WorldWideScience

Sample records for subchronic adverse effects

  1. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry.

  2. Factors contributing to the acute and subchronic adverse respiratory effects of machining fluid aerosols in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T; Galdanes, K

    1999-05-01

    Several physical, chemical, and microbial factors are potential contributors to the adverse pulmonary effects associated with occupational exposure to machining fluid aerosols. The present study examined the relative toxicity of 3 major classes of machining fluids (soluble, semi-synthetic, and synthetic) as well as that of unused (fresh) versus used (grab samples taken from manufacturing sites) machining fluids. Pulmonary function and changes in cellular and biochemical indices in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were examined during and 24 h after exposure, respectively. Statistically significant differences in toxicity were observed in guinea pigs exposed for 3 h to respirable aerosols of unused machining fluids (semi-synthetic > soluble > synthetic). In addition, greater toxicity was observed in animals exposed to used, machining fluid aerosols compared to unused fluids. Moreover, within the used machining fluid types, significantly greater adverse effects were observed in animals exposed to poorly maintained fluids (i.e., heavy microbial contamination) versus well-maintained fluids. Changes in biochemical and cellular parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid occurred after a single exposure to 5 mg/m3 of the poorly maintained used machining fluid aerosols. Changes in inflammation but not LDH and protein were observed in animals repeatedly exposed to semi-synthetic machining fluid aerosols. A statistically significant increase in lavage fluid neutrophils was observed in guinea pigs exposed to 5 mg/m3 used, semi-synthetic machining fluid aerosols for 4 weeks. In separate experiments, physicochemical properties of unused machining fluids were found to contribute to the production of adverse effects. Adjustment of the alkaline and hypotonic nature of the unused semi-synthetic machining fluid to isotonicity and pH 7 significantly reduced adverse effects. Together, these findings strongly suggest that multiple factors contribute to the adverse respiratory effects

  3. Safety evaluation of transgenic low-gliadin wheat in Sprague Dawley rats: An alternative to the gluten free diet with no subchronic adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Carmen Victoria; Barro, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Gluten-associated pathologies have increased in recent years and there is a greater demand for low or gluten-free products. Transgenic low-gliadin wheat lines showed low T-cell response, good bread-making properties, and excellent sensory assets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the whole-wheat flour from one transgenic low-gliadin line (named E82) in a 90-day feeding study. In this study males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) SD rats were used. They were fed with doses of 1.42, 2.83 and 5.67 g/kg/day of the transgenic E82 line, 5.67 g/kg/day of the WT and a blank group. We found that there were no significant differences in the development of animals. Biochemistry for liver and kidney function were similar for males and females of all groups. Other haematological and metabolic blood parameters, as well as organ weight did not show significant differences in the five groups of animals. In the histopathological study performed for the higher dose of transgenic E82 line, WT and blank group no abnormalities were observed. The whole-wheat flour of E82 line administered to rats at tested doses for 90 days did not have any adverse effects and there was no difference with the rats which ate WT wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of subchronic metribuzin exposure on common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modra, Helena; Haluzova, Ivana; Blahova, Jana; Havelkova, Marcela; Kruzikova, Kamila; Mikula, Premysl; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2008-10-01

    Effects of metribuzin on biochemical and haematological indices, induction of specific biomarkers and impacts on biometric parameters of Cyprinus carpio were investigated for subchronic conditions. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.175 mg.L-1 or 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin for 28 days. Haematological indices were assessed using unified methods of haematological examination in fish. Biochemical indices were determined by biochemical analyzer, hepatic vitellogenin content was estimated by direct sandwich ELISA. Cytochrome P450 concentration and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were measured in liver spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically, respectively. Increased haematocrit and RBC count were found in fish exposed to 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin compared to control fish (pmetribuzin. Sublethal metribuzin pollution may have adverse impacts on haematological parameters in common carp.

  5. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Metribuzin on Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Plhalova; Stanislava Stepanova; Eva Praskova; Lucie Chromcova; Lenka Zelnickova; Lenka Divisova; Misa Skoric; Vladimira Pistekova; Iveta Bedanova; Zdenka Svobodova

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver) and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD) in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initi...

  6. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Metribuzin on Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Plhalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initial age of 30 days were exposed to a range of metribuzin concentrations (1.5, 5, 16, 33, and 53 mg L−1. Exposure to metribuzin at 53 mg L−1 was associated with increased mortality. Negative effects with regard to total body weight, length, and the inhibition of specific growth rate were induced at concentrations of 33 and 53 mg L−1. Histopathological examination revealed pathological lesions in the liver in pesticide-exposed fish only at the highest concentration of 53 mg L−1 of metribuzin. Based on the results of growth rate, biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD, and histopathological examination, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC value was 33 mg L−1 and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC value was 16 mg L−1.

  7. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plhalova, Lucie; Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Chromcova, Lucie; Zelnickova, Lenka; Divisova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Pistekova, Vladimira; Bedanova, Iveta; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver) and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD) in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initial age of 30 days were exposed to a range of metribuzin concentrations (1.5, 5, 16, 33, and 53 mg L⁻¹). Exposure to metribuzin at 53 mg L⁻¹ was associated with increased mortality. Negative effects with regard to total body weight, length, and the inhibition of specific growth rate were induced at concentrations of 33 and 53 mg L⁻¹. Histopathological examination revealed pathological lesions in the liver in pesticide-exposed fish only at the highest concentration of 53 mg L⁻¹ of metribuzin. Based on the results of growth rate, biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD), and histopathological examination, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) value was 33 mg L⁻¹ and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) value was 16 mg L⁻¹.

  8. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    events in bisphosphonate-treated patients was based on published information from case reports, case series, claims databases, national databases, surveys, adverse event reporting databases, and single or pooled clinical trials. The most common acute adverse events with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  9. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    events in bisphosphonate-treated patients was based on published information from case reports, case series, claims databases, national databases, surveys, adverse event reporting databases, and single or pooled clinical trials. The most common acute adverse events with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  10. The effects of subchronic lithium administration in male Wistar mice on some biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, R; Allagui, Ms; Vincent, C; Murat, J C; Croute, F; El Feki, A

    2009-10-01

    Lithium salts are efficiently used for treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, prolonged treatment frequently involves adverse side effects. In this study, effects of lithium carbonate administration on some biochemical parameters were studied in male mice. Lithium carbonate (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg body weight corresponding to 3.77, 7.54, or 15.08 mg Li element/kg body weight, respectively) was injected daily for 14 or 28 days. The following parameters were recorded: drinking water consumption, body weight, lithium and testosterone serum concentrations, activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and level of lipid peroxidation (expressed as TBARS) in liver was performed. Lithium treatment, especially at the highest dose for 28 days, was found to induce weight gain and polydipsia and a significant decrease of plasma testosterone level. Lipid peroxidation level and activities of SOD and GPX were increased in liver, which suggests a perturbation of the antioxidative status. Our results indicate that subchronic exposure to lithium, which induces weight gain and polydipsia under our experimental conditions, also damages the male reproductive system and triggers an oxidative stress in the liver.

  11. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  12. Systemic Metabolic Derangement, Pulmonary Effects, and Insulin Insufficiency Following Subchronic Ozone Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set includes individual animal data collected for various biological endpoints that are included in the manuscript.Miller DB, Snow SJ, Henriquez A, Schladweiler MC, Ledbetter AD, Richards JE, Andrews DL, Kodavanti UP. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Jun 28;306:47-57. The primary author Desinia Miller, an UNC-EPA co-opp Student has since completed her PhD and is no longer in EPA database.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Miller, D., S. Snow, A. Henriquez, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledbetter, J. Richards, D. Andrews, and U. Kodavanti. Systemic Metabolic Derangement, Pulmonary Effects, and Insulin Insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, USA, 306: 47-57, (2016).

  13. The Effect of Subchronic Dosing of Ciproxifan and Clobenpropit on Dopamine and Histamine Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of once daily for 7-day (subchronic treatment dosing of histamine H 3 receptor antagonists, ciproxifan (CPX (3 mg/kg, i.p., and clobenpropit (CBP (15 mg/kg, i.p, including clozapine (CLZ (3.0 mg/kg, i.p. and chlorpromazine (CPZ (3.0 mg/kg, i.p., the atypical and typical antipsychotic, respectively, on MK-801(0.2 mg/kg, i.p.-induced locomotor activity, and dopamine and histamine levels in rats. Dopamine and histamine levels were measured in striatum and hypothalamus, respectively, of rat brain. Atypical and typical antipsychotics were used to serve as clinically relevant reference agents to compare the effects of the H 3 receptor antagonists. MK-801-induced increase of horizontal activity was reduced with CPX and CBP. The attenuation of MK-801-induced locomotor hyperactivity produced by CPX and CBP was comparable to CLZ and CPZ. MK-801 raised dopamine levels in the striatum, which was reduced in rats pretreated with CPX and CBP. CPZ also lowered striatal dopamine levels, though the decrease was less robust compared to CLZ, CPX and CBP. MK-801 increased histamine content although to a lesser degree. Subchronic treatment with CPX and CBP exhibited further increase in histamine levels in the hypothalamus compared to the MK-801 treatment alone. Histamine H 3 receptor agonist, R-OC methylhistamine (10 mg/kg, i.p. counteracted the effects of CPX and CBP. In conclusion, the subchronic dosing of CPX/CBP suggests some antipsychotic-like activities as CPX/CBP counteracts the modulatory effects of MK-801 on dopamine and histamine levels and prevents MK-801-induced hyperlocomotor behaviors.

  14. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  15. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Ait Bali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks and chronic (12 weeks exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF, the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs. Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and serotonin (5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  16. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes. PMID:28848410

  17. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  18. Chemical characterization, anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia effect and subchronic toxicity study of total flavonoid extract of Pteris multifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guang-Cheng; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Fang; Peng, Fang; Wang, Rong; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Xue, Bo-Xin; Liu, Jiang-Yun; Shan, Yu-Xi

    2017-10-01

    The decoction of Pteris multifida had been applied to attenuate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Chinese folk medicine. In this study, the total flavonoid extract of Pteris multifida was processed at first. High performance liquor chromatography and tandem mass spectrometer assay revealed 10 flavonoids as key constituents of this extract. After 60-day administration, the total flavonoid extract (180 mg/kg, i. g.) decreased the prostate index in mice of benign prostatic hyperplasia apparently. Immunohistochemical assay revealed inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression, together with activation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in the prostatic samples after administration of the extract. A 90-day subchronic toxicity test was further undertaken in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level for the extract was 200 mg/kg body weight/day. These results revealed that the total flavonoid extract of Pteris multifida exhibited positive effect with safety, which might be applied in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Sultan, Charles; Buiatti, Marcello; Gallagher, Lou; Antoniou, Michael; Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2009-06-17

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities.

  20. Crocin Restores Hypotensive Effect of Subchronic Administration of Diazinon in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, the effects of crocin against subchronic toxicity of diazinon (DZN on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR were evaluated in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were equally divided into 7 groups; control (corn oil, DZN (15 mg/kg, crocin (each group received 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg crocin plus DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg plus DZN and crocin (50 mg/kg treated groups.  Rats were given DZN via gavage once a day for 4 weeks. Vitamin E (three times per week and crocin (once a day were intraperitoneally injected to rats for 4 weeks. Plasma cholinesterase activity (Elman method, malondealdehyde (MDA levels in the aortic tissue (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS method; SBP and HR (tail cuff method were evaluated at the end of 4th week. Results: A significant decrease in cholinesterase activity was observed in DZN group (P< 0.001. Crocin did not show any effects on cholinesterase activity. DZN increased MDA levels in aortic tissue (P< 0.001 in comparison with control group. Crocin and vitamin E plus DZN decreased MDA elevation induced by DZN in aortic tissue. DZN significantly reduced SBP (P< 0.01 and increased HR (P< 0.001 in comparison with control. Concurrent administration of crocin and DZN, improved the reduction of SBP and the elevation of HR induced by DZN in rat. Crocin alone did not have any effect on SBP and HR. Conclusion: This study showed that concurrent administration of crocin and DZN could restore the effects of subchronic DZN administration on SBP and HR in rats.

  1. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Antagonistic Effect of Laver, Pyropia yezonensis and P. haitanensis, on Subchronic Lead Poisoning in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Gu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhu, Wenjia; Yao, Lin; Liu, Zhantao; Gao, Hua; Wang, Lianzhu

    2017-06-03

    Lead, one of the most harmful heavy metals, can cause various hazardous effects on living organisms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antagonistic and protective effects of two economically important laver species, Pyropia yezoensis and P. haitanensis, against subchronic lead poisoning in rats by a 30-day feeding test. Sixty-four healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats (4♂ + 4♀) per group, among which, one group was served as the control, the others were respectively treated with lead acetate (5 mg/kg b w), and a combination of lead acetate and P. yezoensis or P. haitanensis at different dosages. Weight gain of rats was observed and recorded. Changes in antioxidant indexes, and liver and renal function markers were determined to evaluate the antagonistic effect. Lead content in rats was determined to investigate lead excretion effect of laver. The results showed that exposure to lead caused lead accumulation in kidney and liver, thus leading to significant oxidative damage and impaired liver and renal function compared to the control group. The co-treatment of laver slightly increased body weight compared to the lead-treated group. The co-administration of laver restored liver and renal function of rats by preventing the increment in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate transaminase (AST), and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr). The increasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and lowering of the enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of rats were observed in the laver co-treated groups, which indicated that laver enhanced the antioxidative capacity of rats. The laver also enhanced lead content in feces and reduced it in liver and kidney. The results indicated that P. yezoensis and P. haitanensis could maintain or promote the normal physiological and biochemical function of lead

  3. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  4. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  5. Adverse effects of marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kathleen E; Kampman, Kyle M

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who used marijuana more frequently and began using marijuana at an earlier age experienced worse outcomes and long-lasting effects. This article reviews recent literature regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. Negative effects of marijuana use relating to physical health, psychological well-being, and outcomes such as academic performance are discussed, especially in relation to the adolescent population.

  6. Adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has led to significant reduction in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs to antiretroviral treatment (ART are however, major obstacles in its success. Aims: We sought to study the adverse effects of ART in a resource-restricted setting in India. Methods: Hundred patients on ART were studied prospectively over a period of two years. All patients were asked to visit the clinic if they developed any symptoms or on a monthly basis. They were screened clinically and investigated suitably for any ADRs. Result: Out of the 100 patients, ten patients did not come for follow-up; only 90 cases were available for evaluation. ADRs were observed in 64 cases (71.1% - the maximal frequency of ADRs was seen with zidovudine (AZT (50% followed by stavudine (d4T (47.9%, efavirenz (EFV (45.4% and finally, Nevirapine (NVP (18.4%. Most common ADRs were cutaneous (44.4% followed by hematological (32.2%, neurological (31.1%, metabolic (22.2% and gastrointestinal (20%. Most common cutaneous ADRs observed were nail hyperpigmentation (14.4% and rash (13.3%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS was observed as a paradoxical reaction to ART in 20 (22.2% cases. Conclusion: To optimize adherence and thus, efficacy of ART, clinicians must focus on preventing adverse effects whenever possible, and distinguish those that are self-limited from those that are potentially serious.

  7. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  8. Effects of diet quality on vulnerability to mild subchronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.

  9. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  10. Health Effects of Subchronic Inhalation of Simulated Downwind Coal Combustion Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mauderly

    2009-01-07

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive laboratory-based evaluation of selected respiratory and cardiac health hazards of subchronic (up to 6 months) inhalation of simulated key components of 'downwind plume' emissions of coal combustion. This project was performed as an integral part of a joint government-industry program termed the 'National Environmental Respiratory Center' (NERC), which is aimed at disentangling the roles of different physical-chemical air pollutants and their sources in the health effects associated statistically with air pollution. The characterization of the exposure atmosphere and the health assays were identical to those employed in the NERC protocols used to evaluate other pollution source emissions, such as diesel, gasoline, and wood combustion. The project had two phases, each encompassing multiple tasks. Guidelines for the composition of the exposure atmosphere were set by consensus of an expert workshop. Development of the capability to generate the exposure atmosphere and pilot studies of the comparative exposure composition using two coal types were accomplished in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the toxicological study was conducted using Powder River Basin Sub-bituminous coal. NETL provided 50% support for the work in Phase 1 and had intended to provide 20% support for the work in Phase 2. Phase 1 is completed and Phase 2 is in the final stages. All animal exposures were completed without incident, and the composition of the exposure atmospheres met the targets. All of the health sample collections are completed, but some samples remain to be analyzed. Data summaries and final statistical analysis of results remain to be completed. The goal is to submit all publications before the end of FY-08. Repeated exposure to simulated downwind coal emissions caused some significant health effects, but the number of effects tended to be fewer than those caused by the other NERC exposures (diesel and gasoline

  11. Effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on social behaviors, and operant discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Subchronic treatment with the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP has been proposed as a rodent model of the negative and cognitive/executive symptoms of schizophrenia. There has, however, been a paucity of studies on this model in mice, despite the growing use of the mouse as a subject in genetic and molecular studies of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subchronic PCP treatment (5 mg/kg twice daily x 7 days, followed by 7 days withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice on 1 social behaviors using a sociability/social novelty-preference paradigm, and 2 pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen-based operant system. Results showed that mice subchronically treated with PCP made more visits to (but did not spend more time with a social stimulus relative to an inanimate one, and made more visits and spent more time investigating a novel social stimulus over a familiar one. Subchronic PCP treatment did not significantly affect behavior in either the discrimination or reversal learning tasks. These data encourage further analysis of the potential utility of mouse subchronic PCP treatment for modeling the social withdrawal component of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the treatment regimen employed was insufficient to impair our measures of discrimination and reversal learning in the C57BL/6J strain. Further work will be needed to identify alternative methods (e.g., repeated cycles of subchronic PCP treatment, use of different mouse strains that produce discrimination and/or reversal impairment, as well as other cognitive/executive measures that are sensitive to chronic PCP treatment in mice.

  12. Vascular Effects of a Subchronic Inhalation Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Air Particles in Atherosclerosis Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the adverse effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular function and disease. The causal physiochemical properties of particles and their mechanisms of action/injury remain unknown. This study examined the vascular effects in 15 wk old ma...

  13. Asenapine Effects on Cognitive and Monoamine Dysfunction Elicited by Subchronic Phencyclidine Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, John D.; Groman, Stephanie; Jentsch, J. David; Valles, Rodrigo; Shahid, Mohammed; Wong, Erik; Marston, Hugh; Roth, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    of administration and reaching significance after 2–4 weeks of dosing. In week 4, the improvement with asenapine 150 μg/kg (p=0.01) rendered the performance of PCP-exposed monkeys indistinguishable from that of normal monkeys without compromising fine motor function. Asenapine administration (150 μg/kg twice daily) produced an increase in dopamine and serotonin turnover in most brain regions of control monkeys and asenapine (50–150 μg/kg) increased dopamine and serotonin turnover in several brain regions of subchronic PCP-treated monkeys. No significant changes in the steady-state levels of dopamine or serotonin were observed in any brain region except for the central amygdala, in which a significant depletion of dopamine was observed in PCP-treated control monkeys; asenapine treatment reversed this dopamine depletion. A significant decrease in serotonin utilization was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in PCP monkeys, which may underlie poor reversal learning. In the same brain regions, dopamine utilization was not affected. Asenapine ameliorated this serotonin deficit in a dose-related manner that matched its efficacy for reversing the cognitive deficit. Conclusions In this model of cognitive dysfunction, asenapine produced substantial gains in executive functions that were maintained with long-term administration. The cognition-enhancing effects of asenapine and the neurochemical changes in serotonin and dopamine turnover seen in this study are hypothesized to be primarily related to its potent serotonergic and noradrenergic receptor binding properties, and support the potential for asenapine to reduce cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:21875607

  14. Effects of Subchronic Finasteride Treatment and Withdrawal on Neuroactive Steroid Levels and Their Receptors in the Male Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Silvia; Foglio, Benedetta; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Panzica, Giancarlo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of progesterone and testosterone by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase exerts a crucial role in the control of nervous function. The effects of finasteride in the brain, an inhibitor of this enzyme used for the treatment of human benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, have been poorly explored. Therefore, the effects of a subchronic treatment with finasteride at low doses (3 mg/kg/day) and the consequences of its withdrawal on neuroactive steroid levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and some brain regions as well as on the expression of classical and non-classical steroid receptors have been evaluated in male rats. After subchronic treatment (i.e., for 20 days) the following effects were detected: (i) depending on the compartment considered, alteration in the levels of neuroactive steroids, not only in 5alpha-reduced metabolites but also in its precursors and in neuroactive steroids from other steroidogenic pathways and (ii) an upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex and beta3 subunit of the GABA-A receptor in the cerebellum. One month after the last treatment (i.e., withdrawal period), some of these effects persisted (i.e., the upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex, an increase of dihydroprogesterone in the cerebellum, a decrease of dihydrotestosterone in plasma). Moreover, other changes in neuroactive steroid levels, steroid receptors (i.e., an upregulation of the estrogen receptor alpha and a downregulation of the estrogen receptor beta in the cerebral cortex) and GABA-A receptor subunits (i.e., a decrease of alpha 4 and beta 3 mRNA levels in the cerebral cortex) were detected. These findings suggest that finasteride treatment may have broad consequences for brain function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The effect of subchronic fluoxetine treatment on learning and memory in adolescent rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Amdi; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2012-01-01

    of subchronic treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) throughout adolescence (postnatal day 28-60) on learning and memory in the rat. Learning and memory were assessed at two time points: during adolescence, while the animals were being treated with fluoxetine...... and in young adulthood, 40 days after the termination of fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine treated rats were compared to a saline injected control group with respect to spatial navigation in the water maze, object recognition and object-in-place recognition memory. Additionally open field behaviour was examined....... In adolescent rats fluoxetine treatment impaired water-maze probe trial performance and object recognition at intertrial intervals of 15 and 60min, while leaving object-in-place recognition memory unaffected. In the open field the fluoxetine treated animals displayed reduced exploratory activity and higher...

  16. Perspective on Lithotripsy Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar

    2008-09-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is an effective and without any doubt the least invasive procedure to treat upper urinary tract calculi. Acute complications are rarely reported and do not require specific treatment in most cases. However, one should be aware that energy levels sufficient for stone breakage are capable of damaging tissue as well, and significant hematoma—not only in the kidney but as well in surrounding organs—has been observed. Furthermore, only little is known about the long-term effects of SWL. Some authors have reported an increased incidence of hypertension and possibly also diabetes mellitus. Such chronic diseases—if indeed related to prior SWL—may be a late result of acute SWL-related trauma but the discussion on the underlying pathogenesis is controversial. Many factors have to be considered, such as the natural history of recurrent stone formers, technical principles of SWL, and differences in treatment protocols. Promising studies are currently underway to optimize stone breakage while limiting potential collateral damage. With this progress, SWL remains a safe treatment option for most urinary calculi.

  17. The involvement of sirtuin 1 and heme oxygenase 1 in the hepatoprotective effects of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced sub-chronic liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelo, Mighty Kgalalelo; Pierzynová, Aneta; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina; Kučera, Tomáš; Farghali, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of quercetin in a sub-chronic model of hepatotoxicity. The roles of putative antioxidant enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in hepatoprotection were also addressed. Sub-chronic liver injury was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CTC), once every 3 days, for 2 weeks. Some CTC rats were concurrently treated with 100 mg/kg quercetin, intragastrically, once every day, for 2 weeks. The effects of these drugs in the liver were evaluated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological studies. CTC triggered oxidative damage to the liver as unanimously shown by altered biochemical parameters and liver morphology. Furthermore, CTC highly upregulated HO-1 and SIRT1 expression levels. Concomitant treatment of rats with quercetin downregulated SIRT1 expression and ameliorated the hepatotoxic effects of CTC. However, quercetin did not have any significant effect on HO-1 expression and bilirubin levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of quercetin in CTC treated rats were SIRT1 mediated and less dependent on HO-1. Thus, pharmacologic modulation of SIRT1 could provide a logic therapeutic approach in sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effect of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic toxicity in rats induced by inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhua; Wang, Lianzhu; Yao, Lin; Liu, Zhantao; Gao, Hua

    2013-09-01

    Arsenic, a potent environmental toxic agent, causes various hazardous effects on human health. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic stress of rats induced by arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The co-treatment of marine algae could slightly increase the growth rates of body weights compared to the As2O3-treated group. The marine algae application restored liver and renal function by preventing the increment in the activities of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, and the levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. The increase in the contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease in the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in algae co-treated groups which indicated that marine algae could reverse the abnormal lipid metabolisms induced by arsenic. Moreover, these algae could protect the rats from lipid peroxidation by restoring the depletion of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and sulfhydryl group contents, and lowering the enhanced malondialdehyde contents. Therefore, evidences indicate that L. japonica and P. haitanensis can serve as an effective regimen for treating arsenic poisoning.

  19. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  20. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P<0.05 effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P<0.05 in triacylglycerols (TAG in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

  1. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

  2. Subchronic and acute preclinic toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Mildred; Morales, Teresita Coto; Ocampo, Rafael; Pazos, Liliana

    2006-12-01

    We tested the effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea leaves on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week). Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1,000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2,000 mg/kg dose. After administering the doses once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found.

  3. Investigation of the effects of subchronic low dose oral exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on estrogen receptor expression in the juvenile and adult female rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-07-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Toxicological Sciences 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Acute and Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of n-Octane in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung-Gil; Kim, Hyeon Yeong; Baek, Min-Won; Ryu, Hyun Youl; Kim, Yong Soon; Choi, Young Kuk; Yu, Il Je; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the toxic effects of the inhalation of subchronic and acute levels of n-octane. The rats were exposed to n-octane of 0, 2.34, 11.68 and 23.36 mg/L (n = 5 rats/group/gender) in an acute inhalation test (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) TG 403), or to 0, 0.93, 2.62 and 7.48 mg/L (n = 10 rats/group/gender) for a subchronic inhalation test (OECE TG 413), to establish a national chemical management system consistent with the Globally Harmonized Classification System (GHS). Acutely-exposed rats became lethargic but recovered following discontinuation of inhalation. Other clinical symptoms such as change of body weight and autopsy finds were absent. The LC50 for the acute inhalation toxicity of n-octane was determined to exceed 23.36 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping'. Subchronically-treated rats displayed no significant clinical and histopathological differences from untreated controls; also, target organs were affected hematologically, biochemically and pathologically. Therefore, the no observable adverse effect level was indicated as exceeding 7.48 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping' for the specific target organ toxicity upon repeated exposure. However, n-octane exposure should be controlled to be below the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists recommendation (300 ppm) to prevent inhalation-related adverse health effects of workers.

  5. The adverse effects of inferior innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research advances brand innovation research by examining the adverse effects of inferior innovative extensions on the brand innovability of own parent brands. Brand innovability conceptually consists of brand quality and innovativeness. The results reveal that radical and incremental inferior innovations exert asymmetric adverse effects on brand quality and innovability. For brand quality, inferior radical innovations exert more negative impacts on the quality of pioneer brands than on the quality of follower brands. However, inferior incremental innovations exert identical negative impacts on the quality of both pioneer and follower brands. For brand innovability, both inferior radical and incremental innovations exert more negative impacts on the innovability of pioneer brands than on the innovability of follower brands. In comparison, brand innovability is less susceptible than brand quality to inferior innovation information. The findings suggest that it is more justified to evaluate innovative brands with brand innovability, instead of brand quality, for two reasons. Firstly, brand innovability is more realistic than brand quality because brand innovability is more relevant than brand quality to profits. Secondly, brand innovability is inclusive of brand innovativeness, which ameliorates adverse effects when innovative extensions are inferior. The threat of inferior innovative extensions is less horrible than expectation if the adverse effects on the innovative brands are assessed with brand innovability, instead of brand quality. However, being innovative is like a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it helps generating more profits. On the other hand, it endangers innovative brands to be more susceptible to inferior innovative extensions. Therefore, for marketing implications, pioneer brands are more obliged than follower brands to ensure the success of radical innovations in order to avoid the possible adverse effects of inferior

  6. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  7. The Effects of Sub-Chronic Treatment with Pioglitazone on the Septic Mice Mortality in the Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Shafaroodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection and remains as a major challenge in health care. Many studies have reported that pioglitazone may display anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subchronic treatment with pioglitazone on high-grade septic mice survival and nitrergic system involvement. Diffused sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP surgery in male NMRI mice (20-30 g. Pioglitazone (5,10 and 20 mg/kg was administered by gavage daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nitric oxide involvement was assessed by sub-chronic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine. TNF-α  and IL-1β plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly improved survival rate in septic mice. The chronic intraperitoneally co-administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/kg, daily or aminoguanidine (1 mg/kg, daily with a daily dose of pioglitazone, 5 mg/kg, significantly increased the survival rate. This survival improving effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels. In conclusion, sub-chronic pioglitazone treatment can improve survival in mouse sepsis model by CLP. Inhibition of nitric oxide release, probably through inducible nitric oxide synthase at least in part is responsible for this effect. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β could be another mechanism in pioglitazone-induced survival improving effect in septic mice.

  8. [Complications and adverse effects of respiratory physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondière, R; Roeseler, J; Delguste, P

    1990-01-01

    Physiotherapy of the chest is used to mobilize manually respiratory secretions and to increase the amount of tracheobronchial mucus cleared from the respiratory tract. Today, the term chest physiotherapy has expanded to include a wide variety of manual techniques. Complications of chest physiotherapy have seldom been reported, but when they occurred they were mild or moderately severe. Adverse effects associated with this type of treatment were present in a small proportion of the patients studied and generally of modest clinical significance. Recognizing the nature of the potential for complications and adverse effects of chest physiotherapy enables therapeutists to modify the treatment so that it can be administered safely to critically and chronically ill patients.

  9. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  10. Haematogical changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the haematological changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure in Wistar rats and the ameliorative effect of zinc. Sixty adult male and female Wistar rats were used for the study. Twelve of them were used for the LD50 which was evaluated to be 3750 mg kg-1 with clinical ...

  11. Comparing the effects of subchronic phencyclidine and medial prefrontal cortex dysfunction on cognitive tests relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, K A L; Mar, A C; Theobald, D E; Saksida, L M; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the development of treatments for cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia requires urgent attention, and that valid animal models of relevant impairments are required. With subchronic psychotomimetic agent phencyclidine (scPCP), a putative model of such impairment, the extent to which changes following scPCP do or do not resemble those following dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex is of importance. The present study carried out a comparison of the most common scPCP dosing regimen with excitotoxin-induced medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in rats, across several cognitive tests relevant to schizophrenia. ScPCP subjects were dosed intraperitoneal with 5 mg/kg PCP or vehicle twice daily for 1 week followed by 1 week washout prior to behavioural testing. mPFC dysfunction was induced via fibre-sparing excitotoxin infused into the pre-limbic and infralimbic cortex. Subjects were tested on spontaneous novel object recognition, touchscreen object-location paired-associates learning and touchscreen reversal learning. A double-dissociation was observed between object-location paired-associates learning and object recognition: mPFC dysfunction impaired acquisition of the object-location task but not spontaneous novel object recognition, while scPCP impaired spontaneous novel object recognition but not object-location associative learning. Both scPCP and mPFC dysfunction resulted in a similar facilitation of reversal learning. The pattern of impairment following scPCP raises questions around its efficacy as a model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, particularly if importance is placed on faithfully replicating the effects of mPFC dysfunction.

  12. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  13. Theophylline: Adverse Effects, Poisoning and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Charehsaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Theophylline, which is a methylxanthine derivative, has been commonly used in all over the world for many years due to its cheapness and effectiveness in treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is a close relationship between its bronchodilator effect and blood levels of theophylline. Maintenance of its blood level between 10-20 μg/ml is important to obtain a maximum bronchodilator effect. Besides having a narrow therapeutic range, its alteration of pharmacokinetic characteristics due to individually factors, drugs, diet, and habits such as smoking and alcohol has led to requirement of more carefully use of theophylline for patients at every age. In the present review article, in addition to pharmacokinetic/ dynamic properties of theophylline, its adverse effects, poisoning with over dose of theophylline and approaches of its treatment have been given.

  14. Subchronic treatment of rats with nicotine: effects on tolerance and on [3H]acetylcholine and [3H]nicotine binding in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, C; Nilsson, L; Halén, A; Nordberg, A

    1986-05-01

    The effects of subchronic nicotine treatment on the development of tolerance and on two nicotinic ligand binding sites were investigated. After subcutaneous injection of nicotine (0.45 mg nicotine base/kg) or saline twice a day for 14 days the body weight of rats was significantly lower than that of control animals. A significant tolerance to the acute effects of nicotine on locomotor activity and body temperature was observed after the treatment period. Nicotine treatment also resulted in a significant increase in [3H]acetylcholine (3H-ACh) binding in the midbrain (48.3% increase in comparison with controls) and hippocampus (38.3% increase), whereas the binding of [3H]nicotine (3H-NIC) was unaffected in all brain areas investigated. These results indicate that subchronic s.c. injections of nicotine can differentially affect the binding of two different nicotinic ligands in the brain. It is also concluded that the development of tolerance to the acute effects of nicotine on locomotor activity and temperature is not directly dependent upon changes in binding of [3H]nicotine to the brain.

  15. Differential effects of subchronic phencyclidine on anxiety in the light-enhanced startle-, light/dark exploration- and open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Thomas; Thomas, Mara; Bartsch, Dusan

    2013-04-15

    Subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) is a valuable approach to model the symptomatology of schizophrenia, a multi-facetted psychiatric disorder, in rodents. We addressed the question whether subchronic PCP (scPCP) treatment (5 mg/kg bidaily for 7 days) would affect anxiety in rats, since contradictory findings have been reported so far. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using the light-enhanced startle paradigm (LES), a method which measures the effect of the natural aversion to light on the startle reflex and does not depend on motivated behaviour or exploratory drive. For comparison, anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the light-dark exploration test (LDT) and in an open field environment (OFT). The scPCP-treatment did not affect baseline startle reactivity or light-enhanced startle, suggesting normal anxiety levels in treated animals. Further, normal anxiety-like behaviour was also found in the OFT. In the LDT, scPCP treated rats displayed shorter latencies to enter the lit compartment and shuttled more between the dark and lit compartments, behaviours indicative of decreased anxiety and/or increased exploratory activity. Our findings therefore suggest that the effects of scPCP-treatment on anxiety-like behaviour are task-dependent and recommend the additional use of tests independent from exploratory drive or other motivated behaviours, such as the LES paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subchronic and acute preclinic toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred García-González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested the effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea leaves on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week. Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1 000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2 000 mg/kg dose. After administering the doses once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1323-1326. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Se evaluaron los efectos del estracto acuoso de las hojas de Petiveria alliacea, en la toxicidad aguda y toxicidad subcrónica, hematocritos, niveles de glucosa en la sangre y motilidad intestinal del ratón macho albino NGP, con un peso promedio de 20 a 25g. En todos los casos los tratamientos fueron dosis de 1 000 y 2 000 mg/kg de peso del animal y un tratamiento control con 0.5 ml de agua destilada, usando 10 animales por tratamiento y administrado oralmente cinco días por semana. Los períodos experimentales fueron de 18 y 70 días para toxicidad aguda y toxicidad subcrónica, respectivamente. No se observaron signos de mortalidad ni de toxidad en ambas pruebas. Con la dosis de 1 000 mg/kg hubo un leve pero significativo incremento en los niveles de glucosa durante las primeras tres semanas, pero no con la dosis más alta de 2 000 mg/kg. Después de administrar las dosis luego de un período de hambre de seis horas, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la motilidad intestinal

  17. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992

  18. Do SSRIs increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen; Kalkman, Arno; Schagen, Daan; Visser, Sipke; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects. However, conflicting results were obtained by studies that evaluated the association between SSRIs, whether or not in combination with NSAIDs, and GI adverse effects.

  19. Safety assessment of ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract in wistar rats: acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant.

  20. Cytotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity of ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium saccharinate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michal; Murias, Marek; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Piotrowska, Hanna; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity, acute and subchronic oral toxicity of an ionic liquid didecyldimethylammonium saccharinate [DDA][Sac] in rat. IC(50) values tested on six human cell lines varied from 1.44 microM to 5.47 microM. The compound tested was classified to the 4th toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Sac] in an acute experiment included exfoliation of the surface layer of the colon and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subchronic experiment rats were administered 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Sac] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and slightly reduced food consumption was observed particularly in high-dose rats. Slight hematology changes were found only in mid-dose females. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included: increases in the ALT, SDH, ALP and GGT activities, and in glucose, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. However, these changes did not occur in both sexes and were not dose-related with the exception of ALP in females. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed in a subchronic experiment. Under the condition of this study the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Sac] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse effects profile of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and drugs that are used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have potentially overlapping adverse effects. Few South African studies have documented adverse effects in the multidrugresistant tuberculosis population. This study examined the adverse effects ...

