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Sample records for subarachnoid hemorrhage study

  1. Predictive Factors for Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Rebleeding Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donkelaar, Carlina; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Groen, Rob J. M.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.

    Background and Purpose-Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating type of stroke associated with high morbidity and mortality. One of the most feared complications is an early rebleeding before aneurysm repair. Predictors for such an often fatal rebleeding are largely unknown. We

  2. Myocarditis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage : A histopathologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, Ivo A C; Vendeville, Jean Paul; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Begieneman, Mark P V; Lagrand, Wim K.; Kros, Johan M.; Wilde, Arthur A M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Niessen, Hans W M

    Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as electrocardiographic changes, echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and elevated troponin levels are independently associated with a poor prognosis. They are caused by catecholaminergic stress coinciding with influx of

  3. Predictive Factors for Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Rebleeding Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, Carlina E; Bakker, Nicolaas A; Veeger, Nic J G M; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Metzemaekers, Jan D M; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Groen, Rob J M; van Dijk, J Marc C

    2015-08-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating type of stroke associated with high morbidity and mortality. One of the most feared complications is an early rebleeding before aneurysm repair. Predictors for such an often fatal rebleeding are largely unknown. We therefore aimed to determine predictors for an early rebleeding after aSAH in relation with time after ictus. This observational prospective cohort study included all consecutive patients admitted with aSAH between January 1998 and December 2014 (n=1337) at our University Neurovascular Center. Clinical predictors for rebleeding ≤24 hours were identified using multivariable Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied to evaluate the time of rebleeding ≤72 hours after aSAH. A modified Fisher grade of 3 to 4 was a predictor for an in-hospital rebleeding ≤24 hours after ictus (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-10.6; Pnumbers needed to treat to prevent 1 rebleeding ≤24 hours was calculated 15 (95% confidence interval, 10-25). Also, the initiation of external cerebrospinal fluid-drainage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.5; Phours. Cumulative in-hospital rebleeding rates were 5.8% ≤24 hours, and 1.2% in the time frame 24-72 hours after ictus. In our opinion, timing of treatment of aSAH patients, especially those with an modified Fisher grade of 3 or 4 in a good clinical condition, should be reconsidered. These aSAH patients might be regarded a medical emergency, requiring aneurysm repair as soon as possible. In this respect, our findings should provoke the debate on timing of aneurysm repair, especially in patients considered to be at high risk for rebleeding. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Magnesium in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, W.M. (Walter Marcel) van den

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to determine the role of serum magnesium in the pathophysiology after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to assess the effect of magnesium treatment in reducing cerebral ischemia in experimental SAH and in improving clinical outcome in patients with

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hormonal factors in women. A population-based case-control study.

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    Longstreth, W T; Nelson, L M; Koepsell, T D; van Belle, G

    1994-08-01

    To determine the degree to which endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors influence the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage in women. A population-based case-control study. King County, Washington. 103 women with an incident, spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and 2 age- and sex-matched controls per case-patient who were identified through random-digit dialing. Information on exposures was collected during in-person interviews of case-patients, controls, and their surrogates. Premenopausal women, especially those without a history of smoking or hypertension, were at a reduced risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage compared with age-matched postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.68). The use of hormone replacement therapy was associated with a reduced risk (odds ratio, 0.47; CI, 0.26 to 0.86); the reduction was significantly greater in women who had smoked than in those that had never smoked. Of the 23 premenopausal case-patients, 74% were either menstruating when hemorrhaging occurred or had had their last menstrual period 21 or more days before hemorrhaging compared with the expected 43% (difference, 31%; CI, 4% to 58%). Premenopausal women are at reduced risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially those without a history of smoking or hypertension. Hormone replacement therapy reduced the risk only in postmenopausal women who had ever smoked. Among women still menstruating, the risk for hemorrhage was greatest in the perimenstrual period.

  6. Predictors of In-Hospital Death After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis of a Nationwide Database (Swiss SOS [Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Germans, Menno; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Neidert, Marian C; Fung, Christian; Bervini, David; Zumofen, Daniel; Röthlisberger, Michel; Marbacher, Serge; Maduri, Rodolfo; Robert, Thomas; Seule, Martin A; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Fandino, Javier; Smoll, Nicolas R; Maldaner, Nicolai; Finkenstädt, Sina; Esposito, Giuseppe; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Keller, Emanuela; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2018-02-01

    To identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to estimate their impact. Retrospective analysis of prospective data from a nationwide multicenter registry on all aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage cases admitted to a tertiary neurosurgical department in Switzerland (Swiss SOS [Swiss Study on Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]; 2009-2015). Both clinical and radiological independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified, and their effect size was determined by calculating adjusted odds ratios (aORs) using multivariate logistic regression. Survival was displayed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Data of n=1866 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in the Swiss SOS database were available. In-hospital mortality was 20% (n=373). In n=197 patients (10.6%), active treatment was discontinued after hospital admission (no aneurysm occlusion attempted), and this cohort was excluded from analysis of the main statistical model. In the remaining n=1669 patients, the rate of in-hospital mortality was 13.9% (n=232). Strong independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were rebleeding (aOR, 7.69; 95% confidence interval, 3.00-19.71; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03245866. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Sørensen, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Repeat imaging in patients with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NASAH) remains controversial. We aim to report our experience with NASAH with different hemorrhage patterns, and to investigate the need for further diagnostic workup to determine the underlying cause of hemorrhage. M...

  8. Continuous EEG Monitoring for Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, M.L.; Putten, M.J. van; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Horn, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early identification of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative EEG (qEEG) features can detect DCI prior to clinical or radiographic findings. METHODS:

  9. In vitro study of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in a shaken basal cistern after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kertzscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space.

  10. Copeptin in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Tamargo, Rafael J

    2012-01-01

    Copeptin is a peptide derived from pre-provasospression along with arginine vasospressin. In the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), elevated serum copeptin levels correlate with vasospasm, inpatient mortality, mortality at 1 year, and poor functional outcome at 1 year. The potential role of serum copeptin levels in the management of patients with aneurysmal SAH is promising and should be explored further.

  11. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  12. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  13. Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Nazli; Mayer, Stephan A

    2003-04-01

    To summarize new pathophysiologic insights and recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Important, newly recognized mediators of cerebral arterial spasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage include superoxide free radicals, ferrous hemoglobin (which acts as a nitric oxide scavenger), endothelins, protein kinase C, and rho kinase. Microvascular dysfunction and autoregulatory failure also has been an area of increasing research focus in recent years. New diagnostic modalities include measures of cerebral blood flow such as single-photon emission computed tomography and perfusion computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, intracranial brain oxygen tension probes, and jugular venous oxygen saturation monitors. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microdialysis can detect tissue biochemical abnormalities, but these techniques have not found their way into routine clinical practice as of yet. In addition to nimodipine and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy, promising new treatments for vasospasm or its ischemic complications include magnesium sulfate, fasudil hydrochloride, tirilazad mesylate, erythropoietin, and induced hypothermia. Balloon angioplasty has emerged as the primary weapon for treating medically refractory ischemia from vasospasm and in many centers is being used as a first-line treatment or even prophylactically. The neurointensive care management of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage has evolved significantly over the past 10 years, with many new diagnostic modalities and promising treatments now available. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these new techniques and to further define the optimal management of this often devastating complication. Copyright 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p melatonin were less than those without melatonin treatment (p melatonin could mitigate CV after experimental SAH.

  15. Aspirin and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Rosalind Lai, Pui Man; Frerichs, Kai U; Du, Rose

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a potential beneficial effect of aspirin on the risk of aneurysm rupture. This benefit must be weighed against its potential adverse effects as an antiplatelet agent in the setting of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A total of 747 consecutive patients with cerebral aneurysms were reviewed, comparing demographics, aneurysm features, presenting clinical and radiographic grades, vasospasm, and outcome at 1 year between patients with aneurysmal SAH taking aspirin on presentation and those who were not. The rate of hemorrhagic presentation was significantly greater in patients not taking aspirin (40% vs. 28%; P = 0.016). Among 274 patients presenting with aneurysmal SAH, there was no significant difference in presenting clinical (Hunt and Hess) and radiographic (Fisher) grade between patients taking aspirin and those who were not. There was also no significant difference in the rate of subsequent angiographic and delayed cerebral ischemia. Multivariate analysis of outcome at 1 year found only increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.12), Hunt and Hess grade (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.81-5.03), and associated hypertension (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.39-7.81) to be statistically significant risk factors for poor outcome (death or dependence), whereas aspirin use was not associated with poor outcome (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.35-4.09; P = 0.78). In the present study, patients taking aspirin had a lower rate of hemorrhagic presentation. In addition, taking aspirin did not adversely impact presenting clinical grade or radiographic grade, vasospasm, and outcome in the setting of aneurysmal SAH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperglycemia and Clinical Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nyika D.; Biessels, Geert Jan; de Haan, Rob J.; Vermeulen, Marinus; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Coert, Bert; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Hyperglycemia may worsen outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic review to investigate the relation between admission hyperglycemia and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods-We included cohort studies or clinical trials

  17. Nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized study of intravenous or peroral administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvall, Erik; Undrén, Per; Rommer, Bertil Roland

    2009-01-01

    OBJECT: The calcium antagonist nimodipine has been shown to reduce the incidence of ischemic complications following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although most randomized studies have been focused on the effect of the peroral administration of nimodipine, intravenous infusion...... is an alternative and the preferred mode of treatment in many centers. It is unknown whether the route of administration is of any importance for the clinical efficacy of the drug. METHODS: One hundred six patients with acute aneurysmal SAH were randomized to receive either peroral or intravenous nimodipine...... of patients with new infarctions on MR imaging. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that there is no clinically relevant difference in efficacy between peroral and intravenous administration of nimodipine in preventing DINDs or cerebral vasospasm following SAH....

  18. Life Satisfaction and Return to Work After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, Patricia E. C. A.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A. Anne; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141)

  19. Prediction of outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage : Timing of clinical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donkelaar, Carlina E.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Eshghi, Omid S.; Mazuri, Aryan; Foumani, Mahrouz; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Groen, Rob J. M.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.

    OBJECTIVE Currently, early prediction of outcome after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) lacks accuracy despite multiple studies addressing this issue. The clinical condition of the patient on admission as assessed using the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading scale is

  20. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  1. Impact of electrolyte imbalances on the outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, Maysam; Saghafinia, Masoud; Alikhani, Fariba; Danial, Zohreh; Shirani, Mohamad; Amirjamshidi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute and subacute period after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may potentially worsen therapeutic outcome. This study was conducted to determine the pattern of electrolyte disturbance in the acute and subacute phase after SAH and their effect on the long-term outcome of the patients. Fifty-three patients were prospectively enrolled. The standards of care for all patients were uniformly performed. The serum levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium and magnesium) were determined with measurements obtained on admission, 3-5 and 7-10 days after SAH. Radiographic intensity of hemorrhage (Fisher's scale), and the clinical grading (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade) were documented in the first visit. The outcomes were evaluated using Glasgow outcome scale at 3 months after discharge. Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte imbalance among the patients but did not worsen the outcome. Although less common, hypernatremia in the subacute phase was significantly associated with poor outcome. Both hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia were predictive of poor outcomes. Because electrolyte abnormalities can adversely affect the outcome, the serum levels of electrolytes should be closely monitored with serial measurements and treated properly in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toshihide; Shimosegawa, Eku; Inugami, Atsushi; Shishido, Fumio; Fujita, Hideaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Uemura, Kazuo; Yasui, Nobuyuki (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysm rupture was evaluated in relation to CT findings in nine patients. Six patients were studied within 3 days and the other three patients were studied 4 to 6 days from the ictus of SAH using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. In all of the patients, hematoma in the subarachnoid space and ventricles was demonstrated by the proton density-weighted spin echo sequence, which showed that bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had a higher signal intensity than brain tissue or normal CSF. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive in detecting SAH and more informative as to the site of the ruptured aneurysm than CT. Despite some limitations in applying it to patients with acute SAH, magnetic resonace imaging has clear advantages in the diagnosis of SAH. (author).

  3. An Online Health Community for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuenen-Platvoet, Willemijn; van den Abbeele, Leonie; Petersen, Harriette; Draskovic, Irena; de Vries, Joost; Westert, Gert; Grotenhuis, J Andre; Bartels, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a condition affecting relatively young patients and has high rates of morbidity and mortality. Online health communities have emerged to fill the void for patient advocacy and information, allowing individuals with shared experiences and chronic disorders to connect. Objective We have developed an online health community for aSAH patients, and this pilot study was conducted to evaluate it from a patient’s perspective. Methods We implemented an online, members-only, health community (MijnSAB, translation: MySAH) in addition to the usual aSAH care at Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. A questionnaire that was sent to consecutive aSAH patients was used to evaluate the usability and utility of MySAH. Answers were provided using a 5-point Likert scale. There was also one open-ended question asking about what was missing from the MySAH tool. Results In total, 66 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were informed about the online health community. Of 64 potential MySAH users, 26 patients gained access to MySAH, 20 of whom were willing to participate in the evaluation. Those who used the community were younger (P=.03) and in a better condition at discharge (P=.03). The patients were positive about MySAH’s contribution to the quality of their care, but not to their quality of life. Most patients (18/20, 90%) reported that they would recommend the community to others in their position. Open suggestions on how to improve the tool included more frequent blogs, including by a rehabilitation specialist. Conclusions This pilot study showed that the online health community, MySAH, has a beneficial effect on the aftercare of patients suffering from aSAH because it gives easy access to relevant information provided by peers or caregivers. Due to the variable clinical outcomes after aSAH, the tool will mainly be useful for a select group of patients (with a better clinical outcome). PMID:25405364

  4. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  5. EARLYDRAIN- outcome after early lumbar CSF-drainage in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Schwab Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may be complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia, which is a major cause of unfavorable clinical outcome and death in SAH-patients. Delayed cerebral ischemia is presumably related to the development of vasospasm triggered by the presence of blood in the basal cisterns. To date, oral application of the calcium antagonist nimodipine is the only prophylactic treatment for vasospasm recognized under international guidelines. In retrospective trials lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid has been shown to be a safe and feasible measure to remove the blood from the basal cisterns and decrease the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in the respective study populations. However, the efficacy of lumbar drainage has not been evaluated prospectively in a randomized controlled trial yet. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a 2-arm randomized controlled trial to compare an intervention group receiving early continuous lumbar CSF-drainage and standard neurointensive care to a control group receiving standard neurointensive care only. Adults suffering from a first aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage whose aneurysm has been secured by means of coiling or clipping are eligible for trial participation. The effect of early CSF drainage (starting Discussion Here, we present the study design of a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to investigate whether early application of a lumbar drainage improves clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01258257

  6. Intraarterial nimodipine for the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashti, Amir R; Binaghi, Stefano; Uske, Antoine; Regli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Despite dramatic advances in all medical era, cerebral vasospasm is still the major complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of intraarterial (IA) nimodipine in the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm and in preventing neurological disabilities. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients of SAH who received IA nimodipine in 15 procedures. The decision to perform angiography and endovascular treatment was based on the neurological examination, brain computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography. The procedure reports, anesthesia records, neurological examination before and after the procedure, brain imaging and short- and long-term outcome were studied. The average dose of nimodipine was 2 mg. The median change in mean arterial pressure at 10 min was -10 mmHg. No significant change of heart rate was observed at 10 min. There was radiological improvement in 80% of the procedures. Neurological improvement was noted after eight out of 12 procedures when nimodipine was used as the sole treatment and after 10 out of 15, overall. Six patients clinically improved after the treatment and had good outcome. In one patient, an embolus caused fatal anterior and middle cerebral arteries infarction. There was no other neurological deficit or radiological abnormality due to the nimodipine treatment itself. Low-dose IA nimodipine is a valid adjunct for the endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Beneficial effects are achieved in some patients, prompting a prospective control study.

  7. Subarachnoid hemorrhage after aneurysm surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Carlotti Junior

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms by clipping is recognized as effective and definitive. However some cases that suffered a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH some time after they were submitted to aneurysm clipping have raised doubts about the concept of "cure"after this treatment. Eleven patients previously submitted to aneurysm clipping who presented a new SAH were analyzed. The time elapsed from surgery to SAH varied from 3 to 10 years. After SAH four patients had a poor outcome. The new episode of SAH occurred due to intrinsic factors of the cerebral vasculature: 1. a weak point of the vessel wall near the previous aneurysm, 2. a weak point of another vessel far from the previous aneurysm, 3. a previous infundibular dilation of the posterior communicating artery; and due to technical problems: 1. aneurysm not identified during the previous treatment, 2. aneurysm deliberately left untreated, 3. persistence of the aneurysm due to inappropriate surgery, 4. persistency of part of the aneurysm neck after clipping and 5. slipping of the clip from the neck of the aneurysm. The measures to prevent new SAH after surgery start with adequate preoperative angiographic studies, a careful inspection of the position of the clip and emptying of the aneurysm. Early angiography studies may reveal a persistent neck and later ones may reveal newly developed aneurysms. In conclusion, SAH after aneurysm clipping is a late and severe phenomenon and the concept of "cure" after this surgery should be interpreted with caution.O tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas cerebrais através de sua clipagem é reconhecido como eficaz e definitivo. Entretanto alguns casos sofrem nova hemorragia algum tempo após a cirurgia, deixando dúvidas sobre a "cura" pelo tratamento. Onze pacientes submetidos anteriormente a clipagem do aneurisma e que apresentaram nova hemorragia foram analisados. O intervalo de tempo da cirurgia para a nova hemorragia foi de 3 a 10 anos

  8. Copeptin Levels in Cerebral Infarction, Intracranial Hemorrhage and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Feyza; Gurger, Mehtap; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ilhan, Nevin; Ilhan, Selcuk; Goktekin, Mehmet C

    2016-12-01

    To determine copeptin levels in patients with suspected intracranial events and to determine whether copeptin levels could be used in the discrimination of cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the emergency room. Blood samples were obtained from the patients prior to imaging to determine the levels of copeptin. Patients were divided into diagnostic groups after the imaging. One hundred and seventy-six participants, who were enrolled in the study, were as follows: 50 cerebral infarction (CI) patients (M/F: 24/26), 47 intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) patients (M/F: 27/20), 29 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients (M/F: 17/12) and 50 healthy controls. Differences and correlations between groups were analyzed. Plasma levels of copeptin in patients with CI, ICH, and SAH were 5.49 ng/dL (IQR 4.73 to 6.96), 4.50 ng/dL (IQR 3.04 to 9.77), and 5.90 ng/dL (IQR 3.11 to 13.26), respectively. It was found to be 2.0 ng/dL (IQR 1.57 to 2.5) in healthy volunteers. There was no significant correlation between copeptin levels and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Score (ICHS) (r = 0.231, p = 0.118). However, significant positive correlation was found between copeptin levels with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (r = 0.365, p = 0.009) and the BotterelHunt and Hess Scale (BHHS) (r = 0.590, p = 0.001). The copeptin levels of 41 (32.5%) patients who died were found to be significantly higher than those 85 (67.5%) patients who were discharged (p Copeptin levels in patients with CI, ICH, and SAH are significantly higher than healthy volunteers, but the plasma level of copeptin is not decisive in the discrimination of CI, ICH, and SAH.

  9. Predictors of Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel López Espinosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for only 2 to 5 % of all cerebrovascular diseases; however it causes approximately 25 % of all deaths related to them. Objective: to identify the factors contributing to the prediction of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: a prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 73 patients aged 15 years or more with subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Provincial General Hospital in Granma province from January 2010 through October 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to clinical epidemiology resources were used. Results: among the patients studied, 15 developed symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (20.5 %. Closely-related factors included: advanced age, loss of consciousness at the time of onset, intracranial hypertension as major clinical syndrome, water-electrolyte imbalance and respiratory arrhythmias. Low scores on the Glasgow Coma scale and high scores on the Hunt and Hess scale and the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scale are related to the presence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusions: in most cases, diagnosis of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is clinically established. Relying on clinical predictors can be useful.

  10. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis.

  11. Coffee Consumption and Incidence of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

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    Sakamaki, Tsuyako; Hara, Motohiko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the association between coffee consumption and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided inconsistent results. We examine the risk of SAH from coffee consumption in a Japanese population. Our analyses were based on the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study, a large-scale population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 9941 participants (3868 men and 6073 women; mean age 55 years) with no history of cardiovascular disease or carcinoma were examined. Participants were asked to choose one of five options to indicate their daily coffee consumption: none, less than 1 cup a day, 1-2 cups a day, 3-4 cups a day, or 5 or more cups a day. The incidence of SAH was assessed independently by a diagnostic committee. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjustment for age and sex (HR1) and for additional potential confounders (HR2). During 10.7 years of follow-up, SAH occurred in 47 participants. When compared with the participants who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee a day, the HR of SAH was significantly higher in the group who consumed 5 or more cups a day in both models (HR1 4.49; 95% CI, 1.44-14.00; HR2 3.79; 95% CI, 1.19-12.05). The present community-based cohort study showed that heavy coffee consumption was associated with an increased incidence of SAH after adjusting for age, sex, and multiple potential cardiovascular confounders.

  12. Post-operative monitoring of cortical taurine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micheli, E; Pinna, G; Alfieri, A; Caramia, G; Bianchi, L; Colivicchi, M A; Della Corte, L; Bricolo, A

    2000-01-01

    Intracerebral MD enables the retrieval of endogenous substances from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for early detection of subtle vasospasm-induced neurometabolic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to monitor cortical extracellular concentrations of energy metabolism markers, such as glucose and lactate, neurotransmitter amino acids, such as glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine to identify any neurochemical patterns of cerebral ischemia. A prospective clinical study was conducted on a group of 16 patients with non-severe SAH operated on within 72 hours after initial bleeding. Following aneurysm clipping, an MD catheter was inserted in the cortical region where vasospasm could be expected to develop, and perfused with artificial CSF at 0.3 microl/min flow rate. Dialysate was collected every 6 hours and then analyzed on High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine. Mean ECF taurine concentrations ranged from 1.4 + 0.7 to 12.3 + 7.8 micromol/l in single patients: global mean value was 5.8 + 3.8 micromol/l. In this series, the highest absolute taurine value was 25.7 micromol/l, observed in a patient who developed clinical and radiological signs of cerebral ischemia. Nine patients presented clinical disturbances related to cerebral vasospasm. In this setting, representing a mild-to-moderate hypoxic condition, MD data demonstrated that lactate is the most sensitive marker of cellular energy imbalance. Increased lactate levels positively correlated with glutamate (P<0.0001), aspartate (P<0.0001), GABA (P<0.0001) and taurine (P<0.0001) concentrations. These results suggest that also in humans increased taurine levels reflect a condition of cellular stress. This study confirms that MD is a sensitive technique to reveal subtle metabolic abnormalities possibly resulting in cell damage.

  13. Serum magnesium levels and clinical outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study in 60 patients

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    Habibi Z

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypomagnesemia is commonly encountered in patients with a wide variety of diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, cardiovascular emergencies, head trauma, migraine attacks, seizure and preeclampsia. It seems to be associated with a poor clinical outcome. This study considers the prevalence and temporal distribution of hypomagnesemia after aneurysmal SAH and its correlation with the severity of SAH, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI as well as the neurological outcome after a period of three months.Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, 60 patients were admitted to the emergency ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital with acute SAH. Serum magnesium levels were measured during the first 72 hours, days 4-7, and second and third weeks after SAH. The three-month outcome was assessed according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Clinical SAH grading was performed according to the criteria of the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS and the patients were allocated to "Good" (GOS = 4, 5 and "Poor" (GOS= 1-3 outcome groups. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was assessed in both patient groups. Fisher exact test was used to analyze data.Results: Hypomagnesemia occurred in 22% of patients during the first 72 hours after SAH. It was associated with more prevalent DCI (p<0.05, whereas low serum magnesium levels during days 4-7 17% of patients and the second week (22% of patients after SAH were correlated with poor clinical outcome (p<0.05. No correlation was found between first 72 hour-hypomagnesemia and poor clinical outcome at three months.Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia occurs after aneurysmal SAH and it may predict the occurrence of DCI, while low serum magnesium levels during days 4-7 and within the second week of event predict poor clinical outcome at three months. Treatment of this electrolyte disturbance may have a favourable effect on the clinical outcome of patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  14. The Comparative Study of ECG Findings in the Patients Suffered from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Control Group in Northeastern Iran

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    Karim Nikkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH which accounts for (5% to 10% of cerebrovascular accidents is an important cause of mortality and disability. It can be complicated by many neurological and medical conditions including cardiovascular complications. During the course of SAH morphologic Electrocardiography (ECG changes, arrhythmias, myocardial injury and elevation of cardiac enzymes, subendocardial hemorrhage and necrosis may be observed. Materials and Methods:102 SAH patients, without any history of Ischemic heart Disease (IHD, admitted in Ghaem Hospital were studied. Their clinical and radiological parameters were evaluated. Three serial ECGs were performed within the first 72 hours for each patient and the ECG findings were analyzed. The control group consisted of 102 elective patients of Ghaem hospital without any expected heart disease. Results: ECG changes were observed in 60.8% of SAH patients with average age of (53.4±14.2 years and in (2.9% of control group. The ECG findings were as follows: chamber abnormalities (6.9%, conduction abnormalities (7.8%, repolarization abnormalities (49%, rhythm abnormalities (22.5% and pathologic Q wave (6.9%. According to this study, ECG changes are related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (p

  15. Social cognition impairments after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Anne; Spikman, Jacoba; Veenstra, Wencke; Groen, Rob J.M.; Meiners, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Impaired social cognition (SC) is a possible underlying cause of behavioral and interpersonal changes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). To date, SC has not been investigated after aSAH. Therefore, we aimed to investigate SC after aSAH and its relationship with frontal

  16. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...... accuracy of cEEG as a confirmatory test, (b) the prognostic value of EEG patterns suggestive of seizures and DCI, and (c) the effectiveness of intensified neuromonitoring using cEEG in terms of improved clinical outcome following SAH. METHODS: A systematic review was performed with eligible studies...... selected from multiple indexing databases through June 2014. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were identified, including cEEG data from 481 patients with aneurysmal SAH. NCSz were diagnosed in 7...

  17. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated to subhyaloid hemorrhage: "Terson syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Duque, C H; Pons-Irazazabal, L C; López-Moreno, J L

    1997-07-01

    The combination of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and subhyaloid hemorrhage is known as 'Terson syndrome'. Retinal hemorrhage is commonly observed clinically in the optic fundi of patients with SAH, however, subhyaloid hemorrhage of the globe in the setting of SAH has been rarely on CT of the brain. Several mechanisms of subhyaloid hemorrhage have been proposed: a. A sudden increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) forces blood from the subarachnoid space directly into the preretinal space. b. A sudden rise in ICP is thought to decrease venous return to the cavernous sinus from the veins draining the globe. The increased retinal venous pressure results in stasis followed by vessel rupture. c. A sudden rise in ICP obstructs both the retinochoroidal anastomoses and the central retinal vein due to a rapid effusion of CSF through the communication of the subarachnoid space with the optic nerve sheat. This produces an acute decrease in venous drainage from the retina and results in stasis and hemorrhage. A 35 year old man, with a history of a non controlled arterial hypertension, dilated cardiopathy and 'agitation episodes'. He had a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, consistent in a parenchymal hematoma ruptured into ventricles and subarachnoid space. The CT showed through optic nerve sheath this hemorrhage extended to subhyaloid space. The patient came in coma 'dépassé' and brain death. We report a case of Terson syndrome demonstrated by CT. This CT allow see the blood from the subarachnoid space erupt directly into the preretinal space through optic nerve sheath, confirming one the proposed mechanism for this syndrome.

  18. Predictors of 30-day readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Guniganti, Ridhima; Arias, Eric J; Desai, Kshitij; Washington, Chad W; Yan, Yan; Weng, Hua; Xiong, Chengjie; Fondahn, Emily; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Rich, Keith M; Chicoine, Michael R; Dhar, Rajat; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite persisting questions regarding its appropriateness, 30-day readmission is an increasingly common quality metric used to influence hospital compensation in the United States. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to identify which patients are at highest risk for readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The objective of this study was to identify predictors of 30-day readmission after SAH, to focus preventative efforts, and to provide guidance to funding agencies seeking to risk-adjust comparisons among hospitals. METHODS The authors performed a case-control study of 30-day readmission among aneurysmal SAH patients treated at a single center between 2003 and 2013. To control for geographic distance from the hospital and year of treatment, the authors randomly matched each case (30-day readmission) with approximately 2 SAH controls (no readmission) based on home ZIP code and treatment year. They evaluated variables related to patient demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, comorbidities, presentation severity (e.g., Hunt and Hess grade), and clinical course (e.g., need for gastrostomy or tracheostomy, length of stay). Conditional logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors, accounting for the matched design of the study. RESULTS Among 82 SAH patients with unplanned 30-day readmission, the authors matched 78 patients with 153 nonreadmitted controls. Age, demographics, and socioeconomic factors were not associated with readmission. In univariate analysis, multiple variables were significantly associated with readmission, including Hunt and Hess grade (OR 3.0 for Grade IV/V vs I/II), need for gastrostomy placement (OR 2.0), length of hospital stay (OR 1.03 per day), discharge disposition (OR 3.2 for skilled nursing vs other disposition), and Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 2.3 for score ≥ 2 vs 0). However, the only significant predictor in the multivariate analysis was discharge to a skilled

  19. Ventilation practices in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cohort study exploring the use of lung protective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhong, Jonathan D; Ferguson, Niall D; Singh, Jeffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the influence of mechanical ventilator settings on its development is unclear. We sought to determine adherence to lung protective thresholds in ventilated patients with SAH and describe the association between ventilator settings and subsequent development of ARDS. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation within 72 h of SAH at a single academic center. Ventilator settings and blood gas data were collected twice daily for the first 7 days of ventilation along with ICU and hospital outcomes. Lung protective ventilation was defined as follows: tidal volume ≤8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≥5 cm H(2)O, and peak or plateau pressure ≤30 cm H(2)O. The development of ARDS was ascertained retrospectively by PaO(2)/FiO(2) ≤300 with new bilateral lung opacities on chest X-ray within one day of hypoxemia. We identified 62 patients who underwent early mechanical ventilation following SAH. PS and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure were common ventilator modes with a median tidal volume of 7.8 mL/kg [interquartile range 6.8-8.8], median peak pressure of 14 cm H(2)O [IQR 12-17], and median PEEP of 5 cm H(2)O [IQR 5-6]. Adherence to tidal volumes ≤8 mL/kg was seen in 64 % of all observations and peak pressures lung protective criteria were seen in 58 % of all observations. Thirty-one patients (50 %) were determined to have ARDS. ARDS patients were more frequently ventilated with a peak pressure >30 cm H(2)O (11.3 % of ARDS ventilation days vs. 0 % of non-ARDS ventilation days; p ventilation frequently breathe spontaneously, generating tidal volumes above usual protective thresholds regardless of meeting ARDS criteria. In patients with SAH, the presence of an additional ARDS risk factor should prompt close screening for the development of ARDS and consideration of

  20. A Case–Control Study Investigating Simulated Driving Errors in Ischemic Stroke and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Megan A. Hird

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStroke can affect a variety of cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities that are important for safe driving. Results of studies assessing post-stroke driving ability are quite variable in the areas and degree of driving impairment among patients. This highlights the need to consider clinical characteristics, including stroke subtype, when assessing driving performance.MethodsWe compared the simulated driving performance of 30 chronic stroke patients (>3 months, including 15 patients with ischemic stroke (IS and 15 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, and 20 age-matched controls. A preliminary analysis was performed, subdividing IS patients into right (n = 8 and left (n = 6 hemispheric lesions and SAH patients into middle cerebral artery (MCA, n = 5 and anterior communicating artery (n = 6 territory. A secondary analysis was conducted to investigate the cognitive correlates of driving.ResultsNine patients (30% exhibited impaired simulated driving performance, including four patients with IS (26.7% and five patients with SAH (33.3%. Both patients with IS (2.3 vs. 0.3, U = 76, p < 0.05 and SAH (1.5 vs. 0.3, U = 45, p < 0.001 exhibited difficulty with lane maintenance (% distance out of lane compared to controls. In addition, patients with IS exhibited difficulty with speed maintenance (% distance over speed limit; 8.9 vs. 4.1, U = 81, p < 0.05, whereas SAH patients exhibited difficulty with turning performance (total turning errors; 5.4 vs. 1.6, U = 39.5, p < 0.001. The Trail Making Test (TMT and Useful Field of View test were significantly associated with lane maintenance among patients with IS (rs > 0.6, p < 0.05. No cognitive tests showed utility among patients with SAH.ConclusionBoth IS and SAH exhibited difficulty with lane maintenance. Patients with IS additionally exhibited difficulty with speed maintenance, whereas SAH patients exhibited difficulty with turning

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: long-term consequences & stem cell treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem that strikes patients at a relatively young age. At present, limited options are available to treat the devastating consequences of SAH. The endovascular puncture model is a suitable animal model to study the pathophysiological

  2. Observation of Autoregulation Indices During Ventricular CSF Drainage After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, Marcel J. H.; de Jong, Sytse F.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Regtien, Joost; Depreitere, Bart; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter; Elting, Jan Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is increasingly recognized as a factor that requires evaluation when managing poor grade aneurysmal subarachno hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. In this single center pilot study, we investigated whether intraventricular intracranial pressure (ICP) derived when

  3. The comparative study on diagnostic validity of cerebral aneurysm by computed tomography angiography versus digital subtraction angiography after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Saboori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to declare the preoperative diagnostic value of brain aneurysms, two radiological modalities, computed tomographic angiography and digital subtraction angiography were compared. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, diagnostic value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA was com-pared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated and compared between the two modalities. All data were analyzed with SPSS software, version 16. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 9.13 years. 57.9 % of subjects were female. CTA showed 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity whereas DSA demonstrated 74% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predictive value of both methods was 100%, but negative predictive value of CTA and DSA was 85% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our data, CTA is a valuable diagnostic modality for detection of brain aneurysm and su-barachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicating oral anticoagulant therapy

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    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu E-mail: mmutlucihan@hotmail.com; Bulut, Serpil; Nayak, Sundeep

    2001-09-01

    Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare clinical entity possible owing to the diluting and fibrinolytic effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). When it occurs, it is most commonly encountered in the thoracic segment of the subarachnoid space. We present a case of a 50-year-old man who sustained spinal SAH in the cervical and thoracic segments related to anticoagulant therapy. He progressed to significant neurological deficit since he was inoperable, an observation that supports the need for decompression surgery. We should be aware of potential hematomyelia should a patient on anticoagulant therapy develop neurological symptoms localized to the spinal cord. When available, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice to diagnose and follow-up spinal SAH.

