfaces of materials for new technologies requires operando studies, i.e., measurement of chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties under external stimulus (such as mechanical strain, optical illumination, or electric fields) applied in situ in order to approach real operating conditions. Electron microscopy attracts much interest, thanks to its ability to determine semiconductor doping at various scales in devices. Spectroscopic photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is particularly powerful since it combines high spatial and energy resolution, allowing a comprehensive analysis of local work function, chemistry, and electronic structure using secondary, core level, and valence band electrons, respectively. Here we present the first operando spectroscopic PEEM study of a planar Si p-n junction under forward and reverse bias. The method can be used to characterize a vast range of materials at near device scales such as resistive oxides, conducting bridge memories and domain wall arrays in ferroelectrics photovoltaic devices.

  10. Fabrication of a Graphene/ZnO based p-n junction device and its ultraviolet photoresponse properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Kang, Sung-Oong; Cheon, Ji-Ae; Song, Yoseb; Lee, Jong-Jin; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-09-01

    Graphene with a zero-bandgap energy is easily doped using a chemical dopant, and a shift upwards or downwards in the Fermi level is generated. Moreover, the integration of inorganic material into the doped graphene changes the physical and chemical properties of the material. For this purpose, we successfully fabricated a p-n junction device by depositing an n-typed ZnO layer on p-doped graphene and studied the ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse properties under a photocurrent (UV light on) and a dark current (UV light off). Two devices, lateral and vertical, were developed by alternating the thickness of the ZnO layer, and the photoresponse mechanisms were described on the basis of the contact potential difference.

  11. Two dimensional MoS{sub 2}/graphene p-n heterojunction diode: Fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wei-Jhih [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yi-Ping [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hung-Pin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ying-Sheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi, E-mail: kylee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-25

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) films are currently the most potential semiconductor materials of the two-dimensional nano-material heterojunction. Few-layer MoS{sub 2} is an n-type semiconductor that has good mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and has similar thickness as graphene. Graphene is presently the thinnest two-dimensional material with good thermal conductivity and high carrier mobility. The graphene Fermi level can be precisely controlled using the oxygen adsorption. Therefore, graphene can be tuned from zero-gap to p-type semiconductor material using the amount of adsorbed oxygen. In this study we combine few-layer MoS{sub 2} and graphene to produce a heterojunction and exhaustively study the interface properties for heterojunction diode application. According to the results, the MoS{sub 2} band-gap increases with decreasing thickness. The I–V characteristics of the MoS{sub 2}/Graphene p-n junction diodes can be precisely tuned by adjusting different thicknesses of the MoS{sub 2} films. By applying our fabricating method, MoS{sub 2}/Graphene heterojunction diode can be easily constructed and have potential to different applications. - Highlights: • We controlled the layer thickness of MoS{sub 2} by different exfoliation times. • We presented Raman scattering of MoS{sub 2} and define their layers number. • The few-layer MoS{sub 2}/graphene pn junction diode was synthesized. • We measured the device current and voltage characteristics. • The built-in potential barrier could be adjusted by controlling MoS{sub 2} thicknesses.

  12. Ancora sui tempi di tragitto delle Pn provenienti dalla Sicilia Tabelle numeriche per varie profondità ipocentrali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PANNOCCHIA

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows the foregoing studies by the A.A. already carried out on the earthquakes occurred in Western Sicily. The hypocentral data investigation concerning a further large earthquake of the swarm, has confirmed an hypocentral depth close to the "Molio". Grouping conveniently the investigated earthquakes it was possible to calculate the longitudinal waves travel-times curves at the following depths: 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 00 km (A < 20°. Some interesting results concerning the first impulses of P„ waves have been found (existence of two series of waves, P,n and IJ„2 having a slightly different velocity. Five curves for each examined h have been calculated; the P„ (the general using all the onsets including the ones whose residuals resulted later to be about three seconds: the Pni and the P„2 representing a Pn subdivision obtained by reducing the residuals range: the P„ -^13° and the P„ (10°M 20° for 2» < A < 13° and 10° < A < 20° respectively calculated. (The P„ 13° approaches to a straight line, in accordance with other estimations for curves investigated along shorter paths. The paper contains also all numerical tables related to 29 travel-times curves calculated every 20 km; as well as the curve corresponding to li = 17.5 km. The last curve has been obtained averaging the values of depth from 5 km to 30 km in order to fill the gap 0 i—i 30 km.

  13. The AGAAAAGA palindrome in PrP is required to generate a productive PrPSc-PrPC complex that leads to prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, Eric M; Mastrianni, James A

    2005-07-22

    The molecular hallmark of prion disease is the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to an insoluble, proteinase K-resistant, pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Once generated, PrPSc propagates by complexing with, and transferring its pathogenic conformation onto, PrPC. Defining the specific nature of this PrPSc-PrPC interaction is critical to understanding prion genesis. To begin to approach this question, we employed a prion-infected neuroblastoma cell line (ScN2a) combined with a heterologous yeast expression system to independently model PrPSc generation and propagation. We additionally applied fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis to the latter to specifically study PrP-PrP interactions. In this report we focus on an N-terminal hydrophobic palindrome of PrP (112-AGAAAAGA-119) thought to feature intimately in prion generation via an unclear mechanism. We found that, in contrast to wild type (wt) PrP, PrP lacking the palindrome (PrPDelta112-119) neither converted to PrPSc when expressed in ScN2a cells nor generated proteinase K-resistant PrP when expressed in yeast. Furthermore, PrPDelta112-119 was a dominant-negative inhibitor of wtPrP in ScN2a cells. Both wtPrP and PrPDelta112-119 were highly insoluble when expressed in yeast and produced distinct cytosolic aggregates when expressed as fluorescent fusion proteins (PrP::YFP). Although self-aggregation was evident, fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies in live yeast co-expressing PrPSc-like protein and PrPDelta112-119 indicated altered interaction properties. These results suggest that the palindrome is required, not only for the attainment of the PrPSc conformation but also to facilitate the proper association of PrPSc with PrPC to effect prion propagation.

  14. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  15. Antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy and infection-prone individuals with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Ulanova, M; Friman, V; Björkander, J; Oxelius, V A; Lucas, A; Hanson, L A

    2004-09-01

    Searching for a possible explanation for the phenotypic heterogeneity in IgG3 deficiency, we studied the antibody response to a polysaccharide and a protein antigen in IgG3-deficient (IgG3d) adults after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (Hib CP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. Distribution of isotypes, idiotypes, clonotypes, and Gm allotypes were compared. All the vaccinated individuals, irrespective of the level of IgG3 and proneness to infections, developed protective levels of anti-Hib CP. Significantly lower prevaccination levels of IgG2 (p infection-prone compared to the healthy IgG3d individuals and/or controls. Seventy percent of the IgG3d patients and none of the controls had the low responding Gm(ga-n/ga-n) genotype, while the majority of the controls had the alternative Gm(bfn/bfn) genotype. The conjugate ACT-HIB vaccine efficiently overcomes the IgG3 subclass deficiency state and the genetic predisposition for lower responsiveness, providing protection against Hib and tetanus infections. The proneness to infection in some IgG3d individuals may relate to their low prevaccination antibody levels.

  16. Immunological studies on bee-keepers: specific IgG and subclass typing IgG against bee venom and bee venom components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, R; Forster, J; Ziupa, J; Karitzky, D

    1980-11-17

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom and its components were studied in 23 bee-keepers. The highest IgG serum levels were observed for whole bee venom followed by phospholipase A. The serum levels of specific IgG antibodies against melittin and MCD-peptide were lower, the lowest serum levels being observed for apamin. After a 5 month absence from bee-keeping a fall in the serum levels of IgG antibodies was observed in all the bee-keepers studied. The investigation of the IgG subclass antibodies 1-4 against bee venom and phospholipase A demonstrated the highest serum levels for IgG 4 and IgG 2, the lowest levels were observed for IgG 1. The lowest IgG serum levels were associated with the least effective protection to bee stings. These findings support the concept that specific IgG antibodies prevent the development of allergic symptoms after bee sting.