  2. Perioperative opioid usage: avoiding adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Robert D; Hilliard, Paul; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna

    2014-10-01

    Opioids remain the most common analgesic tool for the surgeon, owing to their cost-effectiveness in both the inpatient and outpatient setting. Aside from these attributes, opioids have significant side effects that are associated with morbidity and mortality. Specifically, obese patients, patients with sleep apnea, and the elderly may be at an increased risk of experiencing sedation and respiratory depression in response to opioids. Opioid reduction strategies prove useful for decreasing total opioid dose and, in turn, their associated adverse effects. Such strategies may include adjuvant nonopioid analgesics such as α-2 agonists, gabapentinoids, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists as well as local, regional, or neuraxial anesthesia and modification of surgical technique where possible for operative patients. Patients may also present to surgeons while taking chronic opioids, including high-dose opioids and opioid agonist/antagonists. These clinical scenarios are associated with extreme challenges in postoperative analgesic management. With all opioid prescribing, other sedative medications should be limited or avoided as the risk for additive sedation is significant. This review aims to describe systematic methods to reduce opioid side effects and identify specific risk-reduction strategies within each risk group.

  3. Effects of acute and sub-chronic ammonium nitrate exposure on rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of fertilizers like ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) for agricultural purposes has increasingly contaminated the ecosystem with nitrate and/or nitrites. Nitrite is a toxic substance that can cause multiple physiological effects if allowed to build up to high concentrations in animals such as methemoglobinemia. This work is ...

  4. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  5. Subchronic administration of Trichilia catigua ethyl-acetate fraction promotes antidepressant-like effects and increases hippocampal cell proliferation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taciany Bonassoli, Vivian; Micheli Chassot, Janaine; Longhini, Renata; Milani, Humberto; Mello, João Carlos P; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort

    2012-08-30

    Trichilia catigua preparations have been popularly used in Brazil as a tonic for the treatment of fatigue, stress, impotence, and memory deficits. We recently demonstrated an antidepressant-like effect of acute administration of the Trichilia catigua ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) in mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subchronic Trichilia catigua EAF administration maintains its antidepressant-like effects and whether these effects are related to hippocampal neurogenesis. Trichilia catigua EAF (200 and 400mg/kg) was orally administered to mice for 14 day. The animals were tested in the forced swim test (FST) or tail suspension test (TST). After behavioral testing, the animals received bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200mg/kg, i.p.) and were euthanized 24h, 7 day, or 15 day later. The brains were assayed for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry to detect cell proliferation/survival and neurogenesis, respectively. Subchronic administration of 400mg/kg Trichilia catigua EAF promoted antidepressant-like effects in mice in both the FST and TST. The antidepressant-like effect was accompanied by an increase in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus 24h after the treatments were discontinued. This proliferative effect, however, did not influence cell survival or neurogenesis because no change in the number of BrdU- or DCX-positive cells was detected 7 or 15 day after the last EAF administration compared with controls. Trichilia catigua EAF produced antidepressant-like effects and induced hippocampal cell proliferation in mice. The results contribute information on the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of Trichilia catigua EAF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term effects of subchronic low-level hydrogen sulfide exposure on oil field workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure on oil field workers. Observational study included 34 patients who work at an oil field. All patients were males with age range of 22-60 years (mean 37 years). The data were collected by systematic questionnaire about symptoms. The inclusion criteria of patients were symptoms related to inhalation of H2S gas in the oil field. The complaints should be frequent and relapsed after each gas exposure and disappeared when there was no gas exposure. Exclusion criteria were the symptoms which experienced with or without H2S exposure. The presence of H2S gas was confirmed by valid gas detector devices. The most frequent presenting symptom was nasal bleeding. It was revealed in 18 patients (52.9%). This followed by pharyngeal bleeding, gum bleeding, and bloody saliva (mouth bleeding) which were encountered in five cases for each complaint (14.7%). Other less frequent presenting symptoms were tongue bleeding, bloody sputum, headache, abdominal colic, pharyngeal soreness, fatigue, and sleepiness. Nasal mucosa was the most vulnerable part to H2S effect. Inhalation of H2S produced upper respiratory tract epithelial damage that led to bleeding from nose, pharynx, gum, tongue, trachea, and bronchi. There were no complaints of asthmatic attack upon exposure to low level of H2S. Sunlight had a significant role in reduction of ambient air H2S level.

  7. Metabolic effects of subchronic peripheral oxytocin administration in lean and obese zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazova, L; Krskova, K; Suski, M; Sisovsky, V; Hlavacova, N; Olszanecki, R; Jezova, D; Zorad, S

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence indicates a role of oxytocin in controlling energy metabolism. The aim of his study was to investigate oxytocin effects on obese phenotype in leptin-resistant Zucker fatty rats, focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. Zucker fatty rats and their lean controls were treated with oxytocin (3.6 μg/100g body weight/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously for 2 weeks. Two-hours intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in fasting rats. Oxytocin decreased food intake in both phenotypes while body weight gain reduced only in obese animals. In obese rats oxytocin impaired hepatic insulin extraction and enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation. Moreover, in the skeletal muscle of lean rats oxytocin treatment downregulated insulin signal transduction by decreasing of insulin receptor substrate 1 protein level and stimulating of its serine phosphorylation. Concurrently, the gene expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was downregulated by oxytocin. In obese rats, oxytocin reduced adipocyte size and normalised mRNA levels of both fatty acid binding protein 4 and fatty acid synthase but attenuated gene expression of glucose transporter 4. The present study in Zucker fatty rats demonstrated ambivalent effects of oxytocin treatment with predominantly negative impact on skeletal muscle insulin pathway in lean animals.

  8. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, R.J.J.; Booij, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graduate School of Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, K. de; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of

  9. Effects of oral, subchronic cadmium administration on fertility, prenatal and postnatal progeny development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, B; Stetkiewicz, I; Sitarek, K; Szymczak, W

    1983-12-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered by gavage to female rats 5 days a week for 5 weeks, then during mating and gestation periods at doses of 0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg Cd/kg/day. Treatment with cadmium neither affected the survival and fertility of females, nor produced overt fetotoxic effects. Fetal cadmium concentration was not related to the level of exposure. Litter size, body weight gain and viability of offspring during 2 months after parturition were similar in all groups. The exploratory locomotor activity of 2-month-old males and females born to rats given 0.4 and 4 mg Cd/kg/day was significantly reduced. The progeny of cadmium-treated females showed decreased performance in the rotarod test. In general, the degree of behavioral impairment was dose-related.

  10. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  11. [Effect of subchronic realgar exposure on Glu and Gln in infant rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei; Huo, Tao-Guang; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Li, Wei-Kai; Yang, Hui-Lei; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Gui-Fan

    2012-11-01

    To study the effect of realgar on Glu and Gln on rat brain tissues. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups randomly:control group,low dosage group, moderate dosage group and high dosage group. The treatment groups were treated with realgar by gastric perfusion at a dosage of 0.3 g/kg, 0.9 g/kg, 2.7 g/kg and the control group ones were orally given the same volume of 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) for 6 weeks. The contents of inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in brain tissues were measured by hydride generation-atomic absorption (HG-AAS) method. The contents of amino acid neurotransmitters in brain tissues of rats were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. The levels of MMA and DMA in brain increased as the dosage of realgar increased, while the second methylation index declined. Compared with control group,the levels of Glu was significantly decreased in realgar treated group (P Realgar exposure can cause accumulation of MMA and DMA,declination of second methylation index and the reduction of Glu and Gln in brain tissue.

  12. The effect of subchronic metribuzin exposure to signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana 1852).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutnik, Dalibor; Stara, Alzbeta; Zuskova, Eliska; Kouba, Antonin; Velisek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide metribuzin on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana by determining oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant indices (total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase) in hepatopancreas, muscle, and gill as well as assessing their histopathology. Crayfish were exposed to metribuzin concentrations of 0.52 μg x l(-1) (realistic environmental concentration) and 3.06 mg x l(-1) (10% 96hLC50) for 10 and 30 days followed by a 30-day depuration period without exposure to metribuzin. In the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were observed differences in all examined tissues compared to the control group. Differences from control were observed in glutathione reductase activity in hepatopancreas after 10 days for both exposure concentrations and after 30 days at 3.06 mg x l(-1). Histological examination revealed extensive focal autolytic disintegration of tubular epithelium in hepatopancreas of crayfish exposed to metribuzin for 30 days. Chronic exposure of metribuzin resulted in oxidative damage to cell lipids, in changes of antioxidant activity in crayfish tissue, and pathological changes in hepatopancreas. The results suggest that selected oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes, and pathologies of hepatopancreas may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in the aquatic environment.

  13. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, N.S.; Stohs, S.J.; Magar, C.C.; Kale, A.; Sowmya, B.

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect...

  14. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adverse Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish N. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs were developed with the prime object of minimizing gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are seen with the use of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Their long-term use is limited by the development of hypertension, edema, and congestive heart failure in a significant proportion of patients. NSAIDs block the activity of both COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, which mediate the enzymatic conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 and other prostaglandin (PG metabolites. It is well established that the cardiovascular profile of COX-2 inhibitors can be accounted for by inhibition of COX-dependent PG synthesis. Following the COX-mediated synthesis of PGH2 from arachidonate, PGH2 is metabolized to one of at least five bioactive PGs, including PGE2, PGI2, PGF2, PGD2, or thromboxane A2 (TXA2. These prostanoids have pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, altering platelet function and renal function, and they are acting either as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors. Although COX-1 and COX-2 exhibit similar biochemical activity in converting arachidonate to PGH2in vitro, the ultimate prostanoids they produce in vivo may be different due to differential regulation of COX-1 and COX-2, tissue distribution, and availability of the prostanoid synthases. PGs have been established as being critically involved in mitigating hypertension, helping to maintain medullary blood flow (MBF, promoting urinary salt excretion, and preserving the normal homeostasis of thrombosis, and the researchers found that the use of COX-2 inhibitors caused many serious complications in altering the normal body homeostasis. The purpose of the present research is to explain briefly the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors on the renal and cardiovascular system.

  16. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  17. Subchronic and developmental toxicity studies in rats with Ac-Di-Sol croscarmellose sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christine; Weiner, Myra L; Kotkoskie, Lois A; Borzelleca, Joseph; Butt, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the subchronic and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol (croscarmellose sodium). In the subchronic study, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet for 90 consecutive days (equivalent to 757 and 893 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 10000 ppm, respectively, and to 3922 and 4721 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 50000 ppm, respectively). No mortality, clinical signs of toxicity, or adverse toxicological effects on hematology or serum chemistry parameters, feed consumption, or ophthalmologic examinations were noted in any treatment group. Body weight gain was depressed in high-dose males during the final 3 weeks. The only treatment-related histological lesion noted was moderate renal mineralization at the corticomedullary junction in one high-dose female. This lesion was not considered a specific effect of Ac-Di-Sol, but rather a secondary effect resulting from a potential increase in urinary pH and renal excretion of sodium due to the high intake of sodium associated with Ac-Di-Sol. In the developmental toxicity study, groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet on gestational days 6 to 15. No evidence of maternal, fetal, or embryo toxicity was noted. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Ac-Di-Sol in both studies exceeds 50000 ppm in the diet, which represents doses of 3922 and 4712 mg/kg/day, for males and females, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate the low subchronic oral toxicity and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol, and support the safe use of Ac-Di-Sol in oral applications such as pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and sweetener tablets.

  18. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  19. Effectiveness of adverse effects search filters: drugs versus medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Farrah, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study tested the performance of adverse effects search filters when searching for safety information on medical devices, procedures, and diagnostic tests in MEDLINE and Embase. Methods: The sensitivity of 3 filters was determined using a sample of 631 references from 131 rapid reviews related to the safety of health technologies. The references were divided into 2 sets by type of intervention: drugs and nondrug health technologies. Keyword and indexing analysis were performed on references from the nondrug testing set that 1 or more of the filters did not retrieve. Results: For all 3 filters, sensitivity was lower for nondrug health technologies (ranging from 53%– 87% than for drugs (88%–93% in both databases. When tested on the nondrug health technologies set, sensitivity was lower in Embase (ranging from 53%–81% than in MEDLINE (67%–87% for all filters. Of the nondrug records that 1 or more of the filters missed, 39% of the missed MEDLINE records and 18% of the missed Embase records did not contain any indexing terms related to adverse events. Analyzing the titles and abstracts of nondrug records that were missed by any 1 filter, the most commonly used keywords related to adverse effects were: risk, complications, mortality, contamination, hemorrhage, and failure. Conclusions: In this study, adverse effects filters were less effective at finding information about the safety of medical devices, procedures, and tests compared to information about the safety of drugs.

  20. Acute and subchronic in-vivo effects of Ferula hermonis L. and Sambucus nigra L. and their potential active isolates in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raafat, K; El-Lakany, A

    2015-01-01

    ...) and Sambucus nigra L. aqueous (Elder) extracts, and their potential active isolates; for acute (6 h) and subchronic (8 days) glucose homeostasis, in vivo antioxidant potential and DN amelioration in alloxan-induced DM mice model...

  1. Sub-chronic administration of the dopamine D(1) antagonist SKF 83959 in bilaterally MPTP-treated rhesus monkeys: stable therapeutic effects and wearing-off dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, G; Stoof, J C; Cools, A R

    1999-10-01

    SKF 83959 acts as a D(1) antagonist in vitro but has been claimed to induce anti-parkinsonian effects after acute administration in MPTP-treated marmosets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic and undesired effects of sub-chronic administration of SKF 83959 in bilaterally MPTP-treated rhesus monkeys and to compare these effects with the effects of l-dopa and the dopamine agonist SKF 82958. MPTP was given in the left carotid artery (2.5 mg) and 6 weeks later, the right carotid artery (1.25 mg). The monkeys (n = 4) had previously been treated chronically with l-dopa (22 days, 10 mg/kg) and SKF 82958 (22 days, 1 mg/kg). Three months after the last administration of SKF 82958, SKF 83959 was given in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg from day 1 to day 15 and in a dose of 1.0 mg/kg from day 16 to day 18. SKF 83959 increased goal-directed limb movements in all animals, including those unresponsive to l-dopa. This therapeutic effect did not diminish during treatment. With respect to body displacement and undesired effects, a large variation in the response to SKF 83959 was found: a large increase in body displacement co-occurred with oro-facial dyskinesia (n = 2), whereas a small increase in body displacement co-occurred with dystonia (n = 2). In contrast to the undesired effects of l-dopa, the dyskinetic effects of SKF 83959 were primarily limited to the first treatment day. Unlike l-dopa and SKF 82958, SKF 83959 did not induce epileptoid behaviour. Sub-chronic administration of SKF 83959 induced both clear-cut therapeutic effects that remained stable in time, and a limited number of dyskinetic effects that wore off during the treatment. The dopamine D(1) antagonist SKF 83959 may be considered as an alternative treatment in Parkinson's disease, especially in those patients who do not respond to L-dopa.

  2. Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies of Irvingia gabonensis extract (IGOB131).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Shil C; Shivarudraiah, Prasad; Venkataramaiah, Suresh Babu; Gavara, Swapna; Soni, Madhu G

    2012-05-01

    African Bush Mango from Irvingia gabonensis is a West African culinary fruit and the mucilage from this fruit seed is used to make traditional soups and sauces. Extract from the kernel (IGOB131) has been claimed for its health benefits. In the present investigations, potential adverse effects, if any, of IGOB131 were investigated in dose-response 90-day study and genotoxicity studies. In the subchronic study, Sprague Dawley rats (20/sex/group) were gavaged with I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131) at dose levels of 0, 100, 1000 and 2500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No treatment-related changes in clinical signs, functional observations, mortality, ophthalmologic observations, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, hematological, clinical chemistry, urine analysis parameters, and organ weights did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes. No treatment-related macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were noted at the end of treatment period. The mutagenicity as evaluated by Ames assay, in vitro and in vivo chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay did not reveal any genotoxicity of IGOB131. The results of subchronic toxicity study suggest the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131) as ≥ 2500 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin (Lutemax 2020): subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikrishnan, R; Rusia, Shraddha; Ilamurugan, G; Salunkhe, Ulhas; Deshpande, Jayant; Shankaranarayanan, J; Shankaranarayana, M L; Soni, Madhu G

    2011-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, naturally occurring carotenoids, have shown to reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Lutemax 2020 is a lutein and zeaxanthin (including meso-isomer) enriched product obtained from Marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L). The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of Lutemax 2020 in acute and subchronic toxicity, and mutagenicity studies. In acute toxicity study in rats no lethality was noted at 2000 mg Lutemax 2020/kg body weight (bw). In the subchronic study, Wistar rats (10/sex/group) were administered (gavage) lutein/zeaxanthin concentrate at dose levels of 0, 4, 40 and 400mg/kg bw/day for 90-days. Compared with the control group, administration of lutein/zeaxanthin concentrate did not result in any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and organ weights. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in urinalysis, hematology or clinical biochemistry parameters at the end of the treatment or recovery period. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment-related gross or histopathology findings. The results of mutagenicity testing in Salmonella typhimurium did not reveal any genotoxicity. The no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for lutein/zeaxanthin concentrate was determined as 400mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological aspects of Hericium erinaceus ingestion in a rodent model: A sub-chronic toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Raman, Jegadeesh; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-12-24

    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom and has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic for stomach disorders, ulcers and gastrointestinal ailments. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the aqueous extract from the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus in rats by a sub-chronic oral toxicity study. In this sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered with the aqueous extract of H. erinaceus (HEAE) at doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 90 days. Body weights were recorded on a weekly basis and general behavioural changes were observed. The blood samples were subjected to haematological, biochemical, serum electrolyte, and antioxidant enzyme estimations. The rats were sacrificed and organs were processed and examined for histopathological changes. No mortality or morbidity was observed in all the treated and control rats. The results showed that the oral administration of HEAE daily at three different doses for 90 days had no adverse effect on the general behaviour, body weight, haematology, clinical biochemistry, and relative organ weights. Histopathological examination at the end of the study showed normal architecture except for few non-treatment related histopathological changes observed in liver, heart and spleen. The results of this sub-chronic toxicity study provides evidence that oral administration of HEAE is safe up to 1000mg/kg and H. erinaceus consumption is relatively non-toxic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  6. Management of Adverse Effects of Antituberculosis Drugs | Anakwue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality particularly because of HIV infection. Drug therapy which is central in the management of TB may be associated with adverse effects. These may be classified as minor or major. The adverse effects may not affect drug therapy and reassurance ...

  7. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Charles, Chou C.-K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyh-Seng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  8. Exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress accounts for antidepressant-like effects in hamsters treated with BDNF and CNQX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Avolio, Ennio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that cerebral neurotrophic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor plus signaling pathways of the glutamatergic neuroreceptor system (L-Glu) are determinant modulators of depression-like states. In the present study, the type of interaction(s) exerted by the AMPAergic antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depression-like behaviors in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were investigated. Sub-chronic administration of BDNF in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of stressed hamsters was responsible for very evident (phamsters treated with BDNF. Similarly, this treatment caused moderate increases of the major stress protein (Hsp70) in DG and Or-Py. Conversely, while CNQX induced similar TrkB expression levels, it instead accounted for a moderate reduction of Hsp70 mRNAs in the same brain areas. Overall these results support crucial roles played by BDNF and AMPAergic neurosignaling mechanisms during distinct adaptive responses of depression- and anxiety-like states in hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract. Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Bitter orange, p-Synephrine, Subchronic toxicity, No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL, No-observed-effect-level (NOEL

  10. Oral subchronic exposure to silver nanoparticles in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Garcia; Daisy Lafuente; Jordi Blanco; Domenec J. Sanchez; Juan J. Sirvent; Jose L. Domingo; Mercedes Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Oral subchronic exposure to silver nanoparticles in rats DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.04.010 Because of their extremely small size, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show unique physical and chemical properties, with specific biological effects, which make them particularly attractive for being used in a number of consumer applications. However, these properties also influence the potential toxicity of AgNPs. In this study, we assessed the potential toxic effects of an in vivo oral sub-chronic ex...

  11. Scientific evaluation of the acute toxicity and 13-week subchronic toxicity of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ben-Gui; Feng, Yong; Wang, Shu

    2014-04-01

    Rheum emodi has been used as an edible and medicinal plant in Tibet and Kashmir for a long period of time, while safety evaluation of this plant has not yet been investigated. In this study, acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies of aqueous extract of R. emodi (AERE) rhizome were conducted in SD rats. Animals were treated with a single dose of 1000, 2000, 4000 or 10,000 mg/kg of AERE in the acute toxicity. In subchronic oral toxicity, animals were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats/sex/group) and received doses of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg/d of AERE for 90 days. Daily clinical observations, weekly measurement of body weight and food consumption were conducted. Blood and urine were collected on days 91 to measure changes. At necropsy, selected organs were weighed and recorded, and histological examination was performed. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality, obvious treatment-related clinical signs and urinalysis parameters were observed. Differences in weight gain, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, relative organ weight and histopathology examinations between the treated group and the control group were not considered treatment-related. Our results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AERE was 4000 mg/kg/d in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... Assessment System, isotretinoin, salivary flow. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris. Patients: A Prospective, Case–control Study. U Erdemir, G Okan1, S Gungor2, B Tekin3, SO Yildiz4, E Yildiz isotretinoin adversely affects salivary flow and buffer capacity.[6-8]. Dental caries is ...

  13. Community Awareness of Adverse Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    health personnel to educate patients on the potential adverse effects of the non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Key words: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adverse drug reactions, community knowledge, Ilala Municipality. INTRODUCTION. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (NSAIDs) are drugs with analgesic,.

  14. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Median Septum of Juglans regia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Ravanbakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae with anti - diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600 , 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME, and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days. Antioxidant status and biochemical examinations were fulfilled, and the vital organs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results: The extract did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the medium lethal dose must be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic study, No significant morpholo gical and histopathological changes were observed in the studied tissues. There was a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA level in treated group compared to control after 4 weeks of JRSME intake. The treatment of rats resulted in a signific ant reduction of serum urea level (p<0.05, kidney’s xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH activity (p<0.001 and elevation of aldehyde oxidase (AO activity (p<0.05 in kidney. In the treated group, the mean diameter of glomerulus and proximal urine tube epitheliu m stature was slightly greater than control group. A significant increase in serum MDA level is subject for further studies. Conclusion: This study showed that the extract has no acute or subacute adverse effects with dose of 1000 mg/kg. The administratio n of JRSME may improve kidney structure and function and help in treatment of some chronic diseases.

  15. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  16. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Yoon K; Price, Deirdre; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2007-07-05

    As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect clinical decisions. Researchers undertaking a systematic review that

  17. Adverse effects of methotrexate in three psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Hideki; Watarai, Akira; Nakano, Toshiaki; Katayama, Chieko; Nishiyama, Hiromi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2014-04-01

    Methotrexate, a folic acid analogue with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, is commonly used to treat patients with severe destructive psoriatic arthritis and has considerable efficacy. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and MTX therapy result in less treatment discontinuation due to adverse events. Despite its efficacy, MTX may result in adverse effects including hepatic, pulmonary, and renal toxicity as well as lymphoproliferative disorders and predisposition to infection. We herein report rare adverse effects of MTX treatment, specifically asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis, renal cell carcinoma, and lateral uveitis, in three psoriatic arthritis patients treated with MTX. MTX is an important drug for the treatment for psoriatic arthritis patient, but an awareness of the possible adverse effects is needed.

  18. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  19. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  20. Effect of subchronic in vivo exposure to nitrogen dioxide on lung tissue inflammation, airway microvascular leakage, and in vitro bronchial muscle responsiveness in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitano, P; Rado, V; Di Stefano, A; Papi, A; Boniotti, A; Zancuoghi, G; Boschetto, P; Romano, M; Salmona, M; Ciaccia, A; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

    1996-06-01

    In a previous study on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats exposed in vivo for seven days to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), it has been shown that there is an influx of macrophages into the airways. The present study investigated the effect of seven day exposure to 10 ppm NO2, on: (a) lung tissue inflammation and morphology; (b) airway microvascular leakage; (c) in vitro contractile response of main bronchi. Lung tissue was studied by light microscopy, after fixing the lungs by inflation with 4% formalin at a pressure of 20 cm H2O. Microvascular leakage was measured by extravasation of Evans blue dye in the larynx, trachea, main bronchi, and intrapulmonary airways. Smooth muscle responsiveness was evaluated by concentration-responses curves to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-3) M), serotonin (10(-9)-10(-4) M), and voltage-response curves (12-28 V) to electrical field stimulation. Histology showed an increased total inflammation at the level of respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. No influx of inflammatory cells was found in the main bronchi. A loss of cilia in the epithelium of small airways and ectasia of alveolar capillaries was also found. By contrast, no alterations to microvascular permeability or modification of bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness was found. Subchronic exposure to 10 ppm NO2 causes airway inflammation and structural damage, but does not cause any persistent alteration to microvascular permeability or bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness in rats.

  1. Adverse effects of stress on microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract impact the health status of an animal. The health of an animal as well as production traits are also affected by exposure to stress. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dehorning stress on the gut ...

  2. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  3. Adverse Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Nasim, Aashir; Rosas, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use has grown rapidly in popularity within a short period of time. As ECIG products continue to evolve and more individuals begin using ECIGs, it is important to understand the potential adverse effects that are associated with ECIG use. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the acute adverse effects associated with ECIG use. This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory approach called concept mapping (CM). Experienced ECIG users (n = 85) provided statements that answered the focus prompt "A specific negative or unpleasant effect (ie, physical or psychological) that I have experienced either during or immediately after using an electronic cigarette device is…" in an online program. Participants sorted these statements into piles of common themes and rated each statement. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, a concept map of the adverse effects statements was created. Participants generated 79 statements that completed the focus prompt and were retained by researchers. Analysis generated a map containing five clusters that characterized perceived adverse effects of ECIG use: Stigma, Worry/Guilt, Addiction Signs, Physical Effects, and Device/Vapor Problems. ECIG use is associated with adverse effects that should be monitored as ECIGs continue to grow in popularity. If ECIGs are to be regulated, policies should be created that minimize the likelihood of user identified adverse effects. This article provides a list of adverse effects reported by experienced ECIG users. This article organizes these effects into a conceptual model that may be useful for better understanding the adverse outcomes associated with ECIG use. These identified adverse effects may be useful for health professionals and policy makers. Health professionals should be aware of potential negative health effects that may be associated with ECIG use and policy makers could design ECIG regulations that minimize the

  4. Neuro-, Cardio-, and Immunoplasticity: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen

    2018-01-04

    The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. We emphasize the effects of environmental experiences related to caregiver relationships because it is these experiences, in particular, that shape regulatory and threat response systems in ways that increase vulnerability and may underlie the wide range of poor outcomes associated with early adversity. Thus, we metaphorically extend the concept of plasticity to highlight our goal of a broader consideration of these interconnected mechanisms. We conclude by discussing implications for neurobiologically informed interventions that can potentially ameliorate the broad and costly effects of early adversity.

  5. Subchronic toxicity (90 days of StemEnhance™ in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Dirikolu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Levent Dirikolu1, Thushara Chakkath1, Susan Ball-Kell2, Christy Elamma2, David J Schaeffer11Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: This study evaluated the subchronic toxicity of StemEnhance™, an extract of the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae that is used as a health supplement. Groups of 12 rats of each sex were given either 5% glycerin in water (control or 200 mg/kg of StemEnhance prepared in 5% glycerin in water for 90 days by oral gavage. The administration of StemEnhance had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth, or survival. Values at the end of dosing and observation periods did not reveal differences between treated and control groups for hematology and clinical chemistry. There were no significant differences in the gross and histopathology of the reproductive organs in either males or females. Sperm motility parameters were similar for control and treated males. Our results show that StemEnhance at doses ~7 times the maximum label-recommended daily dose did not produce adverse effects in Wistar rats after subchronic treatment.Keywords: algal toxicology, blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

  6. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  7. Topical corticosteroids abuse: A clinical study of cutaneous adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids (TC are one of the most widely used agents in dermatology practice. Misuse of these agents may lead to a wide range of adverse effects. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of abuse of topical corticosteroids (TC and clinical patterns of cutaneous adverse effects amongst patients attending dermatology department of a teaching hospital at South Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: All patients who reported with adverse effects of topical steroids during one year from September 2015 to August 2016 were evaluated. Patients fulfilling the study criteria were registered for further workup. Results: Out of the 85280 new patients, 370 (0.43% presented with adverse effects of TC. Males (232/370;62.70% outnumbered females (138/370;37.30. Age group 11-30 years was most commonly (74.05% affected. The main reason for using TC was fungal infection (52.43%. Tinea incognito (49.46% and acne (30.27% were the most common adverse effects recorded. Conclusions: Abuse of TC, particularly the superpotent and potent is rampant amongst general population. Topical corticosteroids are frequently used for indications where they should be avoided.

  8. Locally advanced prostate cancer: effective treatments, but many adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Locally advanced prostate tumours, i.e. those that extend beyond the prostate gland but are not metastatic, often carry a poor prognosis: between 10% and 40% of patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Various treatments are proposed to improve their prognosis. Which treatments have a proven survival benefit, and what are their adverse effects? To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Prostatectomy has not been evaluated in controlled trials versus either watchful waiting or radiation therapy alone. Prostatectomy is mainly proposed to patients who are in good general health. Five years after prostatectomy, mortality from prostate cancer is between 2% and 16%, depending on the study.Three-quarters of patients who have surgery at this stage experience erectile dysfunction, and at least 20% of patients develop urinary incontinence. External beam radiation therapy alone has not been compared with watchful waiting or prostatectomy. External beam radiation therapy has documented benefits in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with gonadorelin agonists, preventing 8 to 10 deaths from all causes after 7 to 10 years of follow-up among 100 treated patients. However, about 60% of patients experience erectile dysfunction, about 15% symptomatic radiation proctitis, and about 5% urinary incontinence. When combined with prostatectomy, radiation therapy did not affect the 5-year survival rate but prolonged survival by about 2 years in a trial with more than 10 years of follow-up. When used without concomitant androgen suppression, antiandrogens have no proven impact on overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. In the absence of radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, androgen suppression, by means of orchiectomy or gonadorelin agonist, has a minimal impact on overall survival among patients with locally advanced cancer. In one randomised trial, androgen suppression in

  9. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Registration of suspected adverse effects by the Bureau Adverse Effects Drugs; research activities in 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, B H; Ottervanger, J P; van der Klauw, M M

    1994-10-15

    In 1993, the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs received 1585 reports of suspected adverse reactions. The most important reports concerned myocardial infarction due to sumatriptan, cholestatic hepatitis due to itraconazole, agranulocytosis due to trazodone and bleeding due to fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. Other published reports concerned cholestatic hepatitis due to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, hair loss due to beta-blockers, muscle necrosis due to diclofenac, bronchospasm, apnoea and cardiac arrest due to dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy, interaction of fluvoxamine/fluoxetine and coumarins, liver enzyme elevations due to heparin, skin reactions due to Imedeen, deafness due to neomycin, addiction to nicotine chewing gum, atrial fibrillation and skin reactions due to nicotine patches, interaction between oral contraceptives and terbinafine, neonatal problems caused by psychopharmacological agents, parapemphigus caused by sulfasalazine, taste loss due to terbinafine en intracranial bleeding after use of tranylcypromine and beer. Pharmacoepidemiological studies were performed concerning methods for record linkage, the communication process with respect to the acitretin alert and the adverse events due to sumatriptan.

  11. A comparative overview of the adverse effects of antiulcer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D W

    1995-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, great advances have been made in the treatment of ulcer disease. This has involved the development of new drugs that are not only well tolerated, but are relatively inexpensive. The lack of significant adverse effects has revealed a degree of tolerability that, to write a review of the adverse effects, poses a difficult task. Most of the adverse effects are related to an excessive reaction to the relevant pharmacological characteristic that mediates the therapeutic response. The drug dosage can be reduced, freeing the patient of the adverse reaction, but leaving behind a background activity adequate to produce a therapeutically beneficial effect. The adverse effects of H2-antagonists fall into 2 groups. Firstly, there are poorly defined symptoms that have a prevalence similar to that in the community; these include headache, giddiness, dizziness, fatigue, constipation and diarrhoea. Secondly, they may delay the metabolism of drugs metabolised by the the cytochrome P450 system, and rarely be androgenic. Many antacids and the site-protective agent sucralfate contain aluminium, which can be absorbed, producing elevation of serum aluminium levels. In view of the possible association of aluminium with Alzheimer's disease, anxiety has arisen as to whether aluminium from these sources may, in those on prolonged treatment, cause Alzheimer's disease. However, the evidence so far indicates that aluminium is not a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The association of gastric cancer with achlorhydria has led to the fear that long term use of potent acid inhibitors may cause cancer. This fear has been accentuated by the observation that some rats, given omeprazole over their lifetime, developed carcinoid tumours of the stomach. However, enthusiastic research, both clinical and epidemiological, indicates that drug-induced achlorhydria is unlikely to be a problem in humans. Site protective agents have a role in certain conditions such as pregnancy

  12. Adverse effects of voriconazole: Over a decade of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Miriam T; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi H

    2016-11-01

    Voriconazole use has increased since the drug's introduction in 2002, and new and unique adverse effects are emerging as patients undergo prolonged therapy. Most concerning is the increased risk of cutaneous malignancies, primarily squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); this risk is duration dependent and the associated malignancies tend to be more aggressive and multifocal. Voriconazole is also associated with phototoxicity (which may be a precursor to malignancy), periostitis, hallucinations and encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, alopecia, nail changes, hyponatremia, and other adverse effects. Some toxicities (neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal including hepatic) are seen in clear association with supratherapeutic serum voriconazole levels; thus, careful monitoring of voriconazole levels is a critical component of safe drug use. Guidelines for screening for adverse effects after long-term voriconazole use may be beneficial and need to be established. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M; Pastor, J; Roura, X; Tabar, M D; Espada, Y; Font, A; Balasch, J; Planellas, M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the adverse effects of allopurinol on the urinary system during treatment of canine leishmaniasis. Retrospective case series of 42 dogs that developed xanthinuria while receiving allopurinol treatment for leishmaniasis. Of 320 dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis, 42 (13%) developed adverse urinary effects. Thirteen (of 42) dogs (31%) developed xanthinuria, renal mineralisation and urolithiasis; 11 (26·2%) showed xanthinuria with renal mineralisation; 9 (21·4%) had xanthinuria with urolithiasis and 9 (21·4%) developed xanthinuria alone. Urinary clinical signs developed in 19 dogs (45·2%). This study demonstrates that urolithiasis and renal mineralisation can occur in dogs receiving allopurinol therapy. Dogs receiving therapy should be monitored for the development of urinary adverse effects from the beginning of treatment. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Mechanisms of Hexachlorobenzene-induced Adverse Immune Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Janine

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an environmental pollutant that can induce adverse immune effects in humans and rats. Brown Norway rats (BN) appeared to be very susceptible to HCB-induced immune effects. Oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes (LN) and

  15. The adverse effects of albendazole and praziquantel in mass drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effects of albendazole and praziquantel in mass drug administration by trained schoolteachers. ... In this study, one trained schoolteacher could administer treatment to three hundred children in one day, which makes the approach cost effective and should be adopted nationally. Keywords: albendazole ...

  16. Adverse Health Effects in Relation to Urban Residential Soundscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKÅNBERG, A.; ÖHRSTRÖM, E.

    2002-02-01

    Noise pollution from road traffic in residential areas is a growing environmental problem. New approaches to turn the negative trend are needed. The programme “Soundscape Support to Health” will achieve new knowledge about the adverse health effects of noise pollution on humans and will investigate the link between well-being and health and perceived soundscapes for optimizing the acoustic soundscapes in urban residential areas. This paper will briefly present the programme and presents preliminary results from the first study of how various adverse health effects are related to individual noise exposures among individuals in residential areas with and without access to a quiet side of the dwelling.

  17. Parenteral Lipid Tolerance and Adverse Effects: Fat Chance for Trouble?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions (LEs) are indispensable sources of fuel calories and (essential) fatty acids (FAs) in modern parenteral nutrition formulations. The use of LE, however, also remains associated with the development of adverse effects. Intolerance for LE mostly becomes apparent upon the development of

  18. Community Awareness of Adverse Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 4% drank a lot of water when they had a headache, while 1% performed massage at the site of pain. One percent visited traditional healers to seek treatment for the pain. Only 8% of the study participants knew some adverse effects caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Hence, there is a need for health ...