  5. Isolated Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage following Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bodenant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare but well-described complication following carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Clinical signs are ipsilateral, throbbing, unilateral headache with nausea or vomiting, seizures, and neurological deficits, with or without intracerebral abnormalities on CT scan, such as brain edema or intracerebral hemorrhage. Subarachnoidal hemorrhage is rarely described especially if it occurs isolated. We describe a 74-year-old man with a history of high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, atrioventricular block with pacemaker, and ischemic cardiopathy with coronary bypass. He underwent right carotid endarterectomy for a 90% NASCET asymptomatic stenosis. Four days after surgery, he complained of unusual headaches with right, throbbing hemicrania. Nine days after surgery, he presented with left hemiplegia and a partial motor seizure. He had fluctuant altered consciousness, left hemiplegia, and left visual and sensory neglect. Brain CT showed right frontal subarachnoidal hemorrhage without parenchymal bleeding. Cerebral angiography found no cerebral aneurysm, no vascular malformation, but a vasospasm of the left middle cerebral artery. Transcranial Doppler confirmed this vasospasm. Evolution was favorable with no recurrence of seizures but with an improvement of the neurological deficits and vasospasm. Physicians should bear in mind this very rare complication of endarterectomy and immediately perform neuroimaging in case of unusual headache following endarterectomy or angioplasty.

  6. Randomized, Open-Label, Phase 1/2a Study to Determine the Maximum Tolerated Dose of Intraventricular Sustained Release Nimodipine for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (NEWTON [Nimodipine Microparticles to Enhance Recovery While Reducing Toxicity After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Daniel; Etminan, Nima; Aldrich, Francois; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Mayer, Stephan A; Diringer, Michael N; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J; Faleck, Herbert J; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 1/2a, dose-escalation study of intraventricular sustained-release nimodipine (EG-1962) to determine safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical effects in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subjects with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage repaired by clipping or coiling were randomized to EG-1962 or enteral nimodipine. Subjects were World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 2 to 4 and had an external ventricular drain. Cohorts of 12 subjects received 100 to 1200 mg EG-1962 (9 per cohort) or enteral nimodipine (3 per cohort). The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Fifty-four subjects in North America were randomized to EG-1962, and 18 subjects were randomized to enteral nimodipine. The maximum tolerated dose was 800 mg. One serious adverse event related to EG-1962 (400 mg) and 2 EG-1962 dose-limiting toxicities were without clinical sequelae. There was no EG-1962-related hypotension compared with 17% (3/18) with enteral nimodipine. Favorable outcome at 90 days on the extended Glasgow outcome scale occurred in 27/45 (60%, 95% confidence interval 46%-74%) EG-1962 subjects (5/9 with 100, 6/9 with 200, 7/9 with 400, 4/9 with 600, and 5/9 with 800 mg) and 5/18 (28%, 95% confidence interval 7%-48%, relative risk reduction of unfavorable outcome; 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.03; P=0.027) enteral nimodipine subjects. EG-1962 reduced delayed cerebral ischemia (14/45 [31%] EG-1962 versus 11/18 [61%] enteral nimodipine) and rescue therapy (11/45 [24%] versus 10/18 [56%]). EG-1962 was safe and tolerable to 800 mg, and in this, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage population was associated with reduced delayed cerebral ischemia and rescue therapy. Overall, the rate of favorable clinical outcome was greater in the EG-1962-treated group. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01893190. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Terson syndrome. Results of vitrectomy and the significance of vitreous hemorrhage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Morris, R; Witherspoon, C D; Mester, V

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of study A was to assess the effectiveness of vitrectomy for Terson syndrome. The purpose of study B was to determine the incidence and significance of vitreous hemorrhage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Study A is a retrospective review of case series. Study B is a prospective study. Study A examined a consecutive series of 4 children (7 eyes) and 23 adults (26 eyes). Study B examined a consecutive series of 100 patients. Subjects in study A underwent pars plana vitrectomy for dense vitreous hemorrhage following intracranial hemorrhage. In study B, ophthalmoscopic examination of patients undergoing neurosurgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysms was used. In study A, the extent and rapidity of visual recovery and intraoperative and postoperative complications were examined. In study B, the incidences of intraocular hemorrhage and Terson syndrome in the cohort and the significance of the presence of vitreous hemorrhage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were examined. Study A: There was substantial and rapid visual improvement in 25 of the 26 eyes (96%) of the adult patients, with 21 eyes (81%) achieving > or = 20/30 final visual acuity. Only limited improvement was achieved in children's eyes (Terson syndrome was 8%. All patients with Terson syndrome and 89% of the patients with other types of intraocular hemorrhage had a history of coma compared with 46% of those without intraocular hemorrhage (P = 0.0003). Vitreous hemorrhage in patients surviving subarachnoid hemorrhage appears to be more common than previously thought, underscoring the need for routine funduscopic screening. Surgical intervention is highly effective in hastening visual rehabilitation of adults with Terson syndrome. The less encouraging results in infants may be due to amblyopia or direct brain damage caused by the cerebrovascular incident.

  8. Early brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a multimodal neuromonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbok, Raimund; Schiefecker, Alois Josef; Beer, Ronny; Dietmann, Anelia; Antunes, Ana Patrícia; Sohm, Florian; Fischer, Marlene; Hackl, Werner Oskar; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Humpel, Christian; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2015-03-09

    There is a substantial amount of evidence from animal models that early brain injury (EBI) may play an important role for secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows online measurement of brain metabolites, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is indicative for disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Twenty-six consecutive poor-grade aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring were analyzed for brain hemodynamic and metabolic changes, including CMD-IL-6 and CMD-MMP-9 levels. Statistical analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function. The baseline cerebral metabolic profile revealed brain metabolic distress and an excitatory response which improved over the following 5 days (P <0.001). Brain tissue hypoxia (brain tissue oxygen tension of less than 20 mm Hg) was common (more than 60% of patients) in the first 24 hours of neuromonitoring and improved thereafter (P <0.05). Baseline CMD-IL-6 and CMD-MMP-9 levels were elevated in all patients (median = 4,059 pg/mL, interquartile range (IQR) = 1,316 to 12,456 pg/mL and median = 851 pg/mL, IQR = 98 to 25,860 pg/mL) and significantly decreased over days (P <0.05). A higher pro-inflammatory response was associated with the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (P = 0.04), whereas admission disease severity and early brain tissue hypoxia were associated with higher CMD-MMP-9 levels (P <0.03). Brain metabolic distress and increased IL-6 levels were associated with poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale of more than 3, P ≤0.01). All models were adjusted for probe location, aneurysm securing procedure, and disease severity as appropriate. Multimodal neuromonitoring techniques allow insight into pathophysiologic changes in the early phase after aSAH. The results may be used as endpoints for future

  9. Urotensinergic system genes in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, M Á; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Gordillo-Escobar, E; Vilches-Arenas, Á; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Murillo-Cabezas, F

    2017-01-09

    Cerebral vasospasm, one of the main complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is characterized by arterial constriction and mainly occurs from day 4 until the second week after the event. Urotensin-II (U-II) has been described as the most potent vasoconstrictor peptide in mammals. An analysis is made of the serum U-II concentrations and mRNA expression levels of U-II, urotensin related peptide (URP) and urotensin receptor (UT) genes in an experimental murine model of SAH. An experimental study was carried out. Experimental operating room of the Biomedicine Institute of Seville (IBiS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital (Seville, Spain). 96 Wistar rats: 74 SAH and 22 sham intervention animals. Day 1: blood sampling, followed by the percutaneous injection of 100μl saline (sham) or blood (SAH) into the subarachnoid space. Day 5: blood sampling, followed by sacrifice of the animals. Weight, early mortality, serum U-II levels, mRNA values for U-II, URP and UT. Serum U-II levels increased in the SAH group from day 1 (0.62pg/mL [IQR 0.36-1.08]) to day 5 (0.74pg/mL [IQR 0.39-1.43]) (p<0.05), though not in the sham group (0.56pg/mL [IQR 0.06-0.83] day 1; 0.37pg/mL [IQR 0.23-0.62] day 5; p=0.959). Between-group differences were found on day 5 (p<0.05). The ROC analysis showed that the day 5 serum U-II levels (AUC=0.691), URP mRNA (AUC=0.706) and UT mRNA (AUC=0.713) could discriminate between sham and SAH rats. The normal serum U-II concentration range in rats was 0.56pg/mL (IQR 0.06-0.83). The urotensinergic system is upregulated on day 5 in an experimental model of SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  11. Course of Participation after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Kruisheer, Elize M; Huenges Wajer, Irene M C; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W M

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate participation problems in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and the course of participation between 3 and 12 months post-SAH, and to identify determinants of this course. This is a prospective cohort study. The study was done in the SAH outpatient clinic at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Subjects included patients independent in activities of daily living who visited the SAH outpatient clinic for a routine follow-up visit 3 months after the event. Participation was assessed using the restrictions scale of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation at 3, 6, and 12 months post-SAH. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to identify possible determinants of participation (demographic and SAH characteristics, mood, and cognition). One hundred patients were included. Three months after SAH, the most commonly reported restrictions concerned work/unpaid work/education (70.5%), housekeeping (50.0%), and going out (45.2%). Twelve months post-SAH, patients felt most restricted in work/unpaid work/education (24.5%), housekeeping (23.5%), and chores in and around the house (16.3%). Participation scores increased significantly between 3 and 6 months, and between 3 and 12 months, post-SAH. The course of participation was associated with mood, cognition, and gender, but was in the multivariate analysis only determined by mood (F [1, 74] = 18.31, P = .000, partial eta squared: .20), showing lower participation scores at each time point for patients with mood disturbance. Participation in functionally independent SAH patients improved over time. However, 1 out of 3 patients (34.9%) still reported one or more participation restrictions 12 months post-SAH. Mood disturbance was negatively associated with the course of participation after SAH. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Jose I

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is a neurologic emergency that carries high morbidity and mortality. Patients with SAH are at risk for several significant neurologic complications, including hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, delayed cerebral ischemia, rebleeding, seizures, and neuroendocrine abnormalities that lead to impaired body regulation of sodium, water, and glucose. The incidence of SAH has remained stable, but mortality of hospitalized patients has significantly declined over the past 3 decades. Many common therapies for SAH have created controversy, and various recent neuroprotective clinical trials have produced negative results. However, the publication of two consensus guidelines by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association and the Neurocritical Care Society have provided a clarification for what should constitute best practice for patients with SAH. The most important of those recommendations include the following: admission of patients to high-volume centers (defined as more than 35 patients with SAH per year) under the management of a specialized and multidisciplinary team; early identification and management of the bleeding source; evaluation and treatment decision for unsecured aneurysms by a multidisciplinary team made up of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons, endovascular practitioners, and neurointensivists; management of patients in the neurocritical care unit with oral nimodipine, blood pressure control, euvolemia, and frequent monitoring for neurologic and systemic complications; and delayed cerebral ischemia secondary to cerebral vasospasm should be treated with induced hypertension and endovascular therapies once confirmed. SAH is a devastating neurologic disease. Management of patients with SAH should adhere to currently available treatment guidelines. Several aspects of SAH management remain controversial and need

  13. Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage after severe coughing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Yutaka; Noda, Kazuyuki; Tokugawa, Joji; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2013-12-23

    Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage has many causes including trauma, vascular malformations, aneurysms, spinal cord tumors, coagulation abnormalities, use of anticoagulants, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Behçet's disease. We report on a rare case of a spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage after severe coughing of unknown origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage after severe coughing. A 66-year-old Japanese woman initially complained of headache with severe back pain after severe coughing. She was referred to our neurology department 6 days after her first visit to our hospital. No neurological deficits were revealed except for meningism. Computed tomography of her head revealed no abnormality. A lumbar puncture showed bloody cerebrospinal fluid with xanthochromia. Cerebral angiography revealed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging of her lumbar spine revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Spinal angiography revealed no abnormality. The diagnosis of spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage was made. She recovered with conservative treatment and her neurological status was normal 2 years after the onset. Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage could be caused by rapid changes in intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressure. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage should be considered when sudden back pain associated with severe headache develops. Even though emergent surgical decompression is necessary when the neurological state progressively deteriorates, conservative treatment with close monitoring of the symptoms can be recommended for patients with a stable neurological status.

  14. Consequences and coping strategies six years after a subarachnoid hemorrhage - A qualitative study.

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    Hanna C Persson

    Full Text Available After a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH, continuing impairment is common and may impact the person's life. There is a lack of knowledge regarding long-term consequences experienced.To explore experiences of the care and rehabilitation as well as the consequences and strategies used to cope with everyday life six years post SAH.An explorative interview study with a qualitative design. Individual interviews, with open ended questions, using an interview guide were performed with sixteen participants (mean age 63, 8 men, 8 women six years post SAH. Data was analyzed according to a descriptive thematic analysis, and themes were discovered inductively.Two major themes from the analysis, both including four sub-themes, were identified; these themes were consequences of the SAH and coping strategies. Participants were grateful to have survived the SAH and most were satisfied with their acute medical care. If discharged directly from the neurosurgical unit participants can feel abandoned. In contrast, participants who were referred to a rehabilitation clinic felt supported and informed. Cognitive problems, such as impaired memory and mental fatigue, were reported as still present six years post SAH. Coping strategies were; receiving support from family, society, employers, or technical equipment. At work, talking to colleagues and to taking breaks were common. Participants described hiding their symptoms from employers and friends, as well as trying to continue doing tasks in the same manner as prior to the SAH. If this was not possible, some refrained from doing these tasks. They went through a mourning process, fear, and worries.Participants reported several long-term consequences which impacted on their daily lives post SAH, and different coping strategies were used to cope with these problems. Participants reported lack of awareness regarding the consequences of SAH and stressed the importance of structured multidisciplinary follow-ups, which mostly

  15. Terson Syndrome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Won, Yu Hui; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Terson syndrome refers to oculocerebral syndrome of retinal and vitreous hemorrhage associated with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage or all forms of intracranial bleeding. Recent observations have indicated that patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage have an 18% to 20% concurrent incidence of retinal and vitreous hemorrhages with about 4% incidence of vitreous hemorrhage alone. Clinical ophthalmologic findings may have significant diagnostic and prognostic value for clinicians. Here we report a 45-year-old female patient who suffered from blurred vision after subarachnoid hemorrhage. She was diagnosed as Terson syndrome. After vitrectomy, she recovered with normal visual acuity which facilitated the rehabilitative process. We also performed visual evoked potentials to investigate abnormalities of visual dysfunction. Based on this case, we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of Terson syndrome.

  16. Small Aneurysms Account for the Majority and Increasing Percentage of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A 25-Year, Single Institution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Matthew T; Wendt, Haley; Monarch, Thomas; Beaty, Narlin; Lin, Li-Mei; Huang, Judy; Coon, Alexander; Tamargo, Rafael J; Colby, Geoffrey P

    2017-10-06

    Prospective studies of unruptured aneurysms have shown very low rates of rupture for small aneurysms (<10 mm) and suggested that the risk of treatment outweighs benefit. However, common clinical practice shows that patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) frequently have small aneurysms. To investigate trends in size and location of ruptured aneurysms over a 25-yr period. A prospective, Institutional Review Board-approved database of all patients presenting to our institution with aSAH from 1991 to 2016 was analyzed. Cerebral angiography identified the source of hemorrhage. Patients with nonaneurysmal etiologies were excluded. Complete data were available for 1306/1562 patients (84%) with aSAH from 1991 to 2016. The average age was 53 yr and 72% of patients were female. The average size of ruptured aneurysms over 25 yr was 8.0 mm. The average size of ruptured aneurysms decreased steadily with each 5-yr interval from 10.1 mm (1991-1996) to 6.6 mm (2012-2016; P < .001). Overall, very small aneurysms (<5 mm) were responsible for aSAH in 41% of patients. The percentage of very small ruptured aneurysms rose from 29% during the initial 5-yr period (1991-1996) to 50% in the most recent period. Likewise, the percentage of ruptured aneurysms that were 5 to 9 mm rose from 26% to 34% (P < .001). In the past 5 yr, aneurysms <10 mm accounted for 84% of aSAH. Vessel of origin (P = .097) and aneurysm location (P = .322) did not vary with time. Ruptured small and very small aneurysms represent a majority and increasing share of aSAH. Identification and prophylactic treatment of these aneurysms remains an important clinical role for cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

  17. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  18. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow and metabolism bedside in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage - A Xenon-CT and microdialysis study.

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    Elham eRostami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI. Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH.Xenon computerized tomography (Xenon-CT using a bedside CT scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF bedside in the neurointensive care (NIC setting and intracerebral microdialysis is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here we present results on nine SAH patients with both microdialysis monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements.CBF measurements were performed within the first 72h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26 ml/100g/min whereas one had 53 ml/100g/min. The 3 patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27 ml/100g/min. High Lactate/Pyruvate ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had Lactate/Pyruvate ratio ≥ 25 and four of these patients had CBF ≤ 22 ml/100g/min.These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied by metabolic disturbances determined by the microdialysis. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and microdialysis could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and microdialysis was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if delayed cerebral ischemia can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction.

  19. Terson syndrome in subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czorlich, Patrick; Skevas, Christos; Knospe, Volker; Vettorazzi, Eik; Richard, Gisbert; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This prospective trial was designed to evaluate the incidence of Terson syndrome in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, or traumatic brain injury and whether consequences necessarily derive from the intraocular hemorrhage itself. Two ophthalmologic examinations were performed to identify patients with Terson syndrome. Data on initial Glasgow Coma Scale, Hunt and Hess and Fisher grades, aneurysm site and diameter, and volume of hemorrhage in intracerebral hemorrhage patients were correlated to the location and course of Terson syndrome. Follow-up was performed after 3 months, including clinical and ophthalmologic investigations. The data showed that 16 of 83 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients (19.3%), 2 of 22 intracerebral hemorrhage patients (9.1%), and 1 of 32 traumatic brain injury patients (3.1%) suffered from Terson syndrome. Low Glasgow Coma Scale (p = 0.002), high Hunt and Hess grade (p Terson syndrome. The neurological outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients suffering from Terson syndrome was worse compared with that of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients without Terson syndrome (p = 0.005), and vitrectomy was performed in seven eyes of six patients due to poor visual acuity. Terson syndrome is underestimated in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a rare pathology in intracerebral hemorrhage as well as in traumatic brain injury patients. Spontaneous regression of the intraocular hemorrhage may be seen, but in half of the patients, vitrectomy is necessary to prevent permanent visual deterioration.

  20. Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relation with extent of hydrocephalus and amount of extravasated blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M.; Luitse, Merel J. A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with poor outcome. Because hydrocephalus and extravasated blood may influence thermoregulation, we determined whether these factors increase the risk for fever after subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Fever within 14

  1. Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Tadalafil-Nimodipine Hypothesis

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    Rayka Sharifian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a common reaction induced by multiple factors with unclear mechanisms. This complication is difficult to treat and puts patient at risk for developing a delayed ischemic neurological deficit that can lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. Although numerous strategies have been suggested for the treatment and prevention of cerebral vasospasm following SAH, no definitive effect has been concluded in this regard. In this paper, we hypothesize that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, tadalafil, can be used together with nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, to prevent vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. With synergic effects, the proposed drugs can promote relaxation of smooth muscles in spastic vessels. Keywords: Cerebral vasospasm; nimodipine; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor; subarachnoid hemorrhage; tadalafil

  2. The effect of tracheotomy on drug consumption in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Narum, Jon; Stubhaug, Audun; Kongsgaard, Ulf; Sorteberg, Wilhelm; Sorteberg, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are common in intensive care units (ICU). In patients with aSAH, sedation is used as a neuroprotective measure in order to secure adequate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Compared with the use of an endotracheal tube, a tracheotomy has the advantage of securing the airway at a much lower level of distress, and aSAH patients can often be awakened more rapidly. Little is known about the impact of tracheotomy on the consumption of sedative/analgesic and vasoactive drugs and the maintenance of CPP within defined limits in aSAH patients. We conducted an observational study of aSAH patients who underwent percutaneous tracheotomy. A prospective registry of patient data was supplemented with retrospective retrievals from medical records. Sedative, analgesic and vasoactive drug doses were registered for 3 days prior to and after percutaneous tracheotomy, respectively. Blood pressure, CPP, and the mode of mechanical ventilation were registered 24 h prior to and after tracheotomy. Between January 2001 and June 2009, 902 aSAH patients were admitted to our hospital; 74 (8%) were deeply comatose/dying upon arrival. The ruptured aneurysm was repaired in 828 patients (surgical repair 50%) and percutaneous tracheotomy was performed 182 times in 178 patients (59 men and 119 women). This subpopulation (178 of 828 patients) was significantly older (56 vs. 53 years) and presented with a more severe Hunt & Hess grade (p tracheotomy caused a marked decline in mean daily consumption of the analgesics/sedatives fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol, as well as the vasoactive drugs noradrenaline and dopamine. These declines were statistically and clinically significant. The mean CPP was 76 mmHg (SD 8.6) the day before and 79 mmHg (SD 9.6) 24 h after percutaneous tracheotomy. After percutaneous tracheotomy, mechanical ventilatory support could be reduced to a patient-controlled ventilatory support mode in a significant number of

  3. Recurrent craniospinal subarachnoid hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

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    Mathew Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA usually manifests as cerebral hemorrhage, especially as nontraumatic hemorrhages in normotensive elderly patients. Other manifestations are subarachnoid (SAH, subdural, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and superficial hemosiderosis. A 52-year-old hypertensive woman presented with recurrent neurological deficits over a period of 2 years. Her serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans showed recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and also intracerebral, IVH and spinal hemorrhage, with superficial siderosis. Cerebral angiograms were normal. Right frontal lobe biopsy showed features of CAA. CAA can present with unexplained recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and may be the initial and prominent finding in the course of disease in addition to superficial cortical siderosis and intracerebal and spinal hemorrhages.

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: risks of aneurysm rupture and delayed cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Three percent of the population harbors an intracranial aneurysm. A minority of these aneurysms will rupture and cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is a devastating disease with high case fatality and morbidity. A major contributor to the poor outcome after SAH is delayed cerebral ischemia

  5. The effects of treating hypertension following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdicks, E. F.; Vermeulen, M.; Murray, G. D.; Hijdra, A.; van Gijn, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated in a consecutive series of 134 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage whether institution of antihypertensive treatment was related to the incidence of cerebral ischemia and rebleeding. The aim of hypertensive treatment was to reduce the diastolic blood pressure to levels

  6. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

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    Brandon P. Lucke-Wold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials.

  7. Nimodipine for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in 12 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffren, Josh; McIntosh, Angela M; Reiter, Pamela D

    2015-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare, but life-threatening neurological emergency. Cerebral vasospasm is a complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Nimodipine has been used in adults to reduce the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage and improve long-term outcomes. There are, however, no data in children. Records of children with a confirmed diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage who received nimodipine between January 1, 2005 and August 31, 2013 were reviewed. Dosing of nimodipine and associated hypotensive events were recorded. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, cranial computerized tomography, and angiography were followed as a measure of cerebral vasospasm, rebleeding, and subsequent infarction. Twelve children (average age 11.8 ± 3.3 years, age range 3.5 to 17.3 years) were included. Aneurysm was responsible for the highest percentage (41.7%) of subarachnoid hemorrhage events. The mean dose of oral nimodipine was 1 mg/kg every 4 hours and was associated with a high rate of hypotension requiring intervention or dose modification. Clinical outcomes while on nimodipine therapy varied; evidence of vasospasm was observed in 67%, new infarction in 33%, and rebleeding in 17%. Functional and cognitive deficits were minor in two-thirds and absent in the remaining individuals. All patients survived until hospital discharge. Oral nimodipine after subarachnoid hemorrhage in children does not eliminate vasospasm, rebleeding, or infarction and is associated with significant hypotension. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes appear favorable relative to the adult population who receive nimodipine. Further study, with dose titration, is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circadian variation in ictus of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temes, Richard E; Bleck, Thomas; Dugar, Siddharth; Ouyang, Bichun; Mohammad, Yousef; John, Sayona; Patel, Pratik; Lee, Vivien; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Quigg, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Temporal patterns in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) may provide insight into modulation, and therefore, prevention of hemorrhage. We investigated the time of hemorrhage and its relationship to traditional risk factors among patients admitted with aSAH. Admitted patients with aSAH were prospectively followed through outcomes and baseline demographics were abstracted through chart review. The group temporal distribution by hour of onset was summarized with cosinor nonlinear least squares. aSAH onset was gathered into night (2300-0500), morning (0500-1100), afternoon (1100-1700), and evening (0500-2300) daily phases. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated for having an aSAH during the morning, afternoon, and evening hours using night as a reference. Multinomial logit models were fitted using aSAH cases across time blocks to determine their associations with different risk factors. 202 patients had the hour of hemorrhage available, and 49 had phase identifiable [total 251: 38 (15%) night, 98 (39%) morning, 58 (23%) afternoon, 57 (23%) evening]. The peak hours of aSAH were between 0700 and 0800 representing 13% of the sample, with a significant cosinor-fitted phase of 7.33(95% CI 5.30, 9.36). For all aSAH cases, morning onset was significantly more common than night onset (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.77-3.75). Nonsmokers were more likely to have aSAH in the morning than smokers (P = 0.043, OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.33-7.23). aSAH occur in a diurnal, morning prevalent pattern regardless of traditional aSAH risk factors. The association of these risk factors with existing onset patterns should be investigated in future studies.

  9. Methods of evaluation of smell in victims of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Azevedo Filho, Hildo Rocha Cirne de; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the methods for evaluation of smell in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage victims and to identify the changes found with the use of these methods. The literature search was performed in PubMed search platform and in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect in August and September 2014. Original articles published in any language, which addressed smell changes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and addressed to evaluate this function through specific methods were included. Review studies, case studies, book chapters, editorial, and studies that address the nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. The following variables were considered in data analysis: author/year, country, sample/age, treatment, method, the moment of smell evaluation, and results. The search for articles resulted in 1,763 articles, of which, 9 original articles were selected for this review. It was observed that all articles were from European and Asian countries. Standardized and nonstandardized tests and questionnaires were used in olfactory assessment, and the goals ranged from assessing the smell before and/or after surgery in this population. Heterogeneity was observed in the methods used to evaluate the smell in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and in the methods selected for application of evaluations. In addition, studies have demonstrated the existence of olfactory deficits in patients and the relationship between surgery and olfactory dysfunction.

  10. The initial time-course of headache in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čomić, Hata; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/320630544

    2017-01-01

    Background If acute severe headache disappears early after its onset, the question arises whether subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) should still be ruled out. We studied the initial time-course and minimal duration of headache in a consecutive series of neurologically intact patients with spontaneous

  11. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  12. Emergency diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage: an evidence-based debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Ali; Radin, Bethany; Oh, Jason S; Teague, Heidi M; Euerle, Brian D; Nable, J V; Liferidge, Aisha T; Windsor, T Andrew; Witting, Michael D

    2013-05-01

    The diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is of paramount concern in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute headache. Computed tomography followed by lumbar puncture is a time-honored practice, but recent technologic advances in magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography with computed tomography angiography can present alternatives for clinicians and patients. The aim of this article was to compare diagnostic strategies for ED patients in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage is suspected. We analyze and discuss current protocols, in addition to summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Through our residency's journal club, we organized an evidence-based debate that pitted proponents of the three subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnostic strategies against one another. Proponents of each strategy described its advantages and disadvantages. Briefly, computed tomography/lumbar puncture is time honored and effective, but is limited by complications and indeterminate lumbar puncture results. Magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography might be more effective in late presentations and can visualize aneurysms, yet has limited availability. Computed tomography with computed tomography angiography offers rapid diagnosis and is considered the most sensitive for diagnosing aneurysms, but has the highest radiation exposure. Each of the three strategies used to diagnose subarachnoid hemorrhage has advantages and disadvantages with which clinicians should be familiar. Patient factors (e.g., age, body habitus, and risk factors), presentation factors (e.g., time from headache onset and severity of presentation), and institutional factors (availability of magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography) can influence the choice of protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  14. [Terson syndrome: a frequently missed ophthalmologic complication in subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethölter, S; Steube, D; Stotz, H P

    1998-01-01

    The syndrome of intra-vitreous bleeding in association with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was first described by the French ophthalmologist Albert Terson. In the last 10 years, 31 articles describing 202 cases of Terson's syndrome (TS) were published. Only 3 out of the 31 were printed in non-ophthalmological journals. The findings of our prospective study underline the fact that too little attention is paid to TS in the early treatment of patients with SAH. Between 1/95 and 8/97, 89 patients with spontaneous SAH (7% of all admissions) were transferred to our hospital for post acute phase rehabilitation. Out of these, 13 patients (19 eyes) could be diagnosed with TS. This corresponds to an incidence of 14.6% of all patients with SAH (previous studies: 2-27%). However, only one patient had been correctly diagnosed with TS in the referring clinic. Early recognition of TS is of high importance since diminuation of visual acuity even to functional blindness, complicated in the bilateral case, can hamper the rehabilitative process considerably. Moreover, complications can lead to significant and irreversible damage, i.e. proliferative vitreo-retinopathy (PVR), retinal breaks, traction amotio, and cataract. Suspicion of TS is raised in either cooperative patients complaining of compromised visual acuity or in patients where funduscopy shows vitreous opacity. According to our results, visual evoked potentials (VEP) have only a limited role in diagnosis because of their low sensitivity. Not infrequently, however, VEP may point to accompanying optic nerve atrophy, thereby suggesting conservative treatment. Absolute indications for surgical interventions are PVR and its sequelae; relative indications are subjective visual impairment, impediment of rehabilitation, or lack of spontaneous resorption of the hemorrhage. The surgical procedure of choice is the pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Rare complications of this operation are retinal damage, endophthalmitis, and reoccurrence of

  15. Pseudarthrosis due to galvanic corrosion presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Noel Beavers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two unlike metals near one another can break down as they move toward electrochemical equilibrium resulting in galvanic corrosion. We describe a case of electrochemical corrosion resulting in pseudarthrosis, followed by instrumentation failure leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 53-year-old female with a history of cervical instability and two separate prior cervical fusion surgery with sublaminar cables presented with new onset severe neck pain. Restricted range of motion in her neck and bilateral Hoffman's was noted. X-ray of her cervical spine was negative. A noncontrast CT scan of her head and neck showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the prepontine and cervicomedullary cisterns. Neurosurgical intervention involved removal of prior stainless steel and titanium cables, repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak, and nonsegmental C1–C3 instrumented fusion. She tolerated the surgery well and followed up without complication. Galvanic corrosion of the Brook's fusion secondary to current flow between dissimilar metal alloys resulted in catastrophic instrumentation failure and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  16. Prevalence of superficial siderosis following singular, acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, N.; Bochmann, K. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Bernau, C. [Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Munich (Germany); Thon, N. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Linn, J. [Technical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Superficial siderosis is presumably a consequence of recurrent bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of superficial siderosis after singular, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the long term. We retrospectively identified all patients who presented with a singular, acute, aneurysmal SAH at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and in whom a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted imaging was available at least 4 months after the acute bleeding event. MRI scans were judged concerning the presence and distribution of superficial siderosis. Influence of clinical data, Fisher grade, localization, and cause of SAH as well as the impact of neurosurgical interventions on the occurrence of superficial siderosis was tested. Seventy-two patients with a total of 117 MRIs were included. Mean delay between SAH and the last available MRI was 47.4 months (range 4-129). SAH was Fisher grade 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 4 cases, 3 in 10 cases, and 4 in 56 cases. Superficial siderosis was detected in 39 patients (54.2 %). In all patients with more than one MRI scan, localization and distribution of superficial siderosis did not change over time. Older age (p = 0.02) and higher degree of SAH (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the development of superficial siderosis. Superficial siderosis develops in approximately half of patients after singular, aneurysmal SAH and might be more common in patients with an older age and a greater amount of blood. However, additional factors must play a role in whether a patient is prone to develop superficial siderosis or not. (orig.)

  17. Effect of simvastatin in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongju; Xu, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Simvastatin might be beneficial to the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of simvastatin for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of simvastatin versus placebo on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were delayed ischaemic deficit and delayed cerebral infarction. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 1053 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention, simvastatin intervention had no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit (RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.78 to 1.27; P=0.96), delayed cerebral infarction (RR=1.17; 95% CI=0.60 to 2.29; P=0.65), mRS≤2 (RR=0.97; 95% CI=0.87 to 1.09; P=0.61), vasospasm (RR=0.79; 95% CI=0.49 to 1.29; P=0.35), ICU stay (Std. mean difference=0.04; 95% CI=-0.54 to 0.63; P=0.88), hospital stay (Std. mean difference=0.01; 95% CI=-0.13 to 0.14; P=0.90) and mortality (RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.25 to 2.05; P=0.53) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Compared to control intervention, simvastatin intervention was found to have no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit, delayed cerebral infarction, mRS≤2, vasospasm, ICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Thrombocytopenia a marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptomatic vasospasm (SV is often seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. The pathophysiology suggests that platelets initiate the process and are consumed. This is likely to result in thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was to find out if thrombocytopenia preceded or followed SV and to analyze the relationship between the two. Materials and Methods: The platelet counts of 74 patients were studied on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 following aSAH. Clinical symptoms and raised velocities on transcranial Doppler were studied on the same days to determine SV. The relationship of platelet counts and SV were analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine (52.7% patients developed SV. Platelet counts dropped on postictal day (PID 3-7 and SV was commonly seen on PID 5-9. The median platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with SV when compared to those without SV. Platelet count 5 times for a patient with relative thrombocytopenia especially on PID 5-9. Additionally, it appears that thrombocytopenia precedes vasospasm and may be an independent predictor. However, this requires further studies for validation.