  17. Multivariate DoE Optimization of Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation Coupled to Quantitative LC-MS/MS for Analysis of Lipoprotein Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report we demonstrate a practical multivariate design of experiment (DoE approach for asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 method optimization using separation of lipoprotein subclasses as an example. First, with the aid of commercially available software, we built a full factorial screening design where the theoretical outcomes were calculated by applying established formulas that govern AF4 channel performance for a 5–35 nm particle size range of interest for lipid particles. Second, using the desirable ranges of instrumental parameters established from theoretical optimization, we performed fractional factorial DoE for AF4 separation of pure albumin and ferritin with UV detection to narrow the range of instrumental parameters and allow optimum size resolution while minimizing losses from membrane immobilization. Third, the optimal range of conditions were tested using response surface DoE for sub-fractionation of high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL in human serum, where the recovery of the analytes were monitored by fraction collection and isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis of each individual fraction for cholesterol and apolipoproteins (ApoA-1 and ApoB-100. Our results show that DoE is an effective tool in combining AF4 theoretical knowledge and experimental data in finding the most optimal set of AF4 instrumental parameters for quantitative coupling with LC-MS/MS measurements.

  18. A Monosaccharide Residue Is Sufficient to Maintain Mouse and Human IgG Subclass Activity and Directs IgG Effector Functions to Cellular Fc Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG glycosylation modulates antibody activity and represents a major source of heterogeneity within antibody preparations. Depending on their glycosylation pattern, individual IgG glycovariants present in recombinant antibody preparations may trigger effects ranging from enhanced pro-inflammatory activity to increased anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, reduction of IgG glycosylation beyond the central mannose core is generally believed to result in impaired IgG activity. However, this study reveals that a mono- or disaccharide structure consisting of one N-acetylglucosamine with or without a branching fucose residue is sufficient to retain the activity of the most active human and mouse IgG subclasses in vivo and further directs antibody activity to cellular Fcγ receptors. Notably, the activity of minimally glycosylated antibodies is not predicted by in vitro assays based on a monomeric antibody-Fcγ-receptor interaction analysis, whereas in vitro assay systems using immune complexes are more suitable to predict IgG activity in vivo.

  19. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in 350 adults with IgG subclass deficiency and recurrent respiratory tract infections: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinder-Nielsen, Ann-Margreth; Granert, Carl; Forsberg, Pia; Friman, Vanda; Vietorisz, Auli; Björkander, Janne

    2007-01-01

    350 adult patients in Sweden were included in a retrospective study covering more than 2000 patient-y, to evaluate the efficacy of immunoglobulin (Ig) prophylaxis. All patients had selective or combined IgG subclass deficiency, without IgA deficiency, and suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The patients had been given Ig prophylaxis for 0.5-21 y (mean 5.5 y). In total, 164/350 of the patients had a concomitant lung disease. Because of the heterogeneity of this retrospective material we evaluated only those patients with 4 or more antibiotic-demanding (i.e. presumably bacterial) episodes of RTI per y treated with an Ig dose of about 100 mg/kg/week (132/350). The frequency of antibiotic treated RTIs prior to and during latest y/s of Ig prophylaxis was compared. No difference in response could be found between patients with and without chronic lung diseases. In 92/132 a > or = 50% reduction of the rate of episodes of antibiotic-demanding RTIs was recorded (p IgG1 57%, IgG2 59%, IgG3 63% and for the combinations 61% (all p<0.001).

  20. Rationale for the development of IMC-3G3, a fully human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 monoclonal antibody targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gaurav D; Loizos, Nick; Youssoufian, Hagop; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Rowinsky, Eric K

    2010-02-15

    A large body of evidence suggests that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family and associated receptors are potential targets in oncology therapeutic development because of their critical roles in the proliferation and survival of various cancers and in the regulation and growth of the tumor stroma and blood vessels. Several small molecules that nonspecifically target the PDGF signaling axis are in current use or development as anticancer therapies. However, for the majority of these agents, PDGF and its receptors are neither the primary targets nor the principal mediators of anticancer activity. IMC-3G3, a fully human monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin G subclass 1, specifically binds to the human PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) with high affinity and blocks PDGF ligand binding and PDGFRalpha activation. The results of preclinical studies and the frequent expression of PDGFRalpha in many types of cancer and in cancer-associated stroma support a rationale for the clinical development of IMC-3G3. Currently, IMC-3G3 is being evaluated in early clinical development for patients with several types of solid malignancies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  1. Increased efficiency in pn-junction PbS QD solar cells via NaHS treatment of the p-type layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speirs, Mark J.; Balazs, Daniel M.; Dirin, Dmitry N.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cell efficiencies have improved rapidly over the past years due in large part to intelligent band alignment considerations. A pn-junction can be formed by connecting PbS layers with contrasting ligands. However, the resulting doping concentrations are

  2. Transparent CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}/Al-ZnO p-n heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sunil, E-mail: skbgudha@gmail.com; Ansari, Mohd Zubair; Khare, Neeraj [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    A p-type Organic inorganic tin chloride (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}) perovskite thin film has been synthesized by solution method. An n-type 1% Al doped ZnO (AZO) film has been deposited on FTO substrate by ultrasonic assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. A transparent CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}/AZO p-n heterojunction diode has been fabricated by spin coating technique. CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}/AZO p-n heterojunction shows 75% transparency in the visible region. I-V characteristic of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}/AZO p-n heterojunction shows rectifying behavior of the diode. The diode parameters calculated as ideality factor η=2.754 and barrier height Φ= 0.76 eV. The result demonstrates the potentiality of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}SnCl{sub 3}/AZO p-n heterojunction for transparent electronics.

  3. Synthesis of group 10 metal complexes with a new unsymmetrical PN3P-pincer ligand through ligand post-modification: Structure and reactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiufang

    2017-01-01

    A post-modification strategy are used to synthesize a new class of diimine-amido PN3P-pincer group-10 transition metal complexes. The coordination chemistry and the thermal stabilities of their organometallic derivatives are characterized and investigated.

  4. Evidence of Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Reynolds, C.S.; Nowak, M.A.; Homan, J.; Freyberg, M.J.; Ehle, M.; Belloni, T.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; van der Klis, M.; Charles, P.A.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed spectra of the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 obtained through simultaneous 76 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and 10 ks Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations during a bright phase of its 2002-2003 outburst. An extremely skewed, relativistic Fe Kalpha emission line and ionized disk

  5. Modeling potential hydrochemical responses to climate change and rising CO2 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest using a dynamic biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles T. Driscoll; John L. Campbell; Katharine. Hayhoe

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hydrochemical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting the interactive effects of climate change, atmospheric CO2, and atmospheric deposition on the hydrology and water quality of forested watersheds. We used the biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to evaluate the effects of potential future changes in temperature,...

  6. Beauty at HERA-B : Measurement of the bb Production Cross Section in pN Collisions at sqrt(s) = 41.6 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, Maaijke

    2003-01-01

    This thesis reports on the measurement of the bb production cross section using the 2000 dataset of the HERA-B experiment. HERA-B is a fixed target experiment using the 920 GeV protons of the HERA accelerator of DESY, Hamburg. The production cross section of beauty quarks in pN collisions

  7. Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Arenols by a Well-Defined Complex of Ruthenium and Phosphorus–Nitrogen PN3–Pincer Ligand Containing a Phenanthroline Backbone

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaifeng

    2017-05-30

    Selective catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds is extremely challenging using transition-metal catalysts. Hydrogenation of arenols to substituted tetrahydronaphthols or cyclohexanols has been reported only with heterogeneous catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the selective hydrogenation of arenols to the corresponding tetrahydronaphthols or cyclohexanols catalyzed by a phenanthroline-based PN3-ruthenium pincer catalyst.

  8. Cu2ZnSnS4@TiO2 p-n heterostructured nanosheet arrays: Controllable hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-06-01

    We have designed and fabricated a novel particle/sheet p-n heterostructural nanosheet arrays of Cu2ZnSnS4@TiO2 via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The results from characterizations of SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectra, XPS, and UV-vis spectrophotometer indicate that p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were successfully assembled on the vertically oriented TiO2 nanosheet arrays, forming three-dimensional distributed p-n heterostructural film photocatalyst, which could efficiently expand spectral response, promote photoinduced charges separation, and increase the specific surface areas for photocatalytic reaction, and then strengthen samples' visible light-driven photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, we found that the absorption edges of the samples exhibited the red shift from 390 nm to 700 nm with the CZTS deposition time. The results of photocatalytic degradation methyl orange (MO) showed that the new type CZTS@TiO2 p-n heterostructural nanosheet arrays with 24 h hydrothermal reaction revealed the optimal degradation rate of K = 1.2 h-1, about 6.6 times higher than that of the pure TiO2 nanosheet arrays under the same conditions; and also demonstrated an excellent stability and reusability during the cyclic experiments, which would be primarily attributed to optimal loading capacities of CZTS nanoparticles and an adequate built-in electric field at their interfaces of p-n heterostructures.