  19. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference between the working groups in their perception of the adverse effects of wastes, except as it concerned death, birth defect or cancer, environmental degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to ...

  20. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  1. Gum pigmentation: an unusual adverse effect of sublingual immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Anne; Chiang, Wen Chin; Kang, Liew Woei; Rao, Rajeshwar; Lim, Hwee Hoon; Chng, Chai Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has gained acceptance amongst the paediatric community as it is very well tolerated and is safe. The adverse effects of this therapy is minimal consisting mainly of local side effects within the oral cavity such as itching of the mouth, swelling of the lips and less frequently abdominal pain, wheezing and urticaria has been described. This report is to highlight another local side effect of sublingual immunotherapy which has been observed in 3 of our patients. This is...

  2. Adverse Effects of Silver Diamine Fluoride Treatment among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangthip, D; Fung, M H T; Wong, M C M; Chu, C H; Lo, E C M

    2017-12-01

    This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the adverse effects and parental satisfaction following the different regimes of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment among preschool children. A total of 888 preschool children who had active dentin caries received different SDF application regimes: group 1, 12% SDF applied annually; group 2, 12% SDF applied semiannually; group 3, 38% SDF applied annually; and group 4, 38% SDF applied semiannually. Information on adverse effects-including tooth or gum pain, gum swelling, gum bleaching, and systemic toxicity-was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire within 1 wk after every SDF or placebo application. Information of parental satisfaction on children's dental appearance was collected at baseline and 30-mo examination. At the 30 mo, 799 children (90%) remained in the study. No acute systemic illness or major adverse effect was reported. No differences of all minor adverse effects among the 4 groups were found ( P > 0.05). Overall, prevalence of tooth and gum pain as perceived by patients and reported by parents was 6.6%, while gum swelling and gum bleaching were 2.8% and 4.7%, respectively. Blackening of carious lesions was common among all groups, with 36.7%, 49.5%, 65.6% and 76.3% in groups 1 to 4, respectively (χ2 test, P 0.05). Based on parental reporting, SDF does not cause acute systemic illness. Tooth or gum pain, gum swelling, and gum bleaching were uncommon and not significantly different among the study groups. Parental satisfaction with children's dental appearance was similar among all groups. The use of SDF following the study protocol for caries arrest is safe for preschool children. Collecting information on parental satisfaction and adverse effects is beneficial for dental professionals when deciding to adopt SDF treatment for preschool children (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02385474).

  3. [Adverse effects of compression in treatment of limb lymphedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S; Arrault, M

    2009-11-01

    Limb lymphedema, whether primary or secondary, is a chronic disease. Compression is the cornerstone of therapy and includes multilayer low-stretch bandages and elastic garments. Compression is usually well-tolerated. The aim of our study was to identify all the different types of adverse effects of compression. Since January 2005, we have recorded all adverse events occurring in outpatients and inpatients consulting in a single lymphology department, spontaneously reported by patient during consultations or physical examinations, and noted the type of compression material used. Adverse effects were secondary to poor choice of therapeutic material, excessive pressure or contact dermatitis. For the arms, an elastic garment stopping at the wrist can be responsible for lymphedema of the hand and fingers. Rubbing of sleeve seams may cause pain and even ulcers between the thumb and forefinger. Open-toed elastic stockings may exacerbate digital lymphedema, leading to the formation of oozing lymph vesicles. Hyperpressure may cause severe pain localized to the first and fifth toes, overlapping toes, interdigital corns and/or ingrown toenails. Silicone-banded soft-fit elastic garments may cause painful phlyctena, urticaria or eczematiform lesions. Elastic bandages may induce pain or purpuric lesions. Compression can be responsible for adverse effects, sometimes severe, requiring treatment change or withdrawal. Further studies are needed to precisely determine their frequency to improve prescriptions and currently available products.

  4. Safety assessment of Superba™ krill powder: Subchronic toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Berge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of krill powder was assessed in a subchronic 13-week toxicity study where rats were fed krill powder or control diets. The krill powder inclusion in the test diet was 9.67% (w/w. There were no differences noted in body weight or food consumption in either gender. Differences in clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill powder-treated animals, but these findings were of no toxicological significance. A significant decrease in absolute heart weight, but not relative heart weight, was observed in both sexes given krill powder, although no corresponding histological changes were observed. Hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed krill powder. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for the conditions of this study was considered to be 9.67% krill powder.

  5. Safety assessment of Superba™ krill powder: Subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Robertson, Bruce; Burri, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The safety of krill powder was assessed in a subchronic 13-week toxicity study where rats were fed krill powder or control diets. The krill powder inclusion in the test diet was 9.67% (w/w). There were no differences noted in body weight or food consumption in either gender. Differences in clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill powder-treated animals, but these findings were of no toxicological significance. A significant decrease in absolute heart weight, but not relative heart weight, was observed in both sexes given krill powder, although no corresponding histological changes were observed. Hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed krill powder. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the conditions of this study was considered to be 9.67% krill powder.

  6. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed.

  7. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed.

  8. Effects of sub-chronic Cd exposure on levels of copper, selenium, zinc, iron and other essential metals in rat renal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Prozialeck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd (Cd is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes generalized proximal tubule dysfunction. Even though the specific mechanisms by which Cd damages the kidney have yet to be fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that some of these nephrotoxic effects may result from the ability of Cd to alter the levels and function of metals such as Cu, Se, Zn and Fe within the kidney. In order to further explore this issue, we examined the effects of subchronic Cd exposure on tissue levels of a panel of metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn in the rat renal cortex. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CdCl2 (0.6 mg Cd/kg body weight in isotonic saline by subcutaneous injection, 5 days per week for 6, 9 or 12 weeks. At each time point, 24 h urine samples were collected and assayed for levels of protein, creatinine, β2 microglobulin and cystatin C. Samples of renal cortex were removed and assayed for levels of the metals of interest by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry at Michigan State University. Results showed that at 9 and 12 weeks, Cd caused significant increases in urine volume and urinary protein with no change in creatinine excretion. Increases in the excretion of the urinary biomarkers β2 microglobulin and cystatin C were evident after 6 weeks of Cd exposure. Results of the metal analyses showed that Cd caused significant increases in tissue levels of Cu and Se at all of the time points examined. Tissue levels of Zn were transiently elevated at 6 weeks but declined to control levels at 9 and 12 weeks. Cd caused a significant decrease in levels of Fe at 9 and 12 weeks. Cd had no effects on any of the other metals. Tissue levels of Cd were 530 ± 52, 863 ± 23, 837 ± 23 ppm dry weight at 6, 9 and 12 weeks, respectively. These results indicate that the early stages of Cd nephrotoxicity are associated with alterations in renal tissue levels of Cu, Se, Zn and Fe. The fact that the changes in levels of the

  9. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  10. Adverse effects of antipsychotic agents. Do newer agents offer advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D G

    1996-06-01

    Although antipsychotic drugs are effective in treating the so-called positive features of schizophrenia, between one-quarter and one-third of patients respond poorly. Furthermore, the incidence of adverse effects is high, especially those reflecting disruption of extrapyramidal function, and is a major source of non-compliance. There is a clear need for new compounds that are more efficacious and/or better tolerated. Until recently, the classical dopamine hypothesis, with its emphasis on D2 blockade as the key mechanism of antipsychotic action, dominated drug development, though the emphasis is now shifting. Three 'new' antipsychotics have reached the international market in the past 5 years-the newly rehabilitated clozapine and the genuinely new remoxipride and risperidone. Claims of enhanced tolerability have been made for each of these, but as none is free from adverse effects, their place in treatment can only be meaningfully established in relation to the efficacy of each in different clinical situations. Clozapine has an extensive profile of general, nonhaematological adverse effects which is slightly different in emphasis from, but comparable in incidence to, that of chlorpromazine. There is a 0.8% risk of agranulocytosis in the first year of exposure, which can be fatal, though the boundary separating it from other (especially phenothiazine) antipsychotics in this regard is becoming increasingly blurred. It has a clearly diminished liability to cause extrapyramidal adverse effects. Its proven efficacy in operationally defined treatment-resistant schizophrenia and in patients intolerant to the extrapyramidal adverse effects of standard drugs establishes its credentials for advantage in these groups. There is on present evidence, however, only a hint of enhanced efficacy in acute schizophrenia: this requires further investigation. Open maintenance studies provide impressive data on long term outcome, especially in terms of quality-of-life parameters, but this

  11. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  12. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  13. Effect of early childhood adversity on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Thompson, Richard; Litrownik, Alan J; Theodore, Adrea; English, Diana J; Black, Maureen M; Wike, Traci; Whimper, Lakecia; Runyan, Desmond K; Dubowitz, Howard

    2006-12-01

    To examine the effect of child abuse and other household dysfunction on child health outcomes. Data from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect collected through interviews and questionnaires administered when target children were 4 years old and 6 years old. Children in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States. One thousand forty-one children at high risk for child abuse and neglect (3 cohorts derived primarily from among children recruited through social service mechanisms, 1 cohort recruited at birth from among high-risk infants, and 1 cohort recruited from a medical setting). (1) Association of 7 adverse exposures (3 categories of child abuse [physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological maltreatment] and 4 categories of household dysfunction [caregiver problem drinking, caregiver depression, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior in the household]) derived from data collected when the child was 4 years old. (2) Indexes of child physical health at age 6 years (caregiver overall assessment of child health and reports of illness requiring medical attention). Two thirds of the sample had experienced at least 1 adverse exposure. One adverse exposure almost doubled the risk of overall poor health (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.48), and 4 adverse exposures or more almost tripled the risk of illness requiring medical attention (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-7.31). Adverse environmental exposures, including child abuse and other household dysfunction, are associated with poor child health even at an early age, although our data do not support a dose-response relationship.

  14. Subchronic toxicity and cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats after exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes by intratracheal instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Lili; Ge, Cuicui; Tseng, Michael T; Bai, Ru; Qu, Ying; Beer, Christiane; Autrup, Herman; Chen, Chunying

    2015-03-16

    The tremendous demand of the market for carbon nanotubes has led to their massive production that presents an increasing risk through occupational exposure. Lung deposition of carbon nanotubes is known to cause acute localized pulmonary adverse effects. However, systemic cardiovascular damages associated with acute pulmonary lesion have not been thoroughly addressed. Four kinds of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different lengths and/or iron contents were used to explore the potential subchronic toxicological effects in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after intratracheal instillation. MWCNTs penetrated the lung blood-gas barrier and accumulated in the liver, kidneys, and spleen but not in the heart and aorta of SH rats. The pulmonary toxicity and cardiovascular effects were assessed at 7 and 30 days postexposure. Compared to the WKY rats, transient influences on blood pressure and up to 30 days persistent decrease in the heart rate of SH rats were found by electrocardiogram monitoring. The subchronic toxicity, especially the sustained inflammation of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, was revealed at days 7 and 30 in both SH and WKY rat models. Histopathological results showed obvious morphological lesions in abdominal arteries of SH rats 30 days after exposure. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the long-term toxic effects of MWCNTs, and particularly, occupationally exposed workers with preexisting cardiovascular diseases should be monitored more thoroughly.

  15. Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoid Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, S M R; Scott, K S; Kacinko, S L; Presley, B C; Logan, B K

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid drugs have become an established part of the recreational drug landscape in the United States and internationally. These drugs are manufactured in clandestine laboratories internationally and distributed in the United States in smoking mixtures, use of which produces effects very similar to use of marijuana. The adverse-effect profile of the drugs has not been studied in humans and infrequently in animal models, so much of the information about their toxicity comes from emergency department and treatment reports and forensic case studies. This review considers the discovery and characterization of the endocannabinoid system, approaches to receptor-binding studies of various synthetic cannabinoids from the first wave of naphthoylindoles (e.g., JWH-018) to the emerging adamantoylindole drugs (e.g., AKB-48), and their analogs, to evaluate the potential activity of drugs in this class. Currently employed approaches to assessing functional activity of the drugs using in vitro and in vivo models is also described, and comparisons made to the effects of THC. The physiological effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in humans are reviewed, and the physiological effects of cannabinoid use are described. Case reports of adverse events including emergency department admissions, mental health admissions, and clinical and forensic case reports are presented in detail and discussed to summarize the current state of knowledge of adverse effects, both clinical and forensic in humans, including effects on driving ability, and tissue injury and death. The greatest weight is accorded to those reports that include toxicological confirmation of use. Finally, we discuss the current status of attempts to schedule and control the distribution of synthetic cannabinoids and the relevance of receptor binding and functional activity in this context. There is growing toxicological and pharmacological evidence of impairment, psychosis, tissue injury, and

  16. Sub-chronic effects of a Phthirusa pyrifolia aqueous extract on reproductive function and comparative hormone levels in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the high amounts of flavonoids shown to be in the extract may be responsible for its hepato-protective effects and suggest a possible decrease in the libido and reproduction of rats.

  17. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Said Said Elshama; Ayman El-Meghawry El-Kenawy; Hosam-Eldin Hussein Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pioglitazone (Actos) is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects. This study investigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the...

  18. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure...... of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation...... of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...

  20. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review article. Adverse hematological effects of hexavalent chromium: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Rina Rani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increas¬es the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI, with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma. Excess Cr (VI, not reduced in plasma, may enter erythrocytes and lymphocytes and in rodents it induces microcytic anemia. The toxic effects of chromium (VI include mitochondrial injury and DNA damage of blood cells that leads to carcinogenicity. Excess Cr (VI increases cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ATP depletion thereby inducing eryptosis. Se, vitamin C, and quercetin are assumed to have some protective effect against hexavalent chromium induced hematological disorders.

  2. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1 Eduard B Mikulik,1 Anees M Dauki,2 Chandrama Murkherjee,1 Jasmine A Luzum3 1Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes, statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways, and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. Keywords: cholesterol, myopathy, lipids, muscle toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics

  4. Feeding Preference and Sub-chronic Effects of ZnO Nanomaterials in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Gordana; Milivojević, Tamara; Božič, Janko; Sepčić, Kristina; Drobne, Damjana

    2017-04-01

    The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8-8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers-a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Consumption rate showed a tendency toward a decrease feeding with the increasing concentrations of ZnO NMs. None of Zn NMs concentrations caused alterations in mortality rate and in the activities of brain GST and AChE. To investigate if there is an avoidance response against Zn presence in food, 24-h two-choice tests were performed with control sucrose diet versus sucrose suspensions with different concentrations of ZnO NMs added. We demonstrated that honeybees prefer ZnO NMs ZnO NMs containing suspensions, even at highest Zn concentrations tested, compared with the control diet. This indicates that they might be able to perceive the presence of ZnO NMs in sucrose solution. Because honeybees feed frequently the preference towards ZnO NMs might have a high impact on their survival when exposed to these NMs.

  5. Adverse Effects of Smoking on Outcomes of Orthopaedic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheung-tung Ho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has many adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly on the outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Smoking is associated with surgical site infection and postoperative wound complications after spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, and fracture fixation; nonunion after spinal fusion, ankle fusion, osteotomy, and internal fixation and bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion; worse outcomes after lumbar disc prolapse, spinal stenosis, and cervical myelopathy surgery; periprosthetic joint infection and lower survival after total hip, knee, and shoulder arthroplasty; worse outcome after shoulder rotator cuff repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; and wound complications after microsurgery. Orthopaedic surgeons should inform smokers and motivate them to quit smoking before orthopaedic operations.

  6. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids: pathophysiology imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dullaart, Robin P F; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Zeebregts, Clark J; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Tio, René A; Dierckx, Rudi A J O

    2012-07-01

      Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance.   In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important adverse cardiovascular effects of AAS abuse.   This review discusses established and future perspectives of novel molecular imaging techniques that may serve as potential tools for early detection of AAS-associated cardiovascular disorders. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  8. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP: effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Redrobe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP-treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o. ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o. were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP-NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS.

  10. Safety assessment of heated diacylglycerol oil: subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Chengelis, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with similar taste and usability characteristics as conventional edible oil rich in triacylglycerol oil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil in rats following subchronic administration. The heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils were prepared separately following deep frying potato slices at 180 degrees C for 8h per day for three days. Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing different ratios (concentrations) of heated to unheated diacylglycerol oil. The ratio of heated to unheated diacylglycerol was as follows: 0%/5.5% (control-1; Group 1), 1.0%/4.5% (Group 2), 2.75%/2.75% (Group 3), and 5.5%/0% (Group 4). Two additional groups received the feed containing 5.5% of unheated or 5.5% of heated triacylglycerol oil. Compared to the unheated oils, feeding of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes in clinical observation, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, ophthalmic examinations, functional observational battery and motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations and organ weights. Similarly, terminal necropsy did not reveal treatment-related gross or histopathology findings. Based on the results of this subchronic study, the no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil were 5.5%, the highest levels tested. The mean dietary exposure levels at the highest dose for the heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil for male and female rats ranged from 3,178 to 4,120 mg/kg/day.

  11. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Pu-erh black tea extract in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Kunlong; Zhong, Ying; Luo, Xiao; Xiao, Rong; Hou, Yan; Bao, Wei; Yang, Wei; Yan, Hong; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang

    2011-03-08

    Pu-erh black tea, which is obtained by first parching crude green tea leaves and then undergoes secondary fermentation with microorganisms, has been believed to be beneficial beverages for health for nearly 2000 years in China, Japan and Taiwan area. But its potential toxicity when administered at a high dose as concentrated extracts has not been completely investigated. The present study was aimed at evaluating potential toxicity of Pu-erh black tea extracts (BTE) from acute and sub-chronic administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A single BTE dose of 10,000 mg/kg of body weight was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity in SD rats. Four groups (10 males and 10 females per group) of dose levels of 1250, 2500, and 5,000 mg/kg/day of the test article, as well as controls (distilled water) were tested as the subchronic toxicity study. No deaths and signs of toxicity occurred during the 14 days of the study. There were no test article related mortalities, body weight gain, feed consumption, clinical observation, organ weight changes, gross finding, clinical or histopathological alterations during the 91-day administration. The LD(50) of BTE can be defined as more than 10,000 mg/kg, and a dose of 5,000 mg/kg/day was identified as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma: Subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ke-Zheng; Zhang, Song-Yan; Zhou, Hong-Li

    2016-11-04

    Maydis stigma (corn silk) has a long history of use as a traditional herbal medicine or functional food in China and many other countries and has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopea. However, little data about its potential toxicity is available. In this study, we evaluated the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma (FMS) in mice. In the subchronic toxicity study, the FMS was administered orally to mice at doses of 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00g/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, general clinical signs, mortality, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were examined. The genotoxicity of FMS was also evaluated by the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay. All animals survived until the scheduled necropsy, and no statistically significant or toxicologically relevant differences were observed in any of the FMS-treatment groups, compared with the control group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was determined as 10.00g/kg/day. Based on the results of the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay, no evidence of genotoxicity was found either in somatic cells or germ cells even at an experimental upper limit dose (10.00g/kg/day). The results of the present studies might support the safe use of FMS as a functional food, food additive and natural remedy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary safety of a dual-enzyme preparation for animal feed: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, G P; Gaffney, M A; Curran, C M; Moran, C A

    2017-08-01

    Animal feed is routinely supplemented with exogenous enzymes to improve nutrient utilization, such as proteases to enhance protein hydrolysis in vivo and xylanases to alleviate feed related anti-nutritional factors. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the potential oral toxicity and genotoxicity of a dual-enzyme preparation, Vegpro® concentrate (VPr-C). Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley Crl CD rats and CHS Swiss ICO:OFI (IOPS Caw) mice. Thirteen week preliminary and final subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in male and female rats. Genotoxicity was evaluated through a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), an in-vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and a mammalian micronucleus test. The LD50 was >2000 mg/kg of BW in mice and rats. In the 13-week oral toxicity study, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg BW per day for females and 300 mg/kg BW per day for males. VPr-C showed no mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium, did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes, and did not increase the frequency or proportion of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in mice. There was no evidence of acute or subchronic toxicity or genotoxicity associated with the test article at these test dosages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  15. Bioassay-guided evaluation of Dioscorea villosa - an acute and subchronic toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, Claudio Moreira; Lima, Adriana Karla; Melo, Marcelia G Dória; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Oliveira, Dênisson Lima; de Almeida, Enrik Barbosa; Barreto, Rosana Souza Siqueira; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Oliveira, Edica Ramone Andrade; de Albuquerque, Jr, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Araújo, Adriano Antunes Souza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this regard, we carried out to evaluated both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models and assess the toxic effects of the acute (single dose) and subchronic (30 days...

  16. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia: A rare adverse effect of intravenous ondansetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahnawaz Moazzam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron is a serotonin receptor antagonist which has been used frequently to reduce the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic surgery. It has become very popular drug for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting due to its superiority in-terms of efficacy as well as lack of side effects and drug interactions. Although cardiovascular adverse effects of this drug are rare, we found a case of symptomatic sinus bradycardia in a 43-year-old female patient, going for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, who developed the same after she was given intravenous ondansetron in operation theater during premedication. Hence, we report this case, as the rare possibility of encountering bradycardia effect after intravenous administration of ondansetron should be born in mind.

  17. Gum pigmentation: an unusual adverse effect of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne; Chiang, Wen Chin; Kang, Liew Woei; Rao, Rajeshwar; Lim, Hwee Hoon; Chng, Chai Kiat

    2014-07-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has gained acceptance amongst the paediatric community as it is very well tolerated and is safe. The adverse effects of this therapy is minimal consisting mainly of local side effects within the oral cavity such as itching of the mouth, swelling of the lips and less frequently abdominal pain, wheezing and urticaria has been described. This report is to highlight another local side effect of sublingual immunotherapy which has been observed in 3 of our patients. This is pigmentation of the gums which can occur anytime during the course of the immunotherapy. It resolves on stopping the immunotherapy and is likely due to a local inflammatory process occurring in the gums of these children. There is no associated pain or itching with the pigmentation. It can persist as long as the child is on the immunotherapy.

  18. Pharmacovigilance, risks and adverse effects of self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Abadie, Delphine; Lacroix, Isabelle; Berreni, Aurélia; Pugnet, Grégory; Durrieu, Geneviève; Sailler, Laurent; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, François

    2016-04-01

    Self-medication means resorting to one or more drugs in order to treat oneself without the help of a doctor. This phenomenon is developing fast. In this review, we will discuss the main definitions of self-medication; we will then present a few important characteristics of this therapeutic practice: prevalence, reasons, populations involved and drugs used. Whilst the theoretical risks of self-medication have been abundantly discussed in the literature (adverse effects, interactions, product, dosage or treatment duration errors, difficulty in self-diagnosis, risk of addiction or abuse…), there is in fact very little detailed pharmacovigilance data concerning the characteristics and the consequences of this usage in real life. This study therefore describes the all too rare data that is available: patients, clinical characteristics, "seriousness" and drugs involved in the adverse effects of self-medication. It also discusses leads to be followed in order to minimize medication risks, which are obviously not well known and clearly not sufficiently notified. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers. PMID:25069381

  20. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  1. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  2. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  3. The Effects of Subchronic Methionine Overload Administered Alone or Simultaneously with L-cysteine or N-acetyl-L-cysteine on Body Weight, Homocysteine Levels and Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micovic Zarko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC, both basal and after methionine load, may occur due to genetic disorders or deficiencies of nutrients that affect the remethylation or trans-sulphuration pathways during methionine metabolism. HHC is involved in the pathogenesis of many illnesses as a result of its prooxidative effect and its impairment of antioxidative protection. The aim was to examine the effects of subchronic methionine overload on the body weight and standard biochemical parameters in rat serum and to examine whether simultaneous subchronic intraperotoneal administration of methionine alone or together with L-cysteine or N-acetyl-cysteine resulted in a change in the body weight and biochemical parameters in the rat serum. The research was conducted during a three-week period (male Wistar albino rats, n=36, body weight of approximately 160 g, age of 15-20 days, and the animals were divided into a control group and three experimental groups of 8-10 animals each: a control group (0.9% sodium chloride 0.1-0.2 ml/day; b methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day (MET group; c methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day + L-cysteine (7 mg/kg/bw/day (L-cys+MET group; and d methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day + N-acetyl-L-cysteine (50 mg/kg/bw/day (NAC+MET group. In addition to the body weight monitoring, the levels of total homocysteine and the standard biochemical parameters in blood samples (plasma or serum were determined. The results indicated that monitoring the homocysteine levels and standard biochemical parameters in blood could be used for analysis and could provide an excellent guideline for distinguishing between toxic and non-toxic doses of methionine intake, which may be meaningful for clinical applications.

  4. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  5. Investigating the long-term effect of subchronic phencyclidine-treatment on novel object recognition and the association between the gut microbiota and behavior in the animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, B; Krych, L; Pedersen, T B; Plath, N; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, A K; Nielsen, D S; Pedersen, C S; Larsen, C; Sørensen, D B

    2015-03-15

    Subchronic phencyclidine (subPCP) treatment induces schizophrenic-like behavior in rodents, including cognitive deficits and increased locomotor sensitivity towards acute administration of PCP. Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiota (GM) influences behavior through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and hence, part of the variation within this animal model may derive from variation in the GM. The aims of this study was to investigate first, the duration of subPCP-induced cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition test, and second, the possible effect of subchronic PCP-treatment on the GM, and the association between the GM and the behavioral parameters. The association was further investigated by antibiotic reduction of the GM. Male Lister Hooded rats were dosed twice daily i.p. with either 5mg/kg PCP or sterile isotonic saline for seven days followed by a seven-day washout period. Rats were tested in the novel object recognition and the locomotor activity assays immediately after, three weeks after, or six weeks after washout, and the fecal GM was analyzed by high throughput sequencing. Antibiotic- and control-treated rats were tested in the same manner following washout. In conclusion, subPCP-treatment impaired novel object recognition up to three weeks after washout, whereas locomotor sensitivity was increased for at least six weeks after washout. Differences in the core gut microbiome immediately after washout suggested subPCP treatment to alter the GM. GM profiles correlated to memory performance. Administration of ampicillin abolished the subPCP-induced memory deficit. It thus seems reasonable to speculate that the GM influences memory performance, contributing to variation within the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting and the preventive measures to be followed to avoid them. Methods: The literature was reviewed through searching in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists to identify the related articles. Results: Many health benefits have been attributed to Islamic fasting, including the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and asthma. On the other hand, some studies have mentioned a few health problems associated with Islamic fasting, such as headaches, heartburn, constipation, dehydration, decreased sleep quality, and anemia, which may occur in some fasting individuals during Ramadan. Conclusion: Islamic fasting could be beneficial for health if it is performed correctly. During Ramadan, fasting individuals are advised to adhere to a balanced diet that contains sufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses, meat, fish, milk, and dairy products. Moreover, fasting individuals must drink adequate fluids, such as water, fresh fruit juices, and soups, in order to prevent the possible adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting.

  7. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  9. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  10. Melatonin ameliorates the adverse effects of leptin on sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez A Almabhouh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of melatonin on leptin-induced changes in sperm parameters in adult rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either leptin or leptin and melatonin or melatonin for 6 weeks. Leptin was given daily via the intraperitoneal route (60 μg kg−1 body weight and melatonin was given in drinking water (10 mg kg−1 or 20 mg kg−1 body weight per day. Upon completion, sperm count, sperm morphology, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Comet assay, TUNEL assay, gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes, respiratory chain reaction enzymes, DNA damage, and apoptosis genes were estimated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Sperm count was significantly lower whereas the fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and sperm DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in rats treated with leptin only. Microarray analysis revealed significant upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor, histone acetyl transferase, respiratory chain reaction enzyme, cell necrosis and DNA repair genes, and downregulation of antioxidant enzyme genes in leptin-treated rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase 1 expression with increases in the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor and histone acetyl transferase in leptin-treated rats. There was no change in the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3. In conclusion, the adverse effects of leptin on sperm can be prevented by concurrent melatonin administration.

  11. Saxagliptin overview: special focus on safety and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shamsa; Fonseca, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Saxagliptin (see drug summary box) is a glucose-lowering agent that belongs to the class of Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors used in the treatment of T2DM. Clinical efficacy of saxagliptin as single agent as well as in combination with other medications used for the treatment of T2DM has been well established in several randomized trials. Treatment with saxagliptin is effective, generally safe and well tolerated, apart from a small increase in the incidence of infections such as nasopharyngitis. Its use is not associated with increase risk of hypoglycemia and it is weight neutral. Saxagliptin can be used safely in renal failure (with dose adjustment) and in hepatic impairment. When saxagliptin is used in combination with a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4/A5, reduction in the daily dosage is recommended. This paper briefly discusses efficacy and pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin. The paper highlights in detail saxagliptin-associated adverse effects, drug interactions, its use in patients with renal and hepatic disease and long-term safety concerns. Saxagliptin has comparable efficacy with other DPP-4 inhibitors. It is generally safe and well tolerated; however, it requires dose adjustment in renal disease as well as when used with drugs that are strong inhibitor or inducer of CYP3A4/A5 isoforms. Future safety questions regarding immune system and development of cancer still remain to be completely answered.

  12. Neurological AdverseEffects after Radiation Therapyfor Stage II Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Ebbeskov Lauritsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT. They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed with a conventional fractionation of2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic.

  13. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Lewis L; Schettler, Pamela J; Brown, E Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Sternberg, Esther M; Bender, Bruce G; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y M; McEwen, Bruce S; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-10-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as ways to prevent and treat these disturbances. An illustrative case vignette is presented describing a patient's experience of cycles of manic-like behavior and depression while on high-dosage prednisone, with long-term cognitive disorganization, vulnerability to stress, and personality changes. Severe neuropsychiatric consequences (including suicide, suicide attempt, psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and delirium, confusion, or disorientation) have been reported to occur in 15.7 per 100 person-years at risk for all glucocorticoid courses, and 22.2 per 100 person-years at risk for first courses. The majority of patients experience less severe but distressing and possibly persistent changes in mood, cognition, memory, or behavior during glucocorticoid treatment or withdrawal. Although prediction of such effects is difficult, risks vary with age, gender, dosage, prior psychiatric history, and several biological markers. Key mechanisms thought to underlie these risk factors are briefly described. Recommendations are given for identifying individual risk factors and for monitoring and managing adverse neuropsychiatric effects of glucocorticoids.

  14. Minimizing AED adverse effects: improving quality of life in the interictal state in epilepsy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Louis, Erik K

    2009-06-01

    The goals of epilepsy therapy are to achieve seizure freedom while minimizing adverse effects of treatment. However, producing seizure-freedom is often overemphasized, at the expense of inducing adverse effects of treatment. All antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to cause dose-related, "neurotoxic" adverse effects (i.e., drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, blurry vision, and incoordination). Such adverse effects are common, especially when initiating AED therapy and with polytherapy. Dose-related adverse effects may be obviated in most patients by dose reduction of monotherapy, reduction or elimination of polytherapy, or substituting for a better tolerated AED. Additionally, all older and several newer AEDs have idiosyncratic adverse effects which usually require withdrawal in an affected patient, including serious rash (i.e., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), hematologic dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity, teratogenesis in women of child bearing potential, bone density loss, neuropathy, and severe gingival hyperplasia. Unfortunately, occurrence of idiosyncratic AED adverse effects cannot be predicted or, in most cases, prevented in susceptible patients. This article reviews a practical approach for the definition and identification of adverse effects of epilepsy therapies, and reviews the literature demonstrating that adverse effects result in detrimental quality of life in epilepsy patients. Strategies for minimizing AED adverse effects by reduction or elimination of AED polytherapy, appropriately employing drug-sparing therapies, and optimally administering AEDs are outlined, including tenets of AED selection, titration, therapeutic AED laboratory monitoring, and avoidance of chronic idiosyncratic adverse effects.

  15. Shocking Results on the Adverse Effects of CO2 Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released in large quantities from humans while they live and work in spacecraft or work outside the spacecraft during extravehicular activity (EVA). Removal of this anthropogenic pollutant requires major resources, and these resources increase dramatically as the levels of CO2 set to protect human health and performance are reduced. The current Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration of CO2 aboard the ISS is 0.7% or 5.3 mmHg; however, according to Chits (mission action requests), NASA and its international partners have agreed to control CO2 levels to less than 4 mmHg. In the meantime, retrospective investigations attempting to associate crew symptoms with elevated CO2 levels over the life if the International Space Station (ISS) are underway to determine if this level is sufficient to protect against health and performance decrements. Anecdotal reports suggest that crewmembers are not able to perform complex tasks as readily in spaceflight as they were able during ground-based training. While physiological effects of CO2 have been studied for many decades, it is only recently that the effects of CO2 on higher reasoning capabilities have been studied. The initial results are shocking. For example, one study published in the respected journal Environmental Health Perspectives showed obvious adverse effects of CO2 exposures on higher reasoning at 1.9 mmHg. The implications and limitations of this study are paramount in determining future CO2 SMACs for human spaceflight, both aboard the ISS and in exploration-class missions. Key Words: carbon dioxide, spacecraft, air quality, toxic effects

  16. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breikaa, Randa M; Mosli, Hisham A; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: a biochemical and histopathological study in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S H; Sarkar, S N; Patil, R D; Tripathi, H C

    2007-11-01

    In the current study, we examined whether subchronic exposure via drinking water to low doses of a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, manganese, iron, and nickel), found as contaminants in various water sources of India, and to concentrations equivalent to WHO maximum permissible limits (MPL) in drinking water for individual metals, can alter systemic physiology of male rats. Data on water contamination with metals in India were collected from the literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above MPL. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals via drinking water for 90 days. One more group of rats was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equivalent to the MPL (WHO) in drinking water for individual metals. Toxic potential of the mixture was evaluated by assessing general toxicological end points, serum chemistry and histopathology of vital organs. The mixture decreased body weight and water consumption and increased weights of brain, liver, and kidneys with 10x and 100x doses. After 30 days of exposure, no appreciable changes were found in any blood clinical markers. After 60 days, only the 100x dose, while after 90 days both 10x and 100x doses increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine and decreased total protein and albumin levels, but alanine aminotransferase activity and glucose level were not affected. At 10x and 100x exposure levels, qualitatively similar, but dose-dependent vascular, degenerative, and necrotic changes were observed in brain, liver, and kidney. The results indicate that subchronic exposure to the metal mixture affected general health of male rats by altering the functional and structural integrity of kidney, liver, and brain at 10 and 100 times the mode

  18. Fidget spinners: Purported benefits, adverse effects and accepted alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Rachel A; Shah, Jay; Fruitman, Kate; Milanaik, Ruth Lynn

    2017-10-01

    In the span of a few months, fidget spinners have caught the eyes of millions of children, parents, educators and paediatricians. Fidget spinners, hand-held toys designed to spin freely in your grasp, have become a source of entertainment for consumers of all ages. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, toy marketers have advertised the benefits of fidget spinners for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other disorders (e.g. autism, anxiety, sensory issues). Parents are incentivized by these purported benefits to purchase fidget spinners to improve their child's concentration and decrease stress. While fidget spinners are a new phenomenon, existing therapy toys (e.g. sensory putty) have been used by occupational therapists for similar reasons, with comparably little research supporting these claims. The purpose of this review is to explore literature regarding sensory toys and examine educator/professional-reported concerns and medical adverse effects of using fidget spinners. Due to a recent surge in popularity, fidget spinners and other self-regulatory occupational therapy toys have yet to be subjected to rigorous scientific research. Thus, their alleged benefits remain scientifically unfounded. Paediatricians should be aware of potential choking hazards with this new fad, and inform parents that peer-reviewed studies do not support the beneficial claims.

  19. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. Aim To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. Design and setting A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Method Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Results Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115 500 (£93 000), emotional costs are not reflected. Conclusion As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures. PMID:22781995

  20. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  1. Evaluation of adverse effects in tamoxifen exposed healthy female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Guilherme AO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumors are among the most frequent neoplasms in female dogs, but the strategies employed in animal treatment are limited. In human medicine, hormone manipulation is used in cancer therapy. Tamoxifen citrate is a selective inhibitor of oestrogen receptors and exerts a potent anti-oestrogen effect on the mammary gland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects when exposing healthy female dogs to tamoxifen. Methods Tamoxifen was administered for 120 days at a dose of 0.5 or 0.8 mg/kg/day to either intact or spayed female dogs. The effects were assessed through clinical examination, haematology, serum biochemistry, ophthalmology and bone marrow aspirate examination. Ovariohysterectomy was performed and the uterus examined by histopathology. Results Vulva oedema and purulent vaginal discharge developed with 10 days of tamoxifen exposure in all groups. Pyometra was diagnosed after around 90 days of exposure in intact females with frequencies increasing during the following 30 days of exposure. Up to 50% of dogs within the groups developed retinitis but none of the dogs had signs of reduced visual acuity. The prevalence of retinitis in each group was similar after 120 days of exposure. Haematological, biochemical and bone marrow changes were not observed. Due to the high risk of developing pyometra after prolonged exposure to tamoxifen, only spayed animals should be given this medication. Conclusions A dose of 0.8 mg tamoxifen/kg body weight/day is recommended when treating tamoxifen-responsive canine mammary tumors. Due to the high risk of developing pyometra, ovariohysterectomy is recommended.