  19. Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Use in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Mascitelli, Justin; Chartrain, Alexander G; Margetis, Konstantinos; Mocco, J

    2017-10-30

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are frequently associated with epileptic complications. The use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure prophylaxis, however, is controversial. In patients with aSAH, nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been associated with poor outcome. Effect of other forms of less severe epileptiform activity on clinical outcome remains unclear. Evidence on efficacy of AEDs in reducing seizure incidence is also mixed. However, increasing number of studies suggest that AEDs may have significant adverse effects on outcome, especially with phenytoin. Similarly, in patients with ICH, the impact of seizures that do not progress to status epilepticus on clinical outcome is controversial, and whether prophylactic AED use has independent effects on outcome remains ambiguous. Currently, there are no large scale randomized control trials investigating the efficacy and safety of AED prophylaxis in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. There are also no trials comparing the efficacy and safety of the different AEDs. Survey based studies have found a wide range of prescribing patterns across treatment centers and clinicians for seizure prophylaxis in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. The lack of clear guidelines and recommendations also highlights the paucity of good quality evidence in this area. In conclusion, a well-designed randomized, double blinded, and appropriately powered trial is needed to evaluate the incidence as well as clinical outcomes in patients with aSAH and ICH who received AED prophylaxis versus controls. The results will be extremely valuable in providing evidence to establish management guidelines for patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Role of levosimendan in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarousi, Giolanda; Xanthos, Theodoros; Sarafidou, Pavlina; Katsioula, Ellisavet; Georgiadou, Marianthi; Eforakopoulou, Maria; Pavlou, Hlias

    2016-02-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is one of the leading causes of neurologic disability accounting for dismal long term survival rates. aSAH leads to a sudden increase in intracranial pressure and a massive sympathetic discharge. Excessive sympathetic stimulation leads to catecholamine mediated myocardial dysfunction and hemodynamic instability which may critically hamper brain perfusion and oxygenation. In the setting of acute aSAH, administration of vasoactive drugs aims at stabilizing impaired hemodynamics. However, studies have shown that conventional treatment with vasoactive drugs that lead to Ca(+2) overload and increase myocardial oxygen consumption, fail to restore hemodynamics and decrease cerebral blood flow. Levosimendan is a non-adrenergic inotropic Ca(+2) sensitizer with not only beneficial hemodynamic properties but also pleiotropic effects, contributing to its cardioprotective and neuroprotective role. Although there have been limited data available regarding the use of levosimendan in patients with aSAH, current evidence suggests that levosimendan may have a role in the setting of post-aSAH cardiomyopathy and decreased cerebral blood flow both in the emergency departments and in intensive care units. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of studies of levosimendan therapy for aSAH, and describe current knowledge about the effects of levosimendan in the management of aSAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FMRI of working memory impairment after recovery from subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Rohlffs, Fiona; Khursheed, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often incomplete and accompanied by subtle but persistent cognitive deficits. Previous neuropsychological reports indicate these deficits include most prominently memory impairment, with working memory particularly affected. The neural basis of these memory deficits remains unknown and unexplored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, patients who experienced (SAH) underwent fMRI during the performance of a verbal working memory paradigm. Behavioral results indicated a subtle but statistically significant impairment relative to healthy subjects in working memory performance accuracy, which was accompanied by relatively increased blood-oxygen level dependent signal in widespread left and right hemisphere cortical areas during periods of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Activity increases remained after factoring out inter-individual differences in age and task performance, and included most notably left hemisphere regions associated with phonological loop processing, bilateral sensorimotor regions, and right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that deficits in verbal working memory following recovery from (SAH) are accompanied by widespread differences in hemodynamic correlates of neural activity. These differences are discussed with respect to the immediate and delayed focal and global brain damage that can occur following (SAH), and the possibility that this damage induces subcortical disconnection and subsequent decreased efficiency in neural processing.

  2. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  3. Intracranial hypotension caused by cisternal irrigation for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vasospasm is the most common cause of complication after a subarachnoid hemorrhage and tremendous efforts have been made to prevent it. A subarachnoid clot is the cause of the vasospasm and dissolving and washing it out is considered to be the best practice. Cisternal irrigation with urokinase and ascorbic acid has been widely used due to its proven effect. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese male presented with a severe headache was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage ...

  4. Plasticity of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Maddahi, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most often followed by a delayed phase of cerebral ischemia which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The causes underlying this delayed phase are still unsettled, but are believed to include cerebral vasospasm, cortical spreading depression......, inflammatory reactions, and microthrombosis. Additionally, a large body of evidence indicates that vascular plasticity plays an important role in SAH pathophysiology, and this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells of the cerebral vasculature...

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed cerebral vasospasm is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. While the cellular mechanisms underlying vasospasm remain unclear, it is believed that inflammation may play a critical role in vasospasm. Matrix metalloproteinasees (MMPs are a family of extracellular and membrane-bound proteases capable of degrading the blood-rain barrier (BBB. As such, MMP upregulation following SAH may result in a proinflammatory extravascular environment capable of inciting delayed cerebral vasospasm. This paper presents an overview of MMPs and describes existing data pertinent to delayed cerebral vasospasm.

  6. Clinical outcome prediction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Benjamin W Y; Macdonald, R Loch; Baker, Andrew; Levine, Mitchell A H

    2013-01-01

    The novel clinical prediction approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences is created and applied to derive prognostic decision rules in cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences was applied to data from five trials of Tirilazad for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (3551 patients). Bayesian meta-analyses of observational studies on aSAH prognostic factors gave generalizable posterior distributions of population mean log odd ratios (ORs). Similar trends were noted in Bayesian and linear regression ORs. Significant outcome predictors include normal motor response, cerebral infarction, history of myocardial infarction, cerebral edema, history of diabetes mellitus, fever on day 8, prior subarachnoid hemorrhage, admission angiographic vasospasm, neurological grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm size, history of hypertension, vasospasm day, age and mean arterial pressure. Heteroscedasticity was present in the nontransformed dataset. Artificial neural networks found nonlinear relationships with 11 hidden variables in 1 layer, using the multilayer perceptron model. Fuzzy logic decision rules (centroid defuzzification technique) denoted cut-off points for poor prognosis at greater than 2.5 clusters. This aSAH prognostic system makes use of existing knowledge, recognizes unknown areas, incorporates one's clinical reasoning, and compensates for uncertainty in prognostication.

  7. Clinical Outcome Prediction in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Bayesian Neural Networks with Fuzzy Logic Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Y. Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The novel clinical prediction approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences is created and applied to derive prognostic decision rules in cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. Methods. The approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences was applied to data from five trials of Tirilazad for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (3551 patients. Results. Bayesian meta-analyses of observational studies on aSAH prognostic factors gave generalizable posterior distributions of population mean log odd ratios (ORs. Similar trends were noted in Bayesian and linear regression ORs. Significant outcome predictors include normal motor response, cerebral infarction, history of myocardial infarction, cerebral edema, history of diabetes mellitus, fever on day 8, prior subarachnoid hemorrhage, admission angiographic vasospasm, neurological grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm size, history of hypertension, vasospasm day, age and mean arterial pressure. Heteroscedasticity was present in the nontransformed dataset. Artificial neural networks found nonlinear relationships with 11 hidden variables in 1 layer, using the multilayer perceptron model. Fuzzy logic decision rules (centroid defuzzification technique denoted cut-off points for poor prognosis at greater than 2.5 clusters. Discussion. This aSAH prognostic system makes use of existing knowledge, recognizes unknown areas, incorporates one's clinical reasoning, and compensates for uncertainty in prognostication.

  8. Ocular Ultrasound as an Easy Applicable Tool for Detection of Terson's Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knospe, Volker; Richard, Gisbert; Vettorazzi, Eik; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan; Skevas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular hemorrhage in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is known as Terson's syndrome and is an underestimated but common pathology. We therefore designed a prospective single-blinded study to evaluate the validity of ocular ultrasound compared to the gold standard indirect funduscopy in the diagnosis of Terson's syndrome. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients (104 eyes in total) suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Two investigators independently performed a single-blinded ocular ultrasound using a standard intensive care ultrasound system to detect an intraocular hemorrhage. Indirect funduscopy following iatrogenic mydriasis served as the gold standard for confirmation or exclusion of an intraocular hemorrhage. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the method as well as the learning curve of ocular ultrasound. Results Indirect funduscopy detected Terson's syndrome in 11 of 52 (21.2%) respectively in 21 of 104 (20.2%) eyes in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sensitivity and specificity increased with the number of ocular ultrasound examinations for both investigators, reaching 81.8% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were different for both investigators (63.6% vs. 100% positive and 100% vs. 95.7% negative) but were both correlated to the amount of intraocular hemorrhage. A low Glasgow Coma scale (p = 0.015) and high Hunt & Hess grade (p = 0.003) was associated with a higher rate of Terson's syndrome. Conclusions Ocular ultrasound using standard ultrasound equipment has been confirmed as a reliable, easy-to-handle bedside screening tool for detecting Terson's syndrome. Nevertheless funduscopy remains the gold standard to detect Terson's syndrome. PMID:25502695

  9. [Incidence and relative factors of Terson syndrome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Wu, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Xing, Yi-qiao

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the incidence and relative factors of Terson syndrome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A prospective case series study was conducted in 202 eyes of 101 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage from November 2009 to May 2010. Fundus examination and color fundus photograph under mydriasis were carried out on every patient diagnosed as Terson syndrome with initial direct ophthalmoscopy after their general state was stable. The incidence of Terson syndrome was analyzed and correlated with gender, consciousness state, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) and Hunt-Hess grade, anatomical locations of the ruptured aneurysms, mortality rate. Fifteen (14.8%) Terson syndrome patients were diagnosed in a total of 101 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Analysis of our data revealed no statistically significant difference between men and women in regard to the incidence of Terson syndrome (χ(2) = 0.615, P > 0.05). A significant relationship was observed between consciousness state (χ(2) = 17.503, P Terson syndrome. A higher frequency of Terson syndrome was demonstrated in patients with consciousness disturbance, lower GCS score and higher Hunt-Hess grade. However, no correlation was found between localization of the ruptured aneurysm (χ(2) = 0.000, P > 0.05), mortality rate and the occurrence of Terson syndrome. One case required surgical treatment during follow-up. A higher frequency of Terson syndrome was observed in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which had association with clinical conditions significantly. Therefore, the SAH patients with consciousness disturbance, lower GCS score and higher Hunt-Hess grade should be paid attention to ophthalmic conditions and performed fundus examination. The occurrence of Terson syndrome needs to be further explored whether to determine the prognosis in SAH patients. Terson hemorrhage absorbed spontaneously in most patients and required surgical intervention in very

  10. Prospective study of the correlation between admission plasma homocysteine levels and neurological outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case for the reverse epidemiology paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Goudihalli, Sachin; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Singh, Harnarayan; Srinivasan, Anirudh; Danish, Mohammad; Mahalingam, Shanthanam; Dhandapani, Manju; Gupta, Sunil K; Khandelwal, N; Mathuriya, Suresh N

    2015-03-01

    Homocysteine (tHcy) has been known over the last few decades for its putative impact on vascular diseases, but has not been evaluated much in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was carried out to assess its prognostic impact on the neurological outcome following SAH. Admission plasma tHcy was evaluated in 90 SAH patients and prospectively studied in relation to various factors and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS 21. tHcy was significantly higher following SAH compared to matched controls [median (IQR): 25.7 (17.3-35.9) vs. 14.0 (9.8-17.6) μmol/l, p logistic regression adjusting for the effects of age, systemic disease, WFNS grade, Fisher grade, site of aneurysm, clipping or coiling revealed higher tHcy to have a significant independent association with both survival (p = 0.01) and favorable outcome (p = 0.04). Higher homocysteine levels following SAH appear to have a significant association with both survival and favorable neurological outcome, independent of other known prognostic factors, apparently exemplifying "reverse epidemiology paradox" in which a conventional risk factor seems to impart a survival advantage.

  11. Effects of deferoxamine on blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Yanjiang Li; Heng Yang; Wei Ni; Yuxiang Gu

    2017-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a key mechanism of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury. This study examined the mechanism of iron-induced BBB disruption after SAH and investigated the potential therapeutic effect of iron chelation on SAH. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats had an endovascular perforation of left internal carotid artery bifurcation or sham operation. The rats were treated with deferoxamine (DFX) or vehicle (100mg/kg) for a maximum of 7 days. Brain edema, BBB...

  12. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Pyeong Jeon; Seung Hun Sheen; Yong-Jun Cho

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal vers...

  13. Continuous EEG monitoring in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian K; Wellwood, Ian; Reiffurth, Clemens; Fabricius, Martin; Dreier, Jens P

    2015-06-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic accuracy of cEEG as a confirmatory test, (b) the prognostic value of EEG patterns suggestive of seizures and DCI, and (c) the effectiveness of intensified neuromonitoring using cEEG in terms of improved clinical outcome following SAH. A systematic review was performed with eligible studies selected from multiple indexing databases through June 2014. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Eighteen studies were identified, including cEEG data from 481 patients with aneurysmal SAH. NCSz were diagnosed in 7-18 % of patients; NCSE in 3-13 %. NCSE was associated with increased age (mean age 68 years) and mortality (82-100 %) compared to the entire patient population (53.9 years; mortality 13 %; p values EEG patterns suggestive of DCI included decreased alpha/delta ratio, relative alpha variability, and total power. All studies were subject to a high risk of bias concerning patient selection and cEEG methodology. cEEG monitoring following SAH detects an increased number of subclinical seizures and may predict DCI many hours in advance. NCSE is associated with high mortality and morbidity, whereas for DCI identified by cEEG this association is less clear. Prospective randomized controlled multicenter trials are needed to evaluate the benefits (or risks) of intensified treatment of seizures and DCI following SAH.

  14. Hyponatremia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Implications and outcomes

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    P P Saramma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Clinically significant hyponatremia (Serum Sodium <131 mEq/L which needs treatment, has been redefined recently and there is a paucity of outcome studies based on this. This study aims to identify the mean Serum Sodium (S.Na+ level and its duration among inpatients with SAH and to identify the relationship between hyponatremia and the outcome status of patients undergoing surgery for SAH. Materials and Methods : This outcome study is undertaken in the department of neurosurgery, The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala. Medical records of all patients with SAH from 1 st January to 31 st July 2010 were reviewed. Preoperative status was assessed using World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS grading system. Discharge status was calculated using the Glasgow outcome score scale. Results : Fifty nine patients were included in the study and 53 (89.8% of them have undergone surgical treatment. Hyponatremia was observed in 22 of 59 patients (37%. The mean Sodium level of hyponatremic patients was 126.97 mEq/L for a median duration of two days. Glasgow outcome score was good in 89.8% of patients. We lost two patients, one of whom had hyponatremia and vasospasm. Conclusion : Hyponatremia is significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with SAH. Anticipate hyponatremia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, timely detect and appropriately treat it to improve outcome. It is more common in patients who are more than 50 years old and whose aneurysm is in the anterior communicating artery. Our comprehensive monitoring ensured early detection and efficient surgical and nursing management reduced morbidity and mortality.

  15. Treatment of poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage trial.

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    Mitra, D; Gregson, B; Jayakrishnan, V; Gholkar, A; Vincent, A; White, P; Mitchell, P

    2015-01-01

    Management of poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage is based on limited evidence from small single-center retrospective observational studies. The purpose of this study was to undertake a single-center randomized controlled feasibility trial comparing a strategy of early endovascular aneurysm treatment with treatment after neurologic recovery in this group of patients. Patients with poor-grade SAH were randomized within 24 hours of admission to early treatment or treatment after neurologic recovery. If a patient was randomized to early treatment, the aneurysm was treated endovascularly within 24 hours of randomization. Recruitment rate, safety profile, and functional outcome at the time of discharge and at 6 months were assessed. Fourteen of 51 patients screened were eligible for the trial. Of these 14, 8 patients were randomized (57%). All patients in the early coiling arm received treatment within 24 hours of randomization. There was no treatment-related complication. Overall, good outcome occurred in 25% of patients; the mortality rate was 75%. Patients in the early treatment arm (n = 5) had a good outcome rate of 20%, while those in treatment after neurologic recovery arm (n = 3) had a good outcome rate of 33.3%. This was a feasibility study that demonstrated that recruitment and randomization for comparing management strategies in poor-grade SAH are feasible. The recruitment rate among eligible patients was encouraging (57%), though a number of patients had to be excluded due to ineligibility. A multicenter study is necessary to recruit the numbers required to compare the clinical outcomes of these management strategies. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Can S100B predict cerebral vasospasms in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage?

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    Moshgan eAmiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and CSF S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, severe head injury and stroke. In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage.Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample was drawn within the first three days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5 to 8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm.Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28 % developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11 % developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5 days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of 5 patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B one day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  17. Protective Role of P450 Epoxyeicosanoids in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Dominic A.; Martini, Ross; Ward, Jonathan; Nelson, Jonathan; Borkar, Rohan; Zuloaga, Kristen; Liu, Jesse; Fairbanks, Stacy; Raskin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Valerie; Dogan, Aclan; Wang, Ruikang K.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Cetas, Justin S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients recovering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at risk for developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Experimental and human studies implicate the vasoconstrictor P450 eicosanoid 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in the pathogenesis of DCI. To date, no studies have evaluated the role of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in DCI. Methods Using mass spectrometry, we measured P450 eicosanoids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 34 SAH patients from 1 to 14 days after admission. CSF eicosanoid levels were compared in patients who experienced DCI versus those who did not. We then studied the effect of EETs in a model of SAH using mice lacking the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase, which catabolizes EETs into their inactive diol. To assess changes in vessel morphology and cortical perfusion in the mouse brain we used optical microangiography, a non-invasive coherence based imaging technique. Results Along with increases in 20-HETE, we found that CSF levels of 14, 15-EET were elevated in SAH patients compared to control CSF, and levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced DCI compared to those who did not. Mice lacking sEH had elevated 14, 15-EET and were protected from the delayed decrease in microvascular cortical perfusion after SAH, compared to wild type mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that P450 eicosanoids play an important role in the pathogenesis of DCI. While 20-HETE may contribute to the development of DCI, 14, 15-EET may afford protection against DCI. Strategies to enhance 14, 15-EET, including sEH inhibition, should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preventing DCI. PMID:25231529

  18. Nosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: time course and causative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Kamil G; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2015-07-01

    Nosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with prolonged length of stay and poor functional outcome. It remains unclear if infections result in prolonged length of stay or, vice versa, if prolonged length of stay results in more infections. Before strategies can be designed to reduce infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, more data are needed on time course and causative pathogens of infections. To investigate the time course of infection onset and bacterial microorganisms that cause nosocomial infections after aSAH. In consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to the University Medical Center Utrecht between 2009 and 2011, we analyzed the proportion of patients with infections, day of infection onset, and culture results. Of the 291 included patients, 107 (37%) patients developed 115 nosocomial infections. Fifty-six patients (19%) developed an infection within the first week. Median day of infection onset was for pneumonia (n = 49; 17%) day 4 (interquartile range 3-9), respiratory tract infection (n = 16; 6%) day 4 (interquartile range 1-7), urinary tract infection (n = 27; 9%) day 11 (interquartile range 7-14), and meningitis/ventriculitis (n = 10; 3%) day 19 (interquartile range 9-33). Cultures of infections mostly yielded Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Haemophilus influenzae (15%), and Escherichia coli (14%), Nosocomial infections after subarachnoid hemorrhage are common and mostly occur in the first week after ictus. Future studies should investigate if general hygienic measures, infection awareness, minimizing the duration of mechanical ventilation and use of catheters/drains, or prophylactic antibiotics reduce infections and improve functional outcome. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Life satisfaction and return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, Patricia E C A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) living at home 2-4 years after the SAH responded to a mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were life satisfaction, as measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9 (LiSat-9), and employment status. Determinants in multiple regression analysis were demographic and SAH characteristics, subjective complaints (eg, mood disorder, fatigue, cognitive complaints), and personality characteristics (eg, neuroticism, passive coping style). Of the 141 subjects, 64 (46.7%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of V (good outcome) at discharge. Mean subject age was 51.4 ± 12.3 years, and mean time after SAH was 36.1 ± 7.9 months. Of the 88 subjects who were working at the time of the SAH, 54 (61.4%) returned to work, but only 31 (35.2%) resumed their work completely. The subjects were least satisfied with their vocational situation (51.9% satisfied) and sexual life (51.7%) and were most satisfied with their relationships (75.2%-88.7%) and self-care ability (88.6%). Age (β value = 0.17), return to work after SAH (0.19), disability at hospital discharge (0.25), worsened mood (-0.37), and passive coping (-0.25) together accounted for 47.2% of the life satisfaction scores. Our data indicate that return to work is a major issue for individuals who survive an SAH. Not returning to work, disability, depression, and passive coping are associated with reduced life satisfaction. Thus, vocational reintegration after SAH merits more attention during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Christoffer Nyberg

    Full Text Available In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems.A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed.Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased.The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult.

  1. Intracranial aneurysms in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage : CT angiography as a primary examination tool for diagnosis--systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlaan, Henriette E.; van Dijk, J. M. C.; Jansen -van der Weide, Marijke; de Groot, Jan Cees; Groen, Rob J. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Purpose: To calculate the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomographic (CT) angiography in the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at presentation. Materials and Methods: A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the

  2. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

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    Sheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH.

  3. Hydrocephalus after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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    Sheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus (HCP is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize the advanced research on HCP and discuss the understanding of the molecular originators of HCP and the development of diagnoses and remedies of HCP after SAH. It has been reported that inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress are the important causes of HCP, and well-known molecules including transforming growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, and iron terminally lead to fibrosis and blockage of HCP. Potential medicines for HCP are still in preclinical status, and surgery is the most prevalent and efficient therapy, despite respective risks of different surgical methods, including lamina terminalis fenestration, ventricle-peritoneal shunting, and lumbar-peritoneal shunting. HCP remains an ailment that cannot be ignored and even with various solutions the medical community is still trying to understand and settle why and how it develops and accordingly improve the prognosis of these patients with HCP.

  4. Frequency and appearance of hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by endovascular therapy

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    Falter, Bernhard; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mull, Michael [University Hospital Aachen RWTH, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    It is still unclear how often subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to chronic hemosiderin depositions. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of chronic hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal SAH in patients who did not undergo surgery. Furthermore, we analyzed typical MRI patterns of chronic SAH and sought to obtain information on the temporal course of MRI signal changes. We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients who had undergone endovascular treatment for acute aneurysmal SAH. In all patients, initial CT studies and at least one T2*-weighted MRI obtained 6 months or later after SAH were analyzed for the presence and anatomical distribution of SAH or chronic hemosiderin depositions. In total, 185 T2*-weighted MRI studies obtained between 2 days and 148 months after SAH were evaluated (mean follow-up 30.2 months). On MRI studies obtained later than 6 months after SAH, subpial hemosiderin depositions were found in 50 patients (55.5 %). Most frequent localizations were the parenchyma adjacent to the frontal and parietal sulci and the insular cisterns. While the appearance of hemosiderin depositions was dynamic within the first 3 months, no changes were found during subsequent follow-up. MR signal changes were not only conclusive with subarachnoid hemosiderin depositions but in many cases also resembled those that have been associated with cortical hemosiderosis. T2*-weighted MRI is an effective means of diagnosing prior SAH. Our study suggests that chronic hemosiderin depositions can be found in a considerable number of patients after a single event of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (orig.)

  5. Frequency and appearance of hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Bernhard; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mull, Michael

    2015-10-01

    It is still unclear how often subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to chronic hemosiderin depositions. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of chronic hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal SAH in patients who did not undergo surgery. Furthermore, we analyzed typical MRI patterns of chronic SAH and sought to obtain information on the temporal course of MRI signal changes. We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients who had undergone endovascular treatment for acute aneurysmal SAH. In all patients, initial CT studies and at least one T2*-weighted MRI obtained 6 months or later after SAH were analyzed for the presence and anatomical distribution of SAH or chronic hemosiderin depositions. In total, 185 T2*-weighted MRI studies obtained between 2 days and 148 months after SAH were evaluated (mean follow-up 30.2 months). On MRI studies obtained later than 6 months after SAH, subpial hemosiderin depositions were found in 50 patients (55.5%). Most frequent localizations were the parenchyma adjacent to the frontal and parietal sulci and the insular cisterns. While the appearance of hemosiderin depositions was dynamic within the first 3 months, no changes were found during subsequent follow-up. MR signal changes were not only conclusive with subarachnoid hemosiderin depositions but in many cases also resembled those that have been associated with cortical hemosiderosis. T2*-weighted MRI is an effective means of diagnosing prior SAH. Our study suggests that chronic hemosiderin depositions can be found in a considerable number of patients after a single event of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  6. Prediction of 60-Day Case Fatality After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : External Validation of a Prediction Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkland, Simone A.; Roozenbeek, Bob; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Dippel, Diederik W.; Vergouw, Leonie J.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.; van der Jagt, Mathieu

    OBJECTIVE:: External validation of prognostic models is crucial but rarely done. Our aim was to externally validate a prognostic model to predict 60-day case fatality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage developed from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial in a retrospective unselected

  7. Brain Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Relationship with Hypovolemia and Hyponatremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Sanne M. Dorhout; Hoff, Reinier G.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatremia and hypovolemia occur often after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are associated with poor outcome. The authors investigated whether brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is related to hypovolemia and hyponatremia after SAH and whether it can differentiate between hypovolemic and

  8. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure complicating organophosphate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokel, Yüksel

    2002-11-01

    Organophosphate is extremely uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis. This article describe two cases with rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure complicating by monocrotophos, an organophosphate compound. First patient had rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure and subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is the first reported case of subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may be related with organophosphate intoxication in literature. Second patient described here had rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure after organophosphate overdose.

  9. Effect of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Word Generation

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    Daniella Ladowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH survivors commonly exhibit impairment on phonemic and semantic fluency tests; however, it is unclear which of the contributing cognitive processes are compromised in aSAH patients. One method of disentangling these processes is to compare initial word production, which is a rapid, semiautomatic, frontal-executive process, and late phase word production, which is dependent on more effortful retrieval and lexical size and requires a more distributed neural network. Methods. Seventy-two individuals with aSAH and twenty-five control subjects were tested on a cognitive battery including the phonemic and semantic fluency task. Demographic and clinical information was also collected. Results. Compared to control subjects, patients with aSAH were treated by clipping and those with multiple aneurysms were impaired across the duration of the phonemic test. Among patients treated by coiling, those with anterior communicating artery aneurysms or a neurological complication (intraventricular hemorrhage, vasospasm, and edema showed worse output only in the last 45 seconds of the phonemic test. Patients performed comparably to control subjects on the semantic test. Conclusions. These results support a “diffuse damage” hypothesis of aSAH, indicated by late phase phonemic fluency impairment. Overall, the phonemic and semantic tests represent a viable, rapid clinical screening tool in the postoperative assessment of patients with aSAH.

  10. Pre-hemorrhage statin use and the risk of vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Shaye I.; Ahrens, Christine; Provencio, J Javier; Chow, Michael; Rasmussen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often followed by delayed ischemic deficits attributable to cerebral vasospasm. Recent studies suggest a positive impact of statin therapy on the incidence of vasospasm. This study was designed to assess whether a history of prior use of statin therapy was associated with a lower risk of vasospasm in patients with SAH. Methods We performed a comprehensive retrospective review of patients with aneurysmal SAH between 1997 and 2004. Clinical demographics and imaging data for all patients were reviewed and a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of cerebral vasospasm, defined as a combination of clinical signs with radiographic confirmation. Results 308 patients were included. Mean age was higher in the group receiving statins (64 +/- 12 versus 54+/- 12 years). Hunt and Hess scores and treatment modality were not significantly different between the groups. Vasospasm was observed in 31% of patients not taking a statin (n=282) versus 23% taking a statin (n=26), without achieving statistical significance. Discontinuation of the statin did not affect risk of vasospasm. Conclusions Use of a statin prior to an aneurysmal SAH trended to reduce the incidence of subsequent vasospasm, without achieving statistical significance. PMID:18423529

  11. Restrictions and satisfaction with participation in patients who are ADL-independent after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huenges Wajer, Irene M C; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047; Greebe, Paut; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; Rinkel, Gabriel J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    BACKGROUND: Most survivors of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are ADL-independent, but they often experience restrictions in (social) activities and, therefore, cannot regain their pre-morbid level of participation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, participation restrictions and participation

  12. Restrictions and satisfaction with participation in patients who are ADL-independent after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huenges Wajer, Irene M C; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Greebe, Paut; Post, Marcel W M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most survivors of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are ADL-independent, but they often experience restrictions in (social) activities and, therefore, cannot regain their pre-morbid level of participation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, participation restrictions and participation

  13. Loss of Consciousness at Onset of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated with Functional Outcomes in Good-Grade Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Justin; Alotaibi, Naif M.; Akbar, Muhammad Ali; Ayling, Oliver G S; Ibrahim, George M.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Noble, Adam; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Lo, Benjamin; Jaja, Blessing N R; Johnston, Clay; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Wong, George K C; Lantigua, Hector; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Torner, James; Singh, Jeff; Spears, Julian; Schaller, Karl; Stienen, Martin N.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/320630544; Cusimano, Michael D.; Todd, Michael; Tseng, Ming; Le Roux, Peter; Macdonald, R. Loch; Yamagata, Sen; Mayer, Stephan; Schenk, Thomas; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Transient loss of consciousness (LOC) is one of the most common presentations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may be an indicator of early brain injury. In this study, we examined the association of LOC and functional outcomes in patients with good-grade SAH. Methods We

  14. Predictors of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Asymptomatic Angiographic Vasospasm on Admission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Mansouri, Alireza; Jaja, Blessing N R; Alotaibi, Naif M.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Noble, Adam; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Lo, Benjamin; Jaja, Blessing N R; Johnston, Clay; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Wong, George K C; Lantigua, Hector; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Torner, James; Singh, Jeff; Spears, Julian; Schaller, Karl; Stienen, Martin N.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Cusimano, Michael D.; Todd, Michael; Tseng, Ming; Le Roux, Peter; Macdonald, R. Loch; Yamagata, Sen; Mayer, Stephan; Schenk, Thomas; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with asymptomatic angiographic vasospasm on admission is unclear in the literature. The goal of this study is to identify predictors of clinical DCI in this group of patients. Methods An

  15. Hemorragia subaracnóidea e síndrome de Terson: estudo prospectivo Subarachnoid hemorrhage and Terson's syndrome: a prospective study

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    Eun Song Sung

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência, evolução clínica, alteração oftalmológica e prognóstico de vida de pacientes com hemorragia subaracnóidea e síndrome de Terson. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e consecutivo de pacientes admitidos no pronto socorro de neurocirurgia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo com diagnóstico de hemorragia subaracnóidea aguda. Após exame neurológico, o mapeamento de retina foi realizado em todos os pacientes na admissão e no 3º, 7º, 30º e 60º dia. Em todos os casos foi realizada a correlação entre a escala de Hunt e Hess e a presença de hemorragia intra-ocular. RESULTADOS: Dezessete pacientes foram examinados durante julho a outubro de 2000. A síndrome de Terson foi observada em 5 casos (29,4%. Em 15 pacientes a etiologia da hemorragia foi ruptura de aneurisma cerebral e em 2 casos a causa foi relacionada a traumatismo crânio-encefálico. Não houve predominância significante de sexo (9F e 8M e a idade mediana foi de 48 anos (22 a 80 anos. Houve 4 óbitos de pacientes com síndrome de Terson e apenas 1 no grupo de pacientes sem alteração ocular. Não houve nenhuma correlação entre a gravidade do quadro clínico e a presença da síndrome de Terson. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a incidência da síndrome de Terson foi de 29,4% e sua presença indicou alto risco de mortalidade (80% dos casos com a síndrome de Terson.PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence, clinical course, ophthalmic findings, and prognosis of the patients with intracranial bleeding and Terson's syndrome. METHODS: A prospective consecutive study of patients admitted to the emergency room with the diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurological and funduscopic examinations were performed upon admission and at days 3, 7, 30 and 60 after the diagnosis. In all cases the clinical condition was graded according to the Hunt and Hess classification. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were enrolled in this study from July to October, 2000

  16. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage: epidemiology, social impact and a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Fàbregas Julià, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Hernández-Palazón, J; Rubio Romero, R; Carmona Aurioles, J

    2010-12-01

    Cerebrovascular disease, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a worldwide problem, representing personal tragedy, great social and economic consequences, and a heavy burden on the health care system. Estimated to be responsible for up to 10% of mortality in industrialized countries, cerebrovascular disease also affects individuals who are still in the workforce, with consequent loss of productive years. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident that leads to around 5% of all strokes. SAH is most often due to trauma but may also be spontaneous, in which case the cause may be a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (80%) or arteriovenous malformation or any other abnormality of the blood or vessels (20%). Although both the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal SAH has improved in recent years, related morbidity and mortality remains high: 50% of patients die from the initial hemorrhage or later complications. If patients whose brain function is permanently damaged are added to the count, the percentage of cases leading to severe consequences rises to 70%. The burden of care of patients who are left incapacitated by SAH falls to the family or to private and public institutions. The economic cost is considerable and the loss of quality of life for both the patient and the family is great. Given the magnitude of this problem, the provision of adequate prophylaxis is essential; also needed are organizational models that aim to reduce mortality as well as related complications. Aneurysmal SAH is a condition which must be approached in a coordinated, multidisciplinary way both during the acute phase and throughout rehabilitation in order to lower the risk of unwanted outcomes.

  17. Spectrophotometry or visual inspection to most reliably detect xanthochromia in subarachnoid hemorrhage: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kevin; Hann, Angus; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We assess the sensitivity and specificity of xanthochromia as adjudicated by visual inspection and spectrophotometry at predicting the presence of cerebral aneurysm in patients with suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage who have a normal computed tomography (CT) head scan result. A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Relevant studies with clinical data on the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection or spectrophotometry were considered. Patients who had a normal CT head scan result followed by a lumbar puncture were included in this review. Sensitivities, specificities, and heterogeneity (I(2)) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore reasons for the heterogeneity. There were major methodological limitations in the studies found. Twenty-two relevant articles were heterogeneous in regard to time to lumbar puncture, spectrophotometry methods, and follow-up of patients not undergoing cerebral angiography. Twelve of the 22 studies selected patients on the basis of a cerebral aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage on imaging, or a positive lumbar puncture result. These studies were excluded from our initial analysis, which included only patients with clinically suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this initial analysis, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity for spectrophotometry were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71% to 96%; I(2)=26%) and 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%; I(2)=96%), respectively. For visual inspection, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59% to 96%; I(2)=52%) and 96% (95% CI 93% to 97%; I(2)=76%), respectively. Sensitivity estimates are difficult to interpret without knowing time to lumbar puncture. The heterogeneity in the underlying studies, combined with significant overlap in pooled confidence limits, makes it impossible to provide a definite conclusion about the diagnostic accuracy of spectrophotometry versus visual inspection. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency

  18. Comparative evaluation of H&H and WFNS grading scales with modified H&H (sans systemic disease): A study on 1000 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Praneeth, Kokkula; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh; Pal, Sudhir Singh; Gaudihalli, Sachin; Khandelwal, N; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Tewari, M K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Mathuriya, S N

    2017-03-15

    The comparative studies on grading in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) had several limitations such as the unclear grading of Glasgow Coma Scale 15 with neurological deficits in World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and the inclusion of systemic disease in Hunt and Hess (H&H) scales. Their differential incremental impacts and optimum cut-off values for unfavourable outcome are unsettled. This is a prospective comparison of prognostic impacts of grading schemes to address these issues. SAH patients were assessed using WFNS, H&H (including systemic disease), modified H&H (sans systemic disease) and followed up with Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months. Their performance characteristics were analysed as incremental ordinal variables and different grading scale dichotomies using rank-order correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden's J and multivariate analyses. A total of 1016 patients were studied. As univariate incremental variable, H&H sans systemic disease had the best negative rank-order correlation coefficient (-0.453) with respect to lower GOS (p H&H sans systemic disease had the greatest adjusted incremental impact of 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.91) against a lower GOS as compared to 0.6 (95% CI 0.45-0.74) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.42-0.68) for H&H and WFNS grades, respectively. In multivariate categorical analysis, H&H grades 4-5 sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.06 (95% CI 3.94-9.32). To conclude, H&H grading sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS. Though systemic disease is an important prognostic factor, it should be considered distinctly from grading. Appropriate cut-off values suggesting unfavourable outcome for H&H and WFNS were 4-5 and 3-5, respectively, indicating the importance of neurological deficits in addition to level of consciousness.