  9. Tuning of optical and electrical properties of wide band gap Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junctions using 80 MeV oxygen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U.S. [Gujarat University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2016-12-15

    Electrical and optical properties of pristine and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiated p-n junction diode have been investigated for advanced electronics application. Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junction was fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition on c-sapphire substrate. The optical band gaps of Fe:SnO{sub 2} and Li:NiO films were obtained to be 3.88 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the oxide-based p-n junction showed a rectifying behaviour with turn-on voltage of 0.95 V. The oxide-based p-n junction diode was irradiated to 80 MeV O{sup +6} ions with 1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence. Decrease in grain size due to SHI irradiation is confirmed by the grazing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. In comparison with the pristine p-n junction diode, O{sup +6} ion irradiated p-n junction diode shows the increase of surface roughness and decrease of percentage transmittance in visible region. For irradiated p-n junction diode, current-voltage curve has still rectifying behaviour but exhibits lower turn-on voltage than that of virgin p-n junction diode. (orig.)

  10. Impact of chromatin structure on PR signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) interacts with chromatin in a highly dynamic manner that requires ongoing chromatin remodeling, interaction with chaparones and activity of the proteasome. Here we discuss dynamic interaction of steroid receptor with chromatin, with special attention not only to PR ...

  11. PrDK: protocol programming with automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); F. Arbab (Farhad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present PrDK: a development kit for programming protocols. PrDK is based on syntactic separation of process code, presumably written in an existing general-purpose language, and protocol code, written in a domain-specific language with explicit, high-level elements of syntax for

  12. Synthesis and physical properties of Cr–P-based intermetallic compounds: Cr{sub 3}P, Cr{sub 3}PC, and Cr{sub 3}PN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, L.; Lin, S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Tong, P., E-mail: tongpeng@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Lin, J.C.; Kan, X.C.; Wang, B.S.; Song, W.H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Y.P., E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline samples of Cr{sub 3}P, Cr{sub 3}PC, and Cr{sub 3}PN are first synthesized by using solid state reaction method. • A good quality of our samples is verified by the Rietveld refinement and electrical transport measurements. • We present a comprehensive understanding of physical properties of Cr{sub 3}P, Cr{sub 3}PC, and Cr{sub 3}PN. - Abstract: We report the synthesis, crystal structures and electrical/thermal transport properties of polycrystalline Cr{sub 3}PX (X = C, N, and vacancy) compounds. As a result, Cr{sub 3}PC and Cr{sub 3}PN have an orthorhombic crystal structure with space group Cmcm, while Cr{sub 3}P shows a tetragonal structure with space group I−4. All samples show good metallic behavior between 2 and 350 K in the measurement of electrical transport. At the same time, the Fermi-liquid behavior is observed at low temperatures for Cr{sub 3}PC (N) (2–50 K) and Cr{sub 3}P (2–22 K). Based on the fitting results of low-temperature resistivity and specific heat, large Kadowaki–Woods ratio of Cr{sub 3}PC (N) and Cr{sub 3}P were obtained, suggesting a considerably strong electron–electron correlation for all our samples. By analyzing the thermal conductivity data, it is found that the electron thermal conductivity is predominantly stronger than the phonon one at low temperatures for Cr{sub 3}P. As to Cr{sub 3}PC and Cr{sub 3}PN, however, both contributions are comparable in the whole temperature range investigated. Besides, phonon-drag effect was observed in the Seebeck coefficient α(T) curves for all the samples, which may explain the crossover of sign at 70 K in α(T) of Cr{sub 3}PN.

  13. Novel Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3}p-n heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Wei, E-mail: tengw@just.edu.cn [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212003 (China); Tan, Xiangjun [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212003 (China); Li, Xinyong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Tang, Yubin [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212003 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Excellent photocatalytic activity and stability are achieved over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3}p-n heterostructure nanocatalyst, which was increased the charge separation efficiencies. - Highlights: • The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3}p-n heterostructure nanocatalyst was synthesized successfully. • The composite nanocatalyst possesses excellent photocatalytic activity and stability. • The effective separation of electron-hole pairs were mainly depend on the inner electric field of p-n heterojunction. - Abstract: Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3}p-n heterojunction have been successfully fabricated by using a simple in situ solvent method. SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS and electrochemical techniques were used to study the structural and electrochemical characteristics of the resulting materials. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained composite was tested by the degradation of organic dye (methylene blue) under visible-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3} remained 92.5% after four recycling runs, which was much higher than that of the pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (54%). The obtained results confirm that the novel Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoO{sub 3} heterostructure exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities and improved stability compared with bare Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The excellent photocatalytic activity came from the effective separation of the electron-hole pairs under the effect of built-in electric field in the interfacial the of the p-n heterojunction, and then made the holes more available for dyes oxidation.

  14. High Performance Nanostructured Silicon-Organic Quasi p-n Junction Solar Cells via Low-Temperature Deposited Hole and Electron Selective Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Xia, Zhouhui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Feng; Li, Yongfang; Song, Tao; Yu, Xuegong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-01-26

    Silicon-organic solar cells based on conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) on n-type silicon (n-Si) attract wide interest because of their potential for cost-effectiveness and high-efficiency. However, a lower barrier height (Φb) and a shallow built in potential (Vbi) of Schottky junction between n-Si and PSS hinders the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in comparison with those of traditional p-n junction. Here, a strong inversion layer was formed on n-Si surface by inserting a layer of 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN), resulting in a quasi p-n junction. External quantum efficiency spectra, capacitance-voltage, transient photovoltage decay and minority charge carriers life mapping measurements indicated that a quasi p-n junction was built due to the strong inversion effect, resulting in a high Φb and Vbi. The quasi p-n junction located on the front surface region of silicon substrates improved the short wavelength light conversion into photocurrent. In addition, a derivative perylene diimide (PDIN) layer between rear side of silicon and aluminum cathodes was used to block the holes from flowing to cathodes. As a result, the device with PDIN layer also improved photoresponse at longer wavelength. A champion PCE of 14.14% was achieved for the nanostructured silicon-organic device by combining HAT-CN and PDIN layers. The low temperature and simple device structure with quasi p-n junction promises cost-effective high performance photovoltaic techniques.

  15. Signaling pathways coordinating the alkaline pH response confer resistance to the hevein-type plant antimicrobial peptide Pn-AMP1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngho; Chiang, Jennifer; Tran, Grant; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Koo, Ja-Choon

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that signaling pathways related to the alkaline pH stress contribute to resistance to plant antimicrobial peptide, Pn-AMP1. Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be promising candidates for controlling phytopathogens. Pn-AMP1 is a hevein-type plant AMP that shows potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Genome-wide chemogenomic screening was performed using heterozygous and homozygous diploid deletion pools of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a chemogenetic model system to identify genes whose deletion conferred enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1. This assay identified 44 deletion strains with fitness defects in the presence of Pn-AMP1. Strong fitness defects were observed in strains with deletions of genes encoding components of several pathways and complex known to participate in the adaptive response to alkaline pH stress, including the cell wall integrity (CWI), calcineurin/Crz1, Rim101, SNF1 pathways and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT complex). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes revealed that the most highly overrepresented GO term was "cellular response to alkaline pH". We found that 32 of the 44 deletion strains tested (72 %) showed significant growth defects compared with their wild type at alkaline pH. Furthermore, 9 deletion strains (20 %) exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1 at ambient pH compared to acidic pH. Although several hundred plant AMPs have been reported, their modes of action remain largely uncharacterized. This study demonstrates that the signaling pathways that coordinate the adaptive response to alkaline pH also confer resistance to a hevein-type plant AMP in S. cerevisiae. Our findings have broad implications for the design of novel and potent antifungal agents.