  2. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS - PART ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, John S; Halle, Rob J

    2016-08-01

    Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a 'part two' that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Level 5.

  3. Eliciting adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen

    2018-01-16

    Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other

  4. A signal detection method for temporal variation of adverse effect with vaccine adverse event reporting system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Huang, Jing; Ellenberg, Susan S; Hennessy, Sean; Tao, Cui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-05

    To identify safety signals by manual review of individual report in large surveillance databases is time consuming; such an approach is very unlikely to reveal complex relationships between medications and adverse events. Since the late 1990s, efforts have been made to develop data mining tools to systematically and automatically search for safety signals in surveillance databases. Influenza vaccines present special challenges to safety surveillance because the vaccine changes every year in response to the influenza strains predicted to be prevalent that year. Therefore, it may be expected that reporting rates of adverse events following flu vaccines (number of reports for a specific vaccine-event combination/number of reports for all vaccine-event combinations) may vary substantially across reporting years. Current surveillance methods seldom consider these variations in signal detection, and reports from different years are typically collapsed together to conduct safety analyses. However, merging reports from different years ignores the potential heterogeneity of reporting rates across years and may miss important safety signals. Reports of adverse events between years 1990 to 2013 were extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database and formatted into a three-dimensional data array with types of vaccine, groups of adverse events and reporting time as the three dimensions. We propose a random effects model to test the heterogeneity of reporting rates for a given vaccine-event combination across reporting years. The proposed method provides a rigorous statistical procedure to detect differences of reporting rates among years. We also introduce a new visualization tool to summarize the result of the proposed method when applied to multiple vaccine-adverse event combinations. We applied the proposed method to detect safety signals of FLU3, an influenza vaccine containing three flu strains, in the VAERS database. We showed that it had high

  5. Ziconotide: new drug. Limited analgesic efficacy, too many adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) When oral morphine does not relieve severe pain and when there is no specific treatment for the underlying cause, the first option is to try subcutaneous or intravenous administration. If this standard treatment fails or is poorly tolerated, intrathecal injection is usually preferred as the direct route to the central nervous system. However, one-quarter to one-half of patients still do not achieve adequate pain relief, and adverse effects are relatively frequent; (2) Ziconotide is not an opiate and is not related to the usual classes of drugs that interfere with nervous transmission in the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Marketing authorization has been granted for "severe, chronic pain in patients who require intrathecal analgesia". The Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) recommends continuous infusion via an intrathecal catheter connected to a pump; (3) Clinical evaluation of ziconotide does not include any trials versus morphine in patients with nociceptive pain, or any trials versus tricyclic or antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurogenic pain; (4) In a trial in 220 patients in whom systemic morphine had failed, the mean pain score on a 100-mm visual analogue scale was 69.8 mm after three weeks on ziconotide, compared to 75.8 mm with placebo. This difference, although statistically significant, is clinically irrelevant. The proportion of "responders" (reduction of at least 30% in the initial pain score) was respectively 16.1% and 12.0% (no statistically significant difference); (5) The two other placebo-controlled trials included 112 patients with pain linked to cancer or HIV infection, and 257 patients with non-cancer pain. After a titration phase lasting 5 to 6 days, a combined analysis of the two trials showed that the mean pain score was 48.8 mm with ziconotide and 68.4 mm with placebo (statistically significant difference). However, many patients did not complete the titration phase. Efficacy also appeared to differ according to the type

  6. Bacillary Prostatitis after Intravesical Immunotherapy:A Rare Adverse Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Joaquim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the most efficient form of intravesical immunotherapy for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, proceeding from an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis. In up to 40% of cases, its instillation is associated with significantly elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. In these cases, prostate biopsy should be withheld for 3 months and PSA should be monitored. Bacillary prostatitis is a rare occurrence in patients treated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Although symptomatic bacillary prostatitis is even rarer, it is the worst type of this condition. The aims of this study are to report a case of bacillary prostatitis as a rare adverse effect of intravesical BCG immunotherapy and to make a theoretical review about how to manage this complication. A 58-year-old man, former smoker, underwent a transurethral resection of the bladder in February 2004 because of a papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pT1G2N0M0. After surgery, BCG instillation therapy was given in a total of 15 instillations, the last one in March 2007. In the last 3 months of therapy, until May 2007, a progressive increase in his PSA level was registered, and he underwent a prostate biopsy revealing granulomatous prostatitis of bacillary etiology. The semen culture was positive for M. bovis. After 3 months of a two-drug (isoniazid and rifampin antituberculous regimen, the semen culture became negative and the PSA level decreased. The early identification of intravesical BCG immunotherapy complications allows their effective treatment. However, when a histological diagnosis of asymptomatic granulomatous prostatitis is made, the execution and type of treatment are controversial.

  7. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS - PART TWO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, John S; Halle, Rob J

    2016-10-01

    Dry needling (DN) is an evidence based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This clinical commentary is the second in a two-part series outlining some of the pertinent anatomy and other issues that are needed for optimal utilization of this treatment modality. Part one was an overview of the thorax with a summary of reported adverse effects (AEs) and the underlying anatomy that could be used to minimize patient risk. As is the case with any intervention, the technique of dry needling has some inherent patient risk. The incidence of AEs with this procedure is typically low, ranging from zero to approximately 10 percent. Knowledge of the underlying anatomy can be a key factor associated with decreasing the likelihood of an AE. The second part of this clinical commentary goes beyond the thorax, to explore the anatomy associated with dry needling the abdomen, pelvis, and back. In the abdomen, pelvis and back, dry needling can penetrate the peritoneal cavity or adjacent organs, resulting in AEs. A physiological reaction that is an AE secondary to a needle insertion, pain or fear, is an autonomic vasovagal response. Additionally, suggestions for dealing with the fearful patient, the obese patient, universal precautions, and other clinical considerations, are discussed. The purpose of parts one and part two of this clinical commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Dry needling is an effective adjunctive treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of practice of the physical therapist. An evidence-based implementation of the procedure must be based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks communicated to patients via informed consent. Level 5.

  8. Effects of subchronic exposure to waterborne cadmium on H-P-I axis hormones and related genes in rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Huang, Jing; Pu, De-Yong; Wang, De-Shou; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-01

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treatment caused dose-dependent decline in fish growth, with significance in the high dose group (100μg/L). Correspondingly, low dose (5-50μg/L) waterborne Cd disrupted the endocrine system of H-P-I axis just at the secretion level, while high dose Cd disrupted both the secretion and synthesis of cortisol and its downstream signals in rare minnows, revealed by the significantly upregulation and positive correlation of corticosteroidogenic genes including MC2R, StAR, CYP11A1, and CYP11B1 in the kidney (including the interrenal tissue) (PPP-I axis in fish. The expression of FKBP5 in the intestine was positively and significantly correlated with that of Hsp90AA (PP<0.05), which indicated that Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB were more likely to serve as cofactors of GR and FKBP5 in response to Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantiumL.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, N S; Stohs, S J; Magar, C C; Kale, A; Sowmya, B

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p -Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract.

  10. Pycnogenol may alleviate adverse effects in oncologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Genovesi, D; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S

    2008-09-01

    A large variety of adverse reactions are well known to frequently occur during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncology. Specific medications exist to target individual side effects. The aim of this study was to explore in a pilot trial whether supplementation with French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol could alleviate side effects and improve patient's quality of life. Cancer patients who previously underwent surgery and who were in view of their pathology in relatively good condition, both physically and psychologically, were recruited for this study and divided into two groups. These patients received their first cycle of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, which lasted from 10 days up to 1 month. Then one group of patients received 150 mg Pycnogenol, the control group comparable placebo in a single-blinded fashion. The authors studied the occurrence of side effects and made attempts to judge their severity on a semi-quantitative visual analogue scale over a 2 months period starting after patients completed their first cycle of chemo- or radiotherapy, respectively. Twenty five radiotherapy patients receiving Pycnogenol showed a decreased frequency of essentially all investigated side-effects as compared to 21 patients receiving placebo, though in many categories the difference was limited. The most apparent improvements of acute side effects related to decreased soreness and ulceration in the mouth and throat as well as less dryness of the mouth and the eyes. A decreased incidence of nausea /vomiting, diarrhoea, edema and weakness was noticed, which was reflected by semi-quantitative evaluation suggesting that severity was only half or even less pronounced than in the control group. Only one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the Pycnogenol group whereas 2 cases of superficial vein thromboses and one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the control group (2.9% vs 10%). Thirty four chemotherapy patients were supplemented with Pycnogenol and another 30

  11. [Acute and subchronic monensin toxicity for lambs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, B; Stoianov, K; Dzhurov, A; Dilov, P

    1980-01-01

    The acute and subchronic toxicity of monenzine (preparation Elancoban -- 100 of Elanco Co., USA) to male lambs for fattening aged 3-4 months and weighing 16-28.5 kg was studied. It was established that the single per oral dose of 5 mg/kg weight of the natrium monoenzine salt causes a temporary lack of appetitie but no changes in the behavior and the general state of the animals. The use of a 10 and 30 mg/kg weight dose of the preparation led to death of the lambs on the 72nd-120th hour. The toxicity was clinically manifested by anurexia, arumination, ataxia, paresis, and paralysis of the limbs, tachicardia, taxipnea, hypothermia and showed down and weakened rumen movements. Erosive rumitis and abomasis, catharrhalhemorrhagis duodenitis, hemorrhages on the epicardis, hyperremia and parenchymal organ oedema, 3-4 times increased gall-bladder with numerous nodes having a sunken center on its walls were observed pathologo-anatomically, while microscopically blood vessel disturbances (hyperremia, hemorrhages and oedema) of the lungs, heart, spleen, endocrinal glands (thyroid, adrenal and hypophysis), the brain, and the leptomeninges, liver distrophy, distrophic nephrosis and necrotic holecystitis were obvious. Following a long term (30 days) application to the fodder in 10 and 50 g/t doses, monenzine-natrium does not have a negative effect on the behaviour, general condition, clinical and biochemical blood composition and the structural build up of the inner organs, but in the first 5-10 days of the treatment it causes loss of appetite. Additional specific investigations are needed to elucidate the effect of the preparation on body gain.

  12. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  13. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  14. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Several studies have reported antidepressant effects of anti-inflammatory treatment; however, the results have been conflicting and detrimental adverse effects may contraindicate the use of anti-inflammatory agents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antidepressant and possible......) and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Depression scores after treatment and adverse effects. RESULTS: Ten publications reporting on 14 trials (6262 participants) were included: 10 trials evaluated the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=4,258) and 4...... properties of the selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor celecoxib (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.08; I2=73%) on remission (OR, 7.89; 95% CI, 2.94 to 21.17; I2=0%) and response (OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 2.24 to 19.42; I2=0%). Among the 6 studies reporting on adverse effects, we found no evidence of an increased...

  15. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  16. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liju Vijayasteltar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol, as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg b.wt. for 90 days toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of Clovinol did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioural observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, organ weights, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals, indicating the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL as 1000 mg/kg b.wt./day; the highest dose tested. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment-related histopathology changes. Clovinol did not show genotoxicity when tested on TA-98, TA-100 and TA-102 with or without metabolic activation; rather exhibited significant antimutagenic potential against the known mutagens, sodium azide, NPD and tobacco as well as against 2-acetamidoflourene, which needed metabolic activation for mutagenicity.

  17. Subchronic toxicity study of the total flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Sun, Huijun; Li, Hua; Yao, Jihong; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2012-03-01

    The total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit showed hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the safety of this natural product has not been investigated. In the present paper, a 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted, and the tested TFs was orally administered to rats at the doses of 500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day. The toxicity of the TFs was evaluated on base of ophthalmic examination, body weight, feed/water consumption, urinalysis, hematology, clinical biochemistry and pathology. No toxic signs of the TFs at the doses of 500 and 1000mg/kg/day were observed. However, decreased PLT was found in the 2000mg/kg/day groups and increased intercellular space of myocardial cells was observed in the male 2000mg/kg/day group compared with control. A significant increase in the relative cardiac weight was observed in the male 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day groups. And the significant decrease in the absolute and relative weight of adrenals in the female 1000 and 2000mg/kg groups was happened. The TFs could cause mild side effects at the dose of 1000mg/kg/day in males and females. Thus, the dose of 500mg/kg/day for male and female were selected as the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). The present study provides useful data for subsequent researches and new drug exploration of the TFs from R. laevigata Michx fruit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bruce; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute and covariant heart weight in some krill oil-treated animals were noted although no corresponding histological changes were observed. In addition, periportal microvesicular hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed 5% krill oil. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. Given that the effects of the 13-week toxicity study were non-toxic in nature, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the conditions of this study was considered to be 5% krill oil. The genotoxicity experiments documented no mutagenicity of krill oil in bacteria.

  19. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute and covariant heart weight in some krill oil-treated animals were noted although no corresponding histological changes were observed. In addition, periportal microvesicular hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed 5% krill oil. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. Given that the effects of the 13-week toxicity study were non-toxic in nature, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for the conditions of this study was considered to be 5% krill oil. The genotoxicity experiments documented no mutagenicity of krill oil in bacteria.

  20. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasteltar, Liju; Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; I M, Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg b.wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of Clovinol did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioural observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, organ weights, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals, indicating the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) as 1000 mg/kg b.wt./day; the highest dose tested. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment-related histopathology changes. Clovinol did not show genotoxicity when tested on TA-98, TA-100 and TA-102 with or without metabolic activation; rather exhibited significant antimutagenic potential against the known mutagens, sodium azide, NPD and tobacco as well as against 2-acetamidoflourene, which needed metabolic activation for mutagenicity.

  1. Three-month subchronic intramuscular toxicity study of rotigotine-loaded microspheres in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liang; Guan, Xiaolin; Tian, Jingwei; Zhang, Jianzhao; Du, Guangying; Yu, Xin; Yu, Pengfei; Cen, Xiaobo; Liu, Wanhui; Li, Youxin

    2013-06-01

    Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) has been an important strategy of drug development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotigotine is a non-ergoline D3/D2/D1 dopamine agonist for treating PD. As a new treatment option for CDS, rotigotine-loaded microspheres (RoMS), a long-acting sustained-release microspheres for injection with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as drug carrier, are now being evaluated in clinical trial. In this study, subchronic toxicity of RoMS in SD rats has been characterized via intramuscular administration with RoMS (0-240 mg/kg/week) on a consecutive weekly dosing schedule for 3 months followed by 1-month recovery period. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was 45 mg/kg/week. One male at 240 mg/kg died from an extensive pulmonary embolism. The major toxicological effects were associated with the dopamine agonist-related pharmacodynamic properties of rotigotine (e.g. hyperactivity and stereotype, enlarged ovary, sporadic gastric mucous membrane lesions, decreased body weight, food consumption and prolactin, and increased mononuclear cell, neutrophil granulocyte, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and foreign body removal reaction induced by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and carboxymethycellulose sodium. At the end of recovery period, all findings had recovered to a normal level or to a certain degree except foreign body reaction at injection sites. RoMS has exhibited high safety on SD rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  3. Analysis of sociability and preference for social novelty in the acute and subchronic phencyclidine rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Claire E; Reynolds, Gavin P; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2014-10-01

    Both acute and sub-chronic phencyclidine administration produce behavioural and pathophysiological changes that resemble some features of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if acute and sub-chronic phencyclidine treatment in male rats produces deficits in sociability and social novelty preference, which may reflect aspects of the negative symptomatology observed in schizophrenia. Rats were treated with phencyclidine acutely (2 or 5 mg/kg) or subchronically (2 or 5 mg/kg bi-daily for one week followed by a one week wash-out period) or vehicle. Social affiliative behaviour was assessed using the sociability and preference for social novelty paradigm where social interaction time was measured in (a) a chamber containing an unfamiliar conspecific vs an empty chamber (sociability), or (b) a chamber containing an unfamiliar conspecific vs a chamber containing a familiar conspecific (preference for social novelty). Results showed that acute administration of phencyclidine produced a reduction in measures of sociability but had no effect on preference for social novelty while sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine had no effect on sociability or social novelty. This study provides further evidence for the usefulness of phencyclidine models in modelling the symptomatology of schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Derivation of an inhalation reference concentration based upon olfactory neuronal loss in male rats following subchronic acetaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Wong, Brian A; Gross, Elizabeth A; Parkinson, Carl; Willson, Gabrielle A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Campbell, Jerry L; Teeguarden, Justin G; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2008-02-01

    Acetaldehyde inhalation induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic responses in the rodent nasal cavity. This experiment further characterizes the dose-response relationship for nasal pathology, nasal epithelial cell proliferation, and DNA-protein cross-link formation in F-344 rats exposed subchronically to acetaldehyde. Animals underwent whole-body exposure to 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1500 ppm acetaldehyde for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for up to 65 exposure days. Respiratory tract histopathology was evaluated after 4, 9, 14, 30, and 65 exposure days. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with reduced body weight gain or other evidence of systemic toxicity. Histologic evaluation of the nasal cavity showed an increased incidence of olfactory neuronal loss (ONL) following acute to subchronic exposure to > or = 150 ppm acetaldehyde and increased olfactory epithelial cell proliferation following exposure to 1500 ppm acetaldehyde. The severity of the ONL demonstrated dose- and temporal-dependent behaviors, with minimal effects noted at 150-500 ppm acetaldehyde and moderately severe lesions seen in the highest exposure group, with increased lesion severity and extent as the exposure duration increased. Acetaldehyde exposure was also associated with inflammation, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. These responses were seen in animals exposed to > or = 500 ppm acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with increased DNA-protein cross-link formation in the respiratory or olfactory epithelium. A model of acetaldehyde pharmacokinetics in the nose was used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) of 0.4 ppm, based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 50 ppm for the nasal pathology seen in this study.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pioglitazone (Actos is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects.This studyinvestigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control received water, second (diabetic group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose.

  6. Effects of subchronic benzo(a)pyrene exposure on neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus related with spatial learning and memory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chongying; Cheng, Shuqun; Xia, Yinyin; Peng, Bin; Tang, Qian; Tu, Baijie

    2011-11-18

    Exposure of laboratory rats to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental contaminant with its high lipophilicify which is widely dispersed in the environment and can easily cross the blood brain barrier presenting in the central nervous system, is associated with impaired learning and memory. The purpose of the research was to examine whether subchronic exposure to BaP affects spatial learning and memory, and how it alters normal gene expression in hippocampus, as well as selection of candidate genes involving neurotransmitter receptor attributed to learning and memory. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate behavioral differences between BaP-treated and vehicle-treated groups. To gain a better insight into the mechanism of BaP-induced neurotoxicity on learning and memory, we used whole genome oligo microarrays as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess the global impact of gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 6.25mg/kg of BaP or vehicle for 14 weeks. The results from the Morris water maze (MWM) test showed that rats treated with BaP exhibited significantly higher mean latencies as compared to vehicle controls. BaP exposure significantly decreased the number of crossing the platform and the time spent in the target area. After the hippocampus was collected from each rat, total RNA was isolated. Microarray and PCR revealed that exposure to BaP affected mRNA expression of neurotransmitter receptors. The web tool DAVID was used to analyze the significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways in the differentially expressed genes. Analysis showed that the most significantly affected gene ontology category was behavior. Furthermore, the fourth highest significantly affected gene ontology category was learning and memory. KEGG molecular pathway analysis showed that "neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction" was affected by BaP with highest statistical significance, and 9 candidate neurotransmitter receptor

  7. Are adverse effects incorporated in economic models? An initial review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D; McDaid, C; Fonseca, T; Stock, C; Duffy, S; Woolacott, N

    2009-12-01

    To identify methodological research on the incorporation of adverse effects in economic models and to review current practice. Major electronic databases (Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Economic Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, IDEAS, MEDLINE and Science Citation Index) were searched from inception to September 2007. Health technology assessment (HTA) reports commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme and published between 2004 and 2007 were also reviewed. The reviews of methodological research on the inclusion of adverse effects in decision models and of current practice were carried out according to standard methods. Data were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Of the 719 potentially relevant references in the methodological research review, five met the inclusion criteria; however, they contained little information of direct relevance to the incorporation of adverse effects in models. Of the 194 HTA monographs published from 2004 to 2007, 80 were reviewed, covering a range of research and therapeutic areas. In total, 85% of the reports included adverse effects in the clinical effectiveness review and 54% of the decision models included adverse effects in the model; 49% included adverse effects in the clinical review and model. The link between adverse effects in the clinical review and model was generally weak; only 3/80 (models including adverse effects, 67% used a clinical adverse effects parameter, 79% used a cost of adverse effects parameter, 86% used one of these and 60% used both. Most models (83%) used utilities, but only two (2.5%) used solely utilities to incorporate adverse effects and were explicit that the utility captured relevant adverse effects; 53% of those models that included utilities derived them from patients on treatment and could therefore be interpreted as capturing adverse effects. In total, 30% of the models

  8. Sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke induces airspace leukocyte infiltration and decreases lung elastance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Hartney

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke is associated with the development and/or exacerbation of several different pulmonary diseases in humans. To better understand the possible effects of second hand smoke exposure in humans, we sub-chronically (4 weeks exposed mice to a mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke at concentrations similar to second hand smoke exposure in humans. The inflammatory response to smoke exposures was assessed at the end of this time by enumeration of pulmonary leukocyte infiltration together with measurements of lung elastance and pathology. This response was measured in both healthy wild type (C57BL/6 mice as well as mouse mutants deficient in the expression of Arhgef1 (Arhgef1–/– that display constitutive pulmonary inflammation and decreased lung elastance reminiscent of emphysema. The results from this study show that sub-chronic second hand smoke exposure leads to significantly increased numbers of airspace leukocytes in both healthy and mutant animals. While sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure is not sufficient to induce changes in lung architecture as measured by mean linear intercept, both groups exhibit a significant decrease in lung elastance. Together these data demonstrate that even sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke is sufficient to induce pulmonary inflammation and decrease lung elastance in both healthy and diseased animals and in the absence of tissue destruction.

  9. Pharmacodynamic modeling of adverse effects of anti-cancer drug treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries Schultink, A H M; Suleiman, A A; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Huitema, A D R

    PURPOSE: Adverse effects related to anti-cancer drug treatment influence patient's quality of life, have an impact on the realized dosing regimen, and can hamper response to treatment. Quantitative models that relate drug exposure to the dynamics of adverse effects have been developed and proven to

  10. The Course of Adverse Effects of Nortriptyline and Venlafaxine in Elderly Patients with Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Rob M.; Aartsen, Marja; Nolen, Willem A.; Heeren, Thea J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate tolerability and course of adverse effects of antidepressants in elderly patients and to study the association between number and severity of adverse effects and age, physical comorbidity, antidepressant dose. and depression severity. DESIGN Double-blind, randomized controlled

  11. 40 CFR 159.184 - Toxic or adverse effect incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxic or adverse effect incident reports. 159.184 Section 159.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Information § 159.184 Toxic or adverse effect incident reports. (a) General. Information about incidents...

  12. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicological Evaluation of β-Caryophyllene Oil: Subchronic Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Levy, R; Carroll, B

    2016-09-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study, administration of β-caryophyllene (BCP) oil by oral gavage to Wistar rats at dosages of 0, 150, 450, or 700 mg/kg/d for 90 days, including a 21-day recovery period, did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The study design also included a 28-day interim sacrifice in the control and high-dose groups. The BCP oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral end points, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, and necropsy findings. The no observed adverse effect level was the highest dosage level administered of 700 mg/kg body weight/d for both male and female rats. The study was conducted as part of an investigation to examine the safety of BCP oil for its proposed use in medical food products. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Soon; You, Ji-Ran; Cho, Eun-Young; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kwon, Euna; Yun, In-Jue; Oh, Je-Hun; Jang, Ja-June; Park, Jin-Sung; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    Ecklonia cava (EC) is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Despite its wide use and beneficial properties, comprehensive toxicological information regarding EC extract is currently limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and genotoxicity of enzymatic EC extract according to test guidelines published by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The acute oral LD50 values of this EC extract administered to rats and dogs were estimated to be more than 3000 mg/kg BW. In an oral 13-week toxicity study, changes in body weights of rats exposed to the EC extract up to 3000 mg/kg BW were found to be normal. In addition, repeated doses of EC extract failed to influence any systematic parameters of treatment-related toxic symptoms such as food/water consumption, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or histopathology. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for the EC extract was 3000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats. Data obtained from Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus assay indicated that EC extract was not mutagenic or clastogenic. Taken together, these results support the safety of enzymatic EC extract as a potential therapeutic for human consumption against various diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  17. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  18. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  19. Genetic inhibition of CETP, ischemic vascular disease and mortality, and possible adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schou, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib....

  20. Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects: the Gene-PARE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Atencio, David P.; Peters, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The development of adverse effects resulting from the radiotherapy of cancer limits the use of this treatment modality. The validation of a test capable of predicting which patients would be most likely to develop adverse responses to radiation treatment, based on the possession of speci...

  1. Esophageal candidiasis--an adverse effect of inhaled corticosteroids therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Ribeiro, Marisa Rosimeire; Costa Garcia, Cláudia Leite; Agondi, Rosana Câmara; Kalil, Jorge; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2009-05-01

    Over the last few decades, inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) became the cornerstone in the treatment of persistent asthma. Their use improved asthma control, decreased mortality and also minimized adverse reactions associated with systemic steroid. Esophageal candidiasis is a rare complication resulting from the use of ICs. Although, in recent years, as their prescriptions has increased, more cases have been reported, especially in Japan. Listed are 4 case reports regarding esophageal candidiasis in asthmatic patients associated with inhaled budesonide administration. In the cases reported herein, the use of a different device of dry powder budesonide might have favored esophageal drug deposition and Candida infection. Patients denied using systemic corticosteroids in the previous 6 months. Furthermore, none of the patients presented Diabetes mellitus, malignant disease, HIV infection, or other immunosuppressive conditions. We conclude that patients treated with high doses of ICs are at higher risk of developing esophageal candidiasis. These patients should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy whenever they present symptoms. Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that infection might also be asymptomatic and esophageal candidiasis prevalence may be higher than that reported thus far.

  2. Safety assessment of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.: Subchronic toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra S. Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia plant is consumed as a foodstuff in some south Asian curries while its extract preparations have been traditionally used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Nutritional Health Institute Laboratories (NHIL, LLC, Florida informed that it patented a new plant McB, as an interhybrid of three plants of Momordica genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp. in rats following subchronic administration. Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group were administered via oral gavage 0 (control, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw/day of McB-E60 for 90 days. Additional 28-day recovery groups were maintained at control and high dose levels. No mortality or significant and adverse changes in clinical signs, neurological signs, body weight gain or feed intake were noted. No toxicologically significant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Gross and microscopic pathology examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. Any changes noted were incidental and within historical control ranges. Based on the results of this study, the No-Observed-Effect Level (NOEL for McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp. was determined as greater than 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested.

  3. Safety assessment of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.): Subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Narendra S

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia plant is consumed as a foodstuff in some south Asian curries while its extract preparations have been traditionally used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Nutritional Health Institute Laboratories (NHIL), LLC, Florida informed that it patented a new plant McB, as an interhybrid of three plants of Momordica genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.) in rats following subchronic administration. Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were administered via oral gavage 0 (control), 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day of McB-E60 for 90 days. Additional 28-day recovery groups were maintained at control and high dose levels. No mortality or significant and adverse changes in clinical signs, neurological signs, body weight gain or feed intake were noted. No toxicologically significant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Gross and microscopic pathology examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. Any changes noted were incidental and within historical control ranges. Based on the results of this study, the No-Observed-Effect Level (NOEL) for McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.) was determined as greater than 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested.

  4. Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. III. Acute and chronic effects of CAPs on heart rate, heart-rate fluctuation, and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Nadziejko, Christine; Chen, Lung Chi

    2005-04-01

    Normal mice (C57) and mice prone to develop atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) were implanted with electrocardiograph (EKG), core body temperature, and motion transmitters were exposed daily for 6 h to Tuxedo, NY, concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) for 5 day/wk during the spring and summer of 2003. The series of 5-min EKG monitoring and body-temperature measurements were obtained for each animal in the CAPs and filtered air sham exposure groups. Our hypothesis was that chronic exposure could cause cumulative health effects. We used our recently developed nonparametric method to estimate the daily time periods that mean heart rates (HR), body temperature, and physical activity differed significantly between the CAPs and sham exposed group. CAPs exposure most affected heart rate between 1:30 a.m. and 4:30 a.m. With the response variables being the average heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity, we adopted a two-stage modeling approach to obtain the estimates of chronic and acute effects on the changes of these three response variables. In the first stage, a time-varying model estimated daily crude effects. In the second stage, the true means of the estimated crude effects were modeled with a polynominal function of time for chronic effects, a linear term of daily CAPs exposure concentrations for acute effects, and a random component for unknown noise. A Bayesian framework combined these two stages. There were significant decreasing patterns of HR, body temperature, and physical activity for the ApoE-/- mice over the 5 mo of CAPs exposure, with smaller and nonsignificant changes for the C57 mice. The chronic effect changes of the three response variables for ApoE-/- mice were maximal in the last few weeks. There was also a significant relationship between CAPs exposure concentration and short-term changes of heart rate in ApoE-/- mice during exposure. Response variables were also defined for examining fluctuations of 5-min heart rates within long (i.e., 3-6 h

  5. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinks Aaltien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention. Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported.

  6. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects, including prolongation of the QT-interval, agranulocytosis and metabolic syndrome. However, few data exist on the prevalence of clozapine side-effects in patients of Xhosa descent. Objective. To gather data from Xhosa patients with ...

  7. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous extract from leaves of Cistus ladaniferus L. in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kabbaoui, Mohamed; Chda, Alae; El-Akhal, Jamila; Azdad, Ouarda; Mejrhit, Najlae; Aarab, Lotfi; Bencheikh, Rachid; Tazi, Abdelali

    2017-09-14

    Cistus ladaniferus L. (C.ladaniferus) (Cistaceae) is an aromatic shrub native to the Mediterranean region. The leaves are widely used in traditional medicine throughout Morocco for the treatment of various diseases including, diabetes, diarrhea, inflammation, and skin ailments. However, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic study concerning its toxicity profile has been reported. The study carried out evaluates the potential toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of the C.ladaniferus (CL extract) shrub, through the method of acute and sub-chronic oral administration in mice and rats. During the acute toxicity study, male and female mice were orally administrated with CL aqueous extract at single doses of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 5000mg/kg (n = 5/group/sex). Abnormal behavior, toxic symptoms, weight, and death were observed for 14 consecutive days to assess the acute toxicity. During the sub-chronic toxicity study, the aqueous extract was administered orally at doses of 500, 700 and 1000mg/kg (n = 6/group) daily to Wistar rats of both sexes for 90 days. The general behavior of the rats was observed daily, and their body weight was recorded weekly. A urinalysis, biochemical analysis, hematological analysis, macroscopic examination and histopathological examination of several organs were conducted at the end of the treatment period. During the acute toxicity test, when mice were administered doses of 3000 and 5000mg/kg, the CL extract produced a 10-30% mortality rate, respectively, and induced signs of toxicity. However, no mortality or adverse effect was noted at the doses of 1000 and 2000mg/kg. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was estimated to be more than 5000mg/kg. In the subchronic study, the CL extract induced no mortality or treatment-related adverse effects with regard to body weight, general behavior, relative organ weights, urine, hematological, and biochemical parameters. Histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal

  8. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The adverse effects of albendazole and praziquantel in mass drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nausea, headache and dizziness ... and headache. This shows that more pupils from Mwea, (albendazole and praziquantel) than from Ndia (albendazole alone) experienced minor side effects. ..... in pediatric infectious disease. 2000; 11: ...

  10. Sleep board review questions: medications and their adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Question: Which of the following medications is not matched with a characteristic side effect? 1. Pramipexole -Pathological gambling 2. Eszopiclone - Unpleasant taste 3. Modafinil - Headache 4. Mirtazapine - Weight Loss

  11. Respiratory adverse effects of Sofosbuvir-based regimens for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Abouelkheir Abdalla

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimens used for treatment of chronic HCV infection are considered safe with minor respiratory adverse effects. However, larger multicenter studies are required for further assessment.

  12. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in

  13. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.I.A.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Berkmortel, H. van den; Kramers, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis.

  14. Monitoring of NSAIDs adverse effects based on spontaneous reports from Wrocław regional adverse drug reactions monitoring center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaźwińska-Tarnawska, Ewa; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna; Wolańczyk-Medrala, Anna; Patkowski, Janusz; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Głowacka, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in majority of cases is responsible for adverse reactions of these therapeutic agents. Obtaining post-registration information on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by means of the Yellow Card System is a significant element in the process of enhancing the safety of pharmacotherapy. The aim of the study was to analyze ADRs of NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs) reported to the Regional Centre for the Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions (RCMADR) in Wrocław in the years 2007-2009. The study material included 232 spontaneous reports, which were sent by physicians and pharmacists to the RCMADR in Wrocław, out of which 80 concerned mentioned drugs. Analysis of the obtained data revealed a relationship between the incidence and kind of ADRs and the age, gender of the patients, centre from which the data were supplied, geographical region of administered medication. A significant role of post-registration monitoring of adverse drug reactions during therapy with antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs was confirmed in view of geographically conditioned differences affecting the profile of instituted therapy and the source of information. With an increasing global use of these medications, only thorough monitoring of every adverse reaction, encouraging spontaneous reports, as well as analysis at a global level may increase the knowledge on adverse drug reactions and enable correction of the safety profile of every drug from this group.

  15. Influence of acute and subchronic oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on nociceptive threshold in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsińska, Emilia; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Sar, Monika; Makulska-Nowak, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid, is known to be the most abundant hormone in the human body. Its role in the central nervous system has not been well defined. Previous studies indicate that DHEA is synthesized in the spinal cord and plays an important role in pain modulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on pain threshold in rats after both acute and subchronic treatment. Rats were orally administered with DHEA at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily and the pain threshold was measured with mechanical and thermal stimuli. After acute treatment, DHEA exhibited pronociceptive effects which lasted up to 150 min. After subchronic administration, DHEA showed an opposite effect by elevating the pain threshold. The results suggest that DHEA could be indicated as a drug to improve treatment of chronic pain disorders.

  16. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and clinicians, and the need for integrating pharmacovigilance concepts in clinical practice.

  17. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The altered stress reactivity in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may constitute a link between depression, overweight, and cardiovascular risk factors. Aims: To study the effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on the stress levels of PCOS patients and their influence on the cardiovascular risk factors ...

  18. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported...

  19. Indoor allergens: assessing and controlling adverse health effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Andrew MacPherson; Patterson, Roy; Burge, Harriet

    1993-01-01

    ... on the Health Effects of Indoor Allergens Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and...

  20. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood cancer.

  1. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its...

  2. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood

  3. The performance of adverse effects search filters in MEDLINE and EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K

    2012-06-01

     Search filters can potentially improve the efficiency of searches involving electronic databases such as medline and embase. Although search filters have been developed for identifying records that contain adverse effects data, little is known about the sensitivity of such filters.  This study measured the sensitivity of using available adverse effects filters to retrieve papers with adverse effects data.   A total of 233 included studies from 26 systematic reviews of adverse effects were used for analysis. Search filters from medline and embase were tested for their sensitivity in retrieving the records included in these reviews. In addition, the sensitivity of each individual search term used in at least one search filter was measured.  Subheadings proved the most useful search terms in both medline and embase. No indexing terms in medline achieved over 12% sensitivity. The sensitivity of published search filters varied in medline from 3% to 93% and in embase from 57% to 97%. Whether this level of sensitivity is acceptable will be dependent on the purpose of the search.  Although no adverse effects search filter captured all the relevant records, high sensitivity could be achieved. Search filters may therefore be useful in retrieving adverse effects data. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group Health Information and Libraries Journal.