  19. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  20. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Caron M; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J Marc

    2014-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients.

  1. Case report: Profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jivraj, Sana; Mazer, C David; Baker, Andrew J; Choi, Mabel; Hare, Gregory M. T

    2006-01-01

    Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings, including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage...

  2. Ficolin-3-mediated lectin complement pathway activation in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanier, Elisa R; Zangari, Rosalia; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the involvement of ficolin-3, the main initiator of the lectin complement pathway (LCP), in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) pathology and outcome. METHODS: In this preliminary exploratory study, plasma concentration of ficolin-3 and of ficolin-3-mediated functional LCP activity...... was measured, along with that of other LCP initiators (mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-2, and ficolin-1), C3 activation products, and soluble C5b-9 terminal complex, in a prospective cohort of 39 patients with SAH and 20 healthy controls. The following parameters were recorded: SAH severity, assessed using...

  3. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kikkawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1 was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm.

  4. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Koide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders.

  5. Common Variants of the ACE Gene and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Danish Population: A Case-control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, Jonatan Myrup; Nielsen, Morten; Edsen, Troels BS

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with rupture of intracranial aneurysms, but the effect of haplotypes within ACE has not been studied. This study investigated whether ACE haplotypes including the I/D...

  6. Radiological findings in cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: a series of 22 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukobza, Monique [APHP - Paris-Diderot University, Department of Neuroradiology and Therapeutic Angiography, Assistance publique - University Hospitals Lariboisiere-St-Louis-Fernand-Widal, Paris (France); Crassard, Isabelle; Bousser, Marie-Germaine [Assistance publique - University Hospitals Lariboisiere-St-Louis-Fernand-Widal, APHP - Paris-Diderot University Paris, France, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Chabriat, Hugues [Assistance publique - University Hospitals Lariboisiere-St-Louis-Fernand-Widal, APHP - Paris-Diderot University Paris, France, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); INSERM UMR 1161 and DHU NeuroVasc, Paris (France)

    2016-01-15

    The main objectives of the present study are to assess the incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to determine the occurrence of cortical venous thrombosis (CoVT). Among 332 patients with CVT, investigated with the same CT and MR standardized protocol, 33 (10 %) presented with SAH, associated in 11 cases with hemorrhagic infarct or intracerebral hemorrhage. This study is based on 22 cases of CVT presenting as SAH in the absence of hemorrhagic brain lesion. Diagnosis of sinus thrombosis was established on T2* and magnetic resonance venography and that of CoVT on T2* sequence. Diagnostic of SAH was based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. CVT involved lateral sinus in 18 patients, superior sagittal sinus in 16, and straight sinus in 1. Cortical veins were involved in all patients, in continuity with dural sinus thrombosis when present. SAH was circumscribed to few sulci in all cases and mainly localized at the convexity (21 cases). CoVT implied different areas on the same side in four patients and was bilateral in seven. There was no perimesencephalic or basal cisterns hemorrhage. Cortical swelling was present in 12 cases, associated with localized edema. All patients except one had a favorable outcome. This report shows that the incidence of CVT presenting as isolated SAH is evaluated to 6.4 % and that SAH is, in all cases, in the vicinity of CoVT and when dural thrombosis is present in continuity with it. (orig.)

  7. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion in patients with severe refractory cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a feasibility study and outcome results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sylvia; Proescholdt, Martin A; Hochreiter, Andreas; Schuierer, Gerhard; Scheitzach, Judith; Wendl, Christina; Kieninger, Martin; Schneiker, Andre; Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Brawanski, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Severe cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. No causative treatment is yet available and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy (HHT) is often insufficient to avoid delayed cerebral ischemia and neurological deficits. We compared patients receiving continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium-antagonist nimodipine with a historical group treated with HHT and oral nimodipine alone. Between 0.5 and 1.2 mg/h of nimodipine were continuously administered by intra-arterial infusion via microcatheters either into the internal carotid or vertebral artery or both, depending on the areas of vasospasm. The effect was controlled via multimodal neuromonitoring and transcranial Doppler sonography. Outcome was determined by means of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and 6 months after the hemorrhage and compared to a historical control group. Twenty-one patients received 28 intra-arterial nimodipine infusions. Six months after discharge, the occurrence of cerebral infarctions was significantly lower (42.6 %) in the nimodipine group than in the control group (75.0 %). This result was reflected by a significantly higher proportion (76.0 %) of patients with good outcome in the nimodipine-treated group, when compared to 10.0 % good outcome in the control group. Median GOS was 4 in the nimodipine group and 2 in the control group (p = 0.001). Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion is an effective treatment for patients with severe cerebral vasospasm who fail to respond to HHT and oral nimodipine alone. Key to the effective administration of continuous intra-arterial nimodipine is multimodal neuromonitoring and the individual adaptation of dosage and time of infusion for each patient.

  8. Timing of deep vein thrombosis formation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Conrad W.; Su, Kimmy; Liu, Jesse J.; Dogan, Aclan; Hinson, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The time period of greatest risk for developing DVT after aSAH is not currently known. aSAH induces a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to DVT formation. Using repeated ultrasound screening, the hypothesis that patients would be at greatest risk for developing DVT in the subacute post-rupture period was tested. METHODS One hundred ninety-eight patients with aSAH admitted to the Oregon Health & Science University Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit between April 2008 and March 2012 were included in a retrospective analysis. Ultrasound screening was performed every 5.2 ± 3.3 days between admission and discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare DVT incidence during different time periods of interest. Patient baseline characteristics as well as stroke severity and hospital complications were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS Forty-two (21%) of 198 patients were diagnosed with DVT, and 3 (2%) of 198 patients were symptomatic. Twenty-nine (69%) of the 42 cases of DVT were first detected between Days 3 and 14, compared with 3 cases (7%) detected between Days 0 and 3 and 10 cases (24%) detected after Day 14 (p < 0.05). The postrupture 5-day window of highest risk for DVT development was between Days 5 and 9 (40%, p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, length of hospital stay and use of mechanical prophylaxis alone were significantly associated with DVT formation. CONCLUSIONS DVT formation most commonly occurs in the first 2 weeks following aSAH, with detection in this cohort peaking between Days 5 and 9. Chemoprophylaxis is associated with a significantly lower incidence of DVT. PMID:26162047

  9. [Wegener granulomatosis and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an insignificant association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnet, D; Ginguené, C; Marcos, A; Cahen, R; Mac Gregor, B; Turjman, F; Vallée, B

    2010-08-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is an uncommon systemic necrotizing vasculitis that demonstrates renal and respiratory tropism. While the pathogenesis of WG remains controversial, autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms are likely to be involved. The nervous system could be affected in up to 54% of cases. Although central nervous system involvement has been reported in 7-11% of cases, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurrence is exceptional. We describe the third reported case of WG-related aneurysmal SAH and then discuss the diagnosis and pathogenesis of WG along with the physiopathology of intracranial aneurysm in light of recent data reported in the literature. A 63-year-old woman with WG was referred to our neurosurgical department for aneurysmal SAH. The vasculitis diagnosis had been established 4 years earlier when she presented with chronic sinusitis, recurrent cystitis, and renal failure. The cerebral angiography revealed an anterior communicating artery dysplastic aneurysm. The neurosurgical management of the aneurysm was scheduled but delayed because the patient was experiencing a vasculitis flare-up. Immunosuppressive therapy and intravenous corticotherapy were given, with the patient's improvement, allowing neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm. Wegener granulomatosis-related aneurysmal SAH is an exceptional condition in neurovascular pathology. As inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of aneurysm, the vasculitis flare-up could account for this SAH. The management of WG could benefit from anti-inflammatory therapy, as could the vasculitis-related SAH. SAH occurrence in patients with systemic vasculitis could indicate a vasculitis flare-up. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute effects of nimodipine on cerebral vasculature and brain metabolism in high grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H Alex; Ko, Sang-Bae; Chen, Huahiou; Gilmore, Emily; Carpenter, Amanda M; Lee, Danielle; Claassen, Jan; Mayer, Stephan A; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Connelly, E Sander; Paik, Myunghee; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2012-06-01

    Nimodipine is the only medication shown to improve outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Preliminary theories regarding the mechanism by which it prevents vasospasm have been challenged. The acute physiologic and metabolic effects of oral Nimodipine have not been examined in patients with poor-grade SAH. This is an observational study performed in 16 poor-grade SAH patients undergoing multimodality monitoring who received oral Nimodipine as part of routine clinical care. A total of 663 doses of Nimodipine were observed. Changes in physiologic measurements including MAP, CPP, ICP, P(bt)O(2), and CBF were examined. Administration of oral Nimodipine was associated with a 1.33 mmHg decrease in MAP (P Nimodipine was associated with MAP decreases, P(bt)O(2) (1.03 mmHg; P Nimodipine was associated with a decrease in MAP and CPP. When Nimodipine administration was associated with a decrease in MAP, there were concomitant drops in P(bt)O(2) and CBF. These findings suggest that MAP support after oral Nimodipine may be important to maintain adequate CBF in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  11. Results of Clipping Surgery for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Elderly Patients Aged 90 or Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yota; Watanabe, Atsushi; Wakui, Kenji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing. Although advanced age is one of the recognized risk factors for poor outcome, conservative treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage cannot provide satisfactory outcome in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome in patients aged 90 or older, for whom ruptured aneurysms were treated by clipping. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of non-traumatic SAH patients who were hospitalized at the Chiba Neurosurgical Clinic between 2004 and 2013. Of the 702 patients, 8 patients (1.1 %) were aged 90 or older. Of them, four underwent clipping surgery and the other four died or were managed conservatively. Their preoperative conditions were evaluated with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grading Scale of SAH, and the Fisher classification was used to assess the bleeding severity. The location of the ruptured aneurysm was determined by three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or cerebral angiography. The Glasgow Outcome Scale evaluation was assigned at discharge. Four patients (four female, all WFNS grade 1), aged 90 or older, underwent clipping surgery. Fisher classification was three in two patients and four in the other two. Location of the ruptured aneurysm was internal carotid artery in two, anterior communicating artery in one, and posterior inferior cerebellar artery in one patient. Two of these four patients had a favorable outcome. We propose that advanced age alone does not exclude suitable surgical clipping in patients with aneurysmal rupture in the tenth decade of life.

  12. Intracranial hypotension caused by cisternal irrigation for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo

    2014-09-15

    Vasospasm is the most common cause of complication after a subarachnoid hemorrhage and tremendous efforts have been made to prevent it. A subarachnoid clot is the cause of the vasospasm and dissolving and washing it out is considered to be the best practice. Cisternal irrigation with urokinase and ascorbic acid has been widely used due to its proven effect. A 60-year-old Japanese male presented with a severe headache was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and an immediate surgical obliteration was successfully performed. After clipping the aneurysm, a cisternal drainage tube was placed in the chiasmatic cistern. In order to clear the thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, a cisternal irrigation was performed. However, his consciousness deteriorated and his left pupil became dilated on the next day. A T1 sagittal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an evidence of marked brain sagging with mild tonsillar descent. We continued intensive hydration and head-down positioning and the brain sagging was shown to have improved in the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan. We present a case in which our patient experienced brain sagging after a cisternal irrigation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A subdural hematoma and low intracranial pressure suggested intracranial hypotension. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging images are useful to evaluate brain sagging and are shown sequentially here in our case report.

  13. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Presented as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Treated with Anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman was brought into the emergency room of Al-Zahra hospital, Isfahan, after her first generalized tonic-clonic seizure and a history of thunderclap occipital headache ten days before the first seizure. Examination revealed mild confusion and slight left hemiparesis with facial weakness and no meningeal irritation signs. CT scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and MRI demanstrated left lateral, sigmoid and sagittal sinus thromboses. Angiography was normal. She was treated by anticoagulants in spite of hemorraghic parenchymal lesion. Key words: Cerebral venous thrombosis, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Anticoagulant therapy

  14. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Joydip; Chatterjee, Apratim; Sarkar, Anup; Roy, Koushik; Agarwal, Rakhesh; Lahiri, Durjoy; Biswas, Amrito; Mondal, Anupam; Maity, Pranab; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS) along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review.

  15. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . The effects in all parameters were more pronounced for SAH than for saline injection. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that both the elevation of intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood per se contribute approximately equally to the late CBF reductions and receptor upregulation following SAH.......OBJECT: Cerebral ischemia remains the key cause of disability and death in the late phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the change in intracranial pressure or the extravasated blood causes...... the late cerebral ischemia and the upregulation of receptors or the cerebral vasoconstriction observed following SAH. METHODS: Rats were allocated to 1 of 3 experimental conditions: 1) cisternal injection of 250 microl blood (SAH Group), 2) cisternal injection of 250 microl NaCl (Saline Group), or 3...

  16. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C. W.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kwark, C. E.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Han, D. H.; Koh, C. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 21 Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm and in 3 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. SPECT study could detect the bilaterally hypoperfused cases in 10 patients(48%), but CT/MRI showed the bilateral abnormalities in only 3 patients(14%). The number of abnormal lesions were 56 in SPECT and 25 in CT/MRI. The lesions found in SPECT were well correlated with the neurological signs of the patients such as aphasia or hemiplegia. SPECT study during Matas test was helpful in evaluating the risk for carotid artery occlusion therapy. We thought that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is helpful in evaluating the functional changes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  17. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system induced by a single-episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study using MRI-enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS.This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9% single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (χ2 = 17.73, P<0.05. SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume.

  18. Long-term impact of perfusion CT data after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, Christian; Martens, Daniel; Reichelt, Dorothea C.; Caspers, Julian; Aissa, Joel; May, Rebecca; Antoch, Gerald; Turowski, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Haenggi, Daniel [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Dynamic perfusion computed tomography (PCT) has been established as a diagnostic instrument for the detection of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of PCT parameters after SAH on the long-term outcome of patients. Three hundred twelve patients were retrospectively interrogated with a questionnaire 23.06 {+-} 14.33 months after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. The modified Rankin scale (mRS) was determined, respectively. Scheduled PCT data sets from the first days after ictus were available for all patients. The maximum mean transit time over several examinations per hemisphere (MTT{sub PEAK}) values were significantly correlated (p {<=} 0.001, r = 0.422) with the clinical long-term outcome (mRS). Corresponding to our linear regression analysis, MTT{sub PEAK} is the second most important regressor (behind clinical severity of the initial hemorrhage) for the prediction of long-term mRS. An MTT{sub PEAK} threshold of 3.98 s (identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis, area under the curve = 0.75) predicted an unfavorable long-term outcome (mRS {>=} 2) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 67.3, 74.3, 84.5, 52.1, and 69.6 %, respectively. The presented data corroborate the relevance of PCT data for the clinical long-term outcome of SAH patients. By identification of patients who are at risk for a bad outcome and may need escalation of therapy, risk-benefit analysis is supported. (orig.)

  19. Practical Incidence and Risk Factors of Terson's Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis in 322 Consecutive Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Han, Myung-Hoon; Byoun, Hyoung-Soo; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Lee, Byung-Ro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Terson's syndrome, a complication of visual function, has occasionally been reported in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however the factors responsible for Terson's syndrome in aneurysmal SAH patients have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we report on potential risk factors for prediction and diagnosis of Terson's syndrome in the earlier stage of the disease course in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively ...

  20. Subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition after subarachnoid hemorrhage on T2*-weighted MRI correlates with the location of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid flow on computed tomography cisternography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yoshifumi; Imaizumi, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yuji; Niwa, Jun

    2008-01-01

    A 72-year-old male was admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. The aneurysm was treated with clipping soon after radiological examination. Eight weeks after the treatment, the patient suffered from secondary hydrocephalus resulting from blockage of the subarachnoid space due to subarachnoid granulation. Previous pathological examination revealed the granulation was associated with hemosiderin deposition. We investigated subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition in this patient using T2*-weighted (T2*-w) magnetic resonance image (MRI), a sensitive method for hemosiderin detection. computed tomography (CT) cisternography demonstrated that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was disturbed adjacent to sites of subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition on T2*-w MRI. Placement of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt contributed to neurological improvement. In this case, T2*-w MRI was an effective means of diagnosing the location of disturbed CSF flow associated with subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition.

  1. 307 Is Catheter Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography Still Essential for Patients With Spontaneous Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Negative Computed Tomography Angiogram?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ahmed; ElSerry, Tarek H; Aziz, Mohamed Mostafa

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently used as the initial diagnostic tool in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighty-five percent of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages are reported in the literature as caused by a ruptured aneurysm, whereas 10% are termed nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and carry and excellent prognosis. This retrospective study was conducted to better clarify the diagnostic yield of transfemoral catheter cerebral angiography in light of the current high-quality CT angiogram imaging reported as negative in cases presenting with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients with an admission diagnosis of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and a CT angiogram report as being negative from January 2013 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. CT angiogram findings were correlated with that of the catheter-based diagnostic cerebral angiogram that was done at the time of presentation. Clinical data recorded included age, sex, medical history, and clinical presentation. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT brain, CT angiogram, and digital subtraction angiography images as well as formal reports. A total of 43 patients fulfilled the aforementioned diagnostic criteria of spontaneous perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 31 females and 12 males. Ages ranged from 23 to 69 years. All patients had Hunt and Hess grades I or II. There was a false-negative CT angiogram in 4 cases (9.3%) where an underlying aneurysm was identified on digital subtraction angiography, the site of which correlated with the pattern of bleeding. The mean aneurysm size was 2 mm. No complications were related to the catheter angiogram procedure. This study shows that CT angiography, even when read as "negative" for cases assumed to have a benign perimesencephalic pattern of subarachnoid hemorrhage, is still insufficient to exclude underlying pathology as the source of hemorrhage. This study

  2. Elevated Baseline C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There remains a proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, of particular relevance in those who present with a good clinical grade. A forewarning of those at risk provides an opportunity towards more intensive monitoring, investigation, and prophylactic treatment prior to the clinical manifestation of advancing cerebral injury. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether biochemical markers sampled in the first days after the initial hemorrhage can predict poor outcome. METHODS: All patients recruited to the multicenter Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Hemorrhage Trial (STASH) were included. Baseline biochemical profiles were taken between time of ictus and day 4 post ictus. The t-test compared outcomes, and a backwards stepwise binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors providing independent prediction of an unfavorable outcome. RESULTS: Baseline biochemical data were obtained in approximately 91% of cases from 803 patients. On admission, 73% of patients were good grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades 1 or 2); however, 84% had a Fisher grade 3 or 4 on computed tomographic scan. For patients presenting with good grade on admission, higher levels of C-reactive protein, glucose, and white blood cells and lower levels of hematocrit, albumin, and hemoglobin were associated with poor outcome at discharge. C-reactive protein was found to be an independent predictor of outcome for patients presenting in good grade. CONCLUSION: Early recording of C-reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: ALP, alkaline phosphatase ALT, alanine aminotransferase CK, creatine kinase CRP, C-reactive protein EVD, external ventricular drainage ICH GCP, International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for good clinical practice mRS, modified Rankin Scale SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage STASH, Simvastatin in

  3. Transcranial Doppler Waveforms During Intra-aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation for Vasospasm Detection After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nicholas A; Manning, Nathan; Marshall, Randolph S; Connolly, E Sander; Claassen, Jan; Agarwal, Sachin; Roh, David J; Schmidt, J Michael; Park, Soojin

    2017-07-21

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a standard screening tool for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prevention of vasospasm-induced delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage depends on optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, which can be challenged by neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy. Intra-aortic balloon pumps have been utilized to augment cerebral perfusion, but they change the transcranial Doppler waveform, altering its interpretability for vasospasm screening. To assess the features of the transcranial Doppler waveform that correlate with vasospasm. We retrospectively reviewed cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage that underwent same-day transcranial Doppler ultrasound and angiography. Transcranial Doppler waveforms were assessed for mean velocity, peak systolic velocity, balloon pump-augmented diastolic velocity, and a novel feature, "delta velocity" (balloon pump-augmented velocity - systolic velocity). Relationship of flow velocity features to vasospasm was estimated by generalized estimating equation models using a Gaussian distribution and an exchangeable correlation structure. There were 31 transcranial Doppler and angiography pairings (12 CT angiography/19 digital subtraction angiography) from 4 patients. Fourteen pairings had proximal vasospasm by angiography. Delta velocity was associated with proximal vasospasm (coefficient -6.8 [95% CI -9.8 to -3.8], P  Doppler flow velocity feature, may reflect vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intra-aortic balloon pumps.

  4. Different CT perfusion algorithms in the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Charlotte H P; Dankbaar, Jan Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314079408; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/320630544; Vos, Pieter C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298986140; Bennink, Edwin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/358202906; Rinkel, Gabriel J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; Velthuis, Birgitta K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176956301; van der Schaaf, Irene C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29133489X

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tracer delay-sensitive perfusion algorithms in CT perfusion (CTP) result in an overestimation of the extent of ischemia in thromboembolic stroke. In diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed arrival of contrast due to vasospasm

  5. Meta-analysis of APOE genotype and subarachnoid hemorrhage - Clinical outcome and delayed ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanterna, L. A.; Ruigrok, Y.; Alexander, S.; Tang, J.; Biroli, F.; Dunn, L. T.; Poon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests that the APOE4 allele may increase the risk of a negative outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the results are conflicting. A genetic variable predicting the individual clinical course is currently lacking. Objective: To

  6. Nosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : time course and causative pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laban, Kamil G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413919870; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/320630544

    BackgroundNosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with prolonged length of stay and poor functional outcome. It remains unclear if infections result in prolonged length of stay or, vice versa, if prolonged length of stay results in more infections. Before

  7. Type of admission is associated with outcome of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Rosner, Jack; Nuño, Miriam; Alexander, Michael J; Schievink, Wouter I; Palestrant, David; Lyden, Patrick D; Miller, Chad

    2015-06-01

    Admitting facility may significantly affect outcome for spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. We assessed outcomes of patients admitted directly to a comprehensive stroke center with those initially admitted to a general hospital and subsequently transferred. The comprehensive stroke center included a neurocritical care ICU, cerebrovascular neurosurgeons and endovascular specialists. We identified 107 consecutive spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. Of these cases, 31 (29%) patients were admitted directly and 76 (71%) were transferred from general hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluated differences in mortality, complications, discharge disposition, and in-hospital length of stay. Differences in baseline parameters (age, gender, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, Fisher grade, admission Hunt and Hess grade) were not statistically significant between direct-admit and transfer patients at our institution. Transferred patients developed vasospasm more frequently (58% vs. 32%; P < 0.05) and had a longer delay time to surgery (3.9-days vs. 2.4-days: P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of vasospasm was significantly higher for transfer patients (OR 3.46, CI: 1.2-10.3, P = 0.03). In addition, longer in-hospital stays and higher odds of non-routine discharge were observed in transferred patients (P < 0.01). No differences in outcome could be identified for surgical vs. endovascular treatment rates between direct-admit and transfer patients. An association, but no causative link, can be made between the effect of transfer and the outcomes of SAH patients due to the retrospective nature of our study. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage patients admitted directly to our comprehensive stroke center showed less complications compared to those transferred from general hospitals. This improvement was independent of time to treatment. Additional research in multiple centers using prospective analysis should be

  8. Extracellular Mitochondria in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neurological Recovery After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sherry H-Y; Lan, Jing; Esposito, Elga; Ning, MingMing; Balaj, Leonora; Ji, Xunming; Lo, Eng H; Hayakawa, Kazuhide

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular mitochondria may be involved in the pathophysiology of stroke. In this study, we assessed the functional relevance of endogenous extracellular mitochondria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats and humans after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard rat model of SAH was used, where an intraluminal suture was used to perforate a cerebral artery, thus leading to blood extravasation into subarachnoid space. At 24 and 72 hours after SAH, neurological outcomes were measured, and the standard JC1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanineiodide) assay was used to quantify mitochondrial membrane potentials in the CSF. To further support the rat model experiments, CSF samples were obtained from 41 patients with SAH and 27 control subjects. Mitochondrial membrane potentials were measured with the JC1 assay, and correlations with clinical outcomes were assessed at 3 months. In the standard rat model of SAH, extracellular mitochondria was detected in CSF at 24 and 72 hours after injury. JC1 assays demonstrated that mitochondrial membrane potentials in CSF were decreased after SAH compared with sham-operated controls. In human CSF samples, extracellular mitochondria were also detected, and JC1 levels were also reduced after SAH. Furthermore, higher mitochondrial membrane potentials in the CSF were correlated with good clinical recovery at 3 months after SAH onset. This proof-of-concept study suggests that extracellular mitochondria may provide a biomarker-like glimpse into brain integrity and recovery after injury. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Dysnatremia as a poor prognostic indicator in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatenkova, Vera; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Skrabalek, Pavel; Suchomel, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Dysnatremias are common and carry a risk of poor prognosis in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and outcome of dysnatremias in 344 SAH patients treated by a targeted sodium management regimen. We performed a 10-year observational dysnatremia study. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium (SNa) below 135 mmol/L, hypernatremia SNa above 150 mmol/L. Dysnatremia occurred in 35.8% patients; this was more frequently hyponatremia (19.8%) with a mean SNa 132.23±2.09 mmol/L, (16.0% mild, 3.2% moderate, 0.6% severe). Hypernatremia occurred less commonly in 11.9%, Psodium management regimen in acute SAH patients showed that dysnatremias were frequent, predominantly hyponatremia of which the more usual causes were CSW and not SIADH. Hypernatremia was shown to be an independent risk factor for inpatient mortality and poor outcome.

  10. Filament perforation model for mouse subarachnoid hemorrhage: surgical-technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Carl; Fujioka, Masayuki; Okuchi, Kazuo; Fandino, Javier; Keller, Emanuela; Sakamoto, Yuya; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2014-12-01

    Mouse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models are becoming increasingly important. We aimed to report and discuss the detailed technical-surgical approach and difficulties associated with the circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model, with reference to the existing literature. First, the cWp model was reproduced using ddY mice following scarification at 0 h, Days 1, 2, and 3 after SAH. Second, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to SAH with histological examination on Days 1, 2, and 3. Sham-operated mice were sacrificed on Day 2. Neurological performance, amount of subarachnoid blood, cerebral vasospasm (CVS), and neuronal injury were assessed. Relevant articles found in the MEDLINE database were reviewed. Induction of SAH was successfully reproduced. The volume of subarachnoid blood decreased with time due to resorption. Neurological performance was worse in SAH compared with sham. Signs of CVS could be confirmed on Days 2 and 3, but not Day 1. The cumulative number of microthrombi was significantly higher on Days 2 and 3, but not Day 1. Apoptotic and degenerative neurons were found in the cortex and hippocampal area. Our review of the literature revealed the cWp model to be the most frequently used. The present findings largely confirmed previously published results. However, detailed technical-surgical description and its discussion were sparse, which we provide here. The current study provides additional useful information characterizing the cWp model. This model may be of first choice at present, as important pathologies can be reproduced and most findings in the literature are based on it.

  11. Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Infusion for Cerebral Vasospasm in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, W-S.; Kang, H-S.; Kim, J.E.; Kwon, O-K.; Oh, C.W.; Son, Y.J.; Kwon, B.J.; Jung, C.; Han, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine infusion for symptomatic vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Clinical data collected from 42 consecutive patients with symptomatic vasospasm after aSAH were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-two patients underwent 101 sessions of intra-arterial nimodipine infusion. Angiographic response, immediate clinical response, and clinical outcome were evaluated at discharge and six months later. Angiographic improvement was achieved in 82.2% of patients. The immediate clinical improvement rate was 68.3%, while the deterioration rate was 5.0%. A favorable clinical outcome was achieved in 76.2% at discharge and 84.6% six months. Vasospasm-related infarction occurred in 21.4%. There was no drug-related complication. The nimodipine group showed satisfactory outcomes. Nimodipine can be recommended as an effective and safe intra-arterial agent for the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm after aSAH. PMID:21696654

  12. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Pyeong Jeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH with digital subtraction angiography (DSA as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal. Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms 50% with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman’s rank test; r=0.15, P=0.35. Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH.

  13. Paradoxical undressing associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a non-hypothermia case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Emilienne; Ducrot, Kewin; Scarpelli, Maria Pia; Lobrinus, Alexander; Palmiere, Cristian

    2017-04-25

    Paradoxical undressing is a phenomenon characterizing some fatal hypothermia cases. The victims, despite low environmental temperatures, paradoxically remove their clothes due to a sudden feeling of warmth. In this report, we describe a case of suspected paradoxical undressing in a non-hypothermia case. The victim, a 51-year-old Caucasian man, was found dead wearing only sneakers and socks. All other clothing was found in his car. Postmortem investigations allowed the hypothesis of hypothermia to be ruled out and revealed the presence of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm that caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage, the latter responsible for the death. The absence of any elements suggesting a voluntary undressing or any third party's DNA profile or involvement along with the possibility that the subarachnoid hemorrhage might have determined a hypothalamic injury, somehow rendered conceivable the hypothesis of an inappropriate feeling of warmth due to hemorrhage-induced dysregulation of the hypothalamic temperature-regulating centers.

  14. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms with cerebral vasospasm after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-tao; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Su, Hai; Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Shuai; Sun, Xiao-chuan

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the main complication of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severely affecting clinical outcome of patients with SAH. Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is associated with prognosis of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and APOEε4 allele is reported to be apt to CVS after SAH. The current study aimed to investigate the association of APOE polymorphisms with CVS after SAH. One hundred and eighty-five patients with spontaneous SAH were recruited in the study. APOE genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). CVS was judged by Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) combined with patients' condition. χ2-test and logistic regression analysis were done by SPSS (version 11.5). The distributions of APOE genotypes and alleles matched Hardy-Weinberg Law. In 185 patients, 21 of 32 (65.7%) patients with APOEε4 allele showed CVS, which was significantly different from those without APOE ε4 allele (56 of 153 patients, 36.6%, P=0.022). However, neither the presence of ε2 nor ε3 was significantly different from those absent of it (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ApoEε4 allele was a risk factor (OR=2.842. 95% CI 1.072-6.124. P=0.019) to predispose to CVS after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension or not, hyperlipemia or not, Fisher grade, and Hunt-Hess grade after SAH. Our finding suggests that the patients with APOEε4 allele predispose to CVS after spontaneous SAH.

  15. Insurance status is associated with treatment allocation and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hobson

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes.We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population.We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008.Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes.Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment.Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study.

  16. Genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase is associated with outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ross P; Ward, Jonathan; Siler, Dominic; Eastman, Jamie M; Nelson, Jonathan; Borkar, Rohan; Alkayed, Nabil; Dogan, Aclan; Cetas, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Object Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at high risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and stroke. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) play an important role in cerebral blood flow regulation and neuroprotection after brain injury. Polymorphisms in the gene for the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which inactivates EETs, are associated with ischemic stroke risk and neuronal survival after ischemia. In this prospective observational study of patients with SAH we compare vital and neurologic outcomes based on functional polymorphisms of sEH. Methods Allelic discrimination based on quantitative real-time PCR was used to differentiate wild type (WT) sEH from K55R heterozygotes (predictive of increased sEH activity and reduced EETs) and R287Q heterozygotes (predictive of decreased sEH activity and increased EETs). The primary outcome was new stroke after SAH. Secondary outcomes were mortality, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score and neurologic deterioration attributable to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Results Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for admission age and Glasgow coma scale revealed an increase in the odds of new stroke (OR 5.48 (1.51–19.91) and mortality (OR 7.62 (1.19–48.7) in the K55R group, but no change in the odds of new stroke 0.56 (0.16–1.96) or death 3.09 (0.51–18.52) in patients with R287Q genotype, compared to wild-type sEH. R287Q genotype was associated with reduced odds of having a GOS ≤ 3 (0.23 (0.06–0.82)). There were no significant differences in the odds of neurologic deterioration due to DCI. Conclusions Genetic polymorphisms of sEH are associated with neurologic and vital outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25216066

  17. Sensitivity of a Clinical Decision Rule and Early Computed Tomography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin G. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Application of a clinical decision rule for subarachnoid hemorrhage, in combination with cranial computed tomography (CT performed within six hours of ictus (early cranial CT, may be able to reasonably exclude a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. This study’s objective was to examine the sensitivity of both early cranial CT and a previously validated clinical decision rule among emergency department (ED patients with aSAH and a normal mental status. Methods: Patients were evaluated in the 21 EDs of an integrated health delivery system between January 2007 and June 2013. We identified by chart review a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with aSAH in the setting of a normal mental status and performance of early cranial CT. Variables comprising the SAH clinical decision rule (age >40, presence of neck pain or stiffness, headache onset with exertion, loss of consciousness at headache onset were abstracted from the chart and assessed for inter-rater reliability. Results: One hundred fifty-five patients with aSAH met study inclusion criteria. The sensitivity of early cranial CT was 95.5% (95% CI [90.9-98.2]. The sensitivity of the SAH clinical decision rule was also 95.5% (95% CI [90.9-98.2]. Since all false negative cases for each diagnostic modality were mutually independent, the combined use of both early cranial CT and the clinical decision rule improved sensitivity to 100% (95% CI [97.6-100.0]. Conclusion: Neither early cranial CT nor the SAH clinical decision rule demonstrated ideal sensitivity for aSAH in this retrospective cohort. However, the combination of both strategies might optimize sensitivity for this life-threatening disease.