  16. Long-term outcomes after lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer when unsuspected pN2 disease is found: A National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Kumar, Arvind; Gulack, Brian C; Mulvihill, Michael S; Hartwig, Matthew G; Wang, Xiaofei; D'Amico, Thomas A; Berry, Mark F

    2016-05-01

    There are few studies evaluating whether to proceed with planned resection when a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) unexpectedly is found to have N2 disease at the time of thoracoscopy or thoracotomy. To help guide management of this clinical scenario, we evaluated outcomes for patients who were upstaged to pN2 after lobectomy without induction therapy using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Survival of NSCLC patients treated with lobectomy for clinically unsuspected mediastinal nodal disease (cT1-cT3 cN0-cN1, pN2 disease) from 1998-2006 in the NCDB was compared with "suspected" N2 disease patients (cT1-cT3 cN2) who were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation followed by lobectomy, using matched analysis based on propensity scores. Unsuspected pN2 disease was found in 4.4% of patients (2047 out of 46,691) who underwent lobectomy as primary therapy for cT1-cT3 cN0-cN1 NSCLC. The 5-year survival was 42%, 36%, 21%, and 28% for patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 385), chemoradiation (n = 504), radiation (n = 300), and no adjuvant therapy (n = 858), respectively. Five-year survival of the entire unsuspected pN2 cohort was worse than survival of 2302 patients who were treated with lobectomy after induction therapy for clinical N2 disease (30% vs 40%; P based analysis suggests that, in the setting of unsuspected pN2 NSCLC, proceeding with lobectomy does not appear to compromise outcomes if adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy can be administered following surgery. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ESO PR Highlights in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    new interesting scientific results on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, including several results from the unmatched interferometer mode of the VLT, the VLTI, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. Certainly worth noting is the possible first ever bona-fide image of an exoplanet and the discovery of the lightest known exoplanet . At the beginning of the year, Paranal welcomed the first Auxiliary Telescope, while on the instrument side as well, 2004 was a good year: we saw the arrival of SINFONI on the VLT, of AMBER on the VLTI, and the installation at the NACO Adaptive Optics instrument of the " Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI)" to detect exoplanets. And the first prototype of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory was able to provide unprecedented results on the existence of Type-2 quasars by discovering an entire population of obscured, powerful supermassive black holes. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2004 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  18. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arato, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cardenas, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); O' Brien, J.J.; Liu, J. [Center for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.mx

    2009-02-02

    In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of approximately 0.5 {mu}m in thickness. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb{sub 2} S{sub 3}:C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, sodium citrate, NH{sub 4}OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C and n-type CdS showed V{sub oc} = 500 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing.

  19. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG subclass responses to Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, W; Wilson, A D; Mellor, P; Doherr, M G; Torsteinsdottir, S; Zurbriggen, A; Jungi, T; Marti, E

    2006-09-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to bites of Culicoides and sometimes Simulium spp. The allergens causing IBH are probably salivary gland proteins from these insects, but they have not yet been identified. The aim of our study was to identify the number and molecular weight of salivary gland extract (SGE) proteins derived from Culicoides nubeculosus which are able to bind IgE antibodies (ab) from the sera of IBH-affected horses. Additionally, we sought to investigate the IgG subclass (IgGa, IgGb and IgGT) reactivity to these proteins. Individual IgE and IgG subclass responses to proteins of C. nubeculosus SGE were evaluated by immunoblot in 42 IBH-affected and 26 healthy horses belonging to different groups (Icelandic horses born in Iceland, Icelandic horses and horses from different breeds born in mainland Europe). Additionally, the specific antibody response was studied before exposure to bites of Culicoides spp. and over a period of 3 years in a cohort of 10 Icelandic horses born in Iceland and imported to Switzerland. Ten IgE-binding protein bands with approximate molecular weights of 75, 66, 52, 48, 47, 32, 22/21, 19, 15, 13/12 kDa were found in the SGE. Five of these bands bound IgE from 50% or more of the horse sera. Thirty-nine of the 42 IBH-affected horses but only 2 of the 26 healthy horses showed IgE-binding to the SGE (p<0.000001). Similarly, more IBH-affected than healthy horses had IgGa ab binding to the Culicoides SGE (19/22 and 9/22, respectively, p<0.01). Sera of IBH-affected horses contained IgE, IgGa and IgGT but not IgGb ab against significantly more protein bands than the sera of the healthy horses. The cohort of 10 Icelandic horses confirmed these results and showed that Culicoides SGE specific IgE correlates with onset of IBH. IBH-affected horses that were born in Iceland had IgGa and IgGT ab (p< or =0.01) as well as IgE ab (p=0.06) against a significantly higher number of

  20. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis R. Batashev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974 and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975 opened the questions whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread is symplasmic loading. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of ‘open’ and ‘closed’ types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989; 1990. These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on several cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with ‘open’ minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with ‘closed’ cytology, i.e. that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009, these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading.

  1. Structure determination of a tetrahydro-beta-carboline of arthropod origin: a novel alkaloid-toxin subclass from the web of spider Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; Mendes, Maria Anita; Tormena, Cláudio Francisco; Souza, Bibiana M; Cesar, Lílian Mari Marcondes; Rittner, Roberto; Palma, Mario S

    2005-04-01

    The orb-web spiders are polyphagous animals in which the web plays a very important role in the capture of preys; oily droplets usually cover the capture-web of the spider Nephila clavipes and seem to be of great importance for prey capture. The knowledge of the chemical composition of these droplets is necessary to understand the function of this adhesive material in web mechanics and prey capture. A novel subclass of spider toxins, tetrahydro-beta-carboline, was identified among the weaponry of compounds present inside of oily droplets. This type of alkaloid is not common among the natural compounds of spider toxins. Apparently, when the prey arthropods get caught by the spider web, their bodies are covered with many adhesive oily droplets, which disrupt delivering the tetrahydro-beta-carboline to the direct contact with the prey integument. Toxicity assays demonstrated a potent lethal effect of the alkaloid toxin to the spider preys; topical applications of the tetrahydro-beta-carboline at first caused clear signs of neurotoxicity, followed by the death of preys. The structure of the major component, a tetrahydro-beta-carboline, among the alkaloid toxins was elucidated by means of UV spectrophotometry, ESI mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of the natural toxin was determined as 1-(2-guanidinoethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxymethyl)-beta-carboline; the investigation of the pharmacological properties and neurotoxic actions of this compound may be used in the future as reference for the development of new drugs to be applied at level of pest control in agriculture.

  2. Impact of antibody subclass and disulfide isoform differences on the biological activity of CD200R and βklotho agonist antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Stevens, Jennitte; Chou, Robert Y-T; Weiszmann, Jennifer V; Sekirov, Laura; Thomson, Christy; Badh, Anita; Grauer, Stephanie; Chan, Brian; Graham, Kevin; Manchulenko, Kathy; Dillon, Thomas M; Li, Yang; Foltz, Ian N

    2017-05-13

    Agonism of cell surface receptors by monoclonal antibodies is dependent not only on its ability to bind the target, but also to deliver a biological signal through receptors to the cell. Immunoglobulin G2 antibodies (IgG2s) are made up of a mixture of distinct isoforms (IgG2-A, -B and A/B), which differ by the disulfide connectivity at the hinge region. When evaluating panels of agonistic antibodies against CD200 receptor (CD200R) or βklotho receptor (βklotho), we noticed striking activity differences of IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies with the same variable domains. For the CD200R antibody, the IgG2 antibody demonstrated higher activity than the IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. More significantly, for βklotho, agonist antibodies with higher biological activity as either IgG2 or IgG1 were identified. In both cases, ion exchange chromatography was able to isolate the bioactivity to the IgG2-B isoform from the IgG2 parental mixture. The subclass-related increase in agonist activity was not correlated with antibody aggregation or binding affinity, but was driven by enhanced avidity for the CD200R antibody. These results add to the growing body of evidence that show that conformational differences in the antibody hinge region can have a dramatic impact on the antibody activity and must be considered when screening and engineering therapeutic antibody candidates. The results also demonstrate that the IgG1 (IgG2-A like) or the IgG2-B form may provide the most active form of agonist antibodies for different antibodies and targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (pHPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  4. Crystal Field Levels of Pr3+ in PrFeO3 and PrGaO3 Determined by Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldmann, K.; Henning, K.; Kaun, L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal field splitting of the 3H4 ground state of the Pr ion in PrFeO3 and PrGaO3 has been investigated by inelastic scattering of thermal neutrons. At several temperatures the transitions have been measured by TAS and TOF methods for polycrystalline PrFeO3 and by the TOF method for polycrys...

  5. Identification and expression analysis of a pathogen- responsive PR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    related (PR) proteins. .... undesirable impacts of chemicals on environment. Introducing disease .... Figure 1. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of VqPR-1 gene, the type member PR-1a from tobacco (GenBank:.