  4. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  5. Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sandra D; Ramsarran, Jonathan; Brathwaite, Rachel; Lyman, Sarika; Baker, Ariane; Cornish, D'Andra C; Ganga, Stefan; Mohammed, Zahrid; Sookdeo, Avinash T; Thapelo, Cathrine K

    2015-06-01

    There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p=0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary Adverse Effects of Welding Fume in Automobile Assembly Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Sharifian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  7. Adverse effects of fluoride towards thyroid hormone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggar Abdullah Idris MZ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An easily ionized fluoride compound like Sodium Fluoride (NaF has been used thus far as a dental caries prevention substance. However, fluoride ions also have a negative effect because it is very toxic. Several types of research on the effect of fluoride on guinea pigs and human beings indicate the presence synthesis obstruction of T3 and T4 that causes declined production, known as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism condition may obstruct tissue growth process and metabolism so as to impact various body organ systems. Preventive efforts against hypothyroidism caused by fluoride include avoiding diffusible fluoride compound intake, like NaF, in a long run systemic use, whereas efforts to overcome fluoride intoxication include consuming food that is rich in calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant.

  8. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. [Adverse effects of intravenous arsenic trioxide and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Hu, Long-hu; Zhou, Jin; Fan, Sheng-jin; Wang, Yan; Han, Xue-ying

    2006-04-01

    To study the main side effects of As(2)O(3) and the way of prevention. The changes of body weight and various systems of body were observed after treatment with As(2)O(3) injection. The arsenic content in blood, urine and hair was detected with atom absorbed-spectrum analysis. Mild reactions were observed in 57.43% (147/256) of the patients and they could subside after cessation of arsenic treatment or allotherapy. Chronic mild poisoning manifestations including arsenic furuncle, liver dysfunction and peripheral nerve injury were found in 2.73% (7/256) of the patients and they subsided gradually after treatment. Chronic severe poisoning was found in 1.17% of the patients and all of them died of liver failure. As(2)O(3) might cause decrease of peripheral blood WBC in catabatic patients. There was no infection after allopathy without ceasing arsenic medication. The results showed that As(2)O(3) could distribute over and discharge from the plasma without accumulation in blood. The results also demonstrated the main route of excretion for As(2)O(3) is through urine and there is definite accumulation in the hair 50 days after treatment. Most of the side effects of As(2)O(3) are mild and recoverable. Allotherapy could be effective to relieve the complications without stopping arsenic medication. A few patients with complicating hepatitis may suffer from chronic poisoning. As(2)O(3) may cause increase of peripheral blood WBC in induced catabatic APL patients. The side effects must be prevented early.

  10. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  11. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whalingmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    consumption of pilot whale meat. METHODS: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 years previously. Outcome measures included heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), common carotid...... intima-media thickness (IMT), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). We carried out multiple regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses to determine the confounder-adjusted effect of mercury exposure. Taking into account correlations among related measures, we categorized exposure...

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  13. [Serious adverse side effects after pupillary dilation in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, A-L; Mouriaux, F; Guillois, B; Fedrizzi, S; Peyro-Saint-Paul, L; Denion, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at investigating serious side effects of the pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for the screening of retinopathy of prematurity. This protocol includes one drop of phenylephrine 5% and two drops of tropicamide 0.5% instilled at a 5-minute interval. This retrospective study included all premature infants with a birth weight less than or equal to 1500 g and/or a gestational age less than or equal to 30 gestational weeks, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of Caen University Medical Center, having ocular fundus examinations for retinopathy of prematurity screening between 2009 and 2014. The medical records of patients who died or developed necrotizing enterocolitis were reviewed to analyze the imputability of the two eye drops used for pupil dilation. Five-hundred and twelve infants were included, corresponding to 1033 ocular fundus examinations. No case of death could be ascribed to the use of eye drops. Two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis could be ascribed to the use of tropicamide with a doubtful and plausible intrinsic imputability according to French imputability criteria. The pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for screening of retinopathy of prematurity might be implicated in two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis with an uncertain imputability of tropicamide 0.5% eye drops. No serious side effect could be ascribed to the use of phenylephrine 5% eye drops in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Are the adverse effects of stressors on amphibians mediated by their effects on stress hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Knutie, Sarah A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-12-08

    Adverse effects of anthropogenic changes on biodiversity might be mediated by their impacts on the stress response of organisms. To test this hypothesis, we crossed exposure to metyrapone, a synthesis inhibitor of the stress hormone corticosterone, with exposure to the herbicide atrazine and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to assess whether the effects of these stressors on tadpoles and post-metamorphic frogs were mediated by corticosterone. Metyrapone countered atrazine- and Bd-induced corticosterone elevations. However, atrazine- and Bd-induced reductions in body size were not mediated by corticosterone because they persisted despite metyrapone exposure. Atrazine lowered Bd abundance without metyrapone but increased Bd abundance with metyrapone for tadpoles and frogs. In contrast, atrazine reduced tolerance of Bd infections because frogs exposed to atrazine as tadpoles had reduced growth with Bd compared to solvent controls; this effect was not countered by metyrapone. Our results suggest that the adverse effects of atrazine and Bd on amphibian growth, development, and tolerance of infection are not mediated primarily by corticosterone. A possible mechanism for these effects is energy lost from atrazine detoxification, defense against Bd, or repair from damage caused by atrazine and Bd. Additional studies are needed to evaluate how often the effects of anthropogenic stressors are mediated by stress hormones.

  15. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Knaut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p=0.004 and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p=0.008 and pulse oximetry (SpO2 decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p<0.001. Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p=0.092, and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe.

  17. The adverse effect of overweight in assisted reproduction treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampo, Antonella Valeria; Palena, Celina; Ganzer, Luciano; Maccari, Virginia; Estofán, Gustavo; Hernández, Mariana

    2017-09-01

    To assess Body Mass Index (BMI) effects on the results obtained from ICSI cycles. We studied 266 ICSI cycles performed between January 2014 and December 2016. The patients were grouped according to their BMI in: Normal (18.5-24.9), Overweight (25.0-29.9) and Obese (>30). We compared the following variables between the groups: number of antral follicles, ovarian stimulation length, gonadotropin dose used, maximum estradiol level, follicles developed/antral follicles, retrieved oocytes/developed follicles and mature/retrieved oocytes, normal fertilization rate, embryo achieved/normal fertilized oocytes, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. We used the Kruskal-Wallis and the Chi square tests. p<0.05 was considered significant. Normal, Overweight and Obese patients presented comparable values for number of antral follicles (11.6±5.4, 12.5±5.5, 12.2±5.7), ovarian stimulation length (7.5±1.4, 7.6±1.1, 7.8±1.3) and gonadotropin dose used (2043±489, 1940±536, 2109±605). Obese patients had lower values of estradiol (1560±610, 1511±635, 1190±466; p=0.018), developed follicles (81%, 76%, 70%; p<0.0001), and retrieved oocytes (91%, 90%, 84%; p=0.0017); and not significantly lower values of mature oocytes (82%, 82%, 77%; p=0.26). The groups had comparable fertilization rates (72%, 73%, 69%) and embryo achieved rates (67%, 63%, 72%). The normal group had higher, but not significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates (43%, 40%, 38%, p=0.53; and 33%, 26%, 23%; p=0.11), and significantly higher ongoing pregnancy rates (37%, 33%, 33%, p=0.042). Increased BMI patients had impaired ovarian response and lower pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles.

  18. H3 histamine receptor antagonist pitolisant reverses some subchronic disturbances induced by olanzapine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Kuder, Kamil; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Olczyk, Adrian; Żmudzka, Elżbieta; Rak, Aleksandra; Bednarski, Marek; Pytka, Karolina; Sapa, Jacek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine is associated with side effects such as sedation and depression-like symptoms, especially during the initial period of the use. It is believed that the occurrence of these undesirable effectsis mainly the result of the histamine H1receptors blockade by olanzapine. In addition, use of olanzapine increases the level of triglycerides in the blood, which correlates with growing obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pitolisant - H3 histamine antagonist - on subchronic olanzapine-induced depresion-like symptoms, sedation and hypertriglicerydemia. Forced swim test was conducted to determinate depressive-like effect of olanzapine and antidepressive-like activity during the co-administered pitolisant. The test was performed after the first and fifteenth day of the treatment of the mice. The spontaneous activity of the mice was measured on the fourteenth day of the treatment with a special, innovative RFID-system (Radio-frequency identification system) - TraffiCage (TSE-Systems, Germany). Triglyceride levels were determined on the sixteenth day of the experiment after 15 cycles of drug administration. Daily olanzapine treatment (4 mg/kg b.w., i.p., d.p.d) for 15 days significantly induces sedation (p < 0.05) and prolongs immobility time in forced swim tests (FST) in mice (p < 0.05); and also elevates the level of triglycerides (p < 0.05). Administration of pitolisant (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) subsequentto olanzapine normalizes these adverse effects. This study presents a promising alternative for counteracting some behavioral changes and metabolic disturbances which occur in the early period of treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Riediger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAntidepressants are widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. Applied doses are lower than those needed to unfold an antidepressive effect. While efficacy of antidepressants for chronic pain has been reported in large randomized-controlled trials (RCT, there is inconsistent data on adverse effects and tolerability. We aimed at synthesizing data from RCT to explore adverse effect profiles and tolerability of antidepressants for treatment of chronic pain.MethodsSystematic literature research and meta-analyses were performed regarding side effects and safety of different antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The National Center for Biotechnology Information library and MEDLINE were searched. Randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in quantitative data synthesis.ResultsOut of 1,975 screened articles, 33 papers published between 1995 and 2015 were included in our review and 23 studies were included in the meta-analyses. A higher risk for adverse effects compared to placebo was observed in all antidepressants included in our analyses, except nortriptyline. The most prevalent adverse effects were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation. Amitriptyline, mirtazapine, desipramine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and nortriptyline showed the highest placebo effect-adjusted risk of adverse effects. Risk for withdrawal due to adverse effects was highest in desipramine (risk ratio: 4.09, 95%-confidence interval [1.31; 12.82] followed by milnacipran, venlafaxine, and duloxetine. The most common adverse effects under treatment with antidepressants were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation followed by palpitations, sweating, and drowsiness. However, overall tolerability was high. Each antidepressant showed distinct risk profiles of adverse effects.ConclusionOur synthesized data analysis confirmed overall

  20. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Maria Montenegro Pontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV. Methods: We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. Results: The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%. Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%. The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. Conclusions: The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Its Adverse Effects in Poland in Years 1950–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bielinska-Kwapisz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines changes in alcohol consumption and its adverse effects in Poland from 1950 to 2005. First, we estimate the total alcohol demand function and test Becker and Murphy's (1988 rational addiction model. Next, we explore substitution effects between beer, wine, and spirits and report income and own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for beer, wine, and spirits. Finally, we examine some adverse effects of alcohol consumption: traffic accidents, suicide rates, and vandalism rates. In particular, the effect of lowering the blood alcohol level limit (BAC on traffic accidents is estimated.

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in rat brain is downregulated by sub-chronic antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Ochi, Shinichiro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Nakata, Shunsuke; Iga, Jun-Ichi; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter that may be related to major depressive disorder (MDD) because the selective neuronal NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, induces a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect. NO modulates major neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of MDD, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. In this study, we investigated the effects of antidepressants as NO modulators in acute and sub-chronic treatments. Rats were injected with the SSRI paroxetine (PAR, 10 mg/kg), the SNRI milnacipran (MIL, 30 mg/kg), or the NaSSA mirtazapine (MIR, 10 mg/kg) for acute (1 h) or sub-chronic (3 weeks) treatment prior to analysis of nine brain regions (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb). The mRNA expression levels of three NOS subtypes (neuronal: nNOS, inducible: iNOS, and endothelial: eNOS) were analyzed using real-time PCR with Taqman probes. Acute MIR treatment significantly increased nNOS mRNA expression in the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum and olfactory bulb, and iNOS mRNA expression in the frontal cortex and midbrain. Acute PAR and MIR treatments significantly increased eNOS mRNA expression in most brain regions. Conversely, sub-chronic treatment with all types of antidepressants resulted in significant decreases of eNOS mRNA expression in most brain regions. Sub-chronic treatment with the three types of antidepressants consistently decreased eNOS mRNA expression levels in the rat brain. These effects may be associated with the involvement of the NO system in the mechanism of action of antidepressants.

  3. [Subchronic toxicity test of genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2010-07-01

    To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.

  4. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic cracked naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, E; Roth, R; Schreiner, C; White, R; Clark, C; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    2001-01-01

    A 15-week, whole-body inhalation study of the vapors of a distillate (LCCN-D) of light catalytic cracked naphtha (CAS no. 64741-55-5, LCCN) was conducted with Sprague-Dawley rats. Target exposure concentrations were 0, 750, 2500, and 7500 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week. Over the course of the study, animals received at least 65 exposures. For a portion of the control and 7500-ppm groups, a 4-week postexposure period was included in the study. Subchronic toxicity was evaluated using standard parameters. During life, neurotoxicity was evaluated by motor activity assessment and a functional observational battery. Selected tissues from animals in all exposure groups were examined microscopically. Neuropathologic examination of selected neuronal tissues from animals in the control and high-exposure groups was also conducted. No compound-related effects were seen on survival, clinical chemistry, food consumption, or physical signs. No evidence of neurotoxicity was seen at any exposure level. Slight decreases in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations were seen in male rats at the end of exposure to 7500 ppm LCCN-D. However, values were within normal physiological ranges and recovery occurred. Slight decreases in mean body weights and body weight gain were observed in high-exposure females during the first 7 weeks of exposure, but this decrease was not seen during the second half of the study. Male rat nephropathy involving hyaline droplet formation and alpha-2micro-globulin accumulation was seen in mid- and high-exposure males, an effect not relevant to humans. The incidence and severity of goblet cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia and respiratory epithelium hyperplasia in nasoturbinal tissues were greater in high-exposure animals, but recovery occurred. None of the effects observed were considered toxicologically significant. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for subchronic and neurotoxicity of LCCN-D was > or = 7500 ppm.

  6. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Physics Department, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Cusimano, Michael [Division of Neurosurgery, St Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Tsao, May [Radiation Oncology Program, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: gelareh.zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6-74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Location and cortical eloquence were not significantly associated with the development of adverse events (p = 0.12). No additional vascular parameters were identified as predictive of ARE. There was a significant target volume threshold of 4 cm{sup 3}, above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the

  7. Pretreatment predictors of adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; van Prooijen, Monique; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-02-01

    To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6-74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p eloquence were not significantly associated with the development of adverse events (p = 0.12). No additional vascular parameters were identified as predictive of ARE. There was a significant target volume threshold of 4 cm(3), above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published

  8. Subchronic exposure to acrylamide affects colon mucin secretion in juvenile wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledin Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (AA is an important industrial chemical worldwide. AA also forms naturally in many high-carbohydrate foods (bread, French fries, coffee, etc. when they are heated. Since AA is ubiquitous in the human diet, and more than one-third of the calories we take in each day come from foods with detectable levels of acrylamide, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of subchronic AA treatment on colon goblet cell mucin secretion. Male Wistar rats were gavaged with AA for 5 days a week for 21 days. The animals were divided into three groups that were gavaged with different AA concentrations (0, 25, 50 mg/kg/day. Colon samples were processed for histochemical (PAS-AB, HID-AB and immunohistochemical (anti-rat MUC2 antibody staining to visualize mucins in the goblet cells. AA treatment showed an alteration in mucin production and secretion in that the amount of all investigated mucin types dropped. More prominent changes were detected in the upper crypt part where a decreased number of goblet cell was observed. AA treatment elicited a significant reduction in neutral mucins, while acidic mucins showed linearly decreasing trend with respect to AA doses. Also, a linear reduction of MUC2 mucins was noticed. Sulfomucins were absent in the colon lower crypt in all experimental groups, while in the upper crypt both sulfo- and sialomucins were significantly decreased. The results of our study point to changes in the synthesis, differentiation and distribution of mucins after AA treatment, which can have adverse effect on colorectal health. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  9. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  10. GLYX-13 (rapastinel) ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine- and ketamine-induced declarative memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Burgdorf, Jeffrey S; Moskal, Joseph R; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2016-02-15

    GLYX-13 (rapastinel), a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr-amide), has been reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties in man based upon its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site functional partial agonism. Ketamine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, also reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties, produces cognitive impairment in rodents and man, whereas rapastinel has been reported to have cognitive enhancing properties in rodents, without impairing cognition in man, albeit clinical testing has been limited. The goal of this study was to compare the cognitive impairing effects of rapastinel and ketamine in novel object recognition (NOR), a measure of declarative memory, in male C57BL/6J mice treated with phencyclidine (PCP), another NMDAR noncompetitive antagonist known to severely impair cognition, in both rodents and man. C57BL/6J mice given a single dose or subchronic ketamine (30 mg/kg.i.p.) showed acute or persistent deficits in NOR, respectively. Acute i.v. rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg), did not induce NOR deficit. Pre-treatment with rapastinel significantly prevented acute ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg, but not 0.3 mg/kg, iv) significantly reversed both subchronic ketamine- and subchronic PCP-induced NOR deficits. Rapastinel also potentiated the atypical antipsychotic drug with antidepressant properties, lurasidone, to restore NOR in subchronic ketamine-treated mice. These findings indicate that rapastinel, unlike ketamine, does not induce a declarative memory deficit in mice, and can prevent or reverse the ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Further study is required to determine if these differences translate during clinical use of ketamine and rapastinel as fast acting antidepressant drugs and if rapastinel could have non-ionotropic effects as an add-on therapy with antipsychotic/antidepressant medications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    % of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long......To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13...

  12. Radiogenomics: using genetics to identify cancer patients at risk for development of adverse effects following radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Sarah L; Ostrer, Harry; Rosenstein, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    Normal-tissue adverse effects following radiotherapy are common and significantly affect quality of life. These effects cannot be accounted for by dosimetric, treatment, or demographic factors alone, and evidence suggests that common genetic variants are associated with radiotherapy adverse effects. The field of radiogenomics has evolved to identify such genetic risk factors. Radiogenomics has two goals: (i) to develop an assay to predict which patients with cancer are most likely to develop radiation injuries resulting from radiotherapy, and (ii) to obtain information about the molecular pathways responsible for radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicities. This review summarizes the history of the field and current research. A single-nucleotide polymorphism–based predictive assay could be used, along with clinical and treatment factors, to estimate the risk that a patient with cancer will develop adverse effects from radiotherapy. Such an assay could be used to personalize therapy and improve quality of life for patients with cancer. 2014 AACR

  13. "First do no harm." A systematic review of the prevalence and management of antipsychotic adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Su Ling; Taylor, Mark; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2015-04-01

    We aim to identify the prevalence and management strategies of nine clinically important categories of antipsychotic adverse effects, namely: extrapyramidal symptoms; sedation; weight gain; type II diabetes; hyperprolactinaemia; metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular effects. Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are common, with a potential negative impact on adherence and engagement. Despite this, the scientific study of the prevalence or management of adverse antipsychotic effects is a neglected area. A systematic review was undertaken using pre-defined search criteria and three databases, with hand searching of citations and references. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers after review of abstracts or full text. Quality analysis of included studies was conducted using pre-agreed criteria. In total, 53 studies met inclusion criteria, revealing the following: (1) antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with increased frequency of adverse effects, and (2) a longer duration of treatment is associated with greater severity (e.g. higher BMI); (3) clozapine was more strongly associated with metabolic disturbance than other antipsychotics in three studies and olanzapine was associated with the most weight gain in three studies; (4) hyperprolactinaemia was more common in women than men, but 50% men noted sexual dysfunction versus 25-50% in women; (5) despite clinical guideline recommendations there is a low rate of baseline testing for lipids and glucose; and (6) seven studies described adverse effect management strategies, but only two examined their efficacy - one found a significant reduction in weight with non-pharmacological group therapy and the other found a significant reduction in dyslipidaemia with statins. Antipsychotic adverse effects are diverse and frequently experienced, but are not often systematically assessed

  14. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Paunica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression, physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency. An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent adverse affects three months or more after finasteride cessation or new adverse effects including but not limited at the skin level or oral cavity (marginal periodontium. We intend to present in this study several oral adverse effects encountered during finasteride administration, represented by mild and moderate signs which generally responded to topical procedures without to require the stop of the drug administration. New studies on large samples will further document the existing relation between the described oral adverse effects and the implied pathophysiological mechanisms. For this moment, we are taking into account as possible mechanisms- a direct action of finasteride administration, possible indirect consequences due to hormonal interferences, or coexisting factors with finasteride administration that were not detected.

  15. Neurological Adverse Effects in Patients of Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Treated with Different Schedules of FOLFOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Bano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to assess the frequency and severity of few dose limiting neurological adverse effects of four different schedules of FOLFOX. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC were included in the study. Toxicity was graded according to CTC v 2.0. The frequency of grade 3 and 4 adverse effects was comparatively assessed in each treatment arm. The difference in the pattern of toxicity between the treatment schedule was evaluated. The most frequent adverse symptom of neurological adverse effect was grade 1 paresthesia in the patients treated with FOLFOX4 schedule. Grade 4 peripheral neuropathy was reported in few patients of FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Frequency and onset of neurological adverse effects like paresthesia, dizziness, and hypoesthesia were significantly different (, whereas frequency and onset of peripheral neuropathy were highly significant ( in each treatment arm of FOLFOX. Peripheral neuropathy was associated with electrolyte imbalance and diabetes in few patients. Frequency of symptoms, for example, paresthesia, is associated with increased number of recurrent exposure to oxaliplatin (increased number of cycles even at low doses (85 mg/m2, whereas severity of symptoms, for example, peripheral neuropathy, is associated with higher dose (130 mg/m2 after few treatment cycles.

  16. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2017-10-01

    GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  18. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  19. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  20. Transcriptional Responses in Rat Brain Associated with Sub-Chronic Toluene Inhalation are Not Predicted by Effects of Acute Toluene Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT A primary public health concern regarding environmental chemicals is the potential for persistent effects from long-term exposure, and approaches to estimate these effects from short-term exposures are needed. Toluene, a ubiquitous air pollutant, exerts well-documented ...

  1. Effect of dacryocystorhinostomy on systemic adverse effects of topical timolol maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether transformation of the naso-lacrimal passage as happens after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR operation has any effect on the systemic adverse effects of topically administered timolol maleate. Materials and Methods: Fifty otherwise healthy adult patients without any prior history of cardiac or pulmonary problems scheduled for elective DCR surgery received a drop of timolol maleate 0.5% on the healthy eye. This eye served as a control. Six weeks after successful DCR surgery, the operated eye received the same medication. Parameters compared included intraocular pressure (IOP, pulse rate, blood pressure and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 findings. Observations: Post DCR patients showed an increased incidence of reduced pulse rate and FEV1. Conclusion: Timolol maleate ophthalmic preparation should be used with caution in post-DCR patients.

  2. Subchronic inhalation exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol impairs the mouse olfactory bulb via injury and subsequent repair of the nasal olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Mio; Ito, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Himiko; Sakamoto, Tatsuo; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system can be a toxicological target of volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. Recently, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) emitted from adhesives and carpeting materials has been postulated to cause "sick building syndrome." Patients' symptoms are associated with an increased sense of smell. This investigation aimed to characterize the histopathological changes of the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasal cavity and the olfactory bulb (OB) in the brain, due to subchronic exposure to 2E1H. Male ICR mice were exposed to 0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm 2E1H for 8 h every day for 1 week, or 5 days per week for 1 or 3 months. After a 1-week exposure, the OE showed inflammation and degeneration, with a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the staining of olfactory receptor neurons and in the numbers of globose basal cells at ≥20 ppm. Regeneration occurred at 1 month along with an increase in the basal cells, but lymphocytic infiltration, expanded Bowman's glands, and a decrease in the olfactory receptor neurons were observed at 3 months. Intriguingly, the OB at 3 months showed a reduction in the diameters of the glomeruli and in the number of olfactory nerves and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, but an increased number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglia in glomeruli. Accordingly, 2E1H inhalation induced degeneration of the OE with the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 ppm. The altered number of functional cell components in the OB suggests that effects on olfactory sensation persist after subchronic exposure to 2E1H.

  3. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...... infections, and lymphomas may be common to the biologics but occur in small numbers across the various indications, we planned to combine the results from biologics used in many conditions to obtain the much needed risk estimates. Objectives To compare the adverse effects of tumor necrosis factor blocker...... controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and open-label extension (OLE) studies that studied one of the nine biologics for use in any indication (with the exception of HIV/AIDS) and that reported our pre-specified adverse outcomes were considered for inclusion. We searched The Cochrane...

  4. Adverse effects of pharmacological therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function in men

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Nebojša A.; Ignjatović Ivan; Đenić Nebojša; Bogdanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The development of effective medications makes pharmacological therapy of BPH the dominant mode of treatment today. It improves urinary symptoms and prevents disease progression while producing side effects on male sexual function. Objective. The aim of the study is to present the effects of BPH pharmacological treatment on the occurrence of sexually adverse effects in men: changes in sexual desire, erectile, ejaculatory and the orgasmic funct...

  5. Adverse effects associated with non-opioid and opioid treatment in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Cherubino, Paolo; Vellucci, Renato; Fornasari, Diego

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that is associated with many common diseases; this places a major burden on the healthcare system. There are currently numerous analgesic agents available for the treatment of chronic pain. In general, the oral non-opioid analgesic, paracetamol, is recommended for the initial treatment of mild to moderate pain. Therapeutic doses of paracetamol do not appear to result in hepatotoxicity, although overdose may lead to acute liver failure. Current data suggest that paracetamol has acceptable gastrointestinal tolerability. Another class of non-opioid analgesic with confirmed efficacy for the treatment of chronic mild to moderate pain are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), although this efficacy is offset by the potential of adverse gastrointestinal events. In particular, non-selective NSAIDs, also known as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, carry an increased risk of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, including ulcers, perforation and bleeding. The introduction of COX-2 inhibitors provided a NSAID-based option with improved gastrointestinal safety, but increased risk of cardiovascular effects. Opioids are powerful analgesic agents used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain. However, treatment with opioids is associated with a number of common adverse effects, including constipation, nausea or vomiting, pruritus, somnolence or cognitive impairment, dry mouth, tolerance or dependence and urinary retention. Although there are multiple strategies in place to manage adverse events that arise from both non-opioid and opioid analgesic therapy, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of specific drug-related adverse effects is required along with proper prescribing practices and adequate physician/patient education. Balanced against the adverse effects of pain management medications, there is a need to be mindful of the widespread, often serious, adverse consequences of poorly managed

  6. Absence of long-term behavioral effects after sub-chronic administration of low doses of Methamidophos in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temerowski, M.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Putative long-term learning and memory effects of low-dose exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor organophosphate methamidophos (Tamaron®) early in life were studied in two parallel studies in middle-aged rats. Methamidophos was administered via the drinking water to female and male Wistar rats

  7. Post-Finasteride Adverse Effects in Male Androgenic Alopecia: A Case Report of Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Paunica, Stana; Constantin, Vlad D; Balalau, Cristian; Manea, Mirela; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride has proved to be relatively safe and effective in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. However, literature data report several endocrine imbalances inducing various adverse effects, which often persist after treatment cessation in the form of post-finasteride syndrome. Here we present the case of a 52-year-old man receiving finasteride (1 mg/day) who developed an uncommon adverse effect represented by generalized vitiligo 2 months after finasteride discontinuation. Associated adverse effects encountered were represented by mild sexual dysfunction (as determined by the International Index of Erectile Function, IIEF) and moderate depressive symptoms (according to DSM-V criteria), all of these manifestations aggregating within/as a possible post-finasteride syndrome. Further studies should develop and compare several therapeutic approaches, taking into account not only compounds that decrease the circulating dihydrotestosterone level but also those that could block the dihydrotestosterone receptors (if possible, compounds with selective tropism towards the skin). In addition, the possibility of predicting adverse effects of finasteride (according to hand preference and sexual orientation) should be taken into account. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A replication of the study ‘Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchin Peter

    2012-09-01

    the application of SMT and related adverse effects.

  9. Plasma metabolomics study of the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on realgar-induced sub-chronic hepatotoxicity in mice via1H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Taoguang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Yinghua; Wang, Yanlei; Feng, Cong; Yuan, Mingmei; Wang, Shouyun; Chen, Mo; Jiang, Hong

    2017-08-17

    Realgar, a type of mineral drug that contains arsenic, is concurrently used with Glycyrrhizae Radx et Rhizoma to reduce its toxicity in many Chinese herbal formulations. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the bioactive ingredient in Glycyrrhizae Radx et Rhizoma. In this study, the protective effects of GA on realgar-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabolomic approaches. Mice were divided into control, GA, realgar, and GA and realgar co-administration groups. Their plasma samples were used for a metabolomics study. GA can protect the mice against realgar-induced hepatotoxicity to some extent by relieving alterations in the clinical biochemical parameters and the damage to hepatocytes. Metabolic profiling via principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation caused by realgar was reduced by GA. Six metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), very low density/low density lipoprotein (VLDL/LDL), N-acetylglycoprotein (NAc), lactate, choline and D-glucose, were considered as potential biomarkers that are involved in the toxicity reduction effect of GA on realgar-induced hepatotoxicity. The correlation analysis showed that these potential biomarkers were all positively correlated with ALT and AST activities (correlation coefficient > 0.5). Lipid and energy metabolism pathways were found to be primarily associated with the hepatoprotective effect of GA. GA has an effective protection function by regulating the lipid and energy metabolism to liver injuries that are induced by realgar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyohisa Katsumata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  11. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Toyohisa; Ishibashi, Takashi; Kyle, David

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE) was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD)]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil), 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  12. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel [Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (Germany); Bramlage, Peter [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Elsaesser, Amelie [University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 {+-} 9 years) received adenosine (140 {mu}g/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 {+-} 11.7 versus 82.4 {+-} 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 {+-} 1.9% versus 97 {+-} 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 {+-} 24.0 versus 140.9 {+-} 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 {+-} 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 {+-} 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  13. Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Atropine in Childhood Myopia: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qianwen; Janowski, Miroslaw; Luo, Mi; Wei, Hong; Chen, Bingjie; Yang, Guoyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2017-06-01

    Some uncertainty about the clinical value and dosing of atropine for the treatment of myopia in children remains. To evaluate the efficacy vs the adverse effects of various doses of atropine in the therapy for myopia in children. Data were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from inception to April 30, 2016. The reference lists of published reviews and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for additional relevant studies. Key search terms included myopia, refractive errors, and atropine. Only studies published in English were included. Randomized clinical trials and cohort studies that enrolled patients younger than 18 years with myopia who received atropine in at least 1 treatment arm and that reported the annual rate of myopia progression and/or any adverse effects of atropine therapy were included in the analysis. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. Heterogeneity was statistically quantified by Q, H, and I2 statistics, and a meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model. The Cochrane Collaboration 6 aspects of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the risk for bias. The primary outcome was a difference in efficacy and the presence of adverse effects at different doses of atropine vs control conditions. The secondary outcomes included the differences in adverse effects between Asian and white patients. Nineteen unique studies involving 3137 unique children were included in the analysis. The weighted mean differences between the atropine and control groups in myopia progression were 0.50 diopters (D) per year (95% CI, 0.24-0.76 D per year) for low-dose atropine, 0.57 D per year (95% CI, 0.43-0.71 D per year) for moderate-dose atropine, and 0.62 D per year (95% CI, 0.45-0.79 D per year) for high-dose atropine (P myopia progression (P = .15). High-dose atropine were associated with more adverse effects, such as the 43.1% incidence of photophobia compared with 6.3% for low

  14. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  15. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  16. Impact of censoring on estimates of adverse drug effects: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H.; Van Staa, Tjeerd P.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The results from studies on adverse drug effects in electronic health care databases may vary due to multiple reasons, one of them being differences in (left and right) censoring mechanisms between databases. Such censoring mechanisms can be features of the database and are therefore

  17. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  18. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  19. Adverse effects of radical vaginal surgery and radiotherapy on ureteral function, their prevention and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pockrandt, H.; Jorde, A.

    1973-03-01

    The adverse effects of carcinoma therapy on ureteral function are described and placed in relationship to each other. The most essential precautions in prophylaxis and therapy before, during, and after surgery are described in detail. A delayed prophylaxis of a urological study in conjunction with recidivism study must be made. (JSR)

  20. Risk of serious adverse effects of biological and targeted drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Eric Furst, Daniel; Boers, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives.: To determine possible differences in serious adverse effects among the 10 currently approved biological and targeted synthetic DMARDs (b/ts-DMARDs) for RA. Methods.: Systematic review in bibliographic databases, trial registries and websites of regulatory agencies identified randomized...... differences in rates of SAEs. Our data suggest caution should be taken when deciding among available drugs. Systematic review registration number.: PROSPERO CRD42014014842....

  1. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  2. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  3. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.C. Volkers (Aloysius); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case

  4. The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuho Kochi; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    The economic costs of adverse health effects associated with exposure to wildfire smoke should be given serious consideration in determining the optimal wildfire management policy. Unfortunately, the literature in this research area is thin. In an effort to better understand the nature of these economic costs, we review and synthesise the relevant literature in three...

  5. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van den Berkmortel, Hanneke; Kramers, Kees

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months

  7. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  8. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Atsma, F.; Dongen, A. van; Kort, W. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB

  9. Effect on tissue vitamin A levels in the rat following subchronic exposure to four individual PCB congeners (IUPAC 77, 118, 126, and 153).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, H; Manzoor, E; Trossvik, C; Ahlborg, U G; Chu, I; Villenueve, D

    1994-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect on tissue vitamin A levels in rats exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetraCB (CB-77), 2,3',4,4',5-pentaCB (CB-118), 3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB (CB-126), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB-153). The obtained results show that hepatic vitamin A levels are reduced both in male and female rats following dietary exposure to individual PCB congeners for 13 weeks. However, there are pronounced potency differences between congeners. Compared to TCDD, the hepatic vitamin A reducing potencies of CB-126, CB-77 and CB-153, are 0.05, 0.0001 and 0.00001, respectively, in male rats. Compared to male rats, female rats are equally sensitive to hepatic vitamin A reduction both by TCDD and dioxinlike CBs. Effects on renal and pulmonary vitamin A levels vary between CBs and between sexes.

  10. The Influence of Adverse Effects on Quality of Life of Survivors of Gynecologic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omichi, Chiaki; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Haraga, Junko; Ida, Naoyuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Kusumoto, Tomoyuki; Masuyama, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this observational study was to investigate correlations between adverse effects (lower-extremity lymphedema [LEL], dysuria, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms) and quality of life (QOL) (physical well-being [PWB], social well-being, emotional well-being [EWB], and functional well-being) before treatment, at least 6 weeks after treatment (posttreatment1), and 3 or 6 months after treatment (posttreatment2) of patients with gynecologic cancer (GC). From August 2012 to October 2016, questionnaire responses and clinical data of 75 patients with GC were collected and assessed by treatment received. The χ test was used to determine the significance of correlations. Participants with LEL had significantly poorer QOL than did those without it in the domains of PWB at posttreatment1 (P = 0.026) and EWB at posttreatment2 (P = 0.020). Moreover, patients with 2 adverse effects (LEL plus dysuria or severe gastrointestinal symptoms) had significantly poorer QOL than did those with no or single adverse effect in the domains of PWB at posttreatment1 and posttreatment2 (posttreatment1: P = 0.049, P = 0.001; posttreatment2: P = 0.002, P = 0.028) and poorer QOL compared with those with no adverse effect in the domain of EWB at posttreatment1 (P = 0.017). Poorer QOL in emotional and physical domains is associated with adverse effects of treatment in patients with GC. It is important to consider the effects of radical therapy not only on survival but also on the QOL of survivors.

  11. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk......-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p

  12. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica M.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood. PMID:28264496

  13. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  14. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute and subchronic effects of bilastine (20 and 40 mg) and hydroxyzine (50 mg) on actual driving performance in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Theunissen, Eef L; Van Oers, Anita C M; Valiente, Román; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2011-11-01

    Bilastine is a new second-generation H1 antagonist. Although bilastine has been demonstrated to produce little or no performance impairment in laboratory tests, it cannot be excluded that it produces impairments in real-life performance such as driving. This study aims to assess the effects of two doses of bilastine (20 and 40 mg) on actual driving after single and repeated administration. Hydroxyzine 50 mg was included as an active control. Twenty-two participants (11 females, 11 males) were tested in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, four-way cross-over design. Participants were treated with once-daily doses for eight consecutive days. On day 1 and 8 of each treatment period participants performed an actual highway driving test. The primary variable was standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of weaving. Results demonstrated that hydroxyzine significantly increased SDLP on days 1 and 8 of treatment. Bilastine did not affect SDLP. It is concluded that hydroxyzine produces severe driving impairment after single doses and that this impairment only partly mitigates over time due to a lack of complete tolerance. Bilastine did not produce any driving impairment after single and repeated doses and can be safely used in traffic in doses up to 40 mg.