  18. Comparison of techniques for ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 523 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Whiting, Alex; Anderson, Eliza C; Witte, Samantha; Zanaty, Mario; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Hasan, David; Starke, Robert M; Hann, Shannon; Ghobrial, George M; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    It is common practice to use a new contralateral bur hole for ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with an existing ventriculostomy. At Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, the authors have primarily used the ventriculostomy site for the VPS. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety of the 2 techniques in patients with SAH. The rates of VPS-related hemorrhage, infection, and proximal revision were compared between the 2 techniques in 523 patients undergoing VPS placement (same site in 464 and contralateral site in 59 patients). The rate of new VPS-related hemorrhage was significantly higher in the contralateral-site group (1.7%) than in the same-site group (0%; p = 0.006). The rate of VPS infection did not differ between the 2 groups (6.4% for same site vs 5.1% for contralateral site; p = 0.7). In multivariate analysis, higher Hunt and Hess grades (p = 0.05) and open versus endovascular treatment (p = 0.04) predicted shunt infection, but the VPS technique was not a predictive factor (p = 0.9). The rate of proximal shunt revision was 6% in the same-site group versus 8.5% in the contralateralsite group (p = 0.4). In multivariate analysis, open surgery was the only factor predicting proximal VPS revision (p = 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the use of the ventriculostomy site for VPS placement may be feasible and safe and may not add morbidity (infection or need for revision) compared with the use of a fresh contralateral site. This rapid and simple technique also was associated with a lower risk of shunt-related hemorrhage. While both techniques appear to be feasible and safe, a definitive answer to the question of which technique is superior awaits a higher level of medical evidence.

  19. Novel vasodilatory effect of intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate solution on spastic cerebral arteries in the canine two-hemorrhage model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Hara, Yasukazu; Aiko, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakao, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular Mg++ has a vasodilatory effect on the cerebral artery. The present study investigated the effect of intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution on cerebral vasospasm in a canine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in 10 beagles using the two-hemorrhage model. Angiography of the vertebrobasilar artery was performed on Day 1 (baseline values before SAH) and on Day 7 (during cerebral vasospasm after induced SAH) before and after intracisternal injection of 0.5 ml/kg of 15 mmol/L MgSO4 solution into the cerebellomedullary cistern. The cerebrospinal fluid Mg++ concentration was significantly increased to 3.15 +/- 1.14 mEq/L after intracisternal injection from the preinjection value (1.45 +/- 0.09 mEq/L; p < 0.01). The diameters of the basilar artery, vertebral artery, and superior cerebellar artery on Day 7 were significantly decreased to 58.0 +/- 10.9%, 71.0 +/- 10.1%, and 60.9 +/- 13.8%, respectively, of their baseline diameters on Day 1 (p < 0.01). After intracisternal injection of MgSO4, these diameters significantly increased to 73.8 +/- 14.3%, 83.0 +/- 14.8%, and 74.1 +/- 13.5%, respectively (p < 0.01). Intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution causes significant dilation of spastic cerebral arteries in the canine two-hemorrhage model of SAH.

  20. Decision tree analysis in subarachnoid hemorrhage: prediction of outcome parameters during the course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using decision tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, Isabel Charlotte; Muroi, Carl; Richter, Johannes Konstantin; Schmid, Josef; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Seule, Martin; Boss, Oliver; Pangalu, Athina; Germans, Menno Robbert; Keller, Emanuela

    2018-01-19

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to create prediction models for outcome parameters by decision tree analysis based on clinical and laboratory data in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS The database consisted of clinical and laboratory parameters of 548 patients with aSAH who were admitted to the Neurocritical Care Unit, University Hospital Zurich. To examine the model performance, the cohort was randomly divided into a derivation cohort (60% [n = 329]; training data set) and a validation cohort (40% [n = 219]; test data set). The classification and regression tree prediction algorithm was applied to predict death, functional outcome, and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt dependency. Chi-square automatic interaction detection was applied to predict delayed cerebral infarction on days 1, 3, and 7. RESULTS The overall mortality was 18.4%. The accuracy of the decision tree models was good for survival on day 1 and favorable functional outcome at all time points, with a difference between the training and test data sets of decision trees enables exploration of dependent variables in the context of multiple changing influences over the course of an illness. The decision tree currently generated increases awareness of the early systemic stress response, which is seemingly pertinent for prognostication.

  1. Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage

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    Wang Yi-Min

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal SAH patients but without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight aneurysmal SAH patients were evaluated. Using functional scores, those without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital were compared to those already with hydrocephalus on admission, those who developed it during hospitalization, and those who did not develop it throughout their hospital stay. The Glasgow Coma Score, modified Fisher SAH grade, and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade were determined at the emergency room. Therapeutic outcomes immediately after discharge and 18 months after were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results Hydrocephalus accounted for 61.9% (104/168 of all episodes, including 82 with initial hydrocephalus on admission and 22 with subsequent hydrocephalus. Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without hydrocephalus on admission. After a minimum 1.5 years of follow-up, the mean Glasgow outcome score was 3.33 ± 1.40 for patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and 4.21 ± 1.19 for those without. Conclusions The presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher mean scores of the modified Fisher SAH and World Federation of Neurosurgical grading on admission imply risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without initial hydrocephalus. These patients have worse short- and long-term outcomes and longer hospitalization.

  2. Management of Agitation Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Is There a Role for Beta-Blockers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. About 20% of the stroke is hemorrhagic and about 50% of these is due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A troublesome neuropsychiatric complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is agitation/aggression. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history, sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial stabilization for 2 days, he underwent craniotomy and clipping of anterior cerebral communicating artery aneurysm. Treatment was continued with labetalol, nimodipine, and levetiracetam. Beginning postoperative day 4, patient developed episodes of confusion and agitation/aggression. Switching of Levetiracetam to valproate did not show any improvement. Psychiatry team tried to manage him with intense nursing intervention and different medications like olanzapine, valproate, lorazepam, and haloperidol. However, patient continued to be agitated and aggressive. Switching from labetalol to metoprolol resulted in dramatic improvement within 3 days. Discussion. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are often not sufficiently effective in the control of agitation/aggression in patients with traumatic brain injury and similar conditions. Our case report and the literature review including a cochrane review suggests that beta-blockers may be helpful in this situation.

  3. Terson's syndrome - Pathophysiologic considerations of an underestimated concomitant disease in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Czorlich, Patrick; Skevas, Christos; Knospe, Volker; Vettorazzi, Eik; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Terson syndrome (TS) is a common and underestimated concomitant disease in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of an initial unconsciousness and raised intracranial pressure (ICP) on the development of TS. We performed a retrospective analysis of 213 prospective collected SAH patients screened for TS to investigate the impact of an initial unconsciousness and raised ICP on the development of TS. A univariate analysis followed by a multivariate logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors that are associated with TS. The findings are all discussed and correlated with the present pathophysiologic considerations of TS. The rate of TS in this study was 23.9%. A higher risk of TS in the univariate analysis was associated with a Glasgow Coma scale⩽7 (p=0.001), higher Hunt and Hess grade (p=0.001), Fisher grade IV (p=0.002), intracerebral hemorrhage (p=0.011), initial unconsciousness (p=0.013) and an ICP of ⩾25mmHg (pTerson syndrome is a common concomitant disease in SAH patients. The pathomechanism leading to TS is not exclusively related to raised ICP levels and/or unconsciousness. However, these factors may be associated with a high percentage of TS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inversion of neurovascular coupling after subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Matilde; Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2017-11-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2. Vessel diameter was assessed in vivo by two-photon microscopy. NVC was also investigated ex vivo using brain slices. Cerebral arterioles of sham-operated mice dilated to 130% of baseline upon CO2 inhalation or forepaw stimulation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) increased. Following SAH, however, CO2 reactivity was completely lost and the majority of cerebral arterioles showed paradoxical constriction in vivo and ex vivo resulting in a reduced CBF response. As previous results showed intact NVC 3 h after SAH, the current findings indicate that impairment of NVC after cerebral hemorrhage occurs secondarily and is progressive. Since neuronal activity-induced vasoconstriction (inverse NVC) is likely to further aggravate SAH-induced cerebral ischemia and subsequent brain damage, inverse NVC may represent a novel therapeutic target after SAH.

  5. The initial time-course of headache in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čomić, Hata; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-08-15

    If acute severe headache disappears early after its onset, the question arises whether subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) should still be ruled out. We studied the initial time-course and minimal duration of headache in a consecutive series of neurologically intact patients with spontaneous SAH. We included patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 within 48h after spontaneous SAH with a normal level of consciousness and no focal deficits. We retrieved data on headache severity, measured with a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), ictus. We analyzed the proportion of patients with a first NRS 0 and NRS ictus and minimal headache duration. Patients were censored in case of a decrease in level of consciousness, aneurysm treatment, or early discharge. We included 106 patients (62 aneurysmal SAH, 33 perimesencephalic hemorrhage, 11 other spontaneous SAH). All patients were treated with analgesics. Within 48h after ictus, a first NRS 0 was reported by 9 patients (8%;95%CI:3%-14%) and a first NRS ictus. In a cohort of SAH patients with a normal level of consciousness and no focal deficits who all used analgetics, headache disappeared in around 10% within 48h after ictus. Our data indicate that a diagnostic work-up for SAH is also needed in patients using analgesics in whom headache has disappeared after 10h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage and left phrenic nerve paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Ohoba, Hiromi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yukihisa; Jinn, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki

    2011-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) in 2000 because of peripheral blood eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, polyarticular pain, and limb numbness. She was treated with prednisolone (PSL), and the above symptoms improved but then relapsed on tapering of PSL. In September 2009, after 7 days of tapering of PSL to 5mg/day, the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage and was admitted. MRA and cerebral angiography revealed no aneurysm; the source of bleeding could not be determined, but her symptoms indicated a benign course. A chest X-ray 27 days after admission showed left diaphragmatic elevation, and left phrenic nerve paralysis was diagnosed by a phrenic nerve stimulation test. Peripheral blood eosinophilia had progressed gradually during the admission period, and although it is rare for subarachnoid hemorrhage and phrenic nerve paralysis to be associated with CSS, we regarded these as vasculitis symptoms related to CSS.

  7. [Development of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Shortly after Cerebral Infarction Onset in an Adult Patient with Moyamoya Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Kenji; Chida, Kohei; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2017-02-01

    Here we describe the case of a patient with moyamoya disease who developed cerebral infarction followed shortly by subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. A 50-year-old woman presenting with sudden and transient weakness of the left lower limb was transferred to a local hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed cerebral infarction in the corpus callosum and in the bilateral frontal lobes induced by moyamoya disease. Pyramidal tract was not affected. The patient was treated with an anti-platelet agent(ozagrel sodium 160mg/day)and did not undergo intentional antihypertensive therapy. The patient's averaged blood pressure was 150/90mmHg. Six days after symptom onset, the patient's orientation deteriorated. Head computed tomography scans revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right sylvian fissure and in the bilateral frontal lobes and an intracerebral hemorrhage adjacent to the left corona radiata. In addition, MRI revealed a significant expansion of the cerebral infarction in the bilateral frontal lobes. Angiography with arterial catheterization confirmed that the patient's symptoms met diagnostic criteria of stage III moyamoya disease. Positron emission tomography revealed hemodynamic compromise in the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient underwent a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative T2*-weighted MRI revealed multiple microbleeds in both cerebral hemispheres.

  8. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Lumboperitoneal Shunt for Fulminant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Anthony; Chandra, Ronil V; Gutman, Matthew; Ligtermoet, Matthew; Seneviratne, Udaya; Kempster, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with severe visual loss from fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Her lumbar puncture opening pressure was 97 cm H2O. Soon after lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated frontal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and neuroimaging findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We hypothesize that an abrupt drop in intracranial pressure after lumboperitoneal shunting led to maladjustment of cerebral vascular autoregulation, which caused SAH and PRES.

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Nanba; Hiroshi Kashimura; Hiroaki Saura; Masaru Takeda

    2016-01-01

    Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blo...

  10. Cerebral inflammatory response and predictors of admission clinical grade after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafy, Khalid A.; Stuart, R. Morgan; Fernandez, Luis; Schmidt, J. Michael; Claassen, Jan; Lee, Kiwon; Connolly, E. Sander; Mayer, Stephan A.; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    Poor admission clinical grade is the most important determinant of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, little attention has been focused on independent predictors of poor admission clinical grade. We hypothesized that the cerebral inflammatory response initiated at the time of aneurysm rupture contributes to ultra-early brain injury and poor admission clinical grade. We sought to identify factors known to contribute to cerebral inflammation as well as markers of ...

  11. Induced Hypertension for Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathier, Celine S; van den Bergh, Walter M; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Verweij, Bon H; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Müller, Marcella C; Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Slooter, Arjen J C

    2018-01-01

    Induced hypertension is widely used to treat delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but a literature review shows that its presumed effectiveness is based on uncontrolled case-series only. We here report clinical outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with DCI included in a randomized trial on the effectiveness of induced hypertension. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with clinical symptoms of DCI were randomized to induced hypertension or no induced hypertension. Risk ratios for poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score >3) at 3 months, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated and adjusted for age, clinical condition at admission and at time of DCI, and amount of blood on initial computed tomographic scan with Poisson regression analysis. The trial aiming to include 240 patients was ended, based on lack of effect on cerebral perfusion and slow recruitment, when 21 patients had been randomized to induced hypertension, and 20 patients to no hypertension. With induced hypertension, the adjusted risk ratio for poor outcome was 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.8) and the risk ratio for serious adverse events 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-5.0). Before this trial, the effectiveness of induced hypertension for DCI in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was unknown because current literature consists only of uncontrolled case series. The results from our premature halted trial do not add any evidence to support induced hypertension and show that this treatment can lead to serious adverse events. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01613235. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Arachnoid cyst with associated arachnoiditis developing after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumialán, Luis M; Cawley, C Michael; Barrow, Daniel L

    2005-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 53-year-old woman in whom a T1-T2 spinal arachnoid cyst with associated arachnoiditis developed, compressing the thoracic spinal cord 1 year after the patient had suffered a Hunt and Hess Grade IV subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Development of spinal arachnoiditis with or without an arachnoid cyst is a rare complication of aneurysmal SAH. Risk factors may include posterior circulation aneurysms, the extent and severity of the hemorrhage, and the need for cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Surgical drainage, shunt placement, or cyst excision, when possible, is the mainstay of treatment.

  13. Cauda equina syndrome resulting from lumbar arachnoiditis after intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Kirk E; Crane, Deborah A

    2013-06-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a known but very rare late complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1943, 17 cases of spinal arachnoiditis after intracranial hemorrhage have been reported internationally. The vast majority of these cases were related to aneurysmal SAH. All previously published cases have involved spinal arachnoiditis at the cervical and thoracic levels. In this report, we present an adult woman with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome as a result of posterior circulation aneurysmal SAH. We believe this is the first reported case of this specific condition causing cauda equina syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Irreversible Total Loss of Brain Function and Organ Donation in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohme, Malte; Sauvigny, Thomas; Grensemann, Jörn; Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan; Westphal, Manfred; Czorlich, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening disease with an often fatal clinical course leading to irreversible loss of brain function (ILBF) (i.e., brain death). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with aSAH who became organ donors after diagnosis of ILBF. Anonymized clinical data sets of 395 patients treated for aSAH at a university medical center from January 2011 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Prevalence of consent for organ donation and clinical characteristics, including parameters for diagnosis of irreversible loss of brain function, were assessed. After initial admission to the intensive care unit, 18.0% of patients (n = 71) died (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 1). Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 42.3% of patients who died, aneurysmal rebleeding occurred in 19.7%, and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred in 87.3%. In 50.7% of patients who died (n = 36), ILBF was diagnosed, and 32.4% (n = 23) of these patients became organ donors. In 55.6%, additional diagnostic electroencephalography was performed. Male patients significantly more often became organ donors than female patients (P = 0.008). ILBF with subsequent organ donation was predominantly seen in patients organs were explanted for donation, including 42 kidneys, 21 livers, 3 pancreas, 11 hearts and 8 lungs. ILBF in the setting of fatal aSAH is a prevalent diagnosis with complex demands for neurointensive care physicians. We demonstrated the clinical characteristics and epidemiologic factors of patients with aSAH converting to organ donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by endovascular coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijailovic, Milian; Lukic, Snezana; Laudanovic, Dragomir; Folic, Marko; Folic, Nevena; Jankovic, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage could be complicated with cerebral vasospasm and resultant ischemia, causing neurological deficit. The aim of our study was to compare early and late outcomes in patients with subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) treated by endovascular coiling, who either received or did not receive prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm with nimodipine. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the data was collected from the histories of 68 patients (38 females and 30 males, age range 29-71 years) with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH in clinical stage HH I-IV, treated at Kragujevac Clinical Center, Serbia, from January 2008 till June 2009. The study population was divided into two groups: (1) the group of 42 patients who received intravenous prophylaxis with nimodipine for 3 weeks, and (2) the group of 26 patients who did not receive nimodipine prophylaxis. Prophylactic use of nimodipine did not decrease the rate of neurological deficit after one month, but the rates of both cerebral vasospasm (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and the morphological signs of ischemia using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were significantly lower in the nimodipine-protected group. Cerebral vasospasm was detected by Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) in the group protected by nimodipine as discrete in 2 patients (5%), and as apparent in 0 patients (0%). On the other hand, in the group unprotected by nimodipine, cerebral vasospasm was detected by DSA as discrete in 9 patients (35%), and as apparent in 6 patients (23%). Up to one month after the endovascular coiling, in the nimodipine-protected group, the T1W hypointense zones were detected by MRI as "small" in 5 patients (12%), as "medium" in 1 patient (2.5%), as "large" in 1 patient (2.5%), and as "multiple" in 2 patients (5%). In the nimodipine-unprotected group, the T1W hypointense zones were detected by MRI as "small" in 4 patients (16%), as "medium" in 2 patients (8%), as "large" in 3 patients (12%), and as

  16. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  17. Detection of hemosiderin deposition by T2*-weighted MRI after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Toshio; Chiba, Masahiko; Honma, Toshimi; Niwa, Jun

    2003-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is very difficult to diagnose several months after its onset. We thus investigated subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition well after SAH by T2*-weighted MRI, a sensitive method for hemosiderin detection. To investigate how hemosiderin deposition as confirmed by T2*-weighted MRI contributes to the determination of prior SAH and how the extent of hemosiderin deposition is associated with a number of clinical factors, we retrospectively analyzed 58 patients >3 months after SAH associated with ruptured aneurysms. We also investigated 209 healthy volunteers as controls. T2*-weighted MRI demonstrated subarachnoid hemosiderin deposition in 72.4% of the SAH patients, whereas no deposition was seen in the healthy volunteer group. The hemosiderin was preferentially deposited in the subarachnoid space near a ruptured aneurysm. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from logistic regression analyses correlating hemosiderin deposition with other factors. Age (>or=54 years) (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.03 to 25.0; P=0.046), Fisher grade 3 on initial CT (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.26 to 50.4; P=0.027), and Karnofsky Scale score hemosiderin deposition levels. T2*-weighted MRI is an effective means of diagnosing prior SAH and may also reveal the location of a ruptured aneurysm. The extent of hemosiderin deposition was significantly associated with several factors, including age, CT findings, and poor prognosis.

  18. Aspirin and Risk of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Moore, Justin M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the use of low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We aimed to evaluate any association between aspirin use and risk of aSAH based on the literature, and whether this is influenced by duration or frequency of aspirin use. A search of electronic databases was done from inception to September 2016. For each study, data on risk of aSAH in aspirin versus nonaspirin users were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and combined using inverse variance-weighted averages of logarithmic odds ratios in a random-effects models. From 7 included studies, no significant difference was noted between aspirin use of any duration or frequency and nonaspirin users (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.24; P =0.99). We found a significant association between short-term use of aspirin (3 years of durations of use. No significant association was found between infrequent aspirin use (≤2× per week) or frequent use (≥3× per week) with risk of aSAH. Current evidence suggests that short-term (aspirin is associated with increased risk of aSAH. Limitations include substantial heterogenity of the included studies. The role of long-term aspirin in reducing risk of aSAH remains unclear and ideally should be addressed by an appropriately designed randomized controlled trial. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Assay of Serum Sodium Balance Disturbance in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Relation to Prognosis of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabouri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute period after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are the most common electrolyte disturbance in acute period of disease, and these disturbances may worsen cerebral edema and mass effect. We performed this study to determine the prognostic significance of serum sodium concentration abnormalities.Materials & Methods: This study was performed as prospective analytic cross sectional in Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals of Isfahan during 2003-2004. The presence of hypernatremia (serum sodium concentration of>145m mol/L and hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration of<135mmol/l was determined with serum sodium measurements at admission and 3, 6 and 9 days after SAH, then the effects of hypernatremia and hyponatremia on three-month outcomes were analyzed after adjustment for age, sex, preexiting HTN , admission GCS score, initial mean arterial pressure and finding of Brain CT Scan and Brain angiography. Patients with symptomatic vasospasm were excluded.Results: The analysis of data showed that from 100 participated patients in this study 18% developed hypernatremia and 42% developed hyponatremria. Hypernatemia was significantly assiociated with poor outcomes compared with hyponatremia (odds ratio, 2.63- CI 95% . Conclusion: Hyponatremia seems to be more common than hypernatremia after SAH. Hypernatrenia after SAH associted with poor outcome and this association is independet of previously identified outcome predictors, including age, sex, admission GCS Score, and X.Ray finding.

  20. Internet search volumes in brain aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Is there evidence of seasonality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jerry C; Alotaibi, Naif M; Wang, Justin; Ibrahim, George M; Schweizer, Tom A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-07-01

    Results of previous studies examining seasonal variation in the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are conflicting. The aim of this brief report is to investigate whether there is a seasonal effect in online search queries for SAH that may reflect an association between meteorological factors and aneurysm rupture. We used the Google Trends data service to analyze the volume of internet queries for SAH on Google's search engine from January 1, 2004 to November 2016. We used comprehensive search terms and collected data from: USA, Canada, and countries known for their high prevalence of SAH (Finland, and Japan), as well as worldwide search volume. Potential seasonal variations in the data were assessed by comparative non-parametric tests and curve-fit regression model. Our analyses revealed that USA had the highest median value in cumulative search scores (115 vs. 86, 46, 46 for Finland, Canada and Japan, respectively). The term "brain aneurysm" was the commonly used search term among countries, followed by "cerebral aneurysm". There was no evidence of seasonality in any of the countries studied on both univariate tests and regression time-adjusted analysis. There are no seasonal variations in internet search query volume for SAH. Further studies are needed to explore whether online search volumes correlate with the actual incidence of SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk profile of patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using early perfusion computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Fon-Yih; Chen, Jo-Yu; Lee, Chung-Wei; Li, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Jing-Er; Lai, Dar-Ming; Hu, Fu-Chang; Tu, Yong-Kwang; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Wang, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether perfusion computed tomography (CT) is useful for identifying patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with reversible etiologies and whether early obliteration in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal SAH leads to favorable outcomes. Patients with new-onset aneurysmal SAH in World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade IV or V neurologic condition who had perfusion CT performed at admission were eligible for the study. The study retrospectively enrolled 38 patients seen between January 2007 and July 2009. The decision to perform an early obliteration was made by the family after a discussion with the neurosurgeons, neurointensivists, and interventional radiologists. The functional outcomes were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months, and quantitative perfusion CT data were collected. This study included 10 (26%) grade IV and 28 (74%) grade V patients. Favorable outcomes occurred in 19 (50%) patients, and 11 (29%) patients died. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the parameters, older age (odds ratio 1.104, P = 0.0317), bilateral prolonged mean transient time (MTT) at the thalami (odds ratio 4.155, P = 0.0362), and early obliteration (odds ratio 0.098, P = 0.003) were predictive of poor outcome. Early bilateral prolonged MTT at the thalami and old age are associated with a poor outcome. Early obliteration benefits a significant portion of SAH patients. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum levels of nimodipine in enteral and parenteral administration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Tammam; Andresen, Hilke; Koeppen, Johannes; Czorlich, Patrick; Duehrsen, Lasse; Stenzig, Justus; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum nimodipine concentrations in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after parenteral therapy and a following course of enteral administration. SAH patients were treated with intravenous nimodipine (2 mg/h) during the 1st week after hemorrhage, and on day 8, we switched over to enteral administration (60 mg/4 h), either orally or by gavage. Serum nimodipine concentrations were measured on days 3, 5, 8, 9 and 12. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated during parenteral and enteral therapy. The data of 15 patients were analyzed retrospectively. In this study, 157 blood samples were obtained. In seven samples, during the administration by gavage to two patients with high-grade SAH, the serum nimodipine concentrations were negligible. The AUC values during parenteral administration (median 149.3 ng-h/ml) were significantly higher than during oral administration on days 9 (median 92.1 ng-h/ml) and 12 (median 44.1 ng-h/ml) in seven patients (p = 0.030 and p = 0.016, respectively). The AUC values during parenteral administration were significantly higher than during administration by gavage on day 9 in eight patients (median 87.9 and 34 ng-h/ml, respectively, p = 0.001). The AUC values during enteral administration were higher in patients who received nimodine orally than in those who received it by gavage (median 52.3 and 23.1 ng-h/ml, respectively, p = 0.006). Enteral administration of nimodipine showed lower bioavailability during the 2nd week after SAH compared to parenteral application during the 1st week. Negligible serum concentrations were even expected when nimodipine was given by gavage in patients with high-grade SAH, thus suggesting that parenteral administration may be the better route in these patients.

  3. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, a possible prognostic marker in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, De-Sheng; Yan, Min; Hassan, Muhammad; Fang, Ze-Bin; Chen, Man-Tao

    2017-06-01

    8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a potential biomarker of oxidative stress. This study clarified whether plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were affected and its underlying relevance to prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this prospective, observational study, a total of 170 controls and 170 aSAH patients were enrolled. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were detected using an ELISA. Severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale. Clinical outcomes included 6-month mortality and poor outcome referred to as Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3. As compared to controls, admission plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were significantly enhanced. Increased concentrations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α correlated with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes. Under ROC curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations resembled those of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores for clinical outcomes. An elevation in plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations is associated with the severity and poor outcome after aSAH, substantializing 8-iso-PGF2α as a potential prognostic biomarker of aSAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. CT angiography versus 3D rotational angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Bechan, R.S.; Peluso, J.P.; Sluzewski, M.; Rooij, W.J. van [Sint Elisabeth Ziekenhuis Tilburg, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rooij, S.B. van [Medisch Centrum Alkmaar, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Sprengers, M.E.; Majoie, C.B. [Academisch Medisch Centrum, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used as primary diagnostic tool to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) has substituted DSA as a reference standard. In this prospective observational study, we compare CTA with 3DRA of all cerebral vessels in a large cohort of patients with SAH. Of 179 consecutive patients with SAH admitted between March 2013 and July 2014, 139 underwent 64- to 256-detector row CTA followed by complete cerebral 3DRA within 24 h. In 86 patients (62 %), 3DRA was performed under general anesthesia. Two observers from outside hospitals reviewed CTA data. In 118 of 139 patients (85 %), 3DRA diagnosed the cause of hemorrhage: 113 ruptured aneurysms, three arterial dissections, one micro-arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and one reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. On CTA, both observers missed all five non-aneurysmal causes of SAH. Sensitivity of CTA in depicting ruptured aneurysms was 0.88-0.91, and accuracy was 0.88-0.92. Of 113 ruptured aneurysms, 28 were ≤3 mm (25 %) and of 95 additional aneurysms, 71 were ≤3 mm (75 %). Sensitivity of depicting aneurysms ≤3 mm was 0.28-0.43. Of 95 additional aneurysms, the two raters missed 65 (68 %) and 58 (61 %). Sensitivity in detection was lower in aneurysms of the internal carotid artery than in other locations. CTA had some limitations as primary diagnostic tool in patients with SAH. All non-aneurysmal causes for SAH and one in ten ruptured aneurysms were missed. Performance of CTA was poor in aneurysms ≤3 mm. The majority of additional aneurysms were not depicted on CTA. (orig.)

  5. The Effect of a Single dose Dantrolene in Patients with Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Masih Sabouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral vasospasm is a prolonged, occasionally severe, but reversible narrowing of the cerebral arteries that begins 3 to 5 days after the hemorrhage becomes maximal at 14 days. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of dantrolene on the reduction of vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 32 patients with proven aneurysms in AL-Zahra hospital during 2011-2013. They were randomly divided into two groups. In all patients, daily transcranial Doppler sonography was performed and as soon as the diagnosis of vasospasm onset in the first group, in addition to conventional treatment of vasospasm 2.5 mg/kg Dantrolene infusion within 60 minutes and while the blood pressure and heart rate of patient monitored, and arterial flow velocity changes such as PSV and MFV were measured by transcranial Doppler sonography in 45, 90 and 135 minutes. Data was analyzed by SPSS 22 and Chi-square, Student t, Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests with repeated observations. Results: There was no significant difference in the site of the aneurysm in the two groups. The mean of PSV index prior to treatment and the 45th minute was not different but at 90th and 135th minutes it was significantly lower in the Dantrolene receiving group (P < 0.05. The mean of MFV index prior to intervention and in the 45th minute was not different between two groups, but at 90th and 135th minutes was significantly lower in the target group Conclusion: Using dantrolene in patients with artery vasospasm significantly reduced artery spasm and increased the patient recovery.

  6. PKGIα inhibits the proliferation of cerebral arterial smooth muscle cell induced by oxyhemoglobin after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Luo, Chunxia; Yi, Bin; Chen, Zhi; Tang, Weihua; Chen, Yujie; Hu, Rong; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the proliferation of cerebral arterial smooth muscle cell (CASMC) induced by oxyhemoglobin (Oxyhb) and interfered by Adenovirus-mediate-PKGI (Ad-PKGI), and to investigate the potential regulative role of the PKGI gene in the molecule mechanism of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Tissue-sticking method was used for primary cultured rat CASMCs. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to examine the PKGI mRNA and protein expressions after CASMC were transfected by Ad-PKG. The proliferation of CASMCs was determined by MTT assay and 3H-TdR incorporation. Ad-PKGI could be transfected into CASMCS and highly express. Oxyhemoglobin could stimulate the proliferation of CASMC; the value of 3H-TdR incorporation and the absorbance value of MTT increased and could block up after CASMC was transfected by Ad-PKG. The results suggested that the PKG signaling pathway might play an important role in CVS after SAH, and the PKG gene might be a target point of gene therapy.

  7. Enhanced myogenic tone in cerebral arteries from a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Ishiguro, Masanori; Puryear, Corey B; Bisson, Erica; Saundry, Christine M; Nathan, David J; Russell, Sheila R; Tranmer, Bruce I; Wellman, George C

    2002-12-01

    Cerebral artery vasospasm is a major cause of death and disability in patients experiencing subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently, little is known regarding the impact of SAH on small diameter (100-200 microm) cerebral arteries, which play an important role in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. With the use of a rabbit SAH model and in vitro video microscopy, cerebral artery diameter was measured in response to elevations in intravascular pressure. Cerebral arteries from SAH animals constricted more (approximately twofold) to pressure within the physiological range of 60-100 mmHg compared with control or sham-operated animals. Pressure-induced constriction (myogenic tone) was also enhanced in arteries from control animals organ cultured in the presence of oxyhemoglobin, an effect independent of the vascular endothelium or nitric oxide synthesis. Finally, arteries from both control and SAH animals dilated as intravascular pressure was elevated above 140 mmHg. This study provides evidence for a role of oxyhemoglobin in impaired autoregulation (i.e., enhanced myogenic tone) in small diameter cerebral arteries during SAH. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcome in SAH patients (e.g., supraphysiological intravascular pressure) are effective in dilating small diameter cerebral arteries isolated from SAH animals.

  8. High dose Erythropoietin increases Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension in Severe Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Helbok Raimund

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasospasm-related delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI significantly impacts on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Erythropoietin (EPO may reduce the severity of cerebral vasospasm and improve outcome, however, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate the effect of EPO on cerebral metabolism and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2. Methods Seven consecutive poor grade SAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring (MM received systemic EPO therapy (30.000 IU per day for 3 consecutive days for severe cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, intracranial pressure (ICP, PbtO2 and brain metabolic changes were analyzed during the next 24 hours after each dose given. Statistical analysis was performed with a mixed effects model. Results A total of 22 interventions were analyzed. Median age was 47 years (32–68 and 86 % were female. Three patients (38 % developed DCI. MAP decreased 2 hours after intervention (P btO2 significantly increased over time (P  Conclusions EPO increases PbtO2 in poor grade SAH patients with severe cerebral vasospasm. The effect on outcome needs further investigation.

  9. Possible Role of Inflammation and Galectin-3 in Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2018-02-07

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known as one of the most devastating diseases in the central nervous system. In the past few decades, research on SAH has focused on cerebral vasospasm to prevent post-SAH delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and to improve outcomes. However, increasing evidence has suggested that early brain injury (EBI) is an important mechanism contributing to DCI, cerebral vasospasm as well as poor outcomes. Though the mechanism of EBI is very complex, inflammation is thought to play a pivotal role in EBI. Galectin-3 is a unique chimera type in the galectin family characterized by its β-galactoside-binding lectin, which mediates various pathologies, such as fibrosis, cell adhesion, and inflammation. Recently, two clinical studies revealed galectin-3 to be a possible prognostic biomarker in SAH patients. In addition, our recent report suggested that higher acute-stage plasma galectin-3 levels correlated with subsequent development of delayed cerebral infarction that was not associated with vasospasm in SAH patients. We review the possible role and molecular mechanisms of inflammation as well as galectin-3 in brain injuries, especially focusing on EBI after SAH, and discuss galectin-3 as a potential new therapeutic or research target in post-SAH brain injuries.

  10. Newly Detected Cervical Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula on Magnetic Resonance Angiography Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Minami, Hiroaki; Yamaura, Ikuya; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Hirata, Yutaka

    2017-09-01

    Although an asymptomatic spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) can sometimes be incidentally detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there are no previous reports showing the development of an SDAVF on MRI or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). A 64-year old man with unruptured vertebral artery dissection (VAD) developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during regular follow-up. Emergent endovascular coil internal trapping for the VAD was performed; however, angiography after the endovascular treatment showed a lower cervical SDAVF. The SDAVF was considered the bleeding source based on subsequent spinal MRI, and endovascular embolization was performed. In this case, previous serial MRA examinations indicated that the SDAVF appeared for the first time during follow-up, and SAH occurred. This may be the first report in which serial MRA studies demonstrated the course of this condition, from the appearance of an SDAVF to the development of SAH. An abnormal vascular structure detected on MRA indicated abnormal enlargement of the perimedullary vein and the presence of a cervical SDAVF. A lower cervical SDAVF should be suspected if such an abnormal vascular structure is detected on MRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relation of early hypernatremia with clinical outcome in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Sodium dysregulation in the course after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been identified as one contributor to adverse clinical outcome. However, the correlation of acute dysnatremia and early brain injury (EBI) remains unclear. We investigated the early course and prognostic relevance of changes in serum sodium concentrations and its relation to EBI after aSAH. Retrospectively, the serum sodium concentration (SSC) of 264 patients with aSAH was analyzed. The first SSC was obtained within 8h after initial ictus and then repeatedly analyzed every 8h over the first five days. Incidence of hypernatremia (defined as SSC>145mmol/l) was correlated with initial neurological condition according to World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade (WFNS), incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcome at 12 month according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Within 56h, 82 patients (31.1%) developed hypernatremia which correlated significantly with initial neurological condition (phypernatremia within 56h after aSAH was shown to be an independent predictor for poor neurological outcome. Early serum sodium levels after aSAH can be considered as surrogate markers to predict outcome after aSAH irrespective to the occurrence of DCI. However, prospective studies are necessary to validate this concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors

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    A Cifuentes Lucía

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7% was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population.