  6. Binding of (/sup 3/H)isradipine (PN 200-110) on smooth muscle cell membranes from different bovine arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinquier, J.L.; Urien, S.; Chaumet-Riffaud, P.; Comte, A.; Tillement, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)isradipine ((/sup 3/H)PN 200-110), a new dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium blocker on smooth muscle cell (SMC) membranes from different bovine arteries was saturable with comparable high affinities but different binding site densities (Bmax). The data were fitted to a model that provided a common estimation for the dissociation constant (Kd = 0.46 nM, SD = 0.03) but different Bmax values. Two groups of arteries could be distinguished, large-sized with high Bmax (aorta, 149 fmol/mg, SD = 4; intrapulmonary, 134 fmol/mg, SD = 4) and medium-sized with lower Bmax (mesenteric, 67 fmol/mg, SD = 2; internal carotid, 50 fmol/mg, SD = 2; renal artery, 29 fmol/mg, SD = 2). The Kd values were similar to those previously reported, but the Bmax value on aorta SMC was higher than usually reported with other DHPs, showing that isradipine was a high full antagonist of calcium channel. Our results also suggest that the increase in arterial compliance induced by DHPs will probably be more important on large-sized arteries than on medium-sized arteries because of higher DHP binding.

  7. Doping GaP Core-Shell Nanowire pn-Junctions: A Study by Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Berg, Alexander; Borgström, Magnus T; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samuelson, Lars; Wagner, Jakob B

    2015-06-10

    The doping process in GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions using different precursors is evaluated by mapping the nanowires' electrostatic potential distribution by means of off-axis electron holography. Three precursors, triethyltin (TESn), ditertiarybutylselenide, and silane are investigated for n-type doping of nanowire shells; among them, TESn is shown to be the most efficient precursor. Off-axis electron holography reveals higher electrostatic potentials in the regions of nanowire cores grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism (axial growth) than the regions grown parasitically by the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism (radial growth), attributed to different incorporation efficiency between VLS and VS of unintentional p-type carbon doping originating from the trimethylgallium precursor. This study shows that off-axis electron holography of doped nanowires is unique in terms of the ability to map the electrostatic potential and thereby the active dopant distribution with high spatial resolution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oxide p-n Heterojunction of Cu2O/ZnO Nanowires and Their Photovoltaic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ki Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxide p-n heterojunction devices consisting of p-Cu2O/n-ZnO nanowires were fabricated on ITO/glass substrates and their photovoltaic performances were investigated. The vertically arrayed ZnO nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, which was followed by the electrodeposition of the p-type Cu2O layer. Prior to the fabrication of solar cells, the effect of bath pH on properties of the absorber layers was studied to determine the optimal condition of the Cu2O electrodeposition process. With the constant pH 11 solution, the Cu2O layer preferred the (111 orientation, which gave low electrical resistivity and high optical absorption. The Cu2O (pH 11/ZnO nanowire-based solar cell exhibited a higher conversion efficiency of 0.27% than the planar structure solar cell (0.13%, because of the effective charge collection in the long wavelength region and because of the enhanced junction area.

  9. Measurements and analysis of current-voltage characteristic of a pn diode for an undergraduate physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, Enrico; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    We show that in a simple experiment at undergraduate level, suitable to be performed in classes of science and engineering students, it is possible to test accurately, on a popular 1N4148 p-n diode, the range of the junction currents where the Shockley equation model can be considered satisfactory. The experiment benefits from a system of temperature control and data collection driven in a LabVIEW environment. With these tools a large quantity of data can be recorded in the temporal frame of a lab session. Significant deviations of the experimental I-V with respect to the ideal behaviour curve predicted by the Shockley equation are observed, both at low and high current. A better agreement over the entire range is obtained introducing, as is customary, a four parameters model, including a parallel and a series resistance. A new iterative fitting procedure is presented which treats the I-V data of different regimes on the same level, and allows a simultaneous determination of the four parameters for each tempe...

  10. Fabrication of WS2/GaN p-n Junction by Wafer-Scale WS2 Thin Film Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Fong, Patrick W. K.; Wang, Shifeng; Surya, Charles

    2016-01-01

    High quality wafer-scale free-standing WS2 grown by van der Waals rheotaxy (vdWR) using Ni as a texture promoting layer is reported. The microstructure of vdWR grown WS2 was significantly modified from mixture of crystallites with their c-axes both parallel to (type I) and perpendicular to (type II) the substrate to large type II crystallites. Wafer-scale transfer of vdWR grown WS2 onto different substrates by an etching-free technique was demonstrated for the first time that utilized the hydrophobic property of WS2 and hydrophilic property of sapphire. Our results show that vdWR is a reliable technique to obtain type-II textured crystallites in WS2, which is the key factor for the wafer-scale etching-free transfer. The transferred films were found to be free of observable wrinkles, cracks, or polymer residues. High quality p-n junctions fabricated by room-temperature transfer of the p-type WS2 onto an n-type GaN was demonstrated with a small leakage current density of 29.6 μA/cm2 at −1 V which shows superior performances compared to the directly grown WS2/GaN heterojunctions. PMID:27897210

  11. Ideal p-n Diode Current Equation for Organic Heterojunction using a Buffer Layer: Derivation and Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeongMin; Ha, Jaewook; Kim, Jin-Baek

    2016-04-01

    The equation of p-n diode current-voltage (J-V) of an organic heterojunction (HJ) including a hole and electron buffer layer is derived, and its characteristics are numerically simulated based on a polaron-pair model Giebink et al. (Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 82; 1-12, 2010). In particular, the correlation between a fraction of the potential drop for an electron/hole buffer ( δ e - b / δ h - b ) and for a donor (D)/acceptor (A) ( δ D / δ A ) is numerically investigated for J-V curves. As a result, the lowest diode current (DC) is obtained for the condition of δ e - b + δ A ≅ 0 or δ D + δ h - b ≅ 1. It is suggested that it is important to characterize the lowest DC curve for the state of D/A blending with a condition of a fraction of the potential drop ( δ e - b / δ h - b ). Under these circumstances, the transport of holes ( h +) from a DC source at the reverse bias is effectively limited.

  12. PERSPEKTIF KEADILAN DAN KEPASTIAN HUKUM DALAM PUTUSAN PRAPERADILAN NOMOR: 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel. TAHUN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktein Josephus Susak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pretrial arrangement in the Criminal Procedure Code is a strict rule with a clear limitation. One function of pretrial is to test the validity of the initial arrest and detention as a forced effort on behalf of legislation. Pretrial in the formulation of the Criminal Procedure Code is more directed at administrative oversight. In a pretrial ruling No. 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel., judges have intruded normative boundaries by extending the authority of a preliminary hearing object includes examining “determination of the suspect”, although not explicitly mentioned in the Criminal Procedure Code provisions. The problem in this research is “How is the existence of Criminal Pretrial Case Decision No. 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel., viewed from the aspect of justice and the rule of law?”. This research is a normative juridical approach method using the conceptual approach, case approach and the approach of legislation. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the examination in pretrial is a voluntair examination as an effort to actualize the procedural justice, but related  to a quo case, to realize substantial justice the judges act by entering the “determination of the suspect” as an element of the object of new norms in the series Article 77 letter a Criminal Procedure Code into a pretrial authority. This creates legal uncertainty, since it contradicts with the principle of Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generalis, Noscitur a Sociis principle, Ejusdem Generis principle and the principle of Expressio Unius Exclusio Alterius. With the model of reasoning methods argumentum a'contrario as one of the construction methods of the law against Article 77 letter a Criminal Code, it is known that the “determination of the suspect” is not a pretrial object . The actions of judges had exceeded its authority, and the logic of the law of the judge in the formation of the new norm object element does not include extensive interpretation

  13. Rhodopsin p.N78I dominant mutation causing sectorial retinitis pigmentosa in a pedigree with intrafamilial clinical heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-De la Parra, David; Cabral-Macias, Jesus; Matias-Florentino, Margarita; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Gabriela; Robredo, Violeta; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a 4 affected sib-family segregating this retinal phenotype. Affected sibs underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including funduscopic inspection, electroretinogram, fluorescein angiography, visual field measurement, and optical coherence tomography. Both parents were deceased after their sixties and were reported with no visual handicap. Molecular analysis included direct nucleotide sequencing of the rhodopsin gene (RHO), at chromosome 3q21-q24, in DNA from a total of 4 affected sibs. A total of 200 ethnically matched alleles were included as mutation controls. Sector RP was clinically documented in this family. Wide phenotypic variability was observed with visual acuities ranging from 20/20 to 20/200 and variable funduscopic appearance. Molecular analysis disclosed a c.233A>T mutation at RHO exon 1, predicting a missense p.N78I substitution. Even though RP can be caused by mutations in a variety of genes, the RHO gene was chosen to be investigated in this RP family since it has been previously associated to sector disease. This case exemplifies the value of guiding RP molecular analysis based on funduscopic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells device with bottom silver reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xumin; Li, Xin; Yang, Yongchao; Yuan, Wei; Xu, Yin; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we propose, fabricate, and characterize suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) device with a bottom silver reflector for diverse applications. The suspended device was achieved through a double-side process on the GaN-on-silicon platform and tested by using a micro-reflectance/transmittance setup. When the suspended device operates under the light-emitting diode mode, a fraction of the emitted light reflected by the bottom silver reflector can enter into the air through the top escape cone, leading to improved light extraction efficiency. When the suspended device operates under the photodiode mode, part of the transmitted light can be reflected back by the bottom silver reflector to enhance the photovoltaic effect. The experimental results demonstrate that such suspended device can be used as both transmitter and receiver for visible light communication. And the detecting features even when the suspended structure is under turn-on state, demonstrating a potential realization of light emission and photodetection simultaneously.