  17. Low concentration toxic metal mixture interactions: Effects on essential and non-essential metals in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice on sub-chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-08-01

    The deleterious effects of long term exposure to individual toxic metals in low doses are well documented. There is however, a paucity of information on interaction of low dose toxic metal mixtures with toxic and essential metals. This study reports on interactions between low dose mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) and toxic and essential metals. For 120d, six groups of forty mice each were exposed to metal mixtures, however, the control group was given distilled water. Exposure to Pb+Cd increased brain Pb by 479% in 30d, whiles Pb+Hg+As+Cd reduced liver Hg by 46.5%, but increased kidney As by 130% in 30d. Brain Cu, increased by 221% on Pb+Hg+As+Cd exposure, however, liver Ca reduced by 36.1% on Pb+Hg exposure in 60-d. Interactions within metal mixtures were largely synergistic. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that low dose metal exposures influenced greatly levels of Hg (in brain and liver) and As (brain). The influence exerted on essential metals was highest in liver (PC1) followed by kidney (PC2) and brain (PC3). Exposure to low dose metal mixtures affected homeostasis of toxic and essential metals in tissues of mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  19. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  20. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Emily S; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women’s experiences with this treatment. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studi...

  1. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyi; Hu, Yanmei; Zhu, Yin; Yin, Ping; Litscher, Gerhard; Xu, Shifen

    2015-01-01

    As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world.

  2. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyi; Hu, Yanmei; Zhu, Yin; Yin, Ping; Xu, Shifen

    2015-01-01

    As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world. PMID:26339265

  3. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world.

  4. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression changes in response to sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Roberts, Jenny R; Young, Shih-Houng; Richardson, Diana; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean; Gu, Ja Kook; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica results in serious adverse health effects, most notably, silicosis. An understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is critical for the intervention and/or prevention of its adverse health effects. Rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica at a concentration of 15 mg/m3, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3, 6 or 12 weeks. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression profiles were determined in lungs at the end of each exposure period. Crystalline silica was visible in lungs of rats especially in the 12-week group. Pulmonary toxicity, as evidenced by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and albumin content and accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), was seen in animals depending upon silica exposure duration. The most severe histological changes, noted in the 12-week exposure group, consisted of chronic active inflammation, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Microarray analysis of lung gene expression profiles detected significant differential expression of 38, 77, and 99 genes in rats exposed to silica for 3-, 6-, or 12-weeks, respectively, compared to time-matched controls. Among the significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEG), 32 genes were common in all exposure groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the SDEG identified enrichment of functions, networks and canonical pathways related to inflammation, cancer, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling in response to silica exposure. Collectively, these results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity following sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

  5. Adverse effects of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes on human pulmonary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Lyes; Bussy, Cyrill; Amara, Nadia; Setyan, Ari; Grodet, Alain; Rossi, Michel J.; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) produced for industrial purposes, on the human epithelial cell line A549. MWCNT were dispersed in dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL), a component of pulmonary surfactant, and the effects of dispersion in DPL were compared to those in 2 other media: ethanol (EtOH) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Effects of MWCNT were also compared to those of 2 asbestos fibers (chrysotile and crocidolite) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, not only in A549 cells, but also on mesothelial cells (MeT5A human cell line), used as an asbestos-sensitive cell type. MWCNT formed agglomerates on top of both cell lines (surface area 15–35 μm2), that were significantly larger and more numerous in PBS than in EtOH and DPL. Whatever the dispersion media, incubation with 100 μg/ml MWCNT induced a similar decrease in metabolic activity without changing cell membrane permeability or apoptosis. Neither MWCNT cellular internalization nor oxidative stress were observed. In contrast, asbestos fibers penetrated into the cells, decreased metabolic activity but not cell membrane permeability and increased apoptosis, without decreasing cell number. CB was internalized without any adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MWCNT produced for industrial purposes exert adverse effects without being internalized by human epithelial and mesothelial pulmonary cell lines. PMID:19034795

  6. Mining multi-item drug adverse effect associations in spontaneous reporting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Herbert S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-item adverse drug event (ADE associations are associations relating multiple drugs to possibly multiple adverse events. The current standard in pharmacovigilance is bivariate association analysis, where each single drug-adverse effect combination is studied separately. The importance and difficulty in the detection of multi-item ADE associations was noted in several prominent pharmacovigilance studies. In this paper we examine the application of a well established data mining method known as association rule mining, which we tailored to the above problem, and demonstrate its value. The method was applied to the FDAs spontaneous adverse event reporting system (AERS with minimal restrictions and expectations on its output, an experiment that has not been previously done on the scale and generality proposed in this work. Results Based on a set of 162,744 reports of suspected ADEs reported to AERS and published in the year 2008, our method identified 1167 multi-item ADE associations. A taxonomy that characterizes the associations was developed based on a representative sample. A significant number (67% of the total of potential multi-item ADE associations identified were characterized and clinically validated by a domain expert as previously recognized ADE associations. Several potentially novel ADEs were also identified. A smaller proportion (4% of associations were characterized and validated as known drug-drug interactions. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that multi-item ADEs are present and can be extracted from the FDA’s adverse effect reporting system using our methodology, suggesting that our method is a valid approach for the initial identification of multi-item ADEs. The study also revealed several limitations and challenges that can be attributed to both the method and quality of data.

  7. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to childhood adversities (CA is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV. Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4 with (n = 27 or without (n = 31 CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

  8. Potential adverse effects of oseltamivir in rats: males are more vulnerable than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed Ali

    2011-09-01

    Oseltamivir is the most widely used antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. However, not much is known about its adverse effects. The potential side effects were investigated in male and female rats (140-170 g). Oseltamivir was administered at 2.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 5 days. For both genders, treatment with oseltamivir resulted in significant reductions in the hepatic activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Also for both genders, oseltamivir produced modest reductions in the hepatic activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, quinone oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A, as well as hepatic glutathione content. For both genders, neither the kidney functions nor protein profile was affected by oseltamivir. Oseltamivir also caused significant elevation in serum levels of both triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol and in the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, in both genders. For male animals only, oseltamivir treatment elevated the serum level of total cholesterol as well as the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Oseltamivir caused oxidative stress and acute toxicity in the liver, and disrupted the cholesterol and lipid metabolism but was less likely to cause serious drug interactions. There was a sexual differentiation in these adverse effects, with adverse effects being more evident in male rats.

  9. Sacroiliitis after use of oral isotretinoin - association with acne fulminans or adverse effect?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Ariane Silva Bastos; Alagia, Roberta Ferreira Nazareth

    2013-01-01

    Acne fulminans is a rare and severe form of acne that may evolve from acne vulgaris, especially in male adolescents, or occur as an adverse effect of oral isotretinoin. Arthritis is a serious clinical manifestation when the musculoskeletal system is compromised by AF and has been reported as a rare adverse effect of isotretinoin. Involvement of the sacroiliac joints occurs in 21% of acne fulminans cases. We present the case of a 18-year-old male patient in whom acne fulminans evolved from acne vulgaris grade IV and after inflammation resolution started treatment with oral isotretinoin. Within a 30-day period of retinoid treatment he presented with back pain followed by rapid, progressive inability to deambulate. PMID:24346917

  10. Statistical Mining of Potential Drug Interaction Adverse Effects in FDA’s Spontaneous Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Rave; Haerian, Krystl; Chase, Herbert S.; Friedman, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Many adverse drug effects (ADEs) can be attributed to drug interactions. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) provide a rich opportunity to detect novel post-marketed drug interaction adverse effects (DIAEs), as they include populations not well represented in clinical trials. However, their identification in SRS is nontrivial. Most existing research have addressed the statistical issues used to test or verify DIAEs, but not their identification as part of a systematic large scale database-wide mining process as discussed in this work. This paper examines the application of a highly optimized and tailored implementation of the Apriori algorithm, as well as methods addressing data quality issues, to the identification of DIAEs in FDAs SRS. PMID:21346985

  11. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  12. [Management of adverse effects related to human immunoglobulin therapy: Recommendations for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Chérin, P; Michallet, M; Pelus, E; Dantal, J; Crave, J-C; Delain, J-C; Viallard, J-F

    2017-05-01

    Both intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins are therapeutic modalities approved in various conditions, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies and autoimmune disorders. To date, immunoglobulins have more often been considered as a safe medication, with minor adverse effects such as hypertension, fever and chills, nausea, myalgia or headache. However, with the wider use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, severe side effects have also been reported to occur in immunoglobulin-treated patients, especially anaphylaxis, aseptic meningitis, acute renal impairment, thrombotic events as well as haematological manifestations. This paper reviews all the potential adverse events related to immunoglobulin therapy and establishes a comprehensive guideline for the management of these events. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity of pyraclostrobin in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Lusheng; Du, Zhongkun; Wang, Jinhua

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of pyraclostrobin on DNA damage and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver. Based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50, 0.056 mg/L) of this chemical, fish were exposed to three doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/L) and sampled on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the initiation of a subchronic toxicity test. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage were determined. The amount of pyraclostrobin residue in the water was also measured. The concentrations in the three treatment groups varied no more than 5% during the exposure periods, indicating that pyraclostrobin is relatively stable during this time in an aquatic environment. ROS and MDA levels significantly changed in a dose dependent manner during the experiment. Enzymatic activities were inhibited to a certain extent. DNA damage was significantly enhanced. These results collectively indicate that pyraclostrobin induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Stana Paunica; Marina Giurgiu; Andrei Vasilache; Ioana Paunica; Ion Motofei; Adriana Vasilache; Horia Traian Dumitriu; Anca Silvia Dumitriu

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression), physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass) and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency). An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent ad...

  15. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  16. Topiramate-induced somnambulism in a migraineur: a probable idiosyncratic adverse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Thomas; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan; Varghese, Raji

    2012-04-15

    Somnambulism (sleepwalking) is a disorder of arousal that falls under "parasomnia" group and is more common in children. These phenomena occur as primary sleep events or secondary to systemic disease or can be drug induced. Medications that can cause sleepwalking include neuroleptics, hypnotics, lithium, amitriptyline, and β-blockers. This report presents an unusual adverse effect of topiramate on sleep in a patient with migraine.

  17. Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p < 0.01). Results suggest that reliance on only one surveillance method can underestimate the number of incidents that have occurred and the number of species that are affected. Although rodenticides are used worldwide, incident records were found from only 15 countries. Therefore, awareness of the breadth of species diversity of non-raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

  18. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Neil; Fleming John; Ledogar Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. Methods The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference b...

  19. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  20. [Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob; Larsen, Rune; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-03-31

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment.

  1. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods.

  2. The Potential Return on Public Investment in Detecting Adverse Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Desai, Rishi J; Park, Moa; Gagne, Joshua J; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available. The drug examples studied were rofecoxib, cerivastatin, and troglitazone. Using an individual patient simulation model and the health care system perspective, we estimated the potential costs that could have been averted by early systematic detection of safety hazards through the implementation of active surveillance programs. We found that earlier drug withdrawal made possible by active safety surveillance would most likely have resulted in savings in direct medical costs of $773-$884 million for rofecoxib, $3-$10 million for cerivastatin, and $38-$63 million for troglitazone in the United States through the prevention of adverse events. By contrast, the yearly public investment in Food and Drug Administration initiated population-based pharmacovigilance activities in the United States is about $42.5 million at present. These examples illustrate a critical and economically justifiable role for active adverse effect surveillance in protecting the health of the public.

  3. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  4. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eTieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events of (novel therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we generated RA-related protein-protein interaction (PPI networks (interactomes based on experimental PPI data. Pharmacological treatment simulation, topological and functional analyses were further run to gain insight into the proteins most affected by therapy and by multi-omic modelling.Results: Simulation on the administration of MTX results in the activation of expected (apoptosis and adverse (nitrogenous metabolism alteration effects. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-4 (IRAK4, already an RA target emerge as relevant nodes. The former controls the activation of inflammatory, proliferative and degenerative pathways in host and pathogens. The latter controls immune alterations and blocks innate response to pathogens.Conclusions: This multi-omic map properly recollects in a single analytical picture known, yet complex, information like the adverse/side effects of MTX, and provides a reliable platform for in silico hypothesis testing or recommendation on novel therapies. These results can support the development of RA translational research in the design of validation experiments and clinical trials, as such we identify GRB2 as a robust potential new target for RA for its ability to control both synovial degeneracy and dysbiosis, and, conversely, warn on the usage of IRAK4-inhibitors recently promoted, as this involves potential adverse effects in the form of impaired innate response to pathogens.

  6. Lack of nephrotoxicity and renal cell proliferation following subchronic dermal application of a hydroquinone cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R M; English, J C; Totman, L C; Moyer, C; O'Donoghue, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in over-the-counter formulations of skin-lightening creams sold in the United States and European Union. HQ was introduced into these formulations to provide a safe and effective alternative to mercury and other less effective ingredients. Recent studies involving subchronic oral exposure of male F344 rats to HQ have shown nephrotoxicity and renal tubule cell proliferation (English et al., 1994), while chronic exposures of male F344 rats were reported to cause renal cell adenomas (NTP, 1989). Previous subchronic dermal toxicity studies (CTFA, 1986; NTP, 1989) with HQ failed to detect nephrotoxicity; however, these studies were not specifically designed to assess renal structure and function. More sensitive endpoints were used in the present subchronic study to address concerns over potential toxicity from repeated dermal exposure to HQ. Male and female F344 rats were given topical applications with 0, 2.0, 3.5, or 5.0% HQ in an oil-in-water emulsion cream for 13 wk (5 days/wk). Body weights, feed consumption and water consumption were monitored, and animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and dermal irritation. Blood taken at termination was analysed for haematological and clinical chemistry effects. Erythema, which abated when exposure stopped, was the only dermatological effect seen at the HQ-cream application sites. Cell proliferation in the kidneys was evaluated after 3, 6 and 13 wk of treatment using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, but no changes indicative of sustained cell proliferation were seen. The renal histopathological lesions noted after oral exposure to HQ were not present after dermal exposure. Thus, topical exposure to HQ does not result in the renal toxicity observed in previous studies with F344 rats given HQ orally.

  7. Adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is associated with high morbidity as well as significant mortality rate. Today the risk of death in pemphigus from the side effect of oral prednisolone is greater than risk of death from the disease itself. Objec­tive: To observe the adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone compared with oral prednisolone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Methods: An interventional study was carried out in the department of Dermatology and Venereol­ogy, Bangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total number of patients was thirty and among them fifteen patients were treated with parenteral dexamethasone (Group-A and other fifteen were treated with oral prednisolone (Group-B. Results: The study showed statistically significant differences of skin lesion as well as mucosal lesion of pemphigus after 6 weeks of therapy between of two groups (P<0.05. The most common adverse effects were increased body weight(40%, increased appetite(40%, and puffy face(40% in dexamethasone group. In prednisolone group, these side effects were 60% of the subjects. Other side effects in dexamethasone group were hyperglycemia (33.33%, hypertension (26.66%, and sleep disturbance (13.33%. In prednisolone group, other side effects were hyperglycemia(33.33%, hypertension(40%, gastritis (33.33%, nausea, vomiting (13.33% in each , reactivation of tuberculosis, herpes zoster infection, sleep disturbance, and mood change were 6.66% in each group. Conclusion: In the light of the findings of the study, we conclude that each of the treatment of dexamethasone group and prednisolone group is individually effective and safe in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris but adverse effects are less in parenteral dexamethasone group than oral prednisolone group. So parenteral dexamethasone can be used as an alternative drug in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris.

  8. Cannabis: an overview of its adverse acute and chronic effects and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Parrott, Andrew C

    2017-07-12

    In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure. Although the cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have positive health outcomes with its antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, high-potency cannabis is particularly damaging due to its high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), low CDB concentration. It is this high-potency substance that is readily available recreationally. While pharmaceutical initiatives continue to investigate the medical benefits of CDB, "medicinal cannabis" still contains damaging levels of THC. Altogether, we argue there is insufficient evidence to support the safety of cannabis and its subsequent legalisation for recreational use. Furthermore, its use for medicinal purposes should be done with care. We argue that the public conversation for the legalisation of cannabis must include scientific evidence for its adverse effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Best–worst scaling survey of preferences regarding the adverse effects of tobacco use in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Mori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We use best–worst scaling to assess two types of concern levels of the adverse consequences of smoking in China. While the smoking cessation policy has worked well in Taiwan, more than 1 million people in mainland China are estimated to die every year from tobacco use. This study compares the preferences of Chinese individuals in the two jurisdictions (mainland versus Taiwan and explores the possibility of information-based interventions. The relative importance of 13 adverse effects was assessed by conducting a web-based survey on a sample of 480 Chinese participants. The 13 items consist of various adverse effects of tobacco use: from long-term health risk, such as lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases, to reduction of physical capacity and sexual dysfunction, and disturbance to non-smokers. The resulting data suggest possible strategies to curb smoking. Subgroup analysis, focusing on gender, smoking status, and nicotine dependence, was also conducted. Lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in this order, rank highest for both types of respondents. On the other hand, high expenditures (13th and weight gain after cessation (12th are the lowest ranked for both. Measuring individual best–worst scores reveals substantial heterogeneity among respondents and that information-based intervention can help curb smoking.

  10. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nonlinear and Dynamic Aerodynamic Models for Commercial Transport Aircraft with Adverse Weather Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The flight dynamic equations in mathematics for aircraft response to the adverse weathers, such as wind shear, atmospheric turbulence, and in-flight icing, are nonlinear and unsteady. To effectively analyze the performance degradation and variations in stability of commercial aircraft that encountered these weather hazards, the nonlinear and dynamic (i.e., time dependent aerodynamic models based on flight data would be needed. In the present paper, a numerical modeling method based on a fuzzy-logic algorithm will be presented to estimate the aerodynamic models for a twin-jet transport by using the flight data from the flight data recorder (FDR. The aerodynamic models having the capability to generate continuous stability derivatives, especially for sensitivity study of unknown factors in adverse weather conditions, will be demonstrated in this paper.

  12. Drag-Reduction Effectiveness of Riblet Films in Adverse Pressure Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    Riblet films are micro-grooved structures that are widely known to passively reduce skin friction. Past studies have almost solely focused on riblet performance in channel-flows. However, possible applications of riblets include wind turbine blades, gas turbine blades, and other complex bodies that are exposed to non-zero pressure gradient flows--specifically adverse pressure gradients. We use high-resolution large eddy simulations of turbulent flow over three-dimensional riblets under an adverse pressure gradient. We analyze the computed results to quantify drag reduction effectiveness for different riblet shapes and to examine pertinent turbulent structures to gain a fundamental understanding of riblet performance. Supported by the DOE Wind Energy Consortium

  13. Adverse Renal Effects of Novel Molecular Oncologic Targeted Therapies: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D. Jhaveri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel targeted anti-cancer therapies have resulted in improvement in patient survival compared to standard chemotherapy. Renal toxicities of targeted agents are increasingly being recognized. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here we review the adverse renal effects associated with a selection of currently approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to EGFR, HER2, BRAF, MEK, ALK, PD1/PDL1, CTLA-4, and novel agents targeted to VEGF/R and TKIs. In summary, electrolyte disorders, renal impairment and hypertension are the most commonly reported events. Of the novel targeted agents, ipilumumab and cetuximab have the most nephrotoxic events reported. The early diagnosis and prompt recognition of these renal adverse events are essential for the general nephrologist taking care of these patients.

  14. Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Burke, Taylor A; Boland, Elaine M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-05-01

    Most theoretical frameworks regarding the role of life stress in bipolar disorders (BD) do not incorporate the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis theorizes that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, the relationship between major life stressors and episode initiation declines (Post, 1992). The present study aimed to test an extension of the kindling hypothesis in BD by examining the effect of early life adversity on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Data from 145 bipolar participants (59.3% female, 75.2% Caucasian, and mean age of 20.19 years; SD = 1.75 years) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project (112 Bipolar II; 33 Cyclothymic disorder). Participants completed a self-report measure of early adversity at baseline and interview-assessed mood episodes and life events at regular 4-month follow-ups. Results indicate that early childhood adversity sensitized bipolar participants to the effects of recent stressors only for depressive episodes and not hypomanic episodes within BD. This was particularly the case with minor negative events. The current study extends prior research examining the kindling model in BD using a methodologically rigorous assessment of life stressors and mood episode occurrence. Clinicians should assess experiences of early adversity in individuals with BD as it may impact reactivity to developing depressive episodes in response to future stressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Atsma, Femke; van Dongen, Anne; de Kort, Wim

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB variables play a role as well? Emphasis is placed on possible sex differences. TPB variables were assessed within 12,051 whole blood donors. Also, donors reported the occurrence of adverse reactions during or after their last donation. Blood bank records were used to determine whether donors stopped donating within the next 2 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of self-reported adverse reactions on stopping risk, adjusting for the TPB variables. Analyses were performed separately for both sexes. Men have a lower odds of reporting a NR or a VVR than women (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.43; and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36, for NR and VVR, respectively). For both sexes, only a VVR was associated with stopping risk, which is higher in men (men, OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.19-7.11; women, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.35-2.35). After adjusting for the TPB variables both ORs declined (men, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.86-6.15; women, OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.14). Also, self-efficacy and affective attitude are negatively associated with adverse reactions. Female donors report more VVRs than male donors, but male donors have a higher stopping risk after a VVR than female donors. Coping differences and possible reporting tendencies might play a role. For donor retention purposes, prevention and coping techniques should take sex differences into account. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2017-03-22

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered.

  17. Detecting and Managing Adverse Effects of Antipsychotic Medications: Current State of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Donna; Carr-Lopez, Sian M; Gutierrez, Mary A; Pierre, Joseph M; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shakib, Susan; Yudofsky, Lynn M

    2016-06-01

    Antipsychotics are some of the most frequently prescribed medications not only for psychotic disorders and symptoms but also for a wide range of on-label and off-label indications. Because second-generation antipsychotics have largely replaced first-generation antipsychotics as first-line options due to their substantially decreased risk of extrapyramidal side effects, attention has shifted to other clinically concerning adverse events associated with antipsychotic therapy. The focus of this article is to update the nonextrapyramidal side effects associated with second-generation antipsychotics. Issues surrounding diagnosis and monitoring as well as clinical management are addressed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function in rats after subchronic exposure to diazinon

    OpenAIRE

    Saša R. Ivanović; Dimitrijević, Blagoje; Ćupić, Vitomir; Jezdimirović, Milanka; Borozan, Sunčica; Savić, Mila; Savić, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchronic p.o. administration of DZN in rats, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. A group of 20 rats (2 groups, n = 10) was administered p.o. the 1/10 of established LD50 DZN (namely 55.87 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. On the 14th and 28th day of study with isolated diaphragm and ileum, we examined the...

  19. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayasteltar, Liju; Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; I.M., Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and...

  20. The effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's preferences for prescribed contraceptive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Stephanie A; Viney, Rosalie C; Gu, Yuanyuan; Hole, Arne R; Fiebig, Denzil G; Street, Deborah J; Haas, Marion R; Weisberg, Edith; Bateson, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    Recent rapid growth in the range of contraceptive products has given women more choice, but also adds complexity to the resultant decision of which product to choose. This paper uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to investigate the effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's stated preferences for prescribed contraceptive products. In November 2007, 527 Australian women aged 18-49 years were recruited from an online panel. Each was randomly allocated to one of three information conditions. The control group only received basic information on contraceptive products. One treatment group also received adverse information on the risks of the combined oral pill. The other group received basic information and promotional material on the vaginal ring, newly introduced into Australia and on the transdermal patch, which is unavailable in Australia. Respondents completed 32 choice sets with 3 product options where each option was described by a product label: either combined pill, minipill, injection, implant, hormonal IUD, hormonal vaginal ring, hormonal transdermal patch or copper IUD; and by the attributes: effect on acne, effect on weight, frequency of administration, contraceptive effectiveness, doctor's recommendation, effect on periods and cost. Women's choices were analysed using a generalized multinomial logit model (G-MNL) and model estimates were used to predict product shares for each information condition. The predictions indicated that adverse information did not affect women's preferences for products relative to only receiving basic information. The promotional material increased women's preferences for the transdermal patch. Women in all groups had a low preference for the vaginal ring which was not improved by promotion. The findings highlight the need for researchers to pay attention to setting the context when conducting DCEs as this can significantly affect results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In-hospital gastric protection with proton pump inhibitors: adverse effects beyond (overutilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Montanari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have provided important benefits in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, peptic ulcer disease and in the prevention of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and aspirin-related ulcer complications. PPIs are also the most commonly used medications for stress ulcer prophylaxis, despite little evidence to support their use in non-intensive care unit. Discussion: Considering the widespread use of PPIs, these agents’ overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, there is growing evidence that PPIs use may be associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, pneumonia, hip fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency. Overall, until now, none of these adverse effects have discouraged the PPIs treatment. Recently attention has been placed on a more important potential adverse effect of PPIs, their interaction with clopidogrel to which they are associated for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Preliminary results of laboratory tests suggest that omeprazole reduces clopidogrel’s antiplatelet effect. The interaction seems to involve the competitive inhibition of the CYP2C19 isoenzyme. The effect appears to be clinically important, as some retrospective studies have shown an increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes when PPIs and clopidogrel are used concomitantly. Some studies indicate that pantoprazole and esomeprazole are not associated with impaired response to clopidogrel. However, the available data for PPIs other than omeprazole do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn about whether is a class effect. Conclusions: Specifically designed and randomized clinical studies are needed to define the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel. Moreover, alternative treatment strategies with histamine- 2 receptor antagonists that are not dependent on cytochrome p450 2C19 should be tested in future studies.

  2. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  3. Adverse effects during specific oral tolerance induction: in-hospital "rush" phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, E; Longo, G; Berti, I; Neri, E; Saccari, A; Rubert, L; Matarazzo, L; Montico, M; Ventura, A

    2012-02-01

    Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) is a promising approach in the treatment of severe food allergies. Different protocols have demonstrated its efficacy. Nevertheless, SOTI is still considered an experimental method and should be limited to highly controlled settings. To define the incidence and severity of adverse reactions, possible risk factors, and the safety and effectiveness of nebulized epinephrine as a first-line treatment of respiratory reactions during in-hospital SOTI for cow's milk allergy. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of patients admitted for SOTI beginning in 2001. Reactions were classified as mild, moderate and severe on a partially modified Clark scale. Adverse reactions were treated following the International Guidelines with the introduction of nebulized epinephrine for level four reactions. Of 209 patients, 17 were excluded due to the absence of objective reactions. The remaining 192 were classified as follows: Mild Reactions (Clark Scale 1 to 3): 100 patients received either no treatment, oral antihistamines or nebulized steroids; Moderate Reactions (Clark Scale 4): 87 patients treated with nebulized epinephrine and, depending on their symptoms, oral antihistamines, corticosteroids (nebulized, oral or IV) or nebulized beta 2 agonists; Severe Reactions (Clark Scale 5): 5 children, 4 of whom initially underwent one nebulization of epinephrine and eventually required an IM dose. The fifth patient was immediately treated with IM epinephrine due to hypotension. adverse reactions during this in-hospital SOTI protocol were frequent but easily manageable. Nebulized epinephrine can play a relevant role in the treatment of respiratory reactions.

  4. Antihyperglycemic and subchronic toxicity study of Moringa stenopetala leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesemma Sileshi

    2014-03-01

    -dependent increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The plasma alanine aminotransferase increased in a dose dependent manner, though not significant. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the crude ethanol extract and solvent-solvent fractions as well as chromatographic fractions have antihyperglycemic effect. Furthermore, the crude ethanol extract have some effect on liver of the mice on subchronic administration. Therefore, further study should be done to identify the active principal compound responsible for antihyperglycemic effect and to rule out the safety in other animal model.

  5. Apoptosis May Explain the Pharmacological Mode of Action and Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin, Including Teratogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2017-02-08

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is the most effective sebum-suppressive drug for the treatment of severe acne. Its effect depends on sebocyte apoptosis, which results from isotretinoin-induced expression of the apoptotic protein tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. This review proposes that the pharmacological mode of action of isotretinoin in the treatment of severe acne, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and neuroblastoma results from apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis may be the underlying and unifying mechanism of the adverse effects of isotretinoin on neural crest cells (teratogenicity), hippocampal neurones (depression), epidermal keratinocytes and mucosa cells (mucocutaneous side-effects), hair follicle cells (telogen effluvium), intestinal epithelial cells (inflammatory bowel disease), skeletal muscle cells (myalgia and release of creatine kinase), and hepatocytes (release of transaminases and very low-density lipoproteins). Genetic variants of components of the apoptotic signalling cascade, such as RARA polymorphisms, might explain variations in the magnitude of isotretinoin-induced apoptotic signalling and apparently identify subgroups of patients who experience either stronger adverse effects with isotretinoin therapy or resistance to treatment.

  6. Efficacy of Rasayana Avaleha as adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in reducing adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Purvi; Thakar, A B; Baghel, M S; Sisodia, Arvind; Deole, Yogesh

    2010-10-01

    Cancer is the most dreadful disease affecting mankind. The available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects, which are hazardous to the normal cells of the patient, causing many unnecessary effects. This further leads to complications of the therapy, impaired health, and deterioration of quality of life, resulting in mandatory stoppage of the treatment. In the present study, the efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation, Rasayana Avaleha, has been evaluated as an adjuvant medication to modern radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A total of 36 cancer patients were registered in this trial and were divided into two groups, group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with adjuvant Rasayana Avaleha (RT + CT + RA), while in group B only radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT + CT) were given, as the control group. After assessing the results, it was observed that Rasayana Avaleha gave better results in controlling the adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison with the control group. Therefore, Rasayana Avaleha has proved to be an effective adjuvant therapy in protecting patients from the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  7. Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sharif Hasan

    2017-01-18

    Jan 18, 2017 ... Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate sub-chronic toxicity in animal model. Methods: A detailed study was done on the physical, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parame- ters of both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 28 days administration of naproxen and its metal.

  8. Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate sub-chronic toxicity in animal model. Methods: A detailed study was done on the physical, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters of both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 28 days administration of naproxen and its metal complexes.

  9. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the toxicological profile of the ethanol extract of Oncoba spinosa (EEOS) after acute and sub-chronic administration to rodents. Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single administration of the extract at doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively, was given to the mice. Mice were observed for ...

  10. Radiation exposure exerts its adverse effects on sperm maturation through estrogen-induced hypothalamohypophyseal axis inhibition in rats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinta, MJ

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation has adverse effects on reproductive aspects such as spermatogenic cell population and cell malformation, leading to reduced sperm count and non-viable spermatozoa. This has overshadowed possible effects of radiation exposure...

  11. Identifying Adverse Effects of HIV Drug Treatment and Associated Sentiments Using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, Cosme; Bodnar, Todd; Huang, Zhuojie; Telenti, Amalio; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Social media platforms are increasingly seen as a source of data on a wide range of health issues. Twitter is of particular interest for public health surveillance because of its public nature. However, the very public nature of social media platforms such as Twitter may act as a barrier to public health surveillance, as people may be reluctant to publicly disclose information about their health. This is of particular concern in the context of diseases that are associated with a certain degree of stigma, such as HIV/AIDS. The objective of the study is to assess whether adverse effects of HIV drug treatment and associated sentiments can be determined using publicly available data from social media. We describe a combined approach of machine learning and crowdsourced human assessment to identify adverse effects of HIV drug treatment solely on individual reports posted publicly on Twitter. Starting from a large dataset of 40 million tweets collected over three years, we identify a very small subset (1642; 0.004%) of individual reports describing personal experiences with HIV drug treatment. Despite the small size of the extracted final dataset, the summary representation of adverse effects attributed to specific drugs, or drug combinations, accurately captures well-recognized toxicities. In addition, the data allowed us to discriminate across specific drug compounds, to identify preferred drugs over time, and to capture novel events such as the availability of preexposure prophylaxis. The effect of limited data sharing due to the public nature of the data can be partially offset by the large number of people sharing data in the first place, an observation that may play a key role in digital epidemiology in general.

  12. Industrial PM2.5cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Corticosteroids use Pattern in Dermatological Practice and Investigating Adverse Effect of Corticosteroids Including its Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya Shrestha, S; Bhandari, M; Shrestha, R; Thapa, S R; Karki, A; Prajapati, M; Shrestha, S; Kc, S; Karna, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids are highly effective drugs with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Due to this, they have become a mainstay of pharmacotherapy in dermatology. However, improper and long term uses are associated with a number of serious adverse effects. Objective To investigate the corticosteroids use pattern, adverse effects and various factors associated with adverse effects in dermatological practice. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dermatology department of tertiary care hospital. All patients using at least one corticosteroids, either topically or systemically or the combination were included in this study. Informed consent was taken from the patients and interviewed using structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20. p-value corticosteroids with low potency (25%). Most of them had used corticosteroids for urticaria. Adverse effects were reported by 33.30% of the patients. The most common adverse effect reported was the shedding of skin. Adverse effects was significantly associated with gender; use of systemic corticosteroids; regular use of corticosteroids; discontinuation of dose abruptly; and missed dose. However, there was no significant association between adverse effects and the duration of use of corticosteroids. Conclusion In conclusion, the present study suggested that the proper counselling and clear instruction regarding the use of corticosteroid should be provided to the patients for avoiding the abrupt discontinuation of the prescribed medication leading to treatment failure.

  14. Safety Profile of Finasteride: Distribution of Adverse Effects According to Structural and Informational Dichotomies of the Mind/Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Păunică, Ioana; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2017-06-01

    Finasteride is currently used extensively for male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia; however, some adverse effects are severe and even persistent after treatment cessation, the so-called 'post-finasteride syndrome'. The following most severe adverse effects-sexual dysfunction and depression-often occur together and may potentiate one other, a fact that could explain (at least in part) the magnitude and persistence of finasteride adverse effects. This paper presents the pharmacological action of finasteride and the corresponding adverse effects, the biological base explaining the occurrence, persistence and distribution of these adverse effects, and a possible therapeutic solution for post-finasteride syndrome. The distribution of finasteride adverse effects is presented within a comprehensive and modern neuro-endocrine perspective related to structural and informational dichotomies of the brain. Understanding the variation of finasteride side effects among different populations would be necessary not only to delineate the safety profile of finasteride for different subgroups of men (a subject may or may not be affected by a certain anti-hormonal compound dependent on the individual neuro-endocrine profile), but also as a possible premise for a therapeutic approach of finasteride adverse effects. Such therapeutic approach should include administration of exogenous hormones, which are deficient in men with post-finasteride syndrome, namely dihydrotestosterone (in right-handed men) or progesterone/dihydroprogesterone (in left-handed subjects).