  13. Prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and their relationship with outcome

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    Saktheeswaran Mahesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiographic (ECG alterations occurring after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH have been described frequently, but the prognostic significance of these changes has not been well characterized. Aim and Objectives: To report the prevalence and patterns of ECG alterations in patients with acute aneurysmal SAH and to study the relationship between ECG alterations and the neurological outcome, if any. Materials and Methods: Records of consecutive patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit of the SCTIMST, Trivandrum between January 1999 and January 2011 with acute aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 321 patients with SAH, 190 (59.2% had abnormal ECGs. Repolarization abnormalities were the most common, with T wave inversion in the anterolateral leads occurring in 155 (48.3% patients. By univariate analysis, female sex, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS at admission of I, ST segment depression or T inversion in anterolateral leads, prolonged corrected QT interval, and sinus bradycardia were associated with increased risk of death. By multivariate analysis, only GCS and WFNS grade independently predicted mortality and none of the ECG changes predicted the same. Presence of tall T waves in anterior leads, T inversion in anterolateral leads, sinus bradycardia, and WFNS grade >1 were independently associated with GCS <15 and poor outcome at discharge. Conclusions: In patients with acute aneurysmal SAH, repolarization abnormalities are the commonest ECG alterations. ECG alterations do not independently predict death, but independently predict poor discharge neurological status.

  14. Prevention and correction of hypocalaemia during systematic hypothermia in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhages

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    Dudukina S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypothermia as a method of neuroprotection in brain damage has been proved in many studies, but a large number of complications requires development of further protocols of its management. The article presents experience of treatment of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage under conditions of preventive hypothermia. 84 patients were examined. In 56 of them the efficacy of developed method on prevention and correction of hypocalaemia developed as a result of cold diuresis has been proposed. It has been found that decrease in plasma potassium occurs in parallel with decrease in body temperature regardless the technique of potassium chloride injection. Introduction of potassium chloride solution in physiological dose of 0.2 mmol/kg prevents hypocalaemia development during preventive hypothermia. Injection of potassium chloride in the physiological dose of 0.2 mmol/kg/h and after beginning of patient’s rewarming – 0.8 mmol/kg within the period of one postsurgery day prevents the development of postoperative hypocalaemia in the postoperative period; and after patient’s rewarming– 0.8. mmol/kg within the period of one postoperative day prevents development of postoperative cardiac complications in the perioperative period by 20%.

  15. RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Zhou, Keren; Shi, Ligen; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Jingyi; Manaenko, Anatol; Reis, Cesar; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Jianmin

    2017-09-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has not been well elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized the RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway was involved in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome following SAH. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in rats. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or mitochondrial division inhibitor (Mdivi-1) was administered 1h after SAH by intraperitoneal injection. SAH grade, neurological function, brain water content, Western blot, ROS assay, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were performed. SAH led to the upregulation of RIP1, RIP3, phosphorylated DRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome. Nec-1 treatment reduced RIP1, RIP3, phosphorylated DRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently alleviated brain edema and neurological deficits at 24h following SAH. The treatment with Mdivi-1 inhibited the expression of DRP1 protein, attenuated mitochondria damage and the generation of ROS, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome and ameliorated brain edema and neurological deficits at 24h after SAH. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in EBI after SAH was mediated by RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway. Nec-1 and Mdivi-1 can inhibit inflammation and improve neurological function after SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of deferoxamine on blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Yanjiang Li

    Full Text Available Blood brain barrier (BBB disruption is a key mechanism of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-induced brain injury. This study examined the mechanism of iron-induced BBB disruption after SAH and investigated the potential therapeutic effect of iron chelation on SAH. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats had an endovascular perforation of left internal carotid artery bifurcation or sham operation. The rats were treated with deferoxamine (DFX or vehicle (100mg/kg for a maximum of 7 days. Brain edema, BBB leakage, behavioral and cognitive impairment were examined. In SAH rat, the peak time of brain edema and BBB impairment in the cortex was at day 3 after SAH. SAH resulted in a significant increase in ferritin expression in the cortex. The ferritin positive cells were colocalized with endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Compared with vehicle, DFX caused less ferritin upregulation, brain water content, BBB impairment, behavioral and cognitive deficits in SAH rats. The results suggest iron overload could be a therapeutic target for SAH induced BBB damage.

  17. Isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage: Etiologies based on MRI findings

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    Cho, Eun; Kang, Myung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify common underlying etiologies that may be responsible for isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) by analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain. From August 2005 to February 2014, 15 cSAH patients were admitted to our institution. All patients with cSAH underwent brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography as a part of their initial evaluation. An analysis of the patients' medical history, clinical presentations, and brain MRI findings was retrospectively performed. Among the combined pathologies that were suspected causes of cSAH, 11 patients showed acute or subacute cerebral infarctions at the ipsilateral hemisphere of cSAH on the diffusion-weighted images. Four of 11 patients had only cerebral infarction, but the other 7 had combined vasculopathy of extra- and intracranial arteries. Four of 15 patients who did not have cerebral infarction, had intracranial artery stenosis, or showed possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or no abnormal findings on the brain MRI. Ischemic stroke, such as cerebral infarction or vasculopathy of the extra and intracranial arteries is regarded as a common underlying etiology of the cSAH based on MRI findings.

  18. Intravenous flat-detector computed tomography angiography for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH.

  19. ε-Aminocaproic acid in angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage patients is safe: a retrospective review of 83 consecutive patients.

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    Hui, Ferdinand K; Schuette, Albert J; Lieber, Michael; Spiotta, Alejandro M; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Barrow, Daniel L; Cawley, C Michael

    2012-03-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) has been used to reduce the rate of cerebral aneurysm rerupture before definitive treatment. In centers administering EACA to patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients eventually diagnosed with angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (ANSAH) may also initially receive EACA, perhaps placing them at increased risk for ischemic complications. To evaluate the effect of short-term EACA on outcomes and secondary measures in patients with ANSAH. We conducted a retrospective study of 454 consecutive SAH patients over a 2-year period under a current protocol for EACA use. Patients were excluded if a source for the SAH was discovered, yielding a total of 83 ANSAH patients. The patients were assigned to groups that did or did not receive EACA. The primary end points of the study were ischemic complications, pulmonary emboli, vasospasm, ventriculoperitoneal shunting rates, and outcomes. Statistical analysis yielded no significant difference between the 2 arms with respect to any of the end points: vasospasm (P = .65), deep vein thrombosis (P = .51), pulmonary embolism (P = 1.0), stroke (P = 1.0), myocardial infarction (P = 1.0), and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (P = .57). There was no statistically significant outcome difference using the modified Rankin Scale (P = .30). Short-term (<72 hour) application of EACA does not result in an increase in adverse events in patients with ANSAH.

  20. Copeptin as a marker for severity and prognosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Christian Fung

    Full Text Available Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH.Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia.Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P = 0.006, the amount of subarachnoid blood (P = 0.03 and the occurrence of ICH (P = 0.02. There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P = 0.054. No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association.Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH.

  1. Flair MR imaging in the Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage : comparison with CT and T1-weighted MR imaging

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    Min, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Youn; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Oh, Tae Kyung; Kim, Ho Kyun [College of Medicine, Jnje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To compare the findings of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging in the detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with those of precontrast CT and T1-weighted MR imaging. In 13 patients (14 cases) with SAH, FLAIR MR images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT (10 patients, 11 cases) and T1-weighted MR images (9 cases). SAH was confirmed on the basis of high density along the subarachnoid space, as seen on precontrast CT, or lumbar puncture. MR imaging was performed on a 1.0T unit. FLAIR MR and CT images were obtained during the acute stage(less than 3 days after ictus) in 10 and 9 cases, respectively, during the subacute stage (4-14 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively, and during the chronic stage (more than 15 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively. CT was performed before FLAIR MR imaging, and the interval between CT and FLAIR ranged from 24 hours (6 cases) to 2-3 (2 cases) or 4-7 days (3 cases). In each study, the conspicuity of visualization of SAH was graded as excellent, good, fair, or negative at five locations (sylvian fissure, cortical sulci, anterior basal cistern, posterior basal cistern, and perimesencephalic cistern). In all cases, subarachnoid hemorrhages were demonstrated as high signal intensity areas on FLAIR images. The detection rates for SAH on CT and T1-weighted MR images were 100% (11/11) and 89% (8/9), respectively. FLAIR was superior to T1-weighted imaging in the detection of SAH at all sites except the anterior basal cistern (p less than 0.05) and superior to CT in the detection of SAH at the cortical sulci (p less than 0.05). On FLAIR MR images, subarachnoid hemorrhages at all stages are demonstrated as high signal intensity areas; the FLAIR MR sequence is thus considered useful in the detection of SAH. In particular FLAIR is more sensitive than CT for the detection of SAH in the cortical sulci. (author)

  2. [Comparison of Two Methods of Lidocaine Administrating for Neuroprotection in Rabbit Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xian-Qing; Fu, Yong-Jian; Zheng, Li-Rong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the neuroprotection effect of two methods of Lidocaine administration in rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into sham group, subarachnoid hemorrhage group (SAH), Lidocaine intravenous injection group (L1), and Lidocaine intracisternal administration group (L2). The rabbits were given general anaesthesia, then 1.5 mL autologous nonheparinized arterial blood was injected into cisterna magna to establish SAH model, while 1.5 mL saline was used in sham group. Thirty minutes later, the rabbits in L1 and L2 group respectively received 0.3 mL 2% Lidocaine administration of intravenously and intracisternally injection. All animals were sacrificed at 72 h after SAH. The samples of basilar artery and hippocampus tissue were processed for morphometric analysis. At pre-operation and 72 h after SAH, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum was measured. HE staining and C fos immunohistochemical staining were performed in L1 and L2 groups. Artery area and artery diameter of basal arteries, normal neuron density and C-fos positive cell in hippocampus were measured at 72 h after SAH. The baseline level of IL-6 was not significant different in four groups ( P >0.05). The level of IL-6 at 72 h after SAH was significantly higher than that at pre-operation in SAH, L1 and L2 groups ( P L1 group was higher than that in L2 group ( P L2 group, the cross-section area and diameter of basal artery were smaller in SAH and L1 group, while the normal neuron density of hippocampus was less ( P <0.05). Intracisternal administration of Lidocaine could provide neuroprotection in rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in neurofibromatosis type 1: case report of extracranial cerebral aneurysm rupture into a meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, T; de Broucker, F; de Broucker, T

    2011-05-01

    Described here is a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an extracranial vertebral artery (V3 segment) aneurysm in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The pathophysiology of this never-before reported complication of NF-1 is examined in the light of a focused literature review and with illustrations characteristic of this unique case, involving complex malformations of the spine and meningeal spaces, as well as of the vertebral artery wall itself. All these abnormalities are directly related to the underlying NF-1 disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Type A interrupted aortic arch accompanied by intracranial aneurysms causing subarachnoid hemorrhage in an adult man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Suat; Kantarci, Mecit; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Cakir, Murteza; Ogul, Hayri

    2014-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch anomaly (IAA) characterized by complete luminal dissociation between the ascending and descending aorta and accounting for less than 1% of all cases of congenital heart disease. IAA is a rare condition in infants that occurs approximately three times per million births. It is usually diagnosed and repaired during the neonatal period and is extremely rare in adults. We present the case of an adult man who was diagnosed with IAA accompanied by intracranial aneurysms causing subarachnoid hemorrhage and demonstrate the imaging findings with 256-slice computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Systemic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of a cerebral aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    Systemic complications secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm are common (40%) and the mortality attributable to them (23%) is comparable to mortality from the primary lesion, rebleeding, or vasospasm. Although nonneurologic medical complications are avoidable, they worsen the prognosis, lengthen the hospital stay, and generate additional costs. The prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment of systemic complications will be essential for managing the individual patient's case. Treatment should cover major symptoms (headache, nausea, and dizziness) and ambient noise should be reduced, all with the aim of achieving excellence and improving the patient's perception of quality of care.

  6. Syringomyelia due to Lumbar Spinal Fluid Drainage in the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Akira; Fujii, Mutsumi; Ishihara, Tasuku; Amano, Eiichiro; Otsu, Shinichi; Fujii, Shoko; Tamada, Natsumi; Kiyokawa, Juri; Yoshimura, Masataka; Hirota, Shin; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar spinal fluid drainage is a common procedure for treating hydrocephalus and alleviating vasospasm by egesting blood in the subarachnoid cavity after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite being an effective and safe procedure, cerebrospinal fluid overdrainage might result in serious complications. Here we report the case of a 49-year-old man who suffered from tonsillar herniation with subsequent cervicothoracic syringomyelia in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to vertebral artery dissection. About 2 weeks after lumbar drainage was switched from external ventricular drainage initiated on the day of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the recovery from the disturbance of consciousness revealed tetraplegia, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia. Removal of the spinal drain and resumption of external ventricular drainage resulted in the restoration of the herniated tonsils to the normal position and the complete disappearance of syringomyelia 11 days later. We should consider that spinal syringomyelia could develop as a complication of lumbar spinal fluid drainage in the acute phase of thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methemoglobin Is an Endogenous Toll-Like Receptor 4 Ligand—Relevance to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Min Seong Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is a well-recognized consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, and may be responsible for important complications of SAH. Signaling by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-mediated nuclear factor κB (NFκB in microglia plays a critical role in neuronal damage after SAH. Three molecules derived from erythrocyte breakdown have been postulated to be endogenous TLR4 ligands: methemoglobin (metHgb, heme and hemin. However, poor water solubility of heme and hemin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination have confounded our understanding of these molecules as endogenous TLR4 ligands. We used a 5-step process to obtain highly purified LPS-free metHgb, as confirmed by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Using this preparation, we show that metHgb is a TLR4 ligand at physiologically relevant concentrations. metHgb caused time- and dose-dependent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, from microglial and macrophage cell lines, with secretion inhibited by siRNA directed against TLR4, by the TLR4-specific inhibitors, Rs-LPS and TAK-242, and by anti-CD14 antibodies. Injection of purified LPS-free metHgb into the rat subarachnoid space induced microglial activation and TNFα upregulation. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that, following SAH, metHgb in the subarachnoid space can promote widespread TLR4-mediated neuroinflammation.

  8. Temporal changes in perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, R M; Afshar, J K; Boock, R J; Oldfield, E H

    1998-03-01

    Hemoglobin released from hemolysed erythrocytes has been postulated to be responsible for delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the evidence is indirect and the mechanisms of action are unclear. Cerebrovascular tone is regulated by a dynamic balance of relaxing and contracting factors. Loss of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor-nitric oxide in the presence of oxyhemoglobin and overproduction of endothelin-1 stimulated by oxyhemoglobin have been postulated as causes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. The authors aimed to investigate this hypothesis using in vivo microdialysis to examine time-dependent changes in the perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin in a primate model of SAH. Nine cynomolgus monkeys underwent right-sided frontotemporal craniectomy and placement of a semipermeable microdialysis catheter adjacent to the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Saline (control group, three animals) or an arterial blood clot (SAH group, six animals) was then placed around the MCA and the catheter. Arteriographically confirmed vasospasm had developed in all animals with SAH but in none of the control animals on Day 7. The dialysate was collected daily for 12 days. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin were measured by means of spectrophotometry. Perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin peaked on Day 2 in the control monkeys and could not be detected on Days 5 to 12. Perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin peaked on Day 7 in the SAH group, at which time the concentrations in the dialysate were 100-fold higher than in any sample obtained from the control animals. Methemoglobin levels increased only slightly, peaking between Days 7 and 12, at which time the concentration in the dialysate was 10-fold higher than in samples from the control animals. This study provides in vivo evidence that the

  9. [HYPOTHERMIA INFLUENCES ON OXYGEN TENSION IN THE BRAIN PARENCHYMA IN PATIENTS WITH ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudeev, S A; Popugaev, K A; Kruglyakov, N M; Belousova, K A; Terekhov, D A; Leushin, K Yu; Aronov, M S; Karpova, O V; Zelenkov, A V; Kiselev, K V; Fedin, A B; Zabelin, M V; Samoylov, A S

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious medical and social problem. The main physiological mechanisms that determine secondary brain damage in this patients are intracranial hypertension, cerebral vasospasm, dysfunction of autoregulation mechanisms, violation of liquorodynamics and delayed cerebral ischemia. The multimodal neuromonitoring for prevention and timely correction ofsecondary brain injury factors has become routine practice in neuroICU. Measurement of oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma is one of neuromonitoring options. During the years of intensive use of this method in clinical practice the reasons for reducing the oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma were revealed, as well as developed and clinically validated algorithms for correction of such conditions. However, there are clinical situations that are difficult to interpret and even more difficult to make the right tactical and therapeutic solutions. We present the clinical observation of the patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, who had dramatically reduced brain intraparenchymal oxygen pressure although prolonged hypothermia were used. Despite this, the outcome was favorable. The analysis allowed to assume that the reason for this decrease in oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma could be hypothermia itself

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following hemodynamic treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awori, Jonathan; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-04-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but significant complication of hemodynamic therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced vasospasm. We performed a PubMed literature search for the period January 1999 to January 2015 using the search terms "posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "vasospasm", and "hypertensive encephalopathy", and identified nine cases of PRES after aSAH-induced vasospasm in the literature. We also present a 63-year-old man with aSAH complicated by vasospasm treated with hemodynamic augmentation who subsequently developed PRES. Imaging following development of PRES symptoms shows vasogenic edema in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes. Age, sex, history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure were variable among patients in the literature review. In all cases, patients improved both from a radiological and clinical perspective following blood pressure reduction. To summarize, PRES is a rare complication of hemodynamic therapy for vasospasm following aSAH. The literature at the time of writing demonstrates no common pattern with regard to patient demographics, medical history, or mode of treatment for symptomatic vasospasm. Given its sporadic and unpredictable nature, considering PRES in the differential diagnosis is important when addressing neurological decline following hemodynamic treatment of vasospasm related to aSAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Microdialysis Cytokines in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Scoping Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A. Zeiler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo perform two scoping systematic reviews of the literature on cytokine measurement in cerebral microdialysis (CMD and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients, aiming to summarize the evidence relating cytokine levels to pathophysiology, disease progression, and outcome.MethodsTwo separate systematic reviews were conducted: one for CMD cytokines and the second for CSF cytokines.Data sourcesArticles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to October 2016, reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched.Study selectionTwo reviewers independently identified all manuscripts utilizing predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. A two-tier filter of references was conducted.Data extractionPatient demographic and study data were extracted to tables.ResultsThere were 9 studies identified describing the analysis of cytokines via CMD in 246 aneurysmal SAH patients. Similarly, 20 studies were identified describing the analysis of CSF cytokines in 630 patients. The two scoping systematic reviews demonstrated the following: (1 limited literature available on CMD cytokine measurement in aneurysmal SAH with some preliminary data supporting feasibility of measurement and potential association between interleukin (IL-6 and patient outcome. (2 Various CSF measured cytokines may be associated with patient outcome at 3–6 months, including IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (3 There is a small literature body supporting an association between acute/subacute CSF transforming growth factor levels and the development of chronic hydrocephalus at 2–3 months.ConclusionThe evaluation of CMD and CSF cytokines is an emerging area of the literature in aneurysmal SAH. Further large prospective multicenter studies on cytokines in CMD and CSF need to be conducted.

  12. Serum nesfatin-1 levels: a potential new biomarker in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murteza; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Yılmaz, Atilla; Akpinar, Erol; Bayraktutan, Zafer; Topcu, Atilla

    2017-02-01

    Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency with significant potential for long-term morbidity and mortality. Nesfatin-1 is a polypeptide which is found in various regions of the brain that play role in the feeding and metabolic regulation. So this study aimed to investigate if nesfatin-1 levels in patients with SAH, could be used as a marker for the severity and prognosis. Forty-eight consecutive patients (except those excluded) admitted to the emergency service of our hospital and hospitalized at our clinic with the diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study and followed up for six months for outcome. The control group consisted of 48 healthy individuals of similar age and gender. During the 6-month follow-up, 7 of 48 patients died and 16 (33.3%) patients had poor Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) scores. In the study group, the mean nesfatin-1 level was significantly higher than the control group (7.36 ± 2.5 pg/ml and 4.29 ± 2.02 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.01). The mean nesfatin-1 level was 11.58 ± 0.87 pg/ml in the non-survival group and 6.64 ± 1.89 pg/ml in the survival group. Furthermore, it was 10.22 ± 1.42 pg/ml in patients with poor outcome in terms of GOS and 5.93 ± 1.46 pg/ml in those with good outcome. The nesfatin-1 levels significantly increased with worsening of GOS, the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grading system, and Fisher scores and increasing plasma C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.01 for all). The present study is the first that shows the mortality/poor outcome of the SAH with assessing serum nesfatin-1 levels. So levels of nesfatin-1 might be useful in SAH management.

  13. Blood free Radicals Concentration Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Occurrence in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewelina, Grzywna; Krzysztof, Stachura; Marek, Moskala; Krzysztof, Kruczala

    2017-09-25

    Pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia and cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still poorly recognized, however free radicals are postulated as one of the crucial players. This study was designed to scrutinize whether the concentration of free radicals in the peripheral venous blood is related to the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm. Twenty-four aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients and seven patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm (control group) have been studied. Free radicals in patients' blood have been detected by the electron paramagnetic resonance (CMH.HCl spin probe, 150 K, ELEXSYS E500 spectrometer) on admission and at least 72 h from disease onset. Delayed cerebral ischemia monitoring was performed by daily neurological follow-up and transcranial color coded Doppler. Delayed cerebral ischemia observed in six aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was accompanied by cerebral vasospasm in all six cases. No statistically significant difference in average free radicals concentration between controls and study subgroups was noticed on admission (p = .3; Kruskal-Wallis test). After 72 h free radicals concentration in delayed cerebral ischemia patients (3.19 ± 1.52 mmol/l) differed significantly from the concentration in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients without delayed cerebral ischemia (0.65 ± 0.37 mmol/l) (p = .012; Mann-Whitney test). These findings are consistent with our assumptions and seem to confirm the role of free radicals in delayed cerebral ischemia development. Preliminary results presented above are promising and we need perform further investigation to establish whether blood free radicals concentration may serve as the biomarker of delayed cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm.

  14. Associations of renin-angiotensin system genetic polymorphisms and clinical course after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane; Foreman, Paul M; Chua, Michelle H; Vyas, Nilesh A; Lipsky, Robert H; Lin, Mingkuan; Iyer, Ramaswamy; Haridas, Rishikesh; Walters, Beverly C; Chaudry, Salman; Malieva, Aisana; Wilkins, Samantha; Harrigan, Mark R; Fisher, Winfield S; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic polymorphisms are thought to play a role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. The Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin System (CARAS) study prospectively evaluated associations of common RAS polymorphisms and clinical course after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS The CARAS study prospectively enrolled aSAH patients at 2 academic centers in the United States. A blood sample was obtained from all patients for genetic evaluation and measurement of plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) concentration. Common RAS polymorphisms were detected using 5'exonuclease genotyping assays and pyrosequencing. Analysis of associations of RAS polymorphisms and clinical course after aSAH were performed. RESULTS A total of 166 patients were screened, and 149 aSAH patients were included for analysis. A recessive effect of allele I (insertion) of the ACE I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism was identified for Hunt and Hess grade in all patients (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.17-6.50; p = 0.0206) with subsequent poor functional outcome. There was a similar effect on delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients 55 years or younger (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.04-12.7; p = 0.0439). In patients older than 55 years, there was a recessive effect of allele A of the angiotensin II receptor Type 2 (AT2) A/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on DCI (OR 4.70, 95% CI 1.43-15.4; p = 0.0111). CONCLUSIONS Both the ACE I/D polymorphism and the AT2 A/C single nucleotide polymorphism were associated with an age-dependent risk of delayed cerebral ischemia, whereas only the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with poor clinical grade at presentation. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevant pathophysiology and its potential implication in the treatment of patients with aSAH.

  15. Effects of melatonin in the treatment of asthenia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilard, V; Ferracci, F-X; Langlois, O; Derrey, S; Proust, F; Curey, S

    2016-12-01

    Survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) commonly experience sleep disorders resulting in asthenia. The objective of this prospective study was to determine, in a cohort of patients with treated ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA), the proportion of asthenia at 2months, in a cohort of patients treated with melatonin and in a control cohort. Twenty consecutive patients admitted for the treatment of ruptured IA and able to answer a standardized questionnaire were included in the study. After evaluation for fatigue at discharge, we divided our population into 2 cohorts of 10 patients: the first cohort was treated with melatonin for a period of 2months; the second cohort had no specific treatment for fatigue. The primary endpoint was the proportion of asthenia at 2months in both groups. Confounding factors, such as depression, autonomy and apathy were evaluated at the same time. At discharge, there was no significant difference observed between both groups in terms of mean age and initial clinical status (WFNS, Rankin Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale). At 2months, the mean FSS score in the control group was of 4.7±1.0 versus 3.8±0.9 in the melatonin group (P=0.03). The mean MADRS score in the control group was of 1.1±1.45 versus 2.7±2.5 in the melatonin group (P=0.10). The mean LARS score in the control group was of -32.5±1.7 versus -31.7±1.9 in the melatonin group (P=0.24). In a prospective evaluation of post-aSAH fatigue, we suggest that melatonin could decrease fatigue. There is no significant impact on depression and apathy. Further studies would be necessary to improve our comprehension of fatigue physiopathology in a context of aSAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The correlation between COMT gene polymorphism and early cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohui; Sun, Xiaochuan; Guo, Zongduo; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    The individual difference of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) degree after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common in clinic observation. Numerous studies have found that early CVS after SAH is associated with derangements in catecholamine (CA) metabolism. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of CA. In this study, we investigate the correlation between COMT gene polymorphism of patients and early CVS after SAH. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with spontaneous SAH in early stage were selected in this study. COMT genotyping was performed by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The degree of CVS was identified by TCD. Hunt-Hess classification was used to evaluate the severity of the patients' condition. The bleeding amount was evaluated by means of Fisher classification of head CT. χ2 test (SPSS13.0 software) and logistic regression were adopted to analyze the correlation of COMT gene polymorphism and other clinical data of patients with early CVS after SAH. The distribution of each allele matched Hardy-Weinberg law and research samples were heredity equilibrium population. Early CVS incidence of patients with COMT-A allele was much higher than those with COMT-G allele (P<0.01). Early CVS incidence of patients with COMT A/A genotype was obviously higher than those with COMT G/G genotype (P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression demonstrated that COMT-A allele, A/A genotype and Grade 3-5 of Hunt-Hess classification were all associated with early CVS. After adjustment of general information, further multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that COMT-A allele, A/A genotype were risk factors of early CVS after SAH. COMT-A allele, A/A genotype were risk factors of early CVS after SAH.

  17. Predicting return to work after subarachnoid hemorrhage using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmark, Svante; Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth; Lundström, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Returning to work is a major issue for patients having had an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is important, at an early stage, to identify the patients that are unlikely to return to work. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at 6 months after ictus on return to work at 12 months. In this prospective study were 96 patients with SAH included in the acute phase. Cognitive functions were assessed at 6 months using the MoCA and return to work at 12 months. The predictive value of MoCA on return to work was analyzed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as well as logistic regression. Of those that had work before the SAH, 52 % were working at 12 months after the ictus. These patients had scored significantly better on MoCA at 6 months (p = 0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75. By using a cut-off on MoCA of work. Adding data from the acute phase to the MoCA in a logistic regression model increased the percentage of patients correctly classified as returned/not returned to work by 2 %. Returning to work is a major issue for SAH patients. It is important to identify factors that may interfere with a patient's ability to return to work, and address these issues appropriately. In our study, estimating cognitive functions at 6 months after SAH using the MoCA alone allowed us to predict return to work correctly in 68 % of the cases. We feel that this provides useful information in planning rehabilitation, but that other post-SAH symptoms have to be considered as well.

  18. Intracranial pressure and outcome in critically ill patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Giulia; Messerer, Mahmoud; Stocchetti, Nino; Levivier, Marc; Daniel, Roy T; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Evidences supporting the use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are limited. The aim of our paper was to examine whether elevated intracranial pressure and ICP-derived variables predict mortality and functional outcomes after aSAH. A systematic review of the literature was performed through PubMed and Cochrane databases up to June 2015. Population was restricted to aSAH patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit. ICP was included in the analysis as absolute value as well as variables derived from ICP monitoring (pressure reactivity index, ICP pulse wave amplitude, ICP-arterial blood pressure wave amplitude correlation and ICP variability). Outcomes included mortality, neurological recovery and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Quality of evidence was rated using the GRADE system. Twenty-six studies were examined. Due to heterogeneity in qualifying studies, a meta-analysis could not be generated. We found a correlation between elevated ICP and mortality. However, ICP absolute values were not independent predictors of long-term functional outcomes (low quality of evidence). A variable relationship between elevated ICP and DCI was found (very low quality of evidence). ICP-derived variables had higher accuracy than ICP absolute values in predicting functional outcomes (moderate quality of evidence). Elevated ICP was associated with higher mortality however absolute ICP values per se were not independent predictors of functional recovery. Variables derived from ICP monitoring are more accurate than ICP absolute values in predicting outcome. Given the absence of good quality data, additional large studies may help to better define the prognostic value of ICP after aSAH.

  19. Can S100B Predict Cerebral Vasospasms in Patients Suffering from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Moshgan; Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severe head injury and stroke. In patients with SAH, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe SAH. Materials and Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample) was drawn within the first 3 days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5–8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm. Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28%) developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11%) developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5 days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of five patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B 1 day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH. PMID:23761779

  20. Risk of Hyponatremia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated with Exogenous Vasopressin Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Nancy; Yu, Jessica; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Mahmoud, Sherif Hanafy

    2017-04-01

    Vasopressin is one of the vasopressors used to augment blood pressure in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with clinically significant vasospasm. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the administration of vasopressin to a population of SAH patients was an independent predictor of developing hyponatremia. A retrospective review on the health records of 106 patients admitted to the University of Alberta Hospital Neurosciences ICU, Edmonton AB, Canada, with SAH from June 2013 to December 2015 was conducted. Serum sodium changes in patients receiving vasoactive drugs were compared. In addition, independent predictors for hyponatremia (Na < 135 mmol/L) were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Patients treated with vasopressin in addition to other vasoactive drugs had significantly higher sodium changes compared to those treated with other vasoactive drugs (-4.7 ± 6 vs -0.1 ± 2.4 mmol/L, respectively, p value 0.001). Hyponatremia occurred in 14 patients (70 %) treated with vasopressin, 10 patients (44 %) treated with vasoactive drugs other than vasopressin (p value 0.081), and 24 patients (38 %) who did not receive any vasoactive drug (p value 0.013). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, when adjusting for disease severity, age, sex, aneurysm location, and treatment, vasopressin was associated with hyponatremia (OR 3.58, 95 % CI, 1.02-12.5, p value 0.046). The results of the present study suggest that hyponatremia may be more common in SAH patients treated with exogenous vasopressin compared to those who did not receive it. Serum sodium should be monitored closely when vasopressin is being used in the SAH population. Further studies are needed to confirm the effect of exogenous vasopressin on serum sodium levels in SAH populations.

  1. Tonic-clonic activity at subarachnoid hemorrhage onset: impact on complications and outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco De Marchis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tonic-clonic activity (TCA at onset complicates 3% to 21% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, including seizures, remains unclear. One study associated onset TCA with poor clinical outcome at 6 weeks after SAH, but to our knowledge no other studies have confirmed this relationship. This study aims to assess the impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. METHODS: Analysis of a prospective study cohort of 1479 SAH patients admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between 1996 and 2012. TCA within 6 hours of hemorrhage onset was identified based on accounts of emergency care providers or family witnesses. RESULTS: TCA at onset was described in 170 patients (11%. Patients with onset TCA were younger (P = 0.002, presented more often with poor clinical grade (55% vs. 26%, P<0.001 and had larger amounts of cisternal, intraventricular, and intracerebral blood than those without onset TCA (all, P<0.001. After adjusting for known confounders, onset TCA was significantly associated with in-hospital seizures (OR 3.80, 95%-CI: 2.43-5.96, P<0.001, in-hospital pneumonia (OR 1.56, 95%-CI: 1.06-2.31, p = 0.02, and delayed cerebral ischemia (OR 1.77, 95%-CI: 1.21-2.58, P = 0.003. At 3 months, however, onset TCA was not associated with poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy after adjusting for age, admission clinical grade, and cisternal blood volume. CONCLUSIONS: Onset TCA is not a rare event as it complicates 11% of cases of SAH. New and clinically relevant findings are the association of onset TCA with in-hospital seizures, pneumonia and delayed cerebral ischemia. Despite the increased risk of in-hospital complications, onset TCA is not associated with disability, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months.

  2. Early CT perfusion changes and blood-brain barrier permeability after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Murphy, Amanda; Bharatha, Aditya [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); De Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Kouzmina, Ekaterina [St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Burgers, Kyle; Lee, Ting [Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Macdonald, R.L. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Early brain injury (EBI) can occur within 72 h of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in early CTP parameters (<72 h) with respect to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), cerebral infarction, and functional outcome. We performed a prospective cohort study of aSAH patients admitted to a single tertiary care center. MTT, CBF and blood-brain barrier permeability (PS) were quantified with CTP within 72 h of aneurysm rupture. Primary outcomes were functional outcome by the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months and cerebral infarction. Secondary outcome was the development of DCI. Differences between early CTP parameters were determined with respect to primary and secondary outcomes. Fifty aSAH patients were included in the final analysis. MTT was significantly higher in patients who developed DCI (6.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.9 ± 1.0; p = 0.03) and cerebral infarction (7.0 ± 1.2 vs 5.9 ± 0.9; p = 0.007); however, no difference in MTT was found between patients with and without a poor outcome (mRS > 2). Early CBF and PS did not differ with respect to functional outcome, DCI, and cerebral infarction. Elevated MTT within 72 h of aneurysm rupture is associated with DCI and cerebral infarction but not with long-term functional outcome. Blood-brain barrier permeability, as assessed by CT perfusion, was not associated with DCI or worse outcome in this cohort. (orig.)