  15. Zn doping induced conductivity transformation in NiO films for realization of p-n homo junction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-06-01

    Mixed transition metal oxide, zinc doped NiO, Z n x N i 1 - x O (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10), thin films have been fabricated by the RF magnetron sputtering technique in an oxygen deficit ambience at a growth temperature of 400 °C. The present report highlights the effect of Zn doping in NiO thin films on its structural, optical, and electrical properties. Optical transmission enhancement and band gap engineering in a-axis oriented NiO films have been demonstrated via Zn substitution. Hall effect measurements of the prepared samples revealed a transition from p-type to n-type conductivity in NiO at 2% Zn doping. A NiO based transparent p-n homojunction diode has been fabricated successfully, and the conduction mechanism dominating the diode properties is reported in detail. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the homojunction diode are found to obey the Space Charge Limited Conduction mechanism with non-ideal square law behaviour.

  16. Direct observation of the carrier transport process in InGaN quantum wells with a pn-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Ma, Ziguang; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Lu; Yang, Haojun; Li, Yangfeng; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Wang, Wenxin; Zhou, Junming; Liu, Wuming; Chen, Hong

    2016-11-01

    A new mechanism of light-to-electricity conversion that uses InGaN/GaN QWs with a p-n junction is reported. According to the well established light-to-electricity conversion theory, quantum wells (QWs) cannot be used in solar cells and photodetectors because the photogenerated carriers in QWs usually relax to ground energy levels, owing to quantum confinement, and cannot form a photocurrent. We observe directly that more than 95% of the photoexcited carriers escape from InGaN/GaN QWs to generate a photocurrent, indicating that the thermionic emission and tunneling processes proposed previously cannot explain carriers escaping from QWs. We show that photoexcited carriers can escape directly from the QWs when the device is under working conditions. Our finding challenges the current theory and demonstrates a new prospect for developing highly efficient solar cells and photodetectors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574362, 61210014, and 11374340) and the Innovative Clean-energy Research and Application Program of Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. Z151100003515001).

  17. New Chiral P-N Ligands for the Regio- and Stereoselective Pd-Catalyzed Dimerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castillon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new chiral, enantiomerically pure, hybrid P-N ligands, namely (2R,5S-2-phenyl-3-(2-pyridyl-1,3-diaza-2-phosphanicyclo[3,3,0]octan-4-one (1 and (2R,5S-2-phenyl-3-(2-pyridyl-1,3-diaza-2-phosphanicyclo[3,3,0]octane (2, have been synthesized starting from L-proline. The two ligands differ in the presence or not of a carbonyl group in the diazaphosphane ring. Their coordination chemistry towards Pd(II was studied by reacting them with [Pd(CH3Cl(cod]. A different behaviour was observed: ligand 2 shows the expected bidentate chelating behaviour leading to the mononuclear Pd-complex, while ligand 1 acts as a terdentate ligand giving a dinuclear species. The corresponding cationic derivatives were obtained from the palladium neutral complexes, both as mono- and dinuclear derivatives, and tested as precatalysts for styrene dimerization, yielding E-1,3-diphenyl-1-butene regio- and stereoselectively as the sole product. A detailed analysis of the catalytic behaviour is reported.

  18. PnLRR-RLK27, a novel leucine-rich repeats receptor-like protein kinase from the Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans, positively regulates salinity and oxidation-stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeats receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs play important roles in plant growth and development as well as stress responses. Here, 56 LRR-RLK genes were identified in the Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans transcriptome, which were further classified into 11 subgroups based on their extracellular domain. Of them, PnLRR-RLK27 belongs to the LRR II subgroup and its expression was significantly induced by abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PnLRR-RLK27 was a plasma membrane protein. The overexpression of PnLRR-RLK27 in Physcomitrella significantly enhanced the salinity and ABA tolerance in their gametophyte growth. Similarly, PnLRR-RLK27 heterologous expression in Arabidopsis increased the salinity and ABA tolerance in their seed germination and early root growth as well as the tolerance to oxidative stress. PnLRR-RLK27 overproduction in these transgenic plants increased the expression of salt stress/ABA-related genes. Furthermore, PnLRR-RLK27 increased the activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and ROS. Taken together, these results suggested that PnLRR-RLK27 as a signaling regulator confer abiotic stress response associated with the regulation of the stress- and ABA-mediated signaling network.

  19. Standardization of (142)Pr activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltepe, Emin; Yücel, Haluk

    2017-07-25

    (142)Pr (praseodymium-142), a potential radionuclide for brachytherapy, was produced after irradiating high purity natural Pr2O3 powder in a research reactor. The irradiated powder was then dissolved in acids and diluted for measurement. Several radioactivity measurement methods were used in the standardization of (142)Pr radionuclide. This work reports the results of standardization of (142)Pr with CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method, gamma spectrometry and a calibrated ionization chamber. The activity measured from different standardization methods are compatible with each other within the uncertainty limits. The CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method gives the lowest uncertainty and is a reliable method for the standardization of this radionuclide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pràctiques de Micropaleontologia I

    OpenAIRE

    Corbí, Hugo; Giannetti, Alice; Baeza Carratalá, José Francisco; Belda, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Cuaderno de prácticas de Micropaleontología que abarca las siguientes prácticas: Webs de interés en Micropaleontología, recogida de muestras en campo, levigados, frotis, lámina delgada y observación de muestras: lupa binocular y microscopio. Secretariat de Promoció del Valencià, Universitat d'Alacant; Conselleria d'Educació.

  1. Conformational Properties of β-PrP*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosszu, Laszlo L. P.; Trevitt, Clare R.; Jones, Samantha; Batchelor, Mark; Scott, David J.; Jackson, Graham S.; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Prion propagation involves a conformational transition of the cellular form of prion protein (PrPC) to a disease-specific isomer (PrPSc), shifting from a predominantly α-helical conformation to one dominated by β-sheet structure. This conformational transition is of critical importance in understanding the molecular basis for prion disease. Here, we elucidate the conformational properties of a disulfide-reduced fragment of human PrP spanning residues 91–231 under acidic conditions, using a combination of heteronuclear NMR, analytical ultracentrifugation, and circular dichroism. We find that this form of the protein, which similarly to PrPSc, is a potent inhibitor of the 26 S proteasome, assembles into soluble oligomers that have significant β-sheet content. The monomeric precursor to these oligomers exhibits many of the characteristics of a molten globule intermediate with some helical character in regions that form helices I and III in the PrPC conformation, whereas helix II exhibits little evidence for adopting a helical conformation, suggesting that this region is a likely source of interaction within the initial phases of the transformation to a β-rich conformation. This precursor state is almost as compact as the folded PrPC structure and, as it assembles, only residues 126–227 are immobilized within the oligomeric structure, leaving the remainder in a mobile, random-coil state. PMID:19369250

  2. Conformational properties of beta-PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosszu, Laszlo L P; Trevitt, Clare R; Jones, Samantha; Batchelor, Mark; Scott, David J; Jackson, Graham S; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P; Clarke, Anthony R

    2009-08-14

    Prion propagation involves a conformational transition of the cellular form of prion protein (PrPC) to a disease-specific isomer (PrPSc), shifting from a predominantly alpha-helical conformation to one dominated by beta-sheet structure. This conformational transition is of critical importance in understanding the molecular basis for prion disease. Here, we elucidate the conformational properties of a disulfide-reduced fragment of human PrP spanning residues 91-231 under acidic conditions, using a combination of heteronuclear NMR, analytical ultracentrifugation, and circular dichroism. We find that this form of the protein, which similarly to PrPSc, is a potent inhibitor of the 26 S proteasome, assembles into soluble oligomers that have significant beta-sheet content. The monomeric precursor to these oligomers exhibits many of the characteristics of a molten globule intermediate with some helical character in regions that form helices I and III in the PrPC conformation, whereas helix II exhibits little evidence for adopting a helical conformation, suggesting that this region is a likely source of interaction within the initial phases of the transformation to a beta-rich conformation. This precursor state is almost as compact as the folded PrPC structure and, as it assembles, only residues 126-227 are immobilized within the oligomeric structure, leaving the remainder in a mobile, random-coil state.