  15. Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow, Sandy; Florkowski, Christopher M; Chambers, Stephen T; Priest, Patricia C; Stewart, Alistair W; Jennings, Lance C; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Murdoch, David R

    2014-12-15

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamin D improves resilience to the adverse effects of earthquakes. Opportunistic addition to an established randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Christchurch, New Zealand, where a prolonged series of catastrophic earthquakes beginning on 4 September 2010 occurred, which caused widespread destruction, fatalities, and extensive psychological damage. 322 healthy adults (241 women; 81 men) aged 18-67 who were already participating in the vitamin D and acute respiratory infections study (VIDARIS) between February 2010 and November 2011. Participants were randomised to receive an oral dose of either 200,000 IU vitamin D3 monthly for two months then 100,000 IU monthly (n=161) or placebo (n=161) for a total of 18 months. This is a post hoc analysis from the previously published VIDARIS trial. The primary endpoint in the current analysis was the self reported effects and overall adverse impact of the Christchurch earthquakes as assessed by questionnaire four months after the most destructive earthquake on 22 February 2011, which was used as the index event. The secondary end point was the number of "psychological" adverse events that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments as part of the original VIDARIS trial. 308 participants completed the earthquake impact questionnaire (n=152 in the vitamin D group and 156 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in the number of self reported adverse effects between those receiving vitamin D supplementation and those receiving placebo. There was also no difference in the overall adverse impact score between treatment groups (χ(2) P=0.44). The exception was that those in the vitamin D group experienced more adverse effects on family relationships (22% v 13%; χ(2) P=0.03). The number of psychological adverse events-such as fatigue, stress, anxiety, and insomnia-that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments was significantly

  16. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  17. Enhanced prefrontal serotonin 2A receptor signaling in the subchronic phencyclidine mouse model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Martin A; Ratner, Cecilia; Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Knudsen, Gitte M; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-05-01

    Prefrontal serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs) have been linked to the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia. Many antipsychotics fully occupy 5-HT2A R at clinical relevant doses, and activation of 5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and LSD-like drugs induces a schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans. Subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) administration is a well-established model for schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic PCP administration changes expression, binding, or functionality of cortical 5-HT2A Rs. As a measure of 5-HT2A R functionality, we used the 5-HT2A R agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch response (HTR) and mRNA expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) activity-related cytoskeletal associated-protein (Arc), c-fos, and early growth response protein 2 (egr-2) in the frontal cortex. Mice were treated with PCP (10 mg/kg) or saline for 10 days, followed by a 5-day washout period. The PCP pretreatment increased the overall induction of HTR and frontal cortex IEG mRNA expression following a single challenge with DOI. These functional changes were not associated with changes in 5-HT2A R binding. Also, binding of the 5-HT1A R and the 5-HT transporter was unaffected. Finally, basal mRNA level of Arc was increased in the prefrontal cortex after subchronic PCP administration as revealed with in situ hybridization. Together these findings indicate that PCP administration produces changes in the brain that result in an increase in the absolute effect of DOI. Therefore, neurotransmission involving the 5-HT2A R could contribute to the behavioral deficits observed after PCP treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D; Colwill, Ruth M; Créton, Robbert

    2012-07-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture and is found ubiquitously in the environment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure on anxiety-related behavior during development using zebrafish larvae. We found that sub-chronic exposure to 0.01 or 0.1 μM chlorpyrifos during development induces specific behavioral defects in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae. The larvae displayed decreases in swim speed and thigmotaxis, yet no changes in avoidance behavior were seen. Exposure to 0.001 μM chlorpyrifos did not affect swimming, thigmotaxis, or avoidance behavior and exposure to 1 μM chlorpyrifos induced behavioral defects, but also induced defects in larval morphology. Since thigmotaxis, a preference for the edge, is an anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae, we propose that sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure interferes with the development of anxiety-related behaviors. The results of this study provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural mechanisms that are affected by environmentally relevant concentrations of organophosphate pesticides. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of predictive models and refined health policies to prevent toxicant-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse effects of low level heavy metal exposure on male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Julia J; Mijal, Renée S

    2010-04-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, often referred to as "heavy metals", are toxic for wildlife, experimental animals, and humans. While experimental animal and human occupational studies with high exposure levels generally support an adverse role for these metals in human reproductive outcomes, information on the effects of low, environmentally-realistic exposure levels of these metals on male reproductive outcomes is limited. We review the literature on effects of exposure to low levels of these metals on measures of male fertility (semen quality and reproductive hormone levels) and provide supporting evidence from experimental and occupational studies. Potentially modifying effects of genetic polymorphisms on these associations are discussed. A brief review of the literature on the effects of three trace metals, copper, manganese, and molybdenum, that are required for human health, yet may also cause adverse reproductive effects, follows. Overall, there were few studies examining the effects of exposure to low levels of these metals on male reproductive health. For all metals, there were several well-designed studies with sufficient populations appropriately adjusted for potential confounders and many of these reported harmful effects. However, many studies lacked sufficient numbers of participants to be able to detect differences in outcomes between exposed and non-exposed individuals, did not clearly identify the source and characteristics of the participants, and did not control for other exposures that could alter or contribute to the outcomes. The evidence for the effects of low exposure was strongest for cadmium, lead, and mercury and less certain for arsenic. The potential modifying effects of genetic polymorphisms has not been fully explored. Additional studies on the reproductive effects of these toxic ubiquitous metals on male reproduction are required to expand the knowledge base and to resolve inconsistencies.

  20. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  1. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  2. Vitamin C: intravenous use by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and adverse effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Padayatty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal information and case reports suggest that intravenously administered vitamin C is used by Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM practitioners. The scale of such use in the U.S. and associated side effects are unknown.We surveyed attendees at annual CAM Conferences in 2006 and 2008, and determined sales of intravenous vitamin C by major U.S. manufacturers/distributors. We also queried practitioners for side effects, compiled published cases, and analyzed FDA's Adverse Events Database. Of 199 survey respondents (out of 550, 172 practitioners administered IV vitamin C to 11,233 patients in 2006 and 8876 patients in 2008. Average dose was 28 grams every 4 days, with 22 total treatments per patient. Estimated yearly doses used (as 25 g/50 ml vials were 318,539 in 2006 and 354,647 in 2008. Manufacturers' yearly sales were 750,000 and 855,000 vials, respectively. Common reasons for treatment included infection, cancer, and fatigue. Of 9,328 patients for whom data is available, 101 had side effects, mostly minor, including lethargy/fatigue in 59 patients, change in mental status in 21 patients and vein irritation/phlebitis in 6 patients. Publications documented serious adverse events, including 2 deaths in patients known to be at risk for IV vitamin C. Due to confounding causes, the FDA Adverse Events Database was uninformative. Total numbers of patients treated in the US with high dose vitamin C cannot be accurately estimated from this study.High dose IV vitamin C is in unexpectedly wide use by CAM practitioners. Other than the known complications of IV vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe. Physicians should inquire about IV vitamin C use in patients with cancer, chronic, untreatable, or intractable conditions and be observant of unexpected harm, drug interactions, or benefit.

  3. Vitamin C: Intravenous Use by Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners and Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Espey, Michael Graham; Drisko, Jeanne; Levine, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background Anecdotal information and case reports suggest that intravenously administered vitamin C is used by Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM) practitioners. The scale of such use in the U.S. and associated side effects are unknown. Methods and Findings We surveyed attendees at annual CAM Conferences in 2006 and 2008, and determined sales of intravenous vitamin C by major U.S. manufacturers/distributors. We also queried practitioners for side effects, compiled published cases, and analyzed FDA's Adverse Events Database. Of 199 survey respondents (out of 550), 172 practitioners administered IV vitamin C to 11,233 patients in 2006 and 8876 patients in 2008. Average dose was 28 grams every 4 days, with 22 total treatments per patient. Estimated yearly doses used (as 25g/50ml vials) were 318,539 in 2006 and 354,647 in 2008. Manufacturers' yearly sales were 750,000 and 855,000 vials, respectively. Common reasons for treatment included infection, cancer, and fatigue. Of 9,328 patients for whom data is available, 101 had side effects, mostly minor, including lethargy/fatigue in 59 patients, change in mental status in 21 patients and vein irritation/phlebitis in 6 patients. Publications documented serious adverse events, including 2 deaths in patients known to be at risk for IV vitamin C. Due to confounding causes, the FDA Adverse Events Database was uninformative. Total numbers of patients treated in the US with high dose vitamin C cannot be accurately estimated from this study. Conclusions High dose IV vitamin C is in unexpectedly wide use by CAM practitioners. Other than the known complications of IV vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe. Physicians should inquire about IV vitamin C use in patients with cancer, chronic, untreatable, or intractable conditions and be observant of unexpected harm, drug interactions, or benefit. PMID:20628650

  4. [Antivaccine misinformation about rate of adverse effects and toxicity of vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mats, A N; Gol'dshteĭn, A V

    2010-01-01

    Two widely known antivaccine inventions are discussed: "vaccination is accompanied by adverse effects, which exceeded complications of respective infections on frequency and severity" and "vaccines represent appalling conglomerate of toxic substances, which is unnaturally to administer to children". Informational and psychological nature of dissemination of these inventions is analyzed. On the basis of recent literature data conclusion was made about the absence of real toxicity (including neurotoxicity), carcinogenicity, allergenicity and autopathogenicity of phenol, folmaldehyde, aluminium hydroxide, Twin 80, squalen (MF59) and ethylmercury in concentrations found in vaccines of national immunization schedule.

  5. Possible adverse effects of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Cecilie; Lindegaard Poulsen, Christina; Hartling, Ulla Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    and laboratory tests. RESULTS: The study comprised 200 patients. The median age at referral was 22 (interquartile range (IQR): 19.5-26) years, and age at first vaccination was 14 (IQR: 12-21) years. The most common symptoms were headache (93%), fatigue/tiredness (93%) and dizziness when standing up (90......INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine, young girls and women have reported a broad range of symptoms. These have been described as possible adverse effects of the vaccine. In this study, we describe demographic characteristics, symptomatology...... associated with the vaccine. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  6. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass...... existing cardiovascular disease. In this initial phase of ADT, metabolic changes are also most prominent. In addition, ADT increases the rate of bone loss and fracture risk. Currently available evidence supports the use of exercise interventions to improve physical function and mitigate ADT-induced fatigue...

  7. Adverse health effects of Asian dust particles and heavy metals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kazunari; Otani, Shinji; Yoshida, Atsushi; Mu, Haosheng; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2015-03-01

    Asian dust events are now considered an environmental problem rather than a natural seasonal phenomenon. In this study, we evaluated the associations between daily adverse health effects and Asian dust events in Yonago, Japan. Participants included 54 healthy volunteers, who were distributed survey sheets on nasal, ocular, respiratory, and skin effects in February 2009. Moreover, we collected meteorological and air pollutant (nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter) data and determined pollen and metallic element concentrations in total suspended particulates. Both soil-derived metals (Fe, Ca, Al) and contaminating metals (Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn) were significantly increased on Asian dust days. Multiple regression analyses showed that the score of the skin effect was significantly associated with the levels of suspended particulate matter and Ni. The results show that increased air pollutants on Asian dust days may have skin effects. © 2011 APJPH.

  8. Efficacy and adverse effects of intravenous lignocaine therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of intravenous lignocaine infusions (IV lignocaine in fibromyalgia. Methods Prospective study of the adverse effects of IV lignocaine in 106 patients with fibromyalgia; retrospective questionnaire study of the efficacy of IV lignocaine in 50 patients with fibromyalgia. Results Prospective study: Two major (pulmonary oedema and supraventricular tachycardia and 42 minor side-effects were reported. None had long-term sequelae. The commonest was hypotension (17 cases. Retrospective study: Pain and a range of psychosocial measures (on single 11-point scales improved significantly after treatment. There was no effect of the treatment on work status. The average duration of pain relief after the 6-day course of treatment was 11.5 ± 6.5 weeks. Conclusions Intravenous lignocaine appears to be both safe and of benefit in improving pain and quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia. This needs to be confirmed in prospective randomised controlled trials.

  9. Seeking optimal management for radioactive iodine therapy-induced adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Charalambous

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT is one of the important treatment modalities in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. RAIT with iodine-131 has long been used in the management of DTC for the ablation of residual thyroid or treatment of its metastases. Despite being reasonably safe, radioiodine therapy is not always without side effects. Even relatively low administered activities of RAIT used for remnant ablation have been associated with the more clinically significant side effects of sialadenitis, xerostomia, salivary gland pain and swelling, dry eyes, excessive tearing, or alterations in taste in as many as 25% of patients. Given that there is a lack of comprehensive management of these RAIT-induced adverse effects, this paper explores the use of other nonpharmacological measures and their effectiveness as interventions to minimize salivary gland damage.

  10. Adverse effects of pharmacological therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of effective medications makes pharmacological therapy of BPH the dominant mode of treatment today. It improves urinary symptoms and prevents disease progression while producing side effects on male sexual function. Objective. The aim of the study is to present the effects of BPH pharmacological treatment on the occurrence of sexually adverse effects in men: changes in sexual desire, erectile, ejaculatory and the orgasmic function. Methods. A prospective study involving 156 BPH patients. The average age was 61.16±2.97. Four groups of 39 patients each were formed. The 4 groups were administered tamsulosin (alpha-blocker, finasteride (5-alpha reductase inhibitor, combination therapy (tamsulosin and finasteride respectively, while the control group received no treatment. IPSS-QoL, IIEF and MSHQ-EjD questionnaires were used to evaluate the symptoms of voiding and sexual function. Follow-up examinations were performed 3 and 6 months into treatment. Results. Voiding symptoms improved in all groups receiving therapy. The side effects on the sexual function in all these groups include significant disorders of ejaculation and the orgasmic function. Ejaculation disorders: tamsulosin (-4.38±2.55; p<0.001, combined therapy (-3.89±2.84 and finasteride (-1.49±2.52. Orgasmic function disorders: tamsulosin (-1.03±1.94, combined therapy (-0.76±2.07 and finasteride (-0.54±1.68. Complete absence of ejaculation was experienced by 23% of patients on combined therapy, 15% on tamsulosin and 5% on finasteride. Conclusion. Pharmacological therapy of BPH improved voiding symptoms producing different effects on male sexual function. The main adverse effect on sexual function in men is the deterioration in ejaculation or the absence thereof. Clinical consideration of BPH should include the elements of male sexual function, patients’ age, the characteristics and effects of each group of drugs.

  11. Drugs with potential cardiac adverse effects: Retrospective study in a large cohort of parkinsonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heranval, A; Lefaucheur, R; Fetter, D; Rouillé, A; Le Goff, F; Maltête, D

    2016-01-01

    Drugs with potential cardiac adverse effects are commonly prescribed in Parkinson's disease (PD). To describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a group of PD patients with cardiac events and to evaluate risk factors. We sampled 506 consecutive PD patients (211 women/295 men), median age 68.3±10.6 years (range 36-95) and median disease duration 11.2±6.5 years (range 1-49). Medications with potential cardiac effects, i.e. QT prolongation (citalopram, escitalopram, venlafaxine, sertraline, domperidone, amantadine, solifenacin), ventricular arrhythmia (rivastigmine, clozapine, midodrine, sildenafil, tadalafil) and ischemic heart disease (rasagiline, entacapone, tadalafil) were recorded. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively; cardiac events were obtained retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (4.7%) (9 women/15 men) presented a cardiac event. Fifteen (62.5%) patients had dysautonomia, 4 (16.6%) a history of heart disease and 8 (33.3%) were taking one or more drugs with a definite potential cardiac adverse effect. Age (75.9±6.6 yr vs. 67.8±11 yr), disease duration (14.7±3.6 yr vs. 11±6.5 yr), dysautonomia (62.5% vs. 24.5%) and dementia associated with PD (37.5% vs. 14.6%) were significantly higher in the group with cardiac events (PParkinson's disease is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  13. Global Association of Cold Spells and Adverse Health Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryti, Niilo R I; Guo, Yuming; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mortality increases in low temperatures. Less is known about the role of prolonged cold periods denoted as cold spells. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence on the adverse health effects of cold spells in varying climates. Four databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched for all years and languages available. "Cold spell" was defined as an event below a temperature threshold lasting for a minimum duration of 2 days. Of 1,527 identified articles, 26 satisfied our eligibility criteria for the systematic review, and 9 were eligible for meta-analyses. The articles were grouped by the three main study questions into Overall-effect Group, Added-effect Group, and Temperature-change-effect Group. Based on random-effects models in the meta-analyses, cold spells were associated with increased mortality from all or all nonaccidental causes (summary rate ratio = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17 based on 9 estimates from five studies), cardiovascular diseases (1.11; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19; 12 estimates from eight studies), and respiratory diseases (1.21; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.51; 8 estimates from four studies). Estimated associations were stronger for people ≥ 65 years of age (1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12) than for people 0-64 years of age (1.01; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Study-specific effect estimates from a limited number of studies suggested an increased morbidity related to cold spells, but it was not possible to quantitatively summarize the evidence. Cold spells are associated with increased mortality rates in populations around the world. The body of evidence suggests that cold spells also have other adverse health effects. There was substantial heterogeneity among the studies, which should be taken into account in the interpretation of the results. Ryti NR, Guo Y, Jaakkola JJ. 2016. Global association of cold spells and adverse health effects: a systematic review and meta

  14. Potential Adverse Effects of Amphetamine Treatment on Brain and Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Steven M.; Kuczenski, Ronald; McCracken, James T.; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority 1. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Findings Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several-fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central

  15. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  16. Gratitude buffers the adverse effect of viewing the thin ideal on body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Sedlak, Brittany L; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    Gratitude has robust associations with multiple aspects of well-being. However, little research has explored whether the psychological benefits of gratitude extend to body image. We used a repeated measures experimental design to test whether a brief period of grateful reflection would buffer the adverse effect of exposure to thin-ideal media. Female undergraduates (N=67) completed three sessions one week apart. The conditions were specifically designed to isolate (a) the effects of viewing thin models on body dissatisfaction and (b) the moderating effect of grateful contemplation. Results showed that body dissatisfaction scores were lower for women who engaged in a brief period of grateful contemplation before viewing photographs of thin models than for women who reflected upon life hassles before viewing the same photographs. The magnitude of this decrease depended on BMI. Gratitude offers an innovative direction for future research directed toward helping women to accept their bodies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Review: Pharmacogenetic aspects of the effect of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on serotonergic drug metabolism, response, interactions, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J L; Gerostamoulos, D; Drummer, Olaf H

    2011-06-01

    The field of pharmacogenetics contains a wealth of potential for the enhancement of clinical practice by providing a more effective match between patient and drug, consequently reducing the probability of an adverse drug reaction. Although a relatively novel concept in the forensic context, pharmacogenetics has the capability to assist in the interpretation of drug related deaths, particularly in unintentional drug poisonings where the cause of death remains unclear. However, the complex pharmacology of the drugs when subjected to genetic variations in metabolism makes interpretation of the expected response and adverse events difficult. Many possess multiple metabolic pathways, narrow therapeutic indices and active metabolites or enantiomers which may be eliminated via different pathways to the parent drug. A number of these drugs, which are metabolised primarily by the CYP450 system, are also associated with serotonin syndrome, or serotonin toxicity, especially when used concomitantly with other serotonin active drugs which rely on the same metabolic pathways for drug elimination. A comprehensive understanding of polymorphic drug metabolism and its expected outcomes is therefore essential when interpreting the involvement of drugs in adverse reactions. This review examines the genetically variable CYP450-mediated metabolism of a number of serotonin-active drugs that are often implicated in cases of serotonin toxicity, to assess the impact of pharmacogenetics on drug metabolism, response, interactions and adverse effects.

  18. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Lapadula, E; Podhasky, P; White, R

    2000-08-11

    neurobehavioral parameters was significantly higher motor activity counts among high-dose (7500 ppm) males after the 4-wk recovery period, suggesting a possible delayed effect of LCRN-D. However, there was no evidence of hyperactivity or abnormal behavior from the functional observational battery evaluations, and there were no microscopic changes in neural tissue to support this observation. The no-observed-adverse-effects level (NOAEL) for LCRN-D was 2500 ppm for both subchronic toxicity and neurotoxicity. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) was 750 ppm.

  19. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Emily S; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline A

    2013-10-21

    Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women's experiences with this treatment. Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. Primary outcomes were life-threatening adverse effects of treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest). For randomised controlled trials, data were meta-analysed, and risk ratios (RR) pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models. For non-randomised studies, data were tabulated by design, and presented as RR, odds ratios or percentages, and summarised narratively. A total of 143 publications were included (21 randomised trials, 15 non-randomised comparative studies, 32 case series and 75 reports of individual cases), of mixed methodological quality. Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. Magnesium sulphate significantly increased the risk of 'any adverse effects' overall (RR 4.62, 95% CI 2.42-8.83; 4 trials, 13,322 women), and treatment cessation due to adverse effects (RR 2.77; 95% CI 2.32-3.30; 5 trials, 13,666 women). Few subgroup differences were observed (between indications for use and treatment regimens). In one trial, a lower dose regimen (2 g/3 hours) compared with a higher dose regimen (5 g/4 hours) significantly reduced treatment cessation (RR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.39, 126 women). Adverse effect estimates from studies of other designs largely supported data from randomised trials. Case reports supported an

  20. Wood combustion particles induce adverse effects to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Manuel; Künzi, Lisa; Allenbach, Sandrine; Bruns, Emily A; Gavarini, Ilaria; El-Haddad, Imad; Slowik, Jay G; Prévôt, André S H; Drinovec, Luka; Močnik, Griša; Dümbgen, Lutz; Salathe, Matthias; Baumlin, Nathalie; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Dommen, Josef; Geiser, Marianne

    2017-04-19

    Residential wood burning is a major source of poorly characterized, deleterious particulate matter, whose composition and toxicity may vary with wood type, burning condition and photochemical age. The causative link between ambient wood particle constituents and observed adverse health effects is currently lacking. Here we investigate the relationship between chemical properties of primary and atmospherically aged wood combustion particles and acute toxicity in human airway epithelial cells. Emissions from a log wood burner were diluted and injected into a smog chamber for photochemical aging. After concentration-enrichment and removal of oxidizing gases, directly emitted and atmospherically aged particles were deposited on cell cultures at the air-liquid interface for 2 hours in an aerosol deposition chamber mimicking physiological conditions in lungs. Cell models were fully differentiated normal and diseased (cystic fibrosis and asthma) human bronchial epithelia (HBE) and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Cell responses were assessed at 24 hours after aerosol exposure. Atmospherically relevant doses of wood combustion particles significantly increased cell death in all but the asthma cell model. Expression of oxidative stress markers increased in HBE from all donors. Increased cell death and inflammatory responses could not be assigned to a single chemical fraction of the particles. Exposure to primary and aged wood combustion particles caused adverse effects to airway epithelia, apparently induced by several interacting components.

  1. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  2. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Long-term adverse effects on bladder filling phase in males submitted to the pelvic radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rubio, Santiago; Salinas-Casado, Jesús; Vírseda-Chamorro, Miguel; Esteban-Fuertes, Manuel; Menéndez-Sánchez, Pablo; Moreno-Sierra, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    To describe and quantify the long-term adverse effects on filling phase of lower urinary tract function in males submitted to radiotherapy. We performed a retrospective comparative study on a cohort of 99 men undergoing EBRT a mean of 4.7 years before for clinically localized prostate, rectum or colon neoplasia, and another cohort formed by 97 men over 50 years who did not undergo radiotherapy. Cystometric bladder capacity and bladder capacity at first voiding desire were significantly lower in the radiotherapy group. Univariate analysis showed that the radiotherapy group evinced a risk to present a diminished compliance of 3.5 times more and 9.3 times more to find stress urinary incontinence, but we did not found increased risk for detrusor overactivity. In multivariate analysis the history of radical surgery acted as a confounding factor in the risk of stress urinary incontinence, but not to suffer diminished bladder compliance. The main long-term adverse effect of pelvic radiotherapy on male bladder function during filling is the increased risk of low bladder compliance.

  4. Adverse effects of herbicide MCPA on dogs in a 90 day toxicological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlonová, Irina; Hózová, Ruzena; Flaskárová, Eva

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the toxicity of the herbicide MCPA after repeated treatment according to OECD No 409. The herbicide MCPA was administrated to dogs of both sexes in daily doses: 0, 1, 5 and 15 mg/kg per os during 90 days. Clinical observations were recorded, opthalmoscopic, haematological, clinical chemistry parameters were investigated. The morphological changes were examined using pathological and histological techniques. An increase in the activity of the enzyme ALT and of urea concentration was observed in the middle- and high-dose groups. ALP and creatinine were decreased in dogs of all dose groups. After 60 days of MCPA administration, the concentration of glucose decreased in the high-dose group. The relative weight of both testes was decreased in the males from the high-dose group in comparison to controls. The decrease in testes weight was associated with focal testicular atrophy and loss of spermatogenic cells in the lobuli of testes. Focal hepatocellular necrosis, inflammatory changes and mononuclear nodules were observed in the liver, predominantly in males of the high-dose group. Administration of MCPA did not cause mortality and had no adverse effects on hematological parameters of animals. The results of the study showed that MCPA treatment caused inflammatory lesions in the liver, moderate damage of the kidney, and had focal adverse effect on the development of spermiogenesis. The changes were reversible.

  5. Noise monitoring and adverse health effects in residents in different functional areas of Luzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Xia; Lei, Zhang-Heng; Zhang, Chun-Lian; Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong-Lin; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Qing-Bi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the noise pollution situation and the resulting adverse effect on residents' health in Luzhou, China, to provide data for noise pollution prevention policies and interventions. Four different functional areas (commercial, construction, residential, and transportation hub areas) were chosen to monitor noise level for 3 months. The survey was performed by questionnaire on the spot on randomly selected individuals; it collected data on the impact of noise on residents' health (quality of sleep, high blood pressure, subjective feeling of nervous system damage, and attention) as well as the knowledge of noise-induced health damage, the degree of adaptation to noise, and their solutions. The noise levels of residential, commercial, transportation, and construction areas exceeded the national standards (P health hazards associated with noise; 64.57% of residents have adapted to the current noise environment. Most of them have to close the doors and windows to reduce noise. The noise pollution situation in Luzhou, China, is serious, especially the traffic noise pollution. Residents pay less attention to it and adopt single measures to reduce the noise. We should work toward the prevention and control of traffic noise and improve the residents' awareness to reduce the adverse health effects of noise. © 2014 APJPH.

  6. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Background. While high-protein consumption-above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)-is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutritional supplements in humans. Design. Review. Subjects. Healthy adult male and female subjects. Method. In order to identify relevant studies, the electronic databases, Medline and Google Scholar, were searched using the terms:"high protein diet," "protein overconsumption," "protein overuse," and "high meat diet." Papers not in English were excluded. Further studies were identified by citations in retrieved papers. Results. 32 studies (21 experimental human studies and 11 reviews) were identified. The adverse effects associated with long-term high protein/high meat intake in humans were (a) disorders of bone and calcium homeostasis, (b) disorders of renal function, (c) increased cancer risk, (d) disorders of liver function, and (e) precipitated progression of coronary artery disease. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that there is currently no reasonable scientific basis in the literature to recommend protein consumption above the current RDA (high protein diet) for healthy adults due to its potential disease risks. Further research needs to be carried out in this area, including large randomized controlled trials.

  7. Interaction of mGlu2/3 agonism with clozapine and lurasidone to restore novel object recognition in subchronic phencyclidine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Masakuni; Huang, Mei; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2011-09-01

    Subchronic administration to rodents of the N-methyl-D-aspartate non-competitive antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), impairs novel object recognition (NOR). Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) reverse the effects of subchronic PCP on NOR. The effect of metabotropic glutamate₂/₃ receptor (mGlu₂/₃) agonists upon NOR is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that the mGlu₂/₃ agonist, LY379268, by itself, or in combination with APDs or pimavanserin, a 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist, would reverse the deficit in NOR induced by subchronic treatment with PCP (2 mg/kg, b.i.d., for 7 days). The mGlu₂/₃ agonist LY379268 (1 or 3 mg/kg) did not attenuate the PCP-induced NOR deficit. However, together with sub-effective dose of the atypical APDs, clozapine (0.1 mg/kg) or lurasidone (0.03 mg/kg), but not the typical APD, haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), or pimavanserin (3 mg/kg), LY379268, 1 mg/kg, significantly reversed the PCP-induced NOR deficit. Moreover, the effect of clozapine was blocked by the mGlu₂/₃ antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg). These results indicate that mGlu₂/₃ agonism can potentiate the ability of atypical, but not typical APDs, to ameliorate the effect of subchronic PCP on NOR, that mGlu₂/₃ agonism may contribute to the ability of atypical APDs to acutely reverse the effect of subchronic PCP on NOR, but that by itself, mGlu₂/₃ agonism, is ineffective in this model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These results suggest that mGlu₂/₃ receptor agonism should be investigated as an adjunctive treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia rather than as monotherapy, which may be effective for control of psychosis, but not for cognitive impairment.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  9. Tiapride is more effective and causes fewer adverse effects than risperidone in the treatment of senile dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Li, L H; Huang, Y J; Lei, L F

    2016-07-01

    We wanted to compare the effects of tiapride and risperidone in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia. 108 patients with senile dementia received respective treatments (54 patients per treatment, either with 100 mg/day risperidone or 2.0 mg tiapride/day) for 2 months. Outcomes included the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, the curative rate of senile dementia, and prevalence of adverse effects (somnolence, headache, loss of weight, extrapyramidal system response, irritation and insomnia). PANSS scores before treatment were comparable between treatment groups. On days 7, 15, 30, and 60 of the treatment, the differences between two treatment groups became evident. Thus, curative rates in patients treated with risperidone were 74.1% and in those treated with tiapride 88.9% (p senile dementia and causes fewer adverse effects.

  10. PTH prevents the adverse effects of focal radiation on bone architecture in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lan, Shenghui; Zhu, Ji; Lin, Tiao; Zhang, Xianrong; Siclari, Valerie A.; Altman, Allison R.; Cengel, Keith A.; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment regimen for cancer patients. However, its adverse effects on the neighboring bone could lead to fractures with a great impact on quality of life. The underlying mechanism is still elusive and there is no preventive or curative solution for this bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a current therapy for osteoporosis that has potent anabolic effects on bone. In this study, we found that focal radiation from frequent scans of the right tibiae in 1-month-old rats by micro-computed tomography severely decreased trabecular bone mass and deteriorated bone structure. Interestingly, PTH daily injections remarkably improved trabecular bone in the radiated tibiae with increases in trabecular number, thickness, connectivity, structure model index and stiffness, and a decrease in trabecular separation. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that radiation mainly decreased the number of osteoblasts and impaired their mineralization activity but had little effects on osteoclasts. PTH reversed these adverse effects and greatly increased bone formation to a similar level in both radiated and non-radiated bones. Furthermore, PTH protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from radiation-induced damage, including a decrease in number and an increase in adipogenic differentiation. While radiation generated the same amount of free radicals in the bone marrow of vehicle-treated and PTH-treated animals, the percentage of apoptotic bone marrow cells was significantly attenuated in the PTH group. Taken together, our data demonstrate a radioprotective effect of PTH on bone structure and bone marrow and shed new light on a possible clinical application of anabolic treatment in radiotherapy. PMID:23466454

  11. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors. In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  12. Concurrent Risperidone Administration Attenuates the Development of Locomotor Sensitization Following Sub-Chronic Phencyclidine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, C E; Reynolds, G P; Jenkins, T A

    2016-03-01

    In schizophrenia early treatment may prevent disorder onset, or at least minimize its impact, suggesting possible neuroprotective properties of antipsychotics. The present study investigates the effects of chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, on locomotor sensitization in the subchronic phencyclidine-treated rat. Rats were treated with phencyclidine sub-chronically (2 mg/kg bi-daily for one week followed by a one-week wash-out period) or vehicle. Half of the phencyclidine group was concurrently treated with risperidone (0.5 mg/kg IP) twice daily for 15 days, beginning 3 days before the start of phencyclidine administration. 6 weeks after treatment all rats were injected with a phencyclidine-challenge (3.2 mg/kg) and immediately after their locomotor activity measured for 20 min. Co-administration of risperidone at the time of phencyclidine administration significantly reduced the phencyclidine-challenge locomotor effect administered 6 weeks later. These results demonstrate that concurrent risperidone is neuroprotective, and clearly suggests its functionality can be translated to a clinical setting for treating the so-called prodrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Sub-chronic exposure to paraoxon neither induces nor exacerbates diabetes mellitus in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed M; Petroianu, Georg; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Kalász, Huba; Oz, Murat; Saeed, Tariq; Adem, Abdu; Adeghate, Ernest

    2013-10-01

    There is an increasing belief that organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) impair glucose homeostasis and cause hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to investigate the putative diabetogenic effect of sub-lethal and sub-chronic exposure to paraoxon (POX), an extremely hazardous OPC used in pesticides. The effect of paraoxon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was also examined. Each rat was injected with 100 nmol of POX 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Blood glucose levels and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity were measured weekly. Biochemical analysis and morphological studies were performed at the end of the experiment. The results revealed that POX neither induces nor exacerbates diabetes mellitus in experimental rats. Liver and kidney/body weight ratios revealed statistically insignificant differences when compared with controls. Biochemical analysis of urine samples showed a small but not significant increase in protein level in all groups. Urine bilirubin was significantly higher in the diabetes + POX group when compared with the control group. The number of blood cells in urine was significantly higher in the POX-treated group compared with the control group. Hyperglycemia was noted in the diabetes and diabetes + POX groups, but neither in the saline control nor in POX-treated normal rats. Electron microscopy of POX-treated pancreas did not show any morphological changes in beta cells. These results suggest that POX does not cause diabetes mellitus at sub-lethal sub-chronic exposure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Adverse Effects of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Adherence to them among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Tara Manandhar Shrestha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs are the most common drugs used in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. There are various established adverse effects related to their use including hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbance, lactic acidosis, and fluid retention. However, the pattern of adverse effects related to OHAs in Nepalese patients still needs to be explored. Our study aims to determine the pattern of adverse effects resulting from the use of OHAs among Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients and their adherence to the medication. Methods: All diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. After informed consent, patients were interviewed and evaluated as per the designed proforma. They were mainly studied for common drug used, adverse effects of the drugs, occurrence of hypoglycemia, and adherence to treatment. Results: The study comprised of 183 patients with mean age of 58.73 years (SD = 12.95. Fifty-six (30.6% patients said that they developed adverse effects of drugs but only 21 (11.5% of them reported to their treating physician. Most common adverse effect were related to central nervous system such as tingling sensation of hands and feet, dizziness, drowsiness, etc.  Though 91 (49.7% patients had developed symptoms suggestive of hypoglycemia, only 31 (16.9% knew that it was due to hypoglycemia. Majority of the patients (n = 143, 78.1% administered the drugs as prescribed by the physician. Among the defaulters, the most important reasons for failure to properly administer the drugs was forgetfulness in 82.5% (n = 33, N = 40 of cases. Among the study variables family history of chronic illness (p = 0.046 and information about adverse effects from physician (p = 0.001 had a significant relationship with incidence of adverse effects. Whereas none of them had a significant relationship with adherence to hypoglycemic medication. Conclusion: The incidence of adverse effects was high with hypoglycemia

  15. Sub-chronic exposure to fipronil induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fipronil (FPN is a broad-spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide and has been used in agriculture and public health since the mid-1990s. The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the FPN on the liver and kidney of male rats at three concentrations 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L in drinking water for 45 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity and levels of uric acid, creatinine and total protein were significantly increased in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reduced (GSH were significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation (LPO was significantly increased in treating rats in a concentration dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidney of male rats. From our results, it can be concluded that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver, and kidney injury in rats. These pathophysiological changes in liver and kidney tissues could be due to the toxic effect of FPN that associated with a generation of free radicals.

  16. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  17. Acute Liver and Renal Failure: A Rare Adverse Effect Exclusive to Intravenous form of Amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Robin; Dogra, Prerna; Suman, Saurav; Acharya, Saurav; Matta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is highly effective against a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias making it irreplaceable in certain group of patients. We report an unusual case of acute liver and renal failure within 24 hours of initiation of intravenous (IV) amiodarone which resolved after stopping the medication. The mechanism of acute liver and renal toxicity is not clearly known but is believed to be secondary to amiodarone induced (relative) hypotension, idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, and toxicity of the vector that carries the medication, polysorbate-80. In this case review, we discuss the hyperacute drug toxicity caused by IV amiodarone being a distinctly different entity compared to the adverse effects shown by oral amiodarone and support the suggestion that oral amiodarone can be safely administered even in patients who manifest acute hepatitis with the IV form.

  18. Acute Liver and Renal Failure: A Rare Adverse Effect Exclusive to Intravenous form of Amiodarone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Paudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is highly effective against a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias making it irreplaceable in certain group of patients. We report an unusual case of acute liver and renal failure within 24 hours of initiation of intravenous (IV amiodarone which resolved after stopping the medication. The mechanism of acute liver and renal toxicity is not clearly known but is believed to be secondary to amiodarone induced (relative hypotension, idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, and toxicity of the vector that carries the medication, polysorbate-80. In this case review, we discuss the hyperacute drug toxicity caused by IV amiodarone being a distinctly different entity compared to the adverse effects shown by oral amiodarone and support the suggestion that oral amiodarone can be safely administered even in patients who manifest acute hepatitis with the IV form.

  19. Te Inclusions in CZT Detectors: New Method for Correcting Their Adverse Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Babalola, S.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, S.U.; Hawrami, R.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

    2009-10-25

    Both Te inclusions and point defects can trap the charge carriers generated by ionizing particles in CdZnTe (CZT) detectors. The amount of charge trapped by point defects is proportional to the carriers’ drift time and can be corrected electronically. In the case of Te inclusions, the charge loss depends upon their random locations with respect to the electron cloud. Consequently, inclusions introduce fluctuations in the charge signals, which cannot be easily corrected. In this paper, we describe direct measurements of the cumulative effect of Te inclusions and its influence on the response of CZT detectors of different thicknesses and different sizes and concentrations of Te inclusions. We also discuss a means of partially correcting their adverse effects.