  3. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  4. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  5. Nimodipine Dose Reductions in the Treatment of Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, Nora; Diesing, Dominik; Sarrafzadeh, Asita; Vajkoczy, Peter; Wolf, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of cerebral infarction and poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is reduced by oral nimodipine but acute effects of the drug may include a significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). A dose reduction or discontinuation of the drug is recommended if recurrent MAP drops occur. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of nimodipine dose modifications in patients suffering from aSAH. 270 patients were included in our retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data of patients suffering from aSAH. The local treatment protocol was in accordance to national and international guidelines. Nimodipine was intended to be applied orally with a dosage of 60 mg every 4 h. Only 43.6 % of patients eligible for vasospasm prophylaxis with nimodipine received the full daily dose of 60 mg every 4 h. In 28.6 %, the dose had to be reduced by 50 % due to a significant reduction in blood pressure after administration and/or high dose of catecholamines. In 27.7 % of patients, oral administration of the drug was discontinued for the same reason. Dose reduction and discontinuation occurred with a significantly higher frequency in patients in poor clinical condition. Application of the full nimodipine dosage decreased the risk of unfavorable clinical outcome in multivariate analysis (OR 0.895, p = 0.029). Our results show that dose reduction or discontinuation of nimodipine due to changes in MAP occur frequently in clinical routine and may be associated with unfavorable clinical outcome.

  6. Time-dependent test characteristics of head computed tomography in patients suspected of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Kemperman, Hans; Linn, Francisca H H; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2012-08-01

    A recent study suggested that in patients with acute headache suspicious of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is not needed to rule out SAH if head CT performed ≤6 hours after ictus is negative. Before implementation in daily practice, these results need replication. Therefore, we investigated test characteristics of head CT in patients with a clinical suspicion of SAH. Patients suspicious of SAH and a normal level of consciousness presenting to our tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2012 were included. All patients had a head CT interpreted by experienced neuroradiologists and CSF spectrophotometry if head CT was negative or inconclusive. We determined test characteristics with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nontraumatic SAH of head CT performed ≤6 or >6 hours after onset of headache. Sensitivity of head CT ≤6 hours after ictus (n=137) was 98.5% (95% CI, 92.1%-100%), diagnosing all patients with aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH, but not with a cervical arteriovenous malformation. Sensitivity of head CT performed >6 hours after ictus (n=113) was 90.0% (95% CI, 76.3-97.2). After exclusion of patients with an atypical presentation without headache, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of head CT ≤6 hours were all 100%. In patients presenting with acute headache and a normal head CT ≤6 hours after ictus, as interpreted by experienced neuroradiologists, there is no added value of CSF analysis. In patients with an atypical presentation without headache and in patients presenting >6 hours after ictus, CSF analysis is still indicated.

  7. Impact of Hunt-Hess grade on the glycemic status of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

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    Ghosh, Sayantani; Dey, Saugat; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Vibbert, Mathew; Urtecho, Jaqueline; Rincon, Fred; Jallo, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study has explored the impact of Hunt-Hess (H-H) grade of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) on the glycemic status of such patients during their intensive care unit (ICU) stay and has also analyzed whether H-H grade predicts their outcome independent of their glycemic status. This was a retrospective case record review of prospectively maintained database of 1090 previously non-diabetic aSAH patients admitted to Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia. H-H grade of SAH, serum and CSF glucose on admission, serum glucose on the day of surgery and 14 days post-surgery, as well as the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS-E score) at discharge were noted. After univariate analysis, significant variables (P admission H-H grade. Although admission serum glucose was significantly higher for H-H grades 4-5 than grades 1-3 (P grades got blurred. Admission CSF glucose was also significantly higher for H-H grades 3-4 than for grades 1-3 and 5 (P grades 4-5 were related with higher incidences of both hypoglycemia (serum glucose level 200 mg/dl) (P admission increased with HH grades 1 through 4, but became negative and more tightly bound at H-H grade 5. Admission H-H grades 4-5 contributed to poor outcome compared to lower H-H grades (P admission H-H grades lead to poor immediate glycemic status as well as poor short-term outcome, and it is dependent on serum glucose but independent of CSF glucose in predicting the outcome.

  8. Risk factors and outcome in 100 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilha Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Clinical and surgical outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to ruptured aneurysm were assessed in comparison to pre-operative data and risk factors such as previous medical history, clinical presenting condition, CT findings and site of bleeding. METHODS: We evaluated 100 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH. Gender, color, history of hypertension, smoking habit, site and size of aneurysm, admittance and before surgery Hunt Hess scale, need for cerebro-spinal fluid shunt, presence of complications during the surgical procedure, Glasgow Outcome Scale, presence of vasospasm and of rebleeding were assessed and these data matched to outcome. For statistical analysis, we applied the chi-squared test or Fisher's test using the pondered kappa coeficient. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison of continue variables. Tendency of proportion was analyzed through Cochran-Armitage test. Significance level adopted was 5%. RESULTS: Patients studied were mainly white, female, without previous history of hypertension and non-smokers. Upon hospital admittance, grade 2 of Hunt-Hess scale was most frequently observed (34%, while grade 3 of Fisher scale was the most prevalent. Single aneurysms were most frequent at anterior circulation, between 12 and 24 mm. The most frequent Glasgow Outcome Scale observed was 5 (60%. Hunt Hess upon the moment of surgery and presence of complications during surgical procedure showed positive correlation with clinical outcome (p=0.00002 and p=0.001, respectively. Other variables were not significantly correlated to prognosis. Tendency of proportion was observed between Hunt-Hess scale and Fisher scale. CONCLUSION: Among variables such as epidemiological data, previous medical history and presenting conditions of patients with ruptured aneurysms, the Hunt-Hess scale upon the moment of surgery and the presence of surgical adversities are statistically related to degree of disability.

  9. Angiopoietin-1 is associated with cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Pfausler Bettina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1 and -2 (Ang-2 are keyplayers in the regulation of endothelial homeostasis and vascular proliferation. Angiopoietins may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm (CVS. Ang-1 and Ang-2 have not been investigated in this regard so far. Methods 20 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 20 healthy controls (HC were included in this prospective study. Blood samples were collected from days 1 to 7 and every other day thereafter. Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in serum samples using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Transcranial Doppler sonography was performed to monitor the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Results SAH patients showed a significant drop of Ang-1 levels on day 2 and 3 post SAH compared to baseline and HC. Patients, who developed Doppler sonographic CVS, showed significantly lower levels of Ang-1 with a sustained decrease in contrast to patients without Doppler sonographic CVS, whose Ang-1 levels recovered in the later course of the disease. In patients developing cerebral ischemia attributable to vasospasm significantly lower Ang-1 levels have already been observed on the day of admission. Differences of Ang-2 between SAH patients and HC or patients with and without Doppler sonographic CVS were not statistically significant. Conclusions Ang-1, but not Ang-2, is significantly altered in patients suffering from SAH and especially in those experiencing CVS and cerebral ischemia. The loss of vascular integrity, regulated by Ang-1, might be in part responsible for the development of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent cerebral ischemia.

  10. Retrospective evaluation of nicardipine versus labetalol for blood pressure control in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Amanda V; McAllen, Karen J; Figueroa, Bryan E; DeShane, Robert S; Barletta, Jeffrey F

    2012-06-01

    American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) recommend blood pressure (BP) control, utilizing labetalol or nicardipine, but do not differentiate efficacy between the two agents. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare BP control between labetalol and nicardipine in patients following aSAH. Consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of SAH treated with labetalol or nicardipine were retrospectively identified. Patients were included if they received more than one bolus dose of labetalol or a nicardipine infusion for greater than 3 h. Patients were excluded if they were labetalol vs. nicardipine) and data was collected for 72 h. The outcomes compared were time within goal mean arterial pressure (MAP), average MAP/patient, MAP variability, initial response to therapy, and treatment failure. Goal MAP was defined as 70-110 mmHg. There were 103 patients evaluated (labetalol n = 43; nicardipine n = 60). Demographics and baseline MAP were similar between the two groups. Nicardipine was associated with a longer time within goal MAP (78 ± 24 vs. 58 ± 36 %, p = 0.001) and lower average MAP/patient (93 ± 11 vs. 106 ± 12 mmHg, p labetalol groups (13 ± 5 mmHg vs. 11 ± 4 mmHg; p = 0.137). Nicardipine led to a more rapid response to therapy (F = 8.1; p = 0.005) and fewer treatment failures (0 vs. 28 %, p labetalol in aSAH.

  11. Relation of serum TNF-α and TNF-α genotype with delayed cerebral ischemia and outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeftink, Martine M. A.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains obscure. The authors assessed the relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF-α gene polymorphisms with occurrence of DCI and poor outcome at 3 months. Serum levels of TNF-α were measured

  12. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Relationship With Psychological Symptoms and Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meily, J. M. Anne; Rhebergen, Marloes L.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van Zandvoort, Martine J.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Background and Purpose-Many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage experience decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical factors have been identified as determinants of HRQoL. We describe long-term HRQoL and assessed whether psychological symptoms and personality

  13. Multivariable and Bayesian Network Analysis of Outcome Predictors in Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Review of a Pure Surgical Series in the Postinternational Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, Zsolt; Huang, Wendy; Sperrin, Matthew; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-07-31

    Following the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), evolving treatment modalities for acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has changed the case mix of patients undergoing urgent surgical clipping. To update our knowledge on outcome predictors by analyzing admission parameters in a pure surgical series using variable importance ranking and machine learning. We reviewed a single surgeon's case series of 226 patients suffering from aSAH treated with urgent surgical clipping. Predictions were made using logistic regression models, and predictive performance was assessed using areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC). We established variable importance ranking using partial Nagelkerke R 2 scores. Probabilistic associations between variables were depicted using Bayesian networks, a method of machine learning. Importance ranking showed that World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade and age were the most influential outcome prognosticators. Inclusion of only these 2 predictors was sufficient to maintain model performance compared to when all variables were considered (AUC = 0.8222, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7646-0.88 vs 0.8218, 95% CI: 0.7616-0.8821, respectively, DeLong's P = .992). Bayesian networks showed that age and WFNS grade were associated with several variables such as laboratory results and cardiorespiratory parameters. Our study is the first to report early outcomes and formal predictor importance ranking following aSAH in a post-ISAT surgical case series. Models showed good predictive power with fewer relevant predictors than in similar size series. Bayesian networks proved to be a powerful tool in visualizing the widespread association of the 2 key predictors with admission variables, explaining their importance and demonstrating the potential for hypothesis generation.

  14. What Factors Determine Treatment Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Modern Era? A Post Hoc STASH Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Mario; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Turner, Carole; Kirkpatrick, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    The management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has changed dramatically in the last few decades with the publication of a few major studies, including ISAT (International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial, the International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery Study). The aim of this study is to analyze the outcome of patients with aSAH based on a contemporary series, identify the risk factors for poor outcome, and focus on patients with good-grade aSAH (to match the ISAT cohort). Baseline demographic and outcome data (modified Rankin Scale) were available for the 803 patients recruited from the STASH (Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage) trial for post hoc analysis, using a χ2 test or 2-sample t test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for poor outcome at 6 months. Propensity matched analysis comparing coiling and clipping, and subgroup analysis of good-grade patients (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade I-II) were also performed. Logistic regression analysis showed that the treatment modality (i.e., coiling or clipping) was not associated with poor outcome at 6 months (P = 0.839). The risk factors associated with poor outcome at 6 months were poor admission World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade (P < 0.0001), Fisher grade on initial computed tomography scan (P = 0.013), and the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis for good-grade patients only showed that 82% of patients after coiling and 78% of patients after clipping were classed as good outcome at 6 months (P = 0.181). In the current era of aSAH management, apart from patients' admission status, SAH blood load and the development of delayed cerebral ischemia, treatment modality with either coiling or clipping was not associated with poor outcome difference at 6 months. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bedside diagnosis of mitochondrial dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, A.; Nielsen, T. H.; Nilsson, O.

    2014-01-01

    of disturbed cerebral energy metabolism in patients with SAH. Mitochondrial dysfunction may increase tissue sensitivity to secondary adverse events such as vasospasm and decreased cerebral blood flow. The separation of ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction bedside by utilizing microdialysis offers...... to diagnose and separate cerebral ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction bedside. The study explores whether cerebral biochemical variables in SAH patients most frequently exhibit a pattern indicating ischemia or mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods - In 55 patients with severe SAH, intracerebral microdialysis...... was performed during neurocritical care with bedside analysis and display of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, glutamate, and glycerol. The biochemical patterns observed were compared to those previously described in animal studies of induced mitochondrial dysfunction as well as the pattern obtained in patients...

  16. Sex differences in delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germans, Menno R; Jaja, Blessing N R; de Oliviera Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Cohen, Ashley H; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study the authors sought to investigate the sex differences in the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), delayed cerebral infarction, and the role of hormonal status. METHODS Ten studies included in the SAHIT (SAH International Trialists) repository were analyzed using a fitting logistic regression model. Heterogeneity between the studies was tested using I(2) statistics, and the results were pooled using a random-effects model. Multivariable analysis was adjusted for the effects of neurological status and fixed effect of study. An additional model was examined in which women and men were split into groups according to an age cut point of 55 years, as a surrogate to define hormonal status. RESULTS A pooled cohort of 6713 patients was analyzed. The risk of DCI was statistically significantly higher in women than in men (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.48); no difference was found with respect to cerebral infarction (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.40). No difference was found in the risk of DCI when comparing women ≤ 55 and > 55 years (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74-1.02; p = 0.08) or when comparing men ≤ 55 and > 55 years (p = 0.38). Independent predictors of DCI were World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, Fisher grade, age, and sex. Independent predictors of infarction included WFNS grade, Fisher grade, and aneurysm size. CONCLUSIONS Female sex is associated with a higher risk of DCI. Sex differences may play a role in the pathogenesis of DCI but are not associated with menopausal status. The predictors of DCI and cerebral infarction were identified in a very large cohort and reflect experience from multiple institutions.

  17. Intrasylvian hematoma caused by ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms predicts recovery from poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kosuke; Moriya, Takafumi; Nakashita, Satoru; Lo, Benjamin W Y; Yamagata, Sen

    2015-09-01

    Intrasylvian hematoma (ISH) is a subtype of intracranial hematoma caused by aneurysmal rupture and often presents with a poor initial neurological grade; it is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with ISH. Data for 97 patients with poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade IV or V) were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database. Ultra-early surgical clipping, removal of hematoma, external decompression for brain swelling, and prevention of vasospasm by cisternal irrigation with milrinone were combined as an aggressive treatment. Characteristics and clinical courses of SAH with ISH were identified. The authors also evaluated any correlations between poor admission-grade SAH and ISH with good functional outcome. Patients with poor admission-grade SAH and with ISH were more likely to have initial cerebral edema (p grade by multivariable analysis. ISH predicted good functional recovery from poor-grade aneurysmal SAH.

  18. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In more serious cases, the bleeding may cause brain damage with paralysis or coma. In the most severe cases, the bleeding leads to death. What Happens to the Brain When an Aneurysm Bleeds? In most cases, after ...

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) Mood and personality changes, including confusion and irritability Muscle aches (especially ... Seizure Stiff neck Vision problems , including double vision, blind ... is due to an aneurysm rupture If the person is critically ill, surgery may have to wait ...

  20. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... previous SAH, family history of SAH in a close relative, high blood pressure, smok- ing, and binge drinking. CAN SAH BE ... teams. Patients with this condi- tion need the close attention given in the intensive ... the blood pressure, and drains placed in the brain or the ...

  1. Intra-arterial nimodipine for the treatment of vasospasm due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral vasospasm is still considered the most devastating complication for the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intra-arterial nimodipine administration in cerebral vasospasm diminutions and outcome of the patients.

  2. Predictors of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Asymptomatic Angiographic Vasospasm on Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Mansouri, Alireza; Jaja, Blessing N R; Alotaibi, Naif M; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-01-01

    Risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with asymptomatic angiographic vasospasm on admission is unclear in the literature. The goal of this study is to identify predictors of clinical DCI in this group of patients. An exploratory subgroup analysis was conducted in the SAHIT (Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists) data repository to identify predictors of clinical DCI in patients with good-grade aSAH (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade I and II) with angiographic vasospasm on admission. Predictors considered include age, sex, systolic blood pressure at presentation, World Federation of Neurological Surgeon grade, Fisher grade, aneurysm size and location, treatment modality, hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drain insertion, and severity of vasospasm. The predictors were ranked based on dominance analysis with R(2) as fit statistics and assessed in a set of logistic regression analysis models. Four data sets out of 16 studies in the SAHIT database were analyzed, with a total of 4125 patients. One hundred and ninety-one patients (4.6%) had asymptomatic angiographic vasospasm at admission. Of those, 78 patients (40.8%) developed clinical DCI. Univariate analysis showed significant associations between severe vasospasm on admission and development of clinical DCI (odds ratio, 9.5, 95% confidence interval, 2.07-43.50; P = 0.004). None of the studied predictors was associated with the development of clinical DCI on multivariate analysis. Asymptomatic angiographic vasospasm in patients with good-grade aSAH on admission is uncommon. Further studies are needed to identify high-risk patients for the development of DCI in the context of asymptomatic early vasospasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pupillary reactivity upon hospital admission predicts long-term outcome in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, William J; Hickman, Zachary L; Ducruet, Andrew F; Kalyvas, James T; Garrett, Matthew C; Starke, Robert M; Komotar, Ricardo J; Lavine, Sean D; Meyers, Phil M; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

    2008-01-01

    Historically, the prognosis for poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients has been considered dismal. As a result, many hospitals have chosen conservative management over aggressive therapy. This guarded approach, however, is based on studies that do not take into account newer, more effective, management protocols and more recent long-term evidence that significant neurological recovery occurs in the months to years following discharge. More accurate and predictive methods are needed to decide when aggressive therapy is warranted. Two hundred and twenty-six grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients of grades IV and V were admitted to Columbia University Medical Center and enrolled in our study. Demographics, clinical information (e.g. pupillary reactivity on admission), and treatment course (operative versus non-operative) were recorded. Rankin scores at 14 days, 3 months, and 1 year were also recorded. A favorable Rankin score was defined as 0-3. Unfavorable was defined as 4-6. Among all poor grade patients who received operative therapy, pupillary reactivity at admission was not predictive of a favorable Rankin score at day 14 (odds ratio = 3.3, P = 0.129). Pupillary reactivity, however, was predictive of Rankin score at 3 months (odds ratio = 4.57, P = 0.05) and 12 months (odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.008). After constructing a Kaplan-Meiers survival curve, pupillary reactivity was a better predictor of survival at 12 months than H&H grade [Hazard ratio 3.342 (1.596-7.000) P = 0.001 versus 1.964 (1.016-3.798) P = 0.045]. This study demonstrates that significant recovery occurs in the weeks to months after poor grade aSAH. Pupillary reactivity on admission can be used as a predictor of survival and recovery at intermediate and long-term time points, more so than Hunt and Hess grade.

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage-negative Terson syndrome after balloon-assisted coil embolization in a patient with underlying antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

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    Gupta, Vikas; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Turbin, Roger E; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Gandhi, Chirag D

    2014-01-01

    To report subarachnoid hemorrhage-negative Terson syndrome after coil embolization of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm in a patient with underlying antiphospholipid syndrome. Retrospective case report. A 48-year-old woman with underlying antiphospholipid syndrome. Our patient underwent balloon-assisted coil embolization of an unruptured right internal carotid artery aneurysm. There was herniation of the second coil requiring coil retrieval with subsequent nonflow limiting herniation of the first coil left in situ on anticoagulation. In the immediate postprocedure period, she developed preretinal, intraretinal, and vitreous hemorrhages requiring temporary withholding of anticoagulation therapy with careful resumption. Visual acuity was counting fingers and there was an afferent pupillary defect. Two week after discharge, the patient underwent a pars plana vitrectomy for dense breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage. Four weeks after pars plana vitrectomy, her visual acuity was 20/400. Terson syndrome should be considered in a patient with visual symptoms after not only aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but also non-subarachnoid hemorrhage elective aneurysm coiling as demonstrated by our case.

  5. Loss of Consciousness at Onset of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated with Functional Outcomes in Good-Grade Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Alotaibi, Naif M; Akbar, Muhammad Ali; Ayling, Oliver G S; Ibrahim, George M; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-02-01

    Transient loss of consciousness (LOC) is one of the most common presentations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may be an indicator of early brain injury. In this study, we examined the association of LOC and functional outcomes in patients with good-grade SAH. We searched the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists Repository for patients who presented with LOC at ictus of SAH. A propensity score analysis was performed on good-grade patients (defined as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 1-3) to balance selected covariates between those with and without LOC. The primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months (with poor outcome defined as a GOS of 1-3). Secondary outcomes were delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), rebleed, length of hospital stay, and time to death. A propensity score-matching algorithm identified 336 patients (168 with and 168 without LOC at ictus). The proportion of patients with poor functional outcome at 3 months was significantly higher in the cohort with LOC at ictus compared with the matched cohort without LOC at ictus (30% vs. 19%; P = 0.02). There was a nonsignificant trend toward greater mortality in the patients with LOC at ictus (19% vs. 13%; P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in the secondary outcomes between the 2 cohorts. LOC at ictus of SAH is associated with a higher rate of unfavorable functional outcomes but not of mortality, DCI, or rebleed in patients with good-grade SAH. Future studies should further investigate the putative mechanisms through which LOC mediates early brain injury in SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  7. Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes.

  8. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: A rare cause of postpartum seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Choi, Yoon Hee

    2017-05-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder affecting large- and medium-sized arteries, occurring most commonly in young women. Thunderclap headache is the usual primary symptom; seizure is uncommon. During the postpartum period, seizure is a significant concern. The main causes of postpartum seizures are posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cortical venous thrombosis; RCVS-related postpartum seizure is rare. Despite its rarity, its course may be fulminant, resulting in permanent disability or death if the diagnosis is delayed and treatment is not started promptly. We report an unusual case of RCVS presenting as a subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 31-year-old woman admitted for postpartum seizure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

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    Takamasa Nanba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blood pressure may trigger atypical PRES, and failure to lower blood pressure may lead to a concomitant aneurysm rupture. In the future treatment of hypertensive urgency with a recurrence of symptoms and mean arterial blood pressure >150 mmHg, it is advisable to immediately hospitalize the patient for aggressive blood pressure management, especially if PRES is suspected based on clinical and radiological features.

  10. Toward understanding non-coding RNA roles in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Huang Fengzhen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Moreover, we suggest that these non-coding RNAs function as novel molecular biomarkers to predict intracranial aneurysms and SAH, and may yield new therapies after SAH in the future.

  11. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanba, Takamasa; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Saura, Hiroaki; Takeda, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blood pressure may trigger atypical PRES, and failure to lower blood pressure may lead to a concomitant aneurysm rupture. In the future treatment of hypertensive urgency with a recurrence of symptoms and mean arterial blood pressure >150 mmHg, it is advisable to immediately hospitalize the patient for aggressive blood pressure management, especially if PRES is suspected based on clinical and radiological features.

  13. Cerebral blood flow and the response to acetazolamide during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Tanaka, Akira; Yoshinaga, Shinya; Nakayama, Yoshiya; Tomonaga, Masamichi [Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikushi Hospital

    1998-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and response to acetazolamide were measured during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and correlated with symptomatic vasospasm and clinical outcome in 45 patients who underwent early clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms, of whom 18 had symptomatic vasospasm and 27 did not. Xenon-enhanced CT was used to measure CBF in both groups during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages, defined as days 0-4, 5-20, and {>=}21, respectively. Vasoresponse was assessed by the CBF increase in response to 1 g of acetazolamide administered after the baseline CBF study, except in the subacute stage of patients with symptomatic vasospasm. Outcome was scored based on activities of daily living 2-3 months after subarachnoid hemorrhage. CBF values and the response to acetazolamide were preserved during the acute stage but CBF values fell considerably below control values during the subacute stage in patients with vasospasm. The regions with flow values below 15 ml/100 g/min subsequently converted to infarction and the regions with those above 19 ml/100 g/min remained intact without infarction. During the chronic stage, low CBF persisted, but the response to acetazolamide was higher than that of the control group. Outcome scores were good and fair. CBF values were normal during all stages in patients without vasospasm. The response to acetazolamide fell transiently during the subacute stage. All outcome scores were excellent. In conclusion, the CBF informations soon after the onset of symptomatic vasospasm are useful to predict a reversibility of ischemic brain tissue and a final outcome. (K.H.)

  14. NEWTON: Nimodipine Microparticles to Enhance Recovery While Reducing Toxicity After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Daniel; Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Mayer, Stephan A; Aldrich, Francois; Diringer, Michael N; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J; Strange, Poul; Faleck, Herbert J; Miller, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. EG-1962 is a sustained-release microparticle formulation of nimodipine that has shown preclinical efficacy when administered intraventricularly or intracisternally to dogs with SAH, without evidence of toxicity at doses in the anticipated therapeutic range. Thus, we propose to administer EG-1962 to humans in order to assess safety and tolerability and determine a dose to investigate efficacy in subsequent clinical studies. We describe a Phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the safety and tolerability of EG-1962 in patients with aSAH. The study will comprise two parts: a dose escalation period (Part 1) to determine the MTD of EG-1962 and a treatment period (Part 2) to assess the safety and tolerability of the selected dose of EG-1962. Patients with a ruptured saccular aneurysm treated by neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling will be considered for enrollment. Patients will be randomized to receive either EG-1962 (study drug: nimodipine microparticles) or oral nimodipine in the approved dose regimen (active control) within 60 h of aSAH. Primary objectives are to determine the MTD and the safety and tolerability of the selected dose of intraventricular EG-1962 as compared to enteral nimodipine. The secondary objective is to determine release and distribution by measuring plasma and CSF concentrations of nimodipine. Exploratory objectives are to determine the incidence of delayed cerebral infarction on computed tomography, clinical features of delayed cerebral ischemia, angiographic vasospasm, and incidence of rescue therapy and clinical outcome. Clinical outcome will be determined at 90 days after aSAH using the extended Glasgow outcome scale, modified Rankin scale, Montreal cognitive assessment, telephone interview of cognitive status, and Barthel index. Here, we

  15. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D F; Gonzalo, I T; Cohan, P; Berman, N; Swerdloff, R; Wang, C

    2000-11-01

    Recognition of pituitary hormonal insufficiencies after head injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be important, especially given that hypopituitarism-related neurobehavioral problems are typically alleviated by hormone replacement. In this prospective study the authors sought to determine the rate and risk factors of pituitary dysfunction after head injury and SAH in patients at least 3 months after insult. Patients underwent dynamic anterior and posterior pituitary function testing. Results of the tests were compared with those of 18 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers. The 22 head-injured patients included 18 men and four women (mean age 28+/-10 years at the time of injury) with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 3 to 15. Eight patients (36.4%) had a subnormal response in at least one hormonal axis. Four were growth hormone (GH) deficient. Five patients (four men, all with normal testosterone levels, and one woman with a low estradiol level) exhibited an inadequate gonadotroph response. One patient had both GH and thyrotroph deficiency and another had both GH deficiency and borderline cortisol deficiency. At the time of injury, all eight patients with pituitary dysfunction had an initial GCS score of 10 or less and, compared with the 14 patients without dysfunction, were more likely to have had diffuse swelling, seen on initial computerized tomography scans (p insult (p = 0.07). Of two patients with SAH who were studied (Hunt and Hess Grade IV) both had GH deficiency. From this preliminary study, some degree of hypopituitarism appears to occur in approximately 40% of patients with moderate or severe head injury, with GH and gonadotroph deficiencies being most common. A high degree of injury severity and secondary cerebral insults are likely risk factors for hypopituitarism. Pituitary dysfunction also occurs in patients with poor-grade aneurysms. Postacute pituitary function testing may be warranted in most

  16. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  17. Ficolin-1 Levels in Patients Developing Vasospasm and Cerebral Ischemia After Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Laura; Thiel, Steffen; Amaro, Sergio; Cervera, Álvaro; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Activation of the inflammatory generating complement system might play a pathogenic role in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We studied whether plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of complement proteins were associated with angiographic vasospasm and cerebral ischemic lesions after SAH. Ficolin-1 (M-ficolin), ficolin-3 (H-ficolin), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2), MASP-3, and MAp44 were analyzed in plasma of 45 SAH patients at 24 h after bleeding. Additionally, ficolin-1 levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained 24 h after bleeding in 19 patients with external ventricular drainage placement. Angiographic vasospasm was identified using transcranial Doppler or angio-CT and considered symptomatic when new focal deficits or ischemic lesions appeared in follow-up neuroimaging. Functional outcome was assessed using modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days. Higher plasma ficolin-1 levels (ng/ml) at 24 h were associated with poor Hunt and Hess (HH) grade at admission (mean 1158 (SD 360) vs 1654 (871), p = 0.004) and were higher in patients developing angiographic vasospasm (1119.44 (374) vs 1514 (755), p = 0.025) and cerebral ischemia (1067 (325) vs 1610 (766), p = 0.003). In multivariate models adjusted for confounders, higher ficolin-1 remained associated with brain ischemic lesions (OR per 100 ng/ml 1.34, 95 %CI 1.04-1.73, p = 0.026) and vasospasm (OR per 100 ng/ml of increase 1.26, 95 %CI 1.02-1.56, p = 0.031). Patients with angiographic vasospasm and cerebral ischemic lesions had non-significantly lower ficolin-1 concentration in the CSF. Plasma ficolin-1 emerged as a marker of clinical severity and brain ischemia after SAH. Larger studies will be required to establish the therapeutic implications of this finding.

  18. Hypernatremia is a significant risk factor for acute kidney injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avinash B; Shi, Yaping; Shotwell, Matthew S; Richards, Justin; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2015-04-01

    Hypertonic saline therapy is often used in critically ill subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients for indications ranging from control of intracranial hypertension to managing symptomatic hyponatremia. The risk factors for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) in this patient population are not well defined. To study the role of serum sodium in developing AKI (based on the AKIN definition) in the SAH population admitted to a large academic neurocritical care unit. This is an IRB-approved, retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary neuro intensive care unit. We included adult (age ≥ 18 years) SAH patients admitted to the neuro intensive care unit for at least 72 h. Development of AKI after admission to the ICU was defined using the AKIN serum creatinine criteria between 72 h and 14 days following admission. A Cox proportional hazards survival model with multiple time varying covariates was developed to evaluate the effect of maximum sodium exposure on the risk of AKI. Sodium exposure was captured as the running maximum of daily maximum serum sodium concentration (mEq/L). Sodium exposure was used as a surrogate for hypertonic saline therapy. The final cohort of patients included 736 patients admitted to the neuro intensive care unit between 2006 and 2012. The number of patients who developed AKI was 64 (9 %). These patients had an increased length of stay (15.6 ± 9.4 vs. 12.5 ± 8.7 days). The odds of death were more than two fold greater among patients who developed AKI (odds ratio 2.33 95 % CI 1.27, 4.3). Sodium exposure was significantly associated with the hazard of developing AKI, adjusting for age, sex, preexisting renal disease, diabetes mellitus, radiocontrast exposure, number of days on mechanical ventilation, and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. For each 1 mEq/L increase in the running maximum daily serum sodium, the hazard of developing AKI was increased by 5.4 % (95 % CI 1.4, 9.7). The maximum daily sodium is a significant risk

  19. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Echigo Ryosuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-κB were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20 days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only

  20. Impaired muscle strength may contribute to fatigue in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Wouter J; Ribbers, Gerard M; Zegers, Bart; Sneekes, Emiel M; Praet, Stephan F E; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Khajeh, Ladbon; van Kooten, Fop; Neggers, Sebastiaan J C M M; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J

    2017-03-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (a-SAH) show long-term fatigue and face difficulties in resuming daily physical activities. Impaired muscle strength, especially of the lower extremity, impacts the performance of daily activities and may trigger the onset of fatigue complaints. The present study evaluated knee muscle strength and fatigue in patients with a-SAH. This study included 33 patients, 6 months after a-SAH, and 33 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors was measured at 60 and 180°/s. Maximal voluntary muscle strength was defined as peak torque and measured in Newton-meter. Fatigue was examined using the Fatigue Severity Scale. In patients with a-SAH, the maximal knee extension was 22% (60°/s) and 25% (180°/s) lower and maximal knee flexion was 33% (60°/s) and 36% (180°/s) lower compared with that of matched controls (P≤0.001). The Fatigue Severity Scale score was related to maximal knee extension (60°/s: r=-0.426, P=0.015; 180°/s: r=-0.376, P=0.034) and flexion (60°/s: r=-0.482, P=0.005; 180°/s: r=-0.344, P=0.083). The knee muscle strength was 28-47% lower in fatigued (n=13) and 11-32% lower in nonfatigued (n=20) patients; deficits were larger in fatigued patients (Pmuscle strength (peak torque) was measured at 60°/s. The present results indicate that patients with a-SAH have considerably impaired knee muscle strength, which is related to more severe fatigue. The present findings are exploratory, but showed that knee muscle strength may play a role in the severity of fatigue complaints, or vice versa. Interventions targeting fatigue after a-SAH seem necessary and may consider strengthening exercise training in order to treat a debilitating condition.

  1. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Tushar B; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with ...

  2. Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J.; Howard, Matthew A.; Menezes, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

  3. Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor J Abel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options.

  4. Differential regulation of matrix-metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs are involved in vascular remodeling, (neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal apoptosis. Proinflammatory mechanisms are suggested to play an important role during early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. This study aimed to analyze MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in patients with SAH and their respective association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in 20 SAH patients on days 1 to 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 and 20 healthy age and gender matched volunteers. Serum MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Doppler sonographic CVS was defined as a mean blood flow velocity above 120 cm/sec in the middle cerebral artery. When discharged from hospital and at 6 month follow-up neurological outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score and the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: MMP-9 was higher in SAH patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001. Patients with CVS (n = 11 had elevated MMP-9 serum levels compared to patients without CVS (n = 9, p<0.05. Higher MMP-9 was observed in the presence of cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm (p<0.05. TIMP-1 was increased in patients with SAH on day 4 (p<0.05. There was an imbalance of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in favor of MMP-9 in SAH patients, in particular those with CVS (p<0.001. MMP-3 and TIMP-3 were significantly lower in SAH patients throughout day 4 and day 7, respectively (p<0.05. We did not find an association between MMP-, TIMP levels and neurological outcome after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-3 and -9 are differentially regulated in SAH patients with both enzymes showing peak levels correlating with the development of CVS. The inhibitors TIMP-1 and -3 were low during the acute phase after SAH and increased later on which might suggest a preponderance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms.