  3. Pass-by-Subclass Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    as first class packages, i.e., when lookups into these entities are used to obtain types. The combination of these two features---the ability to obtain an immutable reference from a mutable reference, and the ability to perform computations on types---give rise to a surprisingly complex computational...

  4. La préservation, atout essentiel pour contrer la précarité des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La préservation, atout essentiel pour contrer la précarité des moyens de subsistance en Afrique de l'Est. Ce projet vise à aider les ménages et les décideurs des régions rurales à mieux comprendre l'importance de la biodiversité et de la préservation des ressources comme composantes essentielles de stratégies ...

  5. Comparisons of fission track age-determination and radioactivation analysis among radiation fields. Characteristic values for pneumatic tube, JRR-3M PN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Tomura, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    It is necessary for Fission track age determination and radioactivation analysis to define the energy spectrum of a reactor neutron as the basis for calculating the nuclear reaction rate. This study was made aiming to define the spectrum for PN2 pneumatic tube of No. 3 plant of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Characteristics such as conventional flux, cross reaction, neutron temperature and integral fast flux were examined for 3 facilities; JRR-2, JRR-4 and JRR-3M. And the neutron spectrum for each facility was estimated based on the assumptions; Maxwell distribution for thermal neutrons, 1/E for intermediate neutrons and Watt`s formula for fast neutrons. The present results showed that the spectrum for JRR-3M, PN2 was discontinuous in the range from the intermediate to the fast neutron, whereas those for other facilities were found considerably improved. (M.N.)

  6. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yupeng

    2016-04-22

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fabrication and photoelectric properties of La-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers and crossed p-n homojunctions by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H D; Yu, M; Zhang, J C; Sheng, C H; Yan, X; Han, W P; Liu, Y C; Chen, S; Shen, G Z; Long, Y Z

    2015-06-21

    La-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers were successfully synthesized by electrospinning, followed by calcination. The microstructure and morphology of the La-doped ZnO nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The field effect curve of individual nanofibers confirms that the resulting La-doped ZnO fibers are p-type semiconductors. The doping mechanism is discussed. Furthermore, crossed p-n homojunction nanofibers were also prepared based on electrospun La-doped p-type ZnO and n-type pure ZnO fibers. The current-voltage curve shows the typical rectifying characteristic of a p-n homojunction device. The turn-on voltage appears at about 2.5 V under the forward bias and the reverse current is impassable.

  8. Cross-section and analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,pn)n reaction at 189 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B D; Sowinski, J; Baldwin, A R; Franklin, W; Watson, J W; Wissink, S; Wolanski, M; Yang, G; Glöckle, W; Witala, H

    2000-01-01

    We measured cross sections and analyzing powers for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H and sup 2 H(n,pn)n reactions at 189 MeV at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). These measurements are designed to search for evidence of three-body forces in the nuclear force and have the advantage that the Coulomb force is not involved. The analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H reaction are in close agreement with those from the analog sup 2 H(p,p) sup 2 H reaction at nearby energies and do not agree quantitatively with available three-body, Faddeev calculations, either with or without three-body forces included. The sup 2 H(n,pn)n measurements are still under analysis.

  9. Measurement of {sup 27}Al(γ,2pn){sup 24}Na Reaction Cross-sections with 55 -, 60 -, 65 - MeV Bremsstrahlung Employing MCNPX Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); KIm, G. N.; Kim, K. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Inst. Of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Aluminum is used for monitoring the photon flux. The photon flux during the activation can be measured by substituting the {sup 27}Al(γ,2pn){sup 24}Na reaction cross-section induced by bremsstrahlung to reactivity equation. Therefore, if this cross-section is more accurate, gamma-ray flux can be measure more accurately. In this work, the {sup 27}Al(γ,2pn){sup 24}Na reaction cross-sections induced by 55 - 65 MeV bremsstrahlung were measured by activation technique at the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF) which has produced the nuclear data using Time-Of-Flight method and activation technique. In order to get the photon flux, MCNPX was used. These measurement values were compared with the data of Meyer et al (1968)

  10. Mouse Prion Protein (PrP) Segment 100 to 104 Regulates Conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in Prion-Infected Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hideyuki; Okemoto-Nakamura, Yuko; Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Hanada, Kentaro; Yamakawa, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the replicative propagation of disease-associated forms of prion protein (PrPSc; PrP refers to prion protein). The propagation is believed to proceed via two steps; the initial binding of the normal form of PrP (PrPC) to PrPSc and the subsequent conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We have explored the two-step model in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells by focusing on the mouse PrP (MoPrP) segment 92-GGTHNQWNKPSKPKTN-107, which is within a region previously suggested to be part of the binding interface or shown to differ in its accessibility to anti-PrP antibodies between PrPC and PrPSc. Exchanging the MoPrP segment with the corresponding chicken PrP segment (106-GGSYHNQKPWKPPKTN-121) revealed the necessity of MoPrP residues 99 to 104 for the chimeras to achieve the PrPSc state, while segment 95 to 98 was replaceable with the chicken sequence. An alanine substitution at position 100, 102, 103, or 104 of MoPrP gave rise to nonconvertible mutants that associated with MoPrPSc and interfered with the conversion of endogenous MoPrPC. The interference was not evoked by a chimera (designated MCM2) in which MoPrP segment 95 to 104 was changed to the chicken sequence, though MCM2 associated with MoPrPSc. Incubation of the cells with a synthetic peptide composed of MoPrP residues 93 to 107 or alanine-substituted cognates did not inhibit the conversion, whereas an anti-P8 antibody recognizing the above sequence in PrPC reduced the accumulation of PrPSc after 10 days of incubation of the cells. These results suggest the segment 100 to 104 of MoPrPC plays a key role in conversion after binding to MoPrPSc. PMID:22398286

  11. On the feasibility of multi-polymer, liquid-crystal silica photovoltaics: simulating diodic p-n junctions with ionic gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Puniani, Arjan Singh

    2010-01-01

    Conventional photovoltaic machinery, including traditional silicone panels, fails to address efficiency problems. Recent technological advances suggest less metal-specific reliance, but plastic substrates are bound by cost-inefficiency. Photovoltaic paint effectively dissociates from metal dependency and relies on a combination p-n junction diode principle/thermoelectric effect to generate electrical energy from solar exposure. Replicating the junction is accomplished via multi-polymer layers...

  12. Prognostic value of HPV-mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes of cervical cancer patients with pN0-status

    OpenAIRE

    D?rst, Matthias; Hoyer, Heike; Altgassen, Christoph; Greinke, Christiane; H?fner, Norman; Fishta, Alba; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Mahnert, Ute; Hillemanns, Peter; Dimpfl, Thomas; Lenhard, Miriam; Petry, K. Ulrich; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Schneider, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Up to 15% of patients with cervical cancer and pN0-status develop recurrent-disease. This may be due to occult metastatic spread of tumor cells. We evaluated the use of human-papillomavirus-(HPV)-mRNA as a molecular marker for disseminated tumor cells to predict the risk of recurrence. For this prospective, multi-center prognostic study, 189 patients free of lymphnode metastases by conventional histopathology could be analyzed. All patients underwent complete lymphadenectomy. Of each sentinel...