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity of metal complex azo acid dye and anionic surfactant oil on fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amwele, Hilma Rantilla; Papirom, Pittaya; Chukanhom, Kanit; Beamish, Fredrick Henry William; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    The acute toxicity study of metal complex dark green azo acid dye, anionic surfactant oil and their mixture determined the 96 hr LC50, and fish behaviours. Subchronic toxicity determined haematology parameters and concentrations of copper and chromium in blood. The 96 hr LC50 was determined by probit analysis and subchronic toxicity was conducted in 90 days. No mortalities were observed in control and anionic surfactant oil treatments. The 96 hr LC50 value of mixture was 26.7 mg I(-1) (95% CL = 20.7 - 46.8) and that of metal complex dark green azo acid dye was not met as the percentage of dead was below 50% of tested organisms. In a treatment of anionic surfactant oil and that of mixture observed behaviours were respiration response, uncoordinated movement, loss of equilibrium, erratic posture and loss of responsiveness. Subchronic toxicity indicated fluctuations in number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes in all chemical treatments. Erythrocyte morphology such as anisocytosis, erythrocytes hypertrophy, karyolysis, cytoplasm vacuolation, ghost cell were observed in fish blood in all chemical treatments. An inverse relation was observed between total copper and chromium concentration in blood. However, the toxicity effect was chemical dose dependent and length of exposure.

  1. Adverse Effects of Osteocytic Constitutive Activation of ß-Catenin on Bone Strength and Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sixu; Feng, Jianquan; Bao, Quanwei; Li, Ang; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Yufeng; Guo, Qingshan; Jing, Junjun; Lin, Shuxian; Zong, Zhaowen

    2015-07-01

    The activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts has been demonstrated to increase bone mass, showing promise for the treatment of low bone volume conditions such as osteoporosis. However, the possible side effects of manipulating this pathway have not been fully addressed. Previously, we reported that the constitutive activation of ß-catenin in osteoblasts impaired vertebral linear growth. In the present study, β-catenin was constitutively activated in osteocytes by crossing Catnb+/lox(exon 3) mice with dentin matrix protein 1(DMP1)-Cre transgenic mice, and the effects of this activation on bone mass, bone growth and bone strength were then observed. DMP1-Cre was found to be predominantly expressed in osteocytes, with weak expression in a small portion of osteoblasts and growth plate chondrocytes. After the activation, the cancellous bone mass was dramatically increased, almost filling the entire bone marrow cavity in long bones. However, bone strength decreased significantly. Thinner and more porous cortical bone along with impaired mineralization were responsible for the decrease in bone strength. Furthermore, the mice showed shorter stature with impaired linear growth of the long bones. Moreover, the concentration of serum phosphate decreased significantly after the activation of ß-catenin, and a high inorganic phosphate (Pi) diet could partially rescue the phenotype of decreased mineralization level and impaired linear growth. Taken together, the constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteocytes may increase cancellous bone mass; however, the activation also had adverse effects on bone strength and bone growth. These adverse effects should be addressed before the adoption of any therapeutic clinical application involving adjustment of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Epidemiologic studies of adverse effects of anti-retroviral drugs: how well is statistical power reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D; Barton, Todd D; Gross, Robert; Hennessy, Sean; Berlin, Jesse A; Strom, Brian L

    2005-03-01

    To determine whether there is a difference in average statistical power between pharmacoepidemiologic studies of anti-retroviral adverse drug effects (ADEs) sponsored by for-profit versus non-profit organizations. We studied all published pharmacoepidemiologic studies of ADEs associated with the 15 anti-retroviral drugs approved through the end of 1999. A priori, the primary outcome was the power of each study to detect a clinically important difference in the risk for an adverse effect among patients exposed to the study drug(s). We could not evaluate this outcome because of the infrequent reporting of power calculations. We instead report the distribution of studies across a 5-tiered measure of adequacy of reporting of statistical power, as well as the sponsorship of these studies. Of 48 studies meeting our inclusion criteria, only 1 (2%) reported either a completed, a priori power calculation or sufficient details for readers to calculate the power to detect a pre-defined, clinically important effect. Thirty-five studies (73%) reported the minimum information required for sophisticated readers to determine the power to detect an event rate of interest to them; 6 additional studies (13%) reported confidence intervals around at least one summary effect measure and 6 (13%) provided no indication of power or uncertainty. Of the 41 studies for which sponsorship was determined, only 3 (7%) were sponsored by for-profit organizations. The poor reporting of statistical power in this sample suggests a need for guidelines to improve the reporting of pharmacoepidemiologic studies of ADEs. Future research is needed to determine whether the observed paucity of industry-sponsored observational studies of anti-retroviral ADEs extends to other clinical areas, and if so, to identify the causes of this phenomenon. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Rebound effect of modern drugs: serious adverse event unknown by health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2013-01-01

    Supported in the Hippocratic aphorism primum non nocere, the bioethical principle of non-maleficence pray that the medical act cause the least damage or injury to the health of the patient, leaving it to the doctor to assess the risks of a particular therapy through knowledge of possible adverse events of drugs. Among these, the rebound effect represents a common side effect to numerous classes of modern drugs, may cause serious and fatal disorders in patients. This review aims to clarify the health professionals on clinical and epidemiological aspects of rebound phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic review was held in the PubMed database using the keywords 'rebound', 'withdrawal', 'paradoxical', 'acetylsalicylic acid', 'anti-inflammatory', 'bronchodilator', 'antidepressant', 'statin', 'proton pump inhibitor' and 'bisphosphonate'. The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. Regardless of the disease, the drug and duration of treatment, the phenomenon manifests itself in a small proportion of susceptible individuals. However, it may cause serious and fatal adverse events should be considered a public health problem in view of the enormous consumption of drugs by population. Bringing together a growing and unquestionable body of evidence, the physician needs to have knowledge of the consequences of the rebound effect and how to minimize it, increasing safety in the management of modern drugs. On the other hand, this rebound can be used in a curative way, broadening the spectrum of the modern therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families. Copyright © 2016 by the

  5. Duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariangels; Skärstrand, Eva; Becoña, Elisardo; Talic, Sanela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant contributions from previous studies about the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in Europe, important questions remain regarding adverse consequences of PIU. This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences among adolescents. Key Words: Internet, adolescents, psychosocial problems.

  6. Adverse effect of pioglitazone in military personnel and their families: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudhironarit, Thishnapha; Benjasuratwong, Yupin; Patarakitvanit, Supen; Temboonkiat, Supatta; Satyapan, Nisamanee

    2009-02-01

    Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) whether administered alone or in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea, or insulin, are often accompanied by an increase in weight and/or plasma volume. Several studies have shown the adverse effect of weight gain and edema with rosiglitazone. But there was less data with pioglitazone, especially in military personnel and their families. The authors prospectively recorded the adverse events in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent administration with pioglitazone 15 mg once daily between June 2005 to May 2007. Weight gain was reported in 30/40 of patients (75%). The mean weight gain was 2.25 +/- 2.23 kg and the median was 2 kg. The slightly lower proportion of patients, 21/40 (52.5%) developed edema and some of them were associated with weight gain. Pioglitazone was associated with a significant increase in body weight and edema. This finding may lead to increase the risk of myocardial infarction in military personnel and their families, especially those who had underlying disease of congestive heart failure, which was not included in the present study.

  7. A Review of the Novel Application and Potential Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Yuan; Sun, Lu-Ning; Zhang, Xue-Hui; Li, Yue-Qi; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Zi-Qing-Yun; Meng, Ling; Zhang, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2017-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are known as a class of pharmaceutical agents that target H+/K+-ATPase, which is located in gastric parietal cells. PPIs are widely used in the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases including peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and so on. These drugs present an excellent safety profile and have become one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in primary and specialty care. Except for gastric acid-related diseases, PPIs can also be used in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, viral infections, respiratory system diseases, cancer and so on. Although PPIs are mainly used short term in patients with peptic ulcer disease, nowadays these drugs are increasingly used long term, and frequently for a lifetime, for instance in patients with typical or atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and in NSAID or aspirin users at risk of gastrotoxicity and related complications including hemorrhage, perforation and gastric outlet obstruction. Long-term use of PPIs may lead to potential adverse effects, such as osteoporotic fracture, renal damage, infection (pneumonia and clostridium difficile infection), rhabdomyolysis, nutritional deficiencies (vitamin B12, magnesium and iron), anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this article, we will review some novel uses of PPIs in other fields and summarize the underlying adverse reactions.

  8. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nein Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  9. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-05

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of consanguineous marriage on reproductive behaviour, adverse pregnancy outcomes and offspring mortality in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2013-05-01

    The long tradition of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in Omani society may have ramifications for reproductive behaviour and health of offspring. To examine the relevance of consanguinity to reproductive behaviour, adverse pregnancy outcome and offspring mortality in Oman. The data analysed came from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Selected indicators that are related to reproductive behaviour, adverse pregnancy outcome and offspring mortality were considered as explanatory variables. Various statistical methods and tests were used for data analysis. Consanguineous marriage was found to be associated with lower age at first birth, higher preference for larger family size, lower level of husband-wife communication about use of family planning methods and lower rate of contraceptive use. Although bivariate analysis showed elevated fertility and childhood mortality among the women with consanguineous marriage, after controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors in multivariate analysis, fertility, childhood mortality and foetal loss showed no significant association with consanguinity in Oman. Consanguinity plays an important role in determining some of the aspects of reproduction and health of newborns, but did not show any detrimental effects on fertility and offspring mortality. The high level of consanguinity and its relevance to reproduction in Oman need to be considered in its public health strategy in a culturally acceptable manner.

  11. Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Melissa D; Levenson, Jill S; Bolder, Tess

    2016-01-25

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. High salt intake causes adverse fetal programming--vascular effects beyond blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecha, Grzegorz; Koleganova, Nadezda; Ritz, Eberhard; Müller, Annett; Fedorova, Olga V; Bagrov, Alexei Y; Lutz, Diana; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

    2012-09-01

    High salt intake causes hypertension, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and potentially also blood pressure (BP)-independent target organ damage. Excess salt intake in pregnancy is known to affect BP in the offspring. The present study was designed to assess whether high salt intake in pregnancy affects BP and vascular morphology in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard rodent diet with low-normal (0.15%) or high (8.0%) salt content during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, offspring were maintained on the same diet or switched to a high- or low-salt diet, respectively. Vascular geometry was assessed in male offspring at 7 and 12 weeks postnatally. Up to 12 weeks of age, there was no significant difference in telemetrically measured BP between the groups of offspring. At 12 weeks of age, wall thickness of central (aorta, carotid), muscular (mesenteric) and intrapulmonary arteries was significantly higher in offspring of mothers on a high-salt diet irrespective of the post-weaning diet. This correlated with increased fibrosis of the aortic wall, more intense nitrotyrosine staining as well as elevated levels of marinobufagenin (MBG) and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA). High salt intake in pregnant rats has long-lasting effects on the modeling of central and muscular arteries in the offspring independent of postnatal salt intake and BP. Circulating MBG and ADMA and local oxidative stress correlate with the adverse vascular modeling.

  13. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies. PMID:24159351

  14. The effect of pre-donation hypotension on whole blood donor adverse reactions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Nele S; Cusack, Leila; De Buck, Emmy; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Blood services are reliant upon healthy blood donors to provide a safe and adequate supply of blood products. Inappropriate variables contained within blood donor exclusion criteria can defer potentially appropriate donors. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of low pre-donation blood pressure, as compared with normal blood pressure, on adverse events in allogeneic whole blood donors. A systematic review was performed using highly sensitive search strategies within five databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) from inception date until April 12, 2013. Out of 8305 records, 10 observational studies were identified that addressed the question. Five of these studies (with a combined total of 1,482,020 donations and 2903 donors) included either a statistical analysis or an appropriate study design that controlled for possible confounding factors. Based on the currently available evidence, hypotension has not been shown to be an independent predictive factor for donor complications. However, the overall quality of evidence was rather limited and rated 'low,' using the GRADE approach. In conclusion there is currently no evidence that hypotensive blood donors have a greater risk for donor adverse events compared with their normotensive counterparts. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. Comparar a incidência e a intensidade de efeitos adversos agudos e a variação da temperatura da pele da face através da termografia após a aplicação de ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram incluídos 20 voluntários sadios, de ambos os gêneros, submetidos à VNI com máscara oronasal por 1 h e divididos aleatoriamente em

  16. Effect of concomitant use of montelukast and efavirenz on neuropsychiatric adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Barrueta, Olatz; Palacios-Zabalza, Itziar; Mora-Atorrasagasti, Oihana; Mayo-Suarez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    To report the case of an HIV patient who developed neuropsychiatric disturbances when montelukast was added to her therapy containing efavirenz. A 41-year-old woman with HIV infection had been on treatment with efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate since 2007 with good tolerance. In November 2011, montelukast was started for asthma and shortly thereafter neuropsychiatric symptoms appeared, consisting of disturbed sleep, vivid dreams, irritability, confusion, and concentration difficulties. In January 2012, 2 months after the introduction of montelukast, she continued to report unbearable symptoms without any improvement; so, montelukast was withdrawn and the psychiatric symptoms completely disappeared. The combination of efavirenz and montelukast has not previously been associated with any pharmacokinetic interactions or worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms. This case report indicates the possibility of adverse effects developing when the 2 drugs are used together. These symptoms might either be related to a drug-drug interaction or increased by the similar side effect profiles of the 2 drugs. The higher score on the Karch-Lasagna scale suggests that an adverse effect is the more likely explanation. We cannot, however, rule out a drug interaction, given that efavirenz inhibits the CYP 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 isoenzymes and CYP 3A4, 2C9, and 2C8 are involved in the metabolism of montelukast. Considering that efavirenz is frequently used in antiretroviral therapy and that neuropsychiatric symptoms can limit its use, clinicians should consider the possibility of worsening of these symptoms, such as mood disorders and abnormal dreams, when montelukast is introduced.

  17. Responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy for pediatric intracranial germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntae Ji

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been commonly used for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumors (IC-GCTs. However, this treatment exhibits some adverse effects such as renal problems and hearing difficulty. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to pediatric patients with IC-GCTs from August 2004 at the Samsung Medical Center. In this study, we assessed the responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy in pediatric IC-GCTs patients according to the risk group, and compared the results with those of the previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Methods : We examined 35 patients (27 men and 8 women diagnosed with IC-GCTs between August 2004 and April 2008 and received riskadapted carboplatin-based chemotherapy at the Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into either low-risk (LR or high-risk (HR groups and a retrospective analysis was performed using information from the medical records. Results : Although hematological complications were common, hearing difficulties or grade 3 or 4 creatinine level elevation were not observed in patients who underwent carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The frequency of febrile neutropenia did not differ between the risk groups. The overall survival was 100% and event-free survival (EFS was 95.7 %. The EFS rate was 100% in the LR group and 90% in the HR group, respectively. Conclusion : Despite their common occurrence in high-risk patients, no lethal hematological complications were associated with carboplatinbased treatment. The current carboplatin-based chemotherapy protocol is safe and effective for the treatment of pediatric patients with IC-GCTs.

  18. Surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia: benefits, adverse effects, and patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Julian; Davies, Evan; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Sherry, Ned

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia, the adverse effects of this treatment, and what preoperative factors affect patient outcome after surgical correction. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing benefits and adverse effects of surgery in spastic quadriplegia. Factors affecting patient outcome following surgical correction of scoliosis were assessed. Studies involving adults and nonspastic quadriplegia were excluded. A total of 10 case series and 1 prospective and 3 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria. There was significant variation in the overall risk of complications (range, 10.9-70.9%), mortality (range, 2.8-19%), respiratory/pulmonary complications (range, 26.9-57.1%), and infection (range, 2.5-56.8%). Factors associated with a worse outcome were a significant degree of thoracic kyphosis, days in the intensive care unit, and poor nutritional status. Caregivers report a high degree of satisfaction with scoliosis surgery for children with spastic quadriplegia. There is limited evidence of preoperative factors that can predict patient outcome after scoliosis. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies of scoliosis surgery in spastic quadriplegia.

  19. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  20. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  1. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 1. Taking an exposure history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lynn; Weir, Erica; Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D

    2002-04-16

    Public concern and awareness are growing about adverse health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. Frequently patients present to their physicians with questions or concerns about exposures to such substances as lead, air pollutants and pesticides. Most primary care physicians lack training in and knowledge of the clinical recognition, management and avoidance of such exposures. We have found that it can be helpful to use the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) as a tool to identify a patient's history of exposures to potentially toxic environmental contaminants. In this article we discuss why it is important to take a patient's environmental exposure history, when and how to take the history, and how to interpret the findings. Possible routes of exposure and common sources of potentially toxic biological, physical and chemical substances are identified. A case of sick-building syndrome is used to illustrate the use of the mnemonic.

  2. Study on the adverse effects of hydropower development on international shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhong

    2017-04-01

    The Lancang - Mekong river is an important international waterway to Southeast Asia and South Asia, which has important strategic significance for promoting regional economic cooperation and safeguarding national economic and security interests. On the Mekong River, the main aim is to develop hydropower resources utilization and shipping. River Hydropower Stations are in Laos and designed by foreign enterprises according to the construction of BOT. In this study, on the basis of a lot of research work and extensive collection of relevant information, and, through in-depth analysis of research, it reveals that the upper Mekong River hydropower development have many adverse effects on international shipping, put forward related suggestions for the healthy and sustainable development of international shipping.

  3. Burden of informal caregiving for stroke patients. Identification of caregivers at risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, N J A; Koopmanschap, M A; van den Berg, B; Brouwer, W B F; van den Bos, G A M

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the objective and subjective burden of caregiving for stroke patients and investigated which characteristics of the patient, the informal caregiver and the objective burden contribute most to subjective burden and to the condition of feeling substantially burdened. We studied a sample of 151 stroke survivors and their primary informal caregivers. We collected data through patient and caregiver interviews 6 months after stroke. Both the level of subjective burden and the condition of feeling substantially burdened were associated with both caregiver's and patient's health-related quality of life, patient's age, and the number of caregiving tasks performed. These conditions can be used in clinical practice to identify potentially vulnerable caregivers in need of support and at risk of adverse health effects. Monitoring stroke survivors as well as their family caregivers at discharge may help to prevent or alleviate caregiver burden.

  4. Automatic Extraction of Drug Adverse Effects from Product Characteristics (SPCs): A Text Versus Table Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ugon, Adrien; Berthelot, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Potential adverse effects (AEs) of drugs are described in their summary of product characteristics (SPCs), a textual document. Automatic extraction of AEs from SPCs is useful for detecting AEs and for building drug databases. However, this task is difficult because each AE is associated with a frequency that must be extracted and the presentation of AEs in SPCs is heterogeneous, consisting of plain text and tables in many different formats. We propose a taxonomy for the presentation of AEs in SPCs. We set up natural language processing (NLP) and table parsing methods for extracting AEs from texts and tables of any format, and evaluate them on 10 SPCs. Automatic extraction performed better on tables than on texts. Tables should be recommended for the presentation of the AEs section of the SPCs.

  5. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  6. Adverse effects of perioperative paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kontinen, V K

    2014-01-01

    with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects...... of perioperative non-opioid analgesics, and randomised trials and cohort/retrospective studies. Generally, data on AE are sparse and related to the immediate post-operative period. For paracetamol, the incidence of AEs appears trivial. Data are inconclusive regarding an association of NSAIDs with mortality......, cardiovascular events, surgical bleeding and renal impairment. Anastomotic leakage may be associated with NSAID usage. No firm evidence exists for an association of NSAIDs with impaired bone healing. Single-dose GCCs were not significantly related to increased infection rates or delayed wound healing...

  7. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of transmural collaborative care with consultation letter (TCCCL) and duloxetine for major depressive disorder (MDD) and (sub)chronic pain in collaboration with primary care: design of a randomized placebo-controlled multi-Centre trial: TCC:PAINDIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Eric W; Dekker, Jack; van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna F; Beekman, Aartjan Tf; van Marwijk, Harm Wj; Holwerda, Tjalling J; Bet, Pierre M; Roth, Joost; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona; Ringoir, Lianne; Kat, Fiona; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2013-05-24

    The comorbidity of pain and depression is associated with high disease burden for patients in terms of disability, wellbeing, and use of medical care. Patients with major and minor depression often present themselves with pain to a general practitioner and recognition of depression in such cases is low, but evolving. Also, physical symptoms, including pain, in major depressive disorder, predict a poorer response to treatment. A multi-faceted, patient-tailored treatment programme, like collaborative care, is promising. However, treatment of chronic pain conditions in depressive patients has, so far, received limited attention in research. Cost effectiveness of an integrated approach of pain in depressed patients has not been studied. This study is a placebo controlled double blind, three armed randomized multi centre trial. Patients with (sub)chronic pain and a depressive disorder are randomized to either a) collaborative care with duloxetine, b) collaborative care with placebo or c) duloxetine alone. 189 completers are needed to attain sufficient power to show a clinically significant effect of 0.6 SD on the primary outcome measures (PHQ-9 score). Data on depression, anxiety, mental and physical health, medication adherence, medication tolerability, quality of life, patient-doctor relationship, coping, health resource use and productivity will be collected at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. This study enables us to show the value of a closely monitored integrated treatment model above usual pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, a comparison with a placebo arm enables us to evaluate effectiveness of duloxetine in this population in a real life setting. Also, this study will provide evidence-based treatments and tools for their implementation in practice. This will facilitate generalization and implementation of results of this study. Moreover, patients included in this study are screened for pain symptoms, differentiating between nociceptive

  8. Mitigating Adverse Effects of a Human Mission on Possible Martian Indigenous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-07-01

    Although human beings are, by most standards, the most capable agents to search for and detect extraterrestrial life, we are also potentially the most harmful. While there has been substantial work regarding forward contamination with respect to robotic missions, the issue of potential adverse effects on possible indigenous Martian ecosystems, such as biological contamination, due to a human mission has remained relatively unexplored and may require our attention now as this presentation will try to demonstrate by exploring some of the relevant scientific questions, mission planning challenges, and policy issues. An informal, high-level mission planning decision tree will be discussed and is included as the next page of this abstract. Some of the questions to be considered are: (1) To what extent could contamination due to a human presence compromise possible indigenous life forms? (2) To what extent can we control contamination? For example, will it be local or global? (3) What are the criteria for assessing the biological status of Mars, both regionally and globally? For example, can we adequately extrapolate from a few strategic missions such as sample return missions? (4) What should our policies be regarding our mission planning and possible interaction with what are likely to be microbial forms of extraterrestrial life? (5) Central to the science and mission planning issues is the role and applicability of terrestrial analogs, such as Lake Vostok for assessing drilling issues, and modeling techniques. Central to many of the policy aspects are scientific value, international law, public concern, and ethics. Exploring this overall issue responsibly requires an examination of all these aspects and how they interrelate. A chart is included, titled 'Mission Planning Decision Tree for Mitigating Adverse Effects to Possible Indigenous Martian Ecosystems due to a Human Mission'. It outlines what questions scientists should ask and answer before sending humans to Mars.

  9. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Registered Nurses' Knowledge about Adverse Effects of Analgesics when Treating Postoperative Pain in Patients with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi

    2015-08-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ADVERPred-Web Service for Prediction of Adverse Effects of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergey M; Lagunin, Alexey A; Rudik, Anastasia V; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2018-01-22

    Application of structure-activity relationships (SARs) for the prediction of adverse effects of drugs (ADEs) has been reported in many published studies. Training sets for the creation of SAR models are usually based on drug label information which allows for the generation of data sets for many hundreds of drugs. Since many ADEs may not be related to drug consumption, one of the main problems in such studies is the quality of data on drug-ADE pairs obtained from labels. The information on ADEs may be included in three sections of the drug labels: "Boxed warning," "Warnings and Precautions," and "Adverse reactions." The first two sections, especially Boxed warning, usually contain the most frequent and severe ADEs that have either known or probable relationships to drug consumption. Using this information, we have created manually curated data sets for the five most frequent and severe ADEs: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, severe hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity, with more than 850 drugs on average for each effect. The corresponding SARs were built with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software and had balanced accuracy values of 0.74, 0.7, 0.77, 0.67, and 0.75, respectively. They were implemented in a freely available ADVERPred web service ( http://www.way2drug.com/adverpred/ ), which enables a user to predict five ADEs based on the structural formula of compound. This web service can be applied for estimation of the corresponding ADEs for hits and lead compounds at the early stages of drug discovery.

  12. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  14. Effect of adverse weather on neonatal caribou survival — a review

    OpenAIRE

    Frank L. Miller; Anne Gunn

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between adverse weather and neonatal caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp.) survival in North America by examining the available literature and our own findings. The viewpoint that adverse weather on the calving ground can result in major losses of newborn barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus) calves is largely unsupported. Published reports of calf mortality caused by adverse weather are questionable because causes of death were rarely determined by postmo...

  15. Sensitivity and precision of adverse effects search filters in MEDLINE and EMBASE: a case study of fractures with thiazolidinediones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K

    2012-03-01

    Search filters have been developed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to help overcome the challenges of searching electronic databases for information on adverse effects. However, little evaluation of their effectiveness has been carried out. To measure the sensitivity and precision of available adverse effects search filters in MEDLINE and EMBASE. A case study systematic review of fracture related adverse effects associated with the use of thiazolidinediones was used. Twelve MEDLINE search strategies and three EMBASE search strategies were tested. Nineteen relevant references from MEDLINE and 24 from EMBASE were included in the review. Four search filters in MEDLINE achieved high sensitivity (95 or 100%) with an improved level of precision from searches without any adverse effects filter. High precision in MEDLINE could also be achieved (up to 53%) using search filters that rely on Medical Subject Headings. No search filter in EMBASE achieved high precision (all were under 5%) and the highest sensitivity in EMBASE was 83%. Adverse effects search filters appear to be effective in MEDLINE for achieving either high sensitivity or high precision. Search filters in EMBASE, however, do not appear as effective, particularly in improving precision. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  16. More effective assessment of adverse effects and comorbidities in epilepsy: results of a Phase II communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, John M; Labiner, David M; Gilliam, Frank G; Penovich, Patricia E; Onofrey, Meaghan; Eagan, Corey A; Holmes, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate conversations about epilepsy between community-based neurologists and patients. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and mood/behavioral issues were infrequently discussed, and neurologists and patients disagreed about these issues postvisit. Follow-up research was conducted to assess the impact of a previsit assessment tool on discussions of epilepsy. Twenty neurologists reviewed a tool incorporating questions from validated instruments (Adverse Events Profile [AEP] and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy [NDDI-E]). Naturally occurring interactions between neurologists and 60 patients were recorded. Neurologists and patients were interviewed separately. All components were transcribed and analyzed using sociolinguistics. Using the previsit assessment tool increased the number of discussions about adverse effects and mood/behavioral issues and increased neurologist-patient agreement about issues postvisit. Visit length did not increase significantly when the tool was used. Ten months after follow-up research, 50% of neurologists reported continuing to use the tool in everyday practice with patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The incidence and predictors of overall adverse effects caused by low dose amiodarone in real-world clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size. Methods Between January 1, 2000 and March 10, 2012, a total of 930 consecutive patients who had been treated with amiodarone for arrhythmia were reviewed retrospectively. An amiodarone-associated adverse event was considered in cases of...

  18. The Effect of Adverse Childhood Experience on Clinical Diagnosis of a Substance Use Disorder: Results of a Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTendre, McKenzie Lynn; Reed, Mark B

    2017-05-12

    Substance abuse is one of the most common health outcomes associated with adverse childhood experience, and poses a significant public health threat. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between adverse childhood experience and a substance use disorder using nationally representative data as well as to test whether religion moderates this relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,279). Three types of adverse childhood experiences were considered; physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Logistic regression was used to determine whether risk for developing an alcohol use, cannabis use, or other drug use disorder in adulthood increased as exposure to multiple types of adverse childhood experiences increased while controlling for prior substance use and other demographic variables that have shown associations with substance use. In addition, religiosity was investigated as a possible moderator of the relationship between adverse childhood experience and substance abuse. The likelihood of developing a substance use disorder later in life increased as the score on the adverse childhood experience index increased. While religiosity did significantly reduce the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder, no moderating effects were observed. Conclusions/importance: This study underscores the long-term consequences of exposure to childhood adversity.

  19. Adverse Effect of Post-Discharge Care Fragmentation on Outcomes after Readmissions after Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anai N; Loy, Veronica M; Brownlee, Sarah A; Ezure, Yoshiki; Schaidle-Blackburn, Colleen; Cotler, Scott J; di Sabato, Diego; Kuo, Paul C; Lu, Amy D

    2017-07-01

    Post-discharge surgical care fragmentation is defined as readmission to any hospital other than the hospital at which surgery was performed. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fragmented readmissions within the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases for Florida and California from 2006 to 2011 were used to identify OLT patients. Post-discharge fragmentation was defined as any readmission to a non-index hospital, including readmitted patients transferred to the index hospital after 24 hours. Outcomes included adverse events, defined as 30-day mortality and 30-day readmission after a fragmented readmission. All statistical analyses considered a hierarchical data structure and were performed with multilevel, mixed-effects models. We analyzed 2,996 patients with 7,485 readmission encounters at 299 hospitals; 1,236 (16.5%) readmissions were fragmented. After adjustment for age, sex, readmission reason, index liver transplantation cost, readmission length of stay, number of previous readmissions, and time from transplantation, post-discharge fragmentation increased the odds of both 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.65) and 30-day readmission (OR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.49). Predictors of adverse events after a fragmented readmission included increased number of previous readmissions (OR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) and readmission within 90 days of OLT (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.61 to 2.98). Post-discharge fragmentation significantly increases the risk of both 30-day mortality and subsequent readmission after a readmission in the first year after OLT. More inpatient visits before a readmission and less time elapsed from index surgery increase the odds of an adverse event after discharge from a fragmented readmission. These parameters could guide transfer decisions for patients with post-discharge fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 American

  20. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  1. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  2. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Tan, Xiaoyun; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA) on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148) aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003) on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS) measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  3. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  4. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Zukowski, Sara

    2018-01-09

    Energy drink consumption has increased dramatically among young Canadians, with anecdotal evidence of adverse health effects. There is a lack of population-based studies to examine the prevalence of adverse events from energy drinks, particularly among young people. The current study sought to assess adverse events from energy drinks among a population-based sample of youth and young adults in Canada. An online survey was conducted in 2015 with a national sample of youth (aged 12-17 yr) and young adults (aged 18-24 yr) recruited from a consumer panel. Respondents reported prior consumption of energy drinks as well as adverse outcomes, concurrent activities associated with the outcomes and whether medical attention was sought or considered. Adverse events from coffee were also assessed for comparison. Weighted analyses are reported. Of the 2055 respondents, 1516 (73.8%) reported having ever consumed an energy drink, and 1741 (84.7%) reported having ever consumed coffee (unweighted). Overall, 55.4% of respondents who had ever consumed an energy drink reported that they had experienced at least 1 adverse event, including fast heartbeat (24.7%), difficulty sleeping (24.1%), headache (18.3%), nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (5.1%), chest pain (3.6%) and seizures (0.2%); 3.1% had sought or had considered seeking medical help for an adverse event. The prevalence of reported adverse events was significantly greater among energy drink consumers than among coffee consumers (36.0%) (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.56]), as was the proportion who reported seeking or considering seeking medical help for adverse events (3.1% v. 1.4%) (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.39-3.41]). More than half of youth and young adults who had consumed energy drinks reported adverse outcomes, some serious enough to warrant seeking medical help. The adverse outcomes were consistent with the physiologic effects of caffeine but were significantly more prevalent than with other sources of

  5. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Thomas M; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G M; Ageev, Fail T; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. The Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial is a three-group, multicenter, open-label randomized trial that compared 1 or 2 years of trastuzumab given once every 3 weeks with observation in patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer. Only patients who after completion of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF > or = 55%) were eligible. A repeat LVEF assessment was performed in case of cardiac dysfunction. Data were available for 1,693 patients randomly assigned to 1 year trastuzumab and 1,693 patients randomly assigned to observation. The incidence of trastuzumab discontinuation due to cardiac disorders was low (4.3%). The incidence of cardiac end points was higher in the trastuzumab group compared with observation (severe congestive heart failure [CHF], 0.60% v 0.00%; symptomatic CHF, 2.15% v 0.12%; confirmed significant LVEF drops, 3.04% v 0.53%). Most patients with cardiac dysfunction recovered in fewer than 6 months. Patients with trastuzumab-associated cardiac dysfunction were treated with higher cumulative doses of doxorubicin (287 mg/m(2) v 257 mg/m(2)) or epirubicin (480 mg/m(2) v 422 mg/m(2)) and had a lower screening LVEF and a higher body mass index. Given the clear benefit in disease-free survival, the low incidence of cardiac adverse events, and the suggestion that cardiac dysfunction might be reversible, adjuvant trastuzumab should be considered for treatment of breast cancer patients who fulfill the HERA trial eligibility criteria.

  6. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  7. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE on growth of conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM. Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce, mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts

  8. Mycorrhiza Reduces Adverse Effects of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) on Growth of Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. – Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and

  9. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  10. The effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis drug resistance and adverse treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Restrepo, Blanca I; Fuentes-Dominguez, Francisco Javier; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Morales-Romero, Jaime; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Comas, Iñaki; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and multi drug resistance (MDR). A cohort with 507 individuals with diagnosed TB included 183 with coexistence of T2DM and TB (TB-T2DM). Participants were identified at the time of TB diagnosis and followed during the course of TB treatment. Then we computed relative risks and adjustments by Cox proportional hazards for outcome variables (drug resistance, death, relapse, treatment failure), and the size of their effect as Cohen's-d. Patients with TB-T2DM were more likely to remain positive for acid-fast bacilli after two months of anti-TB treatment RR = [2.01 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.1)], to have drug resistant (DR) [OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 6.7)] and multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB [OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 7.1)]. The Cohen's-d for DR or MDR in T2DM was 0.69 when compared with non-DM subjects. The T2DM patients had higher odds of resistance to isoniazid (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 2.01, 7.9), rifampicin (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 7.2) and pyrazinamide (OR 9.4, 95% CI: 2.8, 25.6), and their effect sizes were ≥0.67. Patients with TB-T2DM (versus no DM) were more likely to present with MDR TB (HR 3.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 5.8; p < 0.001), treatment failure (HR 2.04; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.8; p = 0.02) and relapse (HR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.1; p = 0.02), with effect size ≥0.34. T2DM showed a substantial contribution to the presence of DR or MDR-TB and to adverse clinical outcomes during and after TB treatment. Our findings support the importance for routine screening of T2DM among newly-diagnosed TB patients in order to stratify them for immediate DR assessment, and highlight the need for clinical trials to evaluate variations to the standard TB treatment in TB-T2DM to prevent adverse treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Ignaz; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitz, Luise; Anspach, Laura; Grünewald, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4–8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75–90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content

  12. Progressive gait ataxia following deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: adverse effect or lack of efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Martin M; Brumberg, Joachim; Pozzi, Nicolò G; Marotta, Giorgio; Roothans, Jonas; Åström, Mattias; Musacchio, Thomas; Lopiano, Leonardo; Lanotte, Michele; Lehrke, Ralph; Buck, Andreas K; Volkmann, Jens; Isaias, Ioannis U

    2016-11-01

    Thalamic deep brain stimulation is a mainstay treatment for severe and drug-refractory essential tremor, but postoperative management may be complicated in some patients by a progressive cerebellar syndrome including gait ataxia, dysmetria, worsening of intention tremor and dysarthria. Typically, this syndrome manifests several months after an initially effective therapy and necessitates frequent adjustments in stimulation parameters. There is an ongoing debate as to whether progressive ataxia reflects a delayed therapeutic failure due to disease progression or an adverse effect related to repeated increases of stimulation intensity. In this study we used a multimodal approach comparing clinical stimulation responses, modelling of volume of tissue activated and metabolic brain maps in essential tremor patients with and without progressive ataxia to disentangle a disease-related from a stimulation-induced aetiology. Ten subjects with stable and effective bilateral thalamic stimulation were stratified according to the presence (five subjects) of severe chronic-progressive gait ataxia. We quantified stimulated brain areas and identified the stimulation-induced brain metabolic changes by multiple 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed with and without active neurostimulation. Three days after deactivating thalamic stimulation and following an initial rebound of symptom severity, gait ataxia had dramatically improved in all affected patients, while tremor had worsened to the presurgical severity, thus indicating a stimulation rather than disease-related phenomenon. Models of the volume of tissue activated revealed a more ventrocaudal stimulation in the (sub)thalamic area of patients with progressive gait ataxia. Metabolic maps of both patient groups differed by an increased glucose uptake in the cerebellar nodule of patients with gait ataxia. Our data suggest that chronic progressive gait ataxia in essential tremor is a reversible cerebellar

  13. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    The