  13. Pre-targeted immunodetection in glioma patients: tumour localization and single-photon emission tomography imaging of [[sup 99m]Tc ]PnAO-biotin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, G. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Magnani, P. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Zito, F. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Lucignani, G. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Sudati, F. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Truci, G. (Div. of Neurology, Milan Univ. (Italy) Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Motti, E. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Milan Univ. (Italy) Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Terreni, M. (Dept. of Pathology, Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Pollo, B. (Dept. of Pathology, Scientific Inst. G. Besta, Milan (Italy)); Giovanelli, M. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Milan

    1994-04-01

    We have developed a three-step pre-targeting method using the avidin-biotin system. The rationale of this technique consists in vivo labelling of biotinylated MoAbs targeted onto tumour deposits, when most of the unbound antibodies have been cleared from the bloodstream as avidin-bound complexes. The anti-tenascin MoAb BC2, specific for the majority of gliomas, was biotinylated and 1 mg was administered i.v. in 20 patients with histologically documented cerebral lesions. After 24-36 h, 5 mg avidin was injected i.v. followed 24 h later by a third i.v. injection of 0.2 mg PnAO-biotin labelled with 15-20 mCi technetium-99m. No evidence of toxicity was observed. Whole-body biodistribution was measured at 20 min, 3 h and 5 h post-injection. [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin had a fast blood clearance and was primarily excreted through the biliary system. A dedicated single-photon emission tomography system was used to acquire brain tomographic images 1-2 h after the administration of [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin. Tumours were detected in 15/18 glioma patients with a tumour to non-tumour ratio of up 14:1. This three-step method, based on the sequential adminsitration of anti-tenascin MoAb BC2, avidin and [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin, can support computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with glioma. (orig./MG)

  14. On-chip photonic system using suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells device and multiple waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongjin, E-mail: wangyj@njupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Guixia; Gao, Xumin; Yang, Yongchao; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Zhu, Hongbo [Grünberg Research Centre, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Cai, Wei [Grünberg Research Centre, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); School of Computer Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167 (China)

    2016-04-18

    We propose, fabricate, and characterize the on-chip integration of suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) device and multiple waveguides on the same GaN-on-silicon platform. The integrated devices are fabricated via a wafer-level process and exhibit selectable functionalities for diverse applications. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under a light emitting diode (LED) mode, part of the light emission is confined and guided by the suspended waveguides. The in-plane propagation along the suspended waveguides is measured by a micro-transmittance setup. The on-chip data transmission is demonstrated for the proof-of-concept photonic integration. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under photodiode mode, the light is illuminated on the suspended waveguides with the aid of the micro-transmittance setup and, thus, coupled into the suspended waveguides. The guided light is finally sensed by the photodiode, and the induced photocurrent trace shows a distinct on/off switching performance. These experimental results indicate that the on-chip photonic integration is promising for the development of sophisticated integrated photonic circuits in the visible wavelength region.

  15. The effect of self-depleting in UV photodetector based on simultaneously fabricated TiO2/NiO pn heterojunction and Ni/Au composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Liu, Chunyu; Xu, Ruiliang; Yin, Bo; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xindong; Gao, Fengli; Ruan, Shengping

    2017-09-01

    A novel dark self-depleting ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on a TiO2/NiO pn heterojunction was demonstrated and exhibited lower dark current (I dark) and noise. Both the NiO layer and Ni/Au composite electrode were fabricated by a smart, one-step oxidation method which was first employed in the fabrication of the UV photodetector. In dark, the depleted pn heterojunction structure effectively reduced the majority carrier density in TiO2/NiO films, demonstrating a high resistance state and contributing to a lower I dark of 0.033 nA, two orders of magnitude lower than that of the single-material devices. Under UV illumination, the interface self-depleting effect arising from the dissociation and accumulation of photogenerated carriers was eliminated, ensuring loss-free responsivity (R) and a remarkable specific detectivity (D*) of 1.56 × 1014 cm Hz1/2 W-1 for the optimal device. The device with the structure of ITO/TiO2/NiO/Au was measured to prove the mechanisms of interface self-depleting in dark and elimination of the depletion layer under UV illumination. Meanwhile, shortened decay time was achieved in the pn heterojunction UV photodetector. This suggests that the self-depleting devices possess the potential to further enhance photodetection performance.

  16. Li14P2O3N6 and Li7PN4: Computational study of two nitrogen rich crystalline LiPON electrolyte materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qawasmeh, Ahmad; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    Two lithium oxonitridophosphate materials are computationally examined and found to be promising solid electrolytes for possible use in all solid-state batteries having metallic Li anodes - Li14P2O3N6 and Li7PN4. The first principles simulations are in good agreement with the structural analyses reported in the literature for these materials and the computed total energies indicate that both materials are stable with respect to decomposition into binary and ternary products. The computational results suggest that both materials are likely to form metastable interfaces with Li metal. The simulations also find both materials to have Li ion migration activation energies comparable or smaller than those of related Li ion electrolyte materials. Specifically, for Li7PN4, the experimentally measured activation energy can be explained by the migration of a Li ion vacancy stabilized by a small number of O2- ions substituting for N3- ions. For Li14P2O3N6, the activation energy for Li ion migration has not yet been experimentally measured, but simulations predict it to be smaller than that measured for Li7PN4.

  17. Doping control of GaAsPN alloys by molecular beam epitaxy for monolithic III-V/Si tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Keisuke; Sato, Kento; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents intentional doping of n- and p-type GaAs0.19P0.76N0.05 alloys by molecular beam epitaxy, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Sulfur and magnesium were respectively used as n- and p-type dopants. The carrier concentrations were controllable between 1017 and 1019 cm-3 by adjusting the dopant cell temperature. It was revealed that Hall mobility of the n-type GaAsPN alloys was increased by the RTA process compared to as-grown ones, whereas no significant difference was apparent in the p-type alloys. It is believed that improvement of the conduction band spatial uniformity was mainly responsible for the Hall mobility increase of the n-type GaAsPN alloys by RTA. Finally, a p-i-n GaAsPN diode structure was grown on n-type GaP substrates. A current-voltage characteristic showed a typical rectifying curve with a built-in voltage of 1.8 V and an ideality factor of 1.45. The reverse saturation current was estimated to be less than 10 nA/cm2.

  18. Detection of Salmonella in Foods Using a Reference PN-ISO Method and an Alternative Method Based on Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Coupled with Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowska, Jolanta; Frej-Mądrzak, Magdalena; Jama-Kmiecik, Agnieszka; Kilian, Anna; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Choroszy-Król, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella, one of the primary indicators of food safety, is a common cause of food poisoning of an epidemic nature around the world. These microorganisms can colonize the gastrointestinal tract of both people and animals, and next contaminate not only eggs, milk, meat and dairy products, but also vegetables, fruit, grains and even spices. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples using a reference PN-ISO method and an alternative method based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with bioluminescence. Food samples were obtained in cooperation with the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Station in Wrocław. Dairy products, meat, fish, pastry and confectionery, vegetables, herbs and spices were analyzed. The food samples were examined using a standard culturing method according to PN-ISO 6579:2003 for Salmonella spp. and an alternative method based on the isothermal amplification and bioluminescence phenomenon using the 3M MDS device. In 399 tested food samples in 8 materials, using both the reference and the alternative LAMP-based method, the presence of salmonella was confirmed. The results obtained show the 100% sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the presented alternative, LAMP-based technique compared to the reference PN-ISO method. The alternative method using isothermal amplification and bioluminescence makes it possible to detect Salmonella in foods in a much shorter time than the referential culturing method.

  19. Interface pn junction arrays with high yielded grown p-Si microneedles by vapor-liquid-solid method at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Ishida, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report the fabrication and investigation of the properties of interface pn junction arrays formed at the interface of vertically aligned p-Si microneedles and n-Si substrate. Arrays of boron doped p-Si microneedles were grown on n-Si substrate with the maximum yield of 100% by Au-catalysed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth using in-situ doping with the mixed gas of Si2H6 and B2H6 at temperature less than 700 °C, which is low as compared to the temperature (1100 °C) required by diffusion process to dope Si microneedles after VLS growth. The physical dimension (diameter, length) and position of these p-Si microneedles can be controlled. The variation of growth rate, diameter, conductivity, impurity concentration and hole mobility of these p-Si microneeedles were investigated with the variation of boron doping. The pn junctions, formed with p-Si microneedles having different diameters, were found to exhibit standard diode characteristics. These pn junction embedded Si microneedle arrays might be potential candidate in sensor area applications. Again, low temperature processing would be compatible to integrate these junction arrays with other circuitry on a chip. This work provides one step forward to realize more sophisticated vertical active devices (BJT, MOSFET, etc) with Si microneedles.

  20. Design of high breakdown voltage vertical GaN p-n diodes with high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure for power electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Zhenchao; Liu, Dong; Bai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a vertical GaN p-n diode with a high-K/low-K compound dielectric structure (GaN CD-VGD) is proposed and designed to achieve a record high breakdown voltage (BV) with a low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). By introducing compound dielectric structure, the electric field near the p-n junction interface is suppressed due to the effects of high-K passivation layer, and a new electric field peak is induced into the n-type drift region, because of a discontinuity of electrical field at the interface of high-K and low-K layer. Therefore the distribution of electric field in GaN p-n diode becomes more uniform and an enhancement of breakdown voltage can be achieved. Numerical simulations demonstrate that GaN CD-VGD with a BV of 10650 V and a Ron,sp of 14.3 mΩ cm2, resulting in a record high figure-of-merit of 8 GW/cm2.