  5. Acute Cholecystitis as a Cause of Fever in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Na Rae Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a very common complication that has been related to poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. The incidence of acalculous cholecystitis is reportedly 0.5%–5% in critically ill patients, and cerebrovascular disease is a risk factor for acute cholecystitis (AC. However, abdominal evaluations are not typically performed for febrile patients who have recently undergone aSAH surgeries. In this study, we discuss our experiences with febrile aSAH patients who were eventually diagnosed with AC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 192 consecutive patients who underwent aSAH from January 2009 to December 2012. We evaluated their characteristics, vital signs, laboratory findings, radiologic images, and pathological data from hospitalization. We defined fever as a body temperature of >38.3°C, according to the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines. We categorized the causes of fever and compared them between patients with and without AC. Results Of the 192 enrolled patients, two had a history of cholecystectomy, and eight (4.2% were eventually diagnosed with AC. Among them, six patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In their pathological findings, two patients showed findings consistent with coexistent chronic cholecystitis, and two showed necrotic changes to the gall bladder. Patients with AC tended to have higher white blood cell counts, aspartame aminotransferase levels, and C-reactive protein levels than patients with fevers from other causes. Predictors of AC in the aSAH group were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 8.758; P = 0.033 and the initial consecutive fasting time (OR, 1.325; P = 0.024. Conclusions AC may cause fever in patients with aSAH. When patients with aSAH have a fever, diabetes mellitus and a long fasting time, AC should be suspected. A high degree of suspicion and a thorough abdominal examination of febrile aSAH patients allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment of this

  6. Femoral access in 100 consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: the "craniotomy" of endovascular neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Judy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral access is a fundamental element of catheter-based cerebral angiography. Knowledge of location of the common femoral artery (CFA bifurcation is important as the risk of retroperitoneal bleeding is increased if the puncture is superior to the inguinal ligament and there is an increased risk of thrombosis and arteriovenous fistula formation if the puncture is distal into branch vessels. We sought to characterize the location of the CFA bifurcation along with the presence of significant atherosclerosis or iliac tortuosity in a contemporary series of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients. Findings The records of a prospective single-center aneurysm database were reviewed to identify 100 consecutive SAH patients. Using an oblique femoral arteriogram, the presence of significant atherosclerosis, iliac tortuosity, and the CFA bifurcation were assessed. The CFA bifurcation was graded according to its position with respect to the femoral head: below (grade 1, lower half (grade 2, and above the upper half (grade 3. We found a CFA bifurcation grade 1 in 50 patients (50%, mean age 51.2 years, grade 2 in 40 patients (40%, mean age 55.5 years, and grade 3 in 10 patients (10%, mean age 58.2 years. Whereas 30 of 90 patients with CFA grades I or II were male (33%, only 10% with grade 3 were male (1 of 10, p = 0.12. Mean age for significant atherosclerosis was 65.5 +/- 2.6 years versus 50.9 +/- 1.6 years (p Conclusions Although a requisite element of endovascular treatment in SAH patients, femoral access can be complicated by a high common femoral artery bifurcation and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and/or iliac artery tortuosity. In this study, we found a grade 3 (above the femoral head CFA bifurcation in 10% patients, with 90% of these patients being female. We also found the presence of atherosclerotic disease and iliac tortuosity to be significantly more likely in patients older than 65 years of age.

  7. Terson syndrome: an underrecognized cause of reversible vision loss in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Middleton, Kim; Esselman, Peter; Lim, P Chuwn

    2012-03-01

    Terson syndrome is a known complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that causes potentially reversible vision loss. It develops after SAH because of vitreous hemorrhage caused by retinal capillary disruption. Case series report an incidence of Terson syndrome in approximately 8%-15% of patients with SAH. Nonetheless, the medical literature regarding this condition is primarily found within neurosurgical and ophthalmologic journals with little mention within the rehabilitation medicine literature. Physiatrists must be aware of this clinical presentation to coordinate the care of patients with SAH who develop vision loss and develop a rehabilitation plan that addresses the co-morbid motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Physiatrists may be the first to identify visual loss, are well equipped to emphasize compensatory strategies, and are well positioned to coordinate surgical treatment for visual recovery in appropriate cases. In this report, we describe the case of a young woman with SAH and Terson syndrome through her acute hospital admission, rehabilitation treatment, ophthalmologic management, and outcome, describing the salient epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and treatment options.

  8. A magnetic resonance imaging grading system for subarachnoid hemorrhage severity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Hajime; Egashira, Yusuke; Okubo, Shuichi; Zhang, Haining; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2015-03-30

    The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a large variation in outcomes. This may reflect differences in the SAH size. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 24h after endovascular perforation in adult male (n=58) and female (n=58) rats. Rats were divided into five grades according to MRI characteristics: grade 0: no SAH or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH); grade 1: minimal or thin SAH without IVH; grade 2: minimal or thin SAH with IVH; grade 3: thick SAH without IVH; grade 4: thick SAH with IVH. We investigated whether MRI grading scale reflected severity of SAH (determined post mortem) and neurological score. There was a strong correlation between MRI grading scale and current SAH grading scale (Pneurological score (PMRI grading scale and SAH grading scale (Pneurological score (P=0.24). The current grading system is based on the amount of SAH and needs animal euthanasia to evaluate SAH severity. There is no useful grading system to classify severity of SAH without decapitating animals. We demonstrated a correlation between the MRI grading scale and the current SAH grading scale in an endovascular perforation rat model. The MRI grading scale allows evaluation of SAH severity without euthanizing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Computed tomography angiography spot sign predicts intraprocedural aneurysm rupture in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Schöni, Daniel; Fung, Christian; Roethlisberger, Michel; Corniola, Marco Vincenzo; Bervini, David; Maduri, Rodolfo; Valsecchi, Daniele; Tok, Sina; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2017-07-01

    To analyze whether the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign predicts the intraprocedural rupture rate and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). From a prospective nationwide multicenter registry database, 1023 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were analyzed retrospectively. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to compare spot sign-positive and -negative patients with aneurysmal intracerebral hemorrhage (aICH) for baseline characteristics, aneurysmal and ICH imaging characteristics, treatment and admission status as well as outcome at discharge and 1-year follow-up (1YFU) using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A total of 218 out of 1023 aSAH patients (21%) presented with aICH including 23/218 (11%) patients with spot sign. Baseline characteristics were comparable between spot sign-positive and -negative patients. There was a higher clip-to-coil ratio in patients with than without aICH (both spot sign positive and negative). Median aICH volume was significantly higher in the spot sign-positive group (50 ml, 13-223 ml) than in the spot sign-negative group (18 ml, 1-416; p sign-positive aICH thus were three times as likely as those with spot sign-negative aICH to show an intraoperative aneurysm rupture [odds ratio (OR) 3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.92, p = 0.046]. Spot sign-positive aICH patients showed a significantly worse mRS at discharge (p = 0.039) than patients with spot sign-negative aICH (median mRS 5 vs. 4). Logistic regression analysis showed that the spot sign was an aICH volume-dependent predictor for outcome. Both spot sign-positive and -negative aICH patients showed comparable rates of hospital death, death at 1YFU and mRS at 1YFU. In this multicenter data analysis, patients with spot sign-positive aICH showed higher aICH volumes and a higher rate of intraprocedural aneurysm rupture, but comparable long-term outcome to spot sign-negative a

  10. Detection of CT occult aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a novel spectrophotometric analysis of cerebral spinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Bhadri, Prashant R.; Huang, Jian; Kumar, Alla S.; Pyne, Gail J.; Caffery, James, Jr.; Clark, Joseph F.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    In North America, approximately 30,000 people annually suffer an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using computerized tomography (CT), the blood is generally not visible after 12 hours. Currently lumbar puncture (LP) results are equivocal for diagnosing SAH largely because of technical limitations in performing a quick and objective evaluation. Having ruptured once, an aneurysm is statistically more likely to rupture again. Therefore, for those individuals with a sentinel (or warning) hemorrhage, detection within the first 12 hours is paramount. We present a diagnostic technology based on visible spectroscopy to quickly and objectively assess low-blood volume SAH from a diagnostic spinal tap. This technology provides clinicians, with the resources necessary for assessing patients with suspected aneurismal SAH beyond the current 12-hour limitation imposed by CT scans. This aids in the improvement of patient care and results in rapid and appropriate treatment of the patient. To perform this diagnosis, we quantify bilirubin and hemoglobin in human CSF over a range of concentrations. Because the bilirubin and hemoglobin spectra overlap quantification is problematic. To solve this problem, two algorithmic approaches are presented: a statistical or a random stochastic component known as Partial Least Square (PLS) and a control theory based mathematical model. These algorithms account for the noise and distortion from blood in CSF leading to the quantification of bilirubin and methemoglobin spectroscopically. The configurations for a hardware platform is introduced, that is portable and user-friendly composed of specific components designed to have the sensitivity and specificity required. This aids in measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. The prototype uses purpose built algorithms contained within the platform, such that physicians can use it in the hospital and lab as a point of care diagnostic test.

  11. Methamphetamine use is an independent predictor of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Mitkov, Mario; Ducruet, Andrew F; Wilson, David A; Crowley, R Webster; Nakaji, Peter; McDougall, Cameron G

    2015-05-01

    Clinical outcomes of methamphetamine users with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are unknown. To analyze differences in presentation, in-hospital morbidity, and outcomes between methamphetamine users and non-users. All 472 patients included in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed. Patients with 1- and 3-year follow-up were included in this analysis (n=398). Methamphetamine users were identified as patients who provided a history of methamphetamine use on admission or tested positive on urine toxicology testing. Methamphetamine users were compared with non-users using univariate analysis. Outcomes were then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models for demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, radiographic and clinical presentation, and vasospasm. Thirty-one patients (7.8%) were identified as methamphetamine users in this cohort. Methamphetamine users were younger than non-users (mean age 42.8 vs 55 years, pmethamphetamine use was an independent predictor of poor Glasgow Outcome Scale score at both 1 year (OR=5.02; 95% CI 1.03 to 24.48; pMethamphetamine use was not significantly associated with vasospasm, higher Fisher or Hunt and Hess grade, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage. Methamphetamine users have significantly worse outcomes at 1 and 3 years following aSAH. Further analysis is necessary to understand the pathological response associated with methamphetamine use in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne H; Edwards, Alistair V G; Larsen, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown...... that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the overall late effects of experimental SAH on cerebrovascular protein expression. SAH...... was induced in rats that were treated with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or vehicle. Neurological outcome was assessed using a battery of behavioral tests. Specific protein expression of large cerebral arteries was analyzed quantitatively with high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry. SAH resulted in a marked...

  13. Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome presenting in a post-partum, 25-year-old-female with concomitant subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Aronovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hinchey et al., first described that posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome has having a unique neuroradiographical finding of vasogenic edema and clinical symptoms including headache, altered mental status, seizure and visual disturbances in 1996. We present a rare case of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a 2-week, post-partum G2P2A0 (normal spontaneous vaginal delivery at forty-weeks, without complications 25-year-old-female with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. External lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, G; Paternina-Caicedo, Á; Díaz-Becerra, C; Moscote-Salazar, L R; Gutiérrez-Paternina, J J; Niño-Hernández, L M

    2016-09-01

    External lumbar drainage is a promising measure for the prevention of delayed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-related ischemic complications. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of external lumbar drainage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Primary outcomes were: new cerebral infarctions and severe disability. Secondary outcomes were: clinical deterioration due to delayed cerebral ischemia, mortality, and the need of definitive ventricular shunting. Results were presented as pooled relative risks, with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 6 controlled studies were included. Pooled relative risks were: new cerebral infarctions, 0.48 (95% CI: 0.32-0.72); severe disability, 0.5 (95% CI: 0.29-0.85); delayed cerebral ischemia-related clinical deterioration, 0.46 (95% CI: 0.34-0.63); mortality, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.24-2.06), and need of definitive ventricular shunting, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.51-1.24). Assessment of heterogeneity only revealed statistically significant indexes for the analysis of severe disability (I(2)=70% and P=.01). External lumbar drainage was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia-related complications (cerebral infarctions and clinical deterioration), as well as the risk of severe disability; however, it was not translated in a lower mortality. Nevertheless, it is not prudent to provide definitive recommendations at this time because of the qualitative and quantitative heterogeneity among included studies. More randomized controlled trials with more homogeneous outcomes and definitions are needed to clarify its impact in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The efficacy of resection of an intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation presenting with repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomoya; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-03-09

    Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small amount of hemorrhage in both of the lateral ventricles and an intradural extramedullary mass lesion in the left side of his foramen magnum. Two weeks after the appearance of initial symptoms, he became comatose. A computed tomography scan showed an increase in the subarachnoid intraventricular hemorrhaging and of the acute hydrocephalus. Following ventricular drainage, total tumor resection was performed using the lateral suboccipital transcondylar approach in conjunction with a first cervical hemilaminectomy. We observed a grape-like vascular-rich tumor with calcification that was adhering tightly to the wall of his left vertebral artery. A histopathological examination of the surgery specimen identified it as a cavernous angioma. After placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 months of rehabilitation, he recovered completely. An intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation is quite rare. The fragile surface of our patient's lesion was causing repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequently progressive fatal neurological deterioration. Surgical resection of the lesion to prevent repeated hemorrhage was performed and he recovered fully. Therefore, we recommend surgical resection of the lesion regardless of the potentially fatal condition.

  16. Low-dose intravenous heparin infusion in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, J. Marc; Aldrich, E. Francois; Schreibman, David; James, Robert F.; Polifka, Adam; Beaty, Narlin

    2015-01-01

    Object Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) predisposes to delayed neurological deficits, including stroke and cognitive and neuropsychological abnormalities. Heparin is a pleiotropic drug that antagonizes many of the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in secondary brain injury after aSAH. Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis in 86 consecutive patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH due to rupture of a supratentorial aneurysm who presented within 36 hours and were treated by surgical clipping within 48 hours of their ictus. Forty-three patients were managed postoperatively with a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion (Maryland low-dose intravenous heparin infusion protocol: 8 U/kg/hr progressing over 36 hours to 10 U/kg/hr) beginning 12 hours after surgery and continuing until Day 14 after the ictus. Forty-three control patients received conventional subcutaneous heparin twice daily as deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Results Patients in the 2 groups were balanced in terms of baseline characteristics. In the heparin group, activated partial thromboplastin times were normal to mildly elevated; no clinically significant hemorrhages or instances of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or deep vein thrombosis were encountered. In the control group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy (induced hypertension, selective intraarterial verapamil, and angioplasty) was 20 (47%) of 43 patients, and 9 (21%) of 43 patients experienced a delayed infarct on CT scanning. In the heparin group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy was 9% (4 of 43, p = 0.0002), and no patient suffered a delayed infarct (p = 0.003). Conclusions In patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH whose aneurysm is secured, postprocedure use of a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion may be safe and beneficial. PMID:24032706

  17. Cerebral inflammatory response and predictors of admission clinical grade after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Khalid A; Morgan Stuart, R; Fernandez, Luis; Schmidt, J Michael; Claassen, Jan; Lee, Kiwon; Sander Connolly, E; Mayer, Stephan A; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Poor admission clinical grade is the most important determinant of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, little attention has been focused on independent predictors of poor admission clinical grade. We hypothesized that the cerebral inflammatory response initiated at the time of aneurysm rupture contributes to ultra-early brain injury and poor admission clinical grade. We sought to identify factors known to contribute to cerebral inflammation as well as markers of cerebral dysfunction that were associated with poor admission clinical grade. Between 1997 and 2008, 850 consecutive SAH patients were enrolled in our prospective database. Demographic data, physiological parameters, and location and volume of blood were recorded. After univariate analysis, significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model to identify significant associations with poor admission clinical grade (Hunt-Hess grade 4-5). Independent predictors of poor admission grade included a SAH sum score >15/30 (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.6), an intraventricular hemorrhage sum score >1/12 (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.8), aneurysm size >10mm (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6), body temperature 38.3 degrees C (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.4), and hyperglycemia >200mg/dL (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.5). In a large, consecutive series of prospectively enrolled patients with SAH, the inflammatory response at the time of aneurysm rupture, as reflected by the volume and location of the hemoglobin burden, hyperthermia, and perturbed glucose metabolism, independently predicts poor admission Hunt-Hess grade. Strategies for mitigating the inflammatory response to aneurysmal rupture in the hyper-acute setting may improve the admission clinical grade, which may in turn improve outcomes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Possible overlap between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Patrice; Goffette, Pierre; van de Wyngaert, Françoise; Raftopoulos, Christian; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman with a previous history of severe headache ("thunderclap") was admitted with a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient developed symptomatic vasospasm on day 5 that resolved rapidly after having increased arterial blood pressure. She experienced also short-lasting excruciating headache. On day 12, while velocities had normalised, as revealed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), for more than 48 h, she developed aphasia and right hemiplegia associated with diffuse segmental vasospasm on the left middle cerebral artery. Intra-arterial infusion of vasodilatory agents was required. Recurrence of symptomatic vasospasm was noted on day 25, with a great number of territories involved as shown in the cerebral angiogram. A second intra-arterial treatment was needed. The patient complained of multiple episodes of extremely severe headache ("thunderclap"), with also transient dysarthria and hemiparesia on day 30. She was discharged on day 38 after full recovery. The clinical and TCD/radiological findings were consistent with a reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome overlapping SAH related symptomatic vasospasm.

  19. Syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Otsuka, Munehiro; Fukuda, Shuji; Tsunoda, Keishi; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with primary Sjogren syndrome developed syringomyelia following two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of basilar artery aneurysms. Gait disturbance and abnormal sensation with pain over the foot and abdomen appeared 3 years after the last SAH. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a syringomyelia throughout the thoracic cord, from the T2 to T11 levels. In addition, the thoracic cord was compressed by multiple arachnoid cysts in the ventral side of spinal cord. Computed tomography myelography revealed complete block of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the T7 level. Surgery for microlysis of the adhesions and restoration of the CSF flow pathway was performed. Postoperatively, leg motor function slowly improved and she could walk unaided. However, abdominal paresthesia was persisted. Postoperative MR imaging revealed diminished size of the syrinxes. We should recognize syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts due to adhesive arachnoiditis as a late complication of SAH. Microlysis of the adhesions focusing on the lesion thought to be the cause of the symptoms is one of the choices to treat massive syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with arachnoiditis following SAH.

  20. Hypothesis on the Role of Cryptochromes in Inflammation and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Adriano Barreto; Nogueira, Ariel Barreto; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2017-01-01

    We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (hypothesis derived from these observations is that CRYs modulate the circadian oscillation of temperature even during therapeutic hypothermia and improve outcome in SAH through decrease in inflammation. A strategy to test this hypothesis is to measure periodically during the acute phase of high-grade SAH the level of CRYs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and circulating white blood cells, and to correlate these levels with outcome, TV, ICP24, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in CSF and blood. If this hypothesis is true, the development of therapies targeting inflammation in SAH could take advantage of cryptochrome properties. It has been shown that blue light phototherapy increases the expression of CRYs in blood mononuclear cells in jaundiced neonates. Likewise, visual stimulus with flashing light improves Alzheimer's disease features in experimental model and there is a prominent expression of CRYs in the retina. Remarkably, recent evidence showed that hCRY2 responds to electromagnetic fields, which could be one elusive mechanism of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation and a reason for its use in SAH.

  1. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage prognostic decision-making algorithm using classification and regression tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Benjamin W Y; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Angle, Mark; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Macdonald, R Loch; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mitchell A H

    2016-01-01

    Classification and regression tree analysis involves the creation of a decision tree by recursive partitioning of a dataset into more homogeneous subgroups. Thus far, there is scarce literature on using this technique to create clinical prediction tools for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The classification and regression tree analysis technique was applied to the multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) in order to create the decision-making algorithm. In order to elucidate prognostic subgroups in aneurysmal SAH, neurologic, systemic, and demographic factors were taken into account. The dependent variable used for analysis was the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score at 3 months. Classification and regression tree analysis revealed seven prognostic subgroups. Neurological grade, occurrence of post-admission stroke, occurrence of post-admission fever, and age represented the explanatory nodes of this decision tree. Split sample validation revealed classification accuracy of 79% for the training dataset and 77% for the testing dataset. In addition, the occurrence of fever at 1-week post-aneurysmal SAH is associated with increased odds of post-admission stroke (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.56-2.45, P tree was generated, which serves as a prediction tool to guide bedside prognostication and clinical treatment decision making. This prognostic decision-making algorithm also shed light on the complex interactions between a number of risk factors in determining outcome after aneurysmal SAH.

  2. Consciousness recovery induced by intrathecal baclofen administration after subarachnoid hemorrhage -two case reports-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanahashi, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage recovered consciousness after intrathecal baclofen administration using an implanted intrathecal baclofen pump delivering 50 microg per day using a simple infusion mode. Intrathecal baclofen resulted in significant reduction of spasticity 3 months after the implantation. Case 1 was reduced to a completely bedridden state with spasticity and could slightly move her fingers following commands. However, the patient could eat food and wash her face with minimal assistance at 3 months after the implantation, and could stand up in the parallel bars with assistance and speak several words at 8 months. Case 2 was in a completely bedridden state at 10 months after onset and could neither drink water nor follow instructions. However, the patient became oriented and could eat by herself within 3 to 4 weeks of implantation. She could walk with a cane and use the stairs with minimal assistance at 2 and 3 months after implantation. The patient could speak fluently within 6 months of implantation. Flatulence and dysuria happened during the screening test, but these symptoms were not repeated after implantation of a pump-catheter-system and continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion. Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion caused both improvement in muscle tone and spasms and consciousness recovery from the vegetative state. This therapy is a strong candidate treatment for patients with spasticity and consciousness disturbance.

  3. Prophylactic Antiepileptics and Seizure Incidence Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczykowski, David; Pease, Matthew; Zhao, Yin; Weiner, Gregory; Ares, William; Crago, Elizabeth; Jankowitz, Brian; Ducruet, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The utility of prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) administration following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains controversial. AEDs have not clearly been associated with a reduction in seizure incidence and have been associated with both neurologic worsening and delayed functional recovery in this setting. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected database of SAH patients admitted to our institution between 2005 and 2010. Between 2005 and 2007, all patients received prophylactic AEDs upon admission. After 2007 no patients received prophylactic AEDs or had AEDs immediately discontinued if initiated at an outside hospital. A propensity score-matched analysis was then performed to compare the development of clinical and/or electrographic seizures in these two populations. Results 353 patients with spontaneous SAH were analyzed, 43% of whom were treated with prophylactic AEDs upon admission. Overall, 10% of patients suffered clinical and/or electrographic seizures, most frequently occurring within 24-hrs of ictus (47%). The incidence of seizures did not vary significantly based on the use of prophylactic AEDs (11 vs. 8%, p=0.33). Propensity score-matched analyses suggest that patients receiving prophylactic AEDs had a similar likelihood of suffering seizures as those who did not (p=0.49). Conclusions Propensity score-matched analysis suggests that prophylactic AEDs do not significantly reduce the risk of seizure occurrence in patients with spontaneous SAH. PMID:27301932

  4. The impact of body habitus on outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a Nationwide Inpatient Sample analysis.

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    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Nguyen, Michael O; Frerichs, Kai U; Guttieres, Donovan; Gormley, William B; Ali Aziz-Sultan, M; Du, Rose

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly both nationally and internationally, few studies have analyzed outcomes among obese patients undergoing cranial neurosurgery. The goal of this study, which used a nationwide data set, was to evaluate the association of both obesity and morbid obesity with treatment outcomes among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); in addition, the authors sought to analyze how postoperative complications for obese patients with SAH differ by the treatment modality used for aneurysm repair. METHODS Clinical data for adult patients with SAH who underwent microsurgical or endovascular aneurysm repair were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). The body habitus of patients was classified as nonobese (body mass index [BMI] 40 kg/m(2)). Multivariable logistic regression analyzed the association of body habitus with in-hospital mortality rate, complications, discharge disposition, and poor outcome as defined by the composite NIS-SAH outcome measure. Covariates included patient demographics, comorbidities (including hypertension and diabetes), health insurance status, the NIS-SAH severity scale, treatment modality used for aneurysm repair, and hospital characteristics. RESULTS In total, data from 18,281 patients were included in this study; the prevalence of morbid obesity increased from 0.8% in 2002 to 3.5% in 2011. Obese and morbidly obese patients were significantly younger and had a greater number of comorbidities than nonobese patients (p < 0.001). Mortality rates for obese (11.5%) and morbidly obese patients (10.5%) did not significantly differ from those for nonobese patients (13.5%); likewise, no differences in neurological complications or poor outcome were observed among these 3 groups. Morbid obesity was associated with significantly increased odds of several medical complications, including venous thromboembolic (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30, p = 0.046) and renal (OR 1.64, 95% CI

  5. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody attenuates subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced apoptosis in the hypothalamus by inhibiting the activation of Erk

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    Ma L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ling Ma,1 Yong Jiang,2 Yanan Dong,2 Jun Gao,2 Bin Du,2 Dianwei Liu2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH can induce apoptosis in many regions of the brain including the cortex and hippocampus. However, few studies have focused on apoptosis in the hypothalamus after SAH. Although some antiapoptotic strategies have been developed for SAH, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α antibody, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SAH could induce apoptosis in the hypothalamus and identify the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of anti-TNF-α antibody, as a therapeutic regimen, upon apoptosis. Materials and methods: SAH was induced in a rat model. Thirty minutes prior to SAH, anti-TNF-α antibody or U0126, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk inhibitor, was microinjected into the left lateral cerebral ventricle. In addition, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate was injected intraperitoneally immediately after the anti-TNF-α antibody microinjection. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, phosphorylated Erk (p-Erk and Erk. Finally, anxiety-like behavior was identified by using open field. Results: Levels of caspase-3, bax and bcl-2, all showed a temporary rise after SAH in the hypothalamus, indicating the induction of apoptosis in this brain region. Interestingly, we found that the microinjection of anti-TNF-α antibody could selectively block the elevated levels of bax, suggesting the potential role of anti-TNF-α antibody in the inhibition of SAH

  6. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm

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    Casulari Luiz Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH is associated with changes in the hormonal profile in the first 24 hours after the event. We proposed that the hormonal changes observed are due to the intense stress to which the patients are exposed. However, the thyroidal hormonal profile is indicative of the presence of a nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS. In this paper, we examined whether the change in the thyroid hormone profile is compatible with a NTIS. Two groups of patients were included in the study: A 30 patients with SH (21 females and 9 males; 41.7±11.4 years and B a control group including 25 patients with benign diseases of the spine (BDS (lumbar disc hernia or stable spinal trauma (8 females and 17 males; 41.3±14.2 years. In a subgroup of eight patients of each group serum triiodothyronine (T3 and reverse T3 levels were measured. The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. The following results were obtained: The SH group had smaller serum T3 and free T4 levels than the BDS group (p<0.05: T3 (ng/mL: SH = 58.7±1.1 and BDS = 74.5±13.9; free T4 (ng/dL: SH = 0.9±0.2 and BDS = 1.1±0.3. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of total thyroxine (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH between the two groups: T4 (µg/dL: SH = 6.9±1.1 and BDS = 7.4±2.1; TSH (µUI/mL: SH = 1.5±0.8 and BDS = 1.8±1,0. In the sample of eight patients of each group we had the following results: T3 (ng/mL: SH = 66.8±3.8 and BDS = 77.2±1.1 (p <0.05; reverse T3 (ng/dL: SH = 32.8±8 and BDS = 24.7±2.2 (NS; T3/ reverse T3 ratio: SH = 2.6±0.3 and BDS = 3.3±0.4 (NS. Thyreoglobulin and microsomal antibodies were not detectable, except in one patient in the SH group. In conclusion, the SH patients present serum levels of T3 and free T4 significantly lower than that of BDS patients; the thyroidal hormone profile suggests that SH patients have developed the nonthyroidal

  7. Effect of endothelin receptor antagonists on clinically relevant outcomes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Kamil G; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van der Worp, H Bart

    2015-07-01

    In clinical trials, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETRAs) reduced vasospasm but did not improve functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We assessed the effects of treatment with ETRAs on clinically relevant outcomes in animal studies modelling SAH by performing a systematic review of the literature for controlled animal studies of ETRAs for the treatment of SAH. Primary outcomes were neurobehavioral outcomes and case fatality. Secondary outcomes were cerebral vasospasm and cerebral blood flow. Summary estimates were calculated using normalized mean difference random effects meta-analysis. We included 27 studies (55 experiments, 639 animals). Neurobehavioral scores were reported in none of the experiments, and case fatality in 8 (15%). Treatment with ETRAs was associated with a pooled odds ratio for case fatality of 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27 to 1.39); a 54% increase (95% CI, 39 to 69) in cerebral arterial diameter; and a 93% increase (95% CI, 58 to 129) in cerebral blood flow. We conclude that there is no evidence from animal studies that treatment with an ETRA improves clinically relevant outcomes after SAH. The reduction in cerebral vasospasm observed in animal studies is consistent with that observed in clinical trials, an effect that is not associated with better functional outcome in patients.

  8. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . The effects in all parameters were more pronounced for SAH than for saline injection. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that both the elevation of intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood per se contribute approximately equally to the late CBF reductions and receptor upregulation following SAH....

  9. Higher brain extracellular potassium is associated with brain metabolic distress and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elevated brain potassium levels ([K+]) are associated with neuronal damage in experimental models. The role of brain extracellular [K+] in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its association with hemorrhage load, metabolic dysfunction and outcome has not been studied so far. Methods Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) samples from 28 poor grade aSAH patients were analyzed for CMD [K+] for 12 consecutive days after ictus, and time-matched to brain metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as corresponding plasma [K+]. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function to handle repeated observations of an individual patient. Results CMD [K+] did not correlate with plasma [K+] (Spearman’s ρ = 0.114, P = 0.109). Higher CMD [K+] was associated with the presence of intracerebral hematoma on admission head computed tomography, CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio >40 and CMD lactate >4 mmol/L (P < 0.05). In vitro retrodialysis data suggest that high CMD [K+] was of brain cellular origin. Higher CMD [K+] was significantly associated with poor 3-month outcome, even after adjusting for age and disease severity (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that brain extracellular [K+] may serve as a biomarker for brain tissue injury in poor-grade aSAH patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of brain interstitial K+ levels in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury after aSAH. PMID:24920041

  10. Effectiveness and safety of nicardipine and labetalol infusion for blood pressure management in patients with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Thomas, Jiz; Reccius, Andres; Agarwal, Sachin; Lantigua, Hector; Li, Min; Carpenter, Amanda M; Mayer, Stephan A; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Claassen, Jan; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lesch, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Nicardipine and labetalol are two commonly used antihypertensives for treating elevated blood pressures in the setting of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There are no studies comparing these two agents as continuous infusions. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients admitted between November 2009 and January 2011 with ICH and SAH to compare effectiveness and safety between both agents. Percent time spent at goal was set as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes included blood pressure variability, time to goal, incidence of bradycardia, tachycardia, and hypotension. A total of 81 patients were available for analysis, 10 initiated on labetalol (LAB), 57 on nicardipine (NIC), and 14 required the combination of these agents (COMB) to reach goal. We found no difference between NIC, LAB, and the COMB groups in the median percent time at goal [88 % (61-98); 93 % (51-99); 66 % (25-95), (p = NS)]. Median percentage of blood pressure variability, hypotension, and bradycardia were also comparable between groups, however, more tachycardia was observed in the COMB group versus both LAB and NIC groups (45 vs. 0 vs. 3 %; p < 0.001). Mean time to goal SBP in 24 patients who had BP readings available at 1st h of initiation was 32 ± 34 min in the NIC group and 53 ± 42 min in the LAB group (p = 0.03). Both agents appear equally effective and safe for blood pressure control in SAH and ICH during the initial admission hours. A prospective study is needed to validate these findings.

  11. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on the incidence of stroke subtypes among ethnic minority groups are limited. We assessed ethnic differences in the incidence of stroke subtypes in the Netherlands. METHODS: A Dutch nationwide register-based cohort study (n=7 423 174) was conducted between 1998 and 20...

  12. Three dimensional CT angiography versus digital subtraction angiography in the detection of intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Sabit, Aria; He, Wenzhuan; Jethwa, Pinakin; Gandhi, Chirag; Russin, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are responsible for over 90% of cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard for diagnosing the source of SAH. A prospective study is presented wherein SAH patients underwent three dimensional CT angiography (CTA) prior to DSA in order to assess the specificity and sensitivity of this non-invasive modality to detect aneurysms. 179 consecutive patients with spontaneous SAH presented over 36 months, as identified by screening CT and CTA. Patients with negative CTA findings underwent DSA within 24 h of presentation. All patients who were determined to have angiographically negative SAH underwent follow-up DSA 2 weeks later. Of the 179 patients screened by CTA, 13 (7%) were negative for aneurysms or other vascular lesions (arteriovenous malformation or dural fistula) on CTA and underwent DSA. No new lesions were identified on six vessel angiography, resulting in a 0% false negative rate (sensitivity 100%, predictive value 100%). MRI to rule out thrombosed aneurysms and repeat angiography at the 2 week follow-up were negative. Sensitivity and specificity were higher than previously reported, suggesting that CTA may be used as an initial screening tool in lieu of DSA. Further studies are necessary to determine if CTA can supplant DSA in ruling out all forms of vascular disease in idiopathic SAH.

  13. Clinical Trials in Cardiac Arrest and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Lessons from the Past and Ideas for the Future

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    Jennifer A. Frontera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Elevated intracranial pressure that occurs at the time of cerebral aneurysm rupture can lead to inadequate cerebral blood flow, which may mimic the brain injury cascade that occurs after cardiac arrest. Insights from clinical trials in cardiac arrest may provide direction for future early brain injury research after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Methods. A search of PubMed from 1980 to 2012 and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to identify published and ongoing randomized clinical trials in aneurysmal SAH and cardiac arrest patients. Only English, adult, human studies with primary or secondary mortality or neurological outcomes were included. Results. A total of 142 trials (82 SAH, 60 cardiac arrest met the review criteria (103 published, 39 ongoing. The majority of both published and ongoing SAH trials focus on delayed secondary insults after SAH (70%, while 100% of cardiac arrest trials tested interventions within the first few hours of ictus. No SAH trials addressing treatment of early brain injury were identified. Twenty-nine percent of SAH and 13% of cardiac arrest trials showed outcome benefit, though there is no overlap mechanistically. Conclusions. Clinical trials in SAH assessing acute brain injury are warranted and successful interventions identified by the cardiac arrest literature may be reasonable targets of the study.

  14. Effect of intra arterial nimodipine infusion for the treatment of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Lee, Jin Young; Shin, Hwa Seon; Choi, Hye Young; Chung, Sung Hoon; You, Jin Jong; Choi, Dae Seob; Son, Seung Nam [Gyeongsang National Univ. Hospital/Gyeongsang National Univ. School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae Wook [Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the major factors which cause morbidity and mortality of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) infusion therapy in patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. Between February 2005 and April 2011, fifty patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following an aneurysmal SAH were treated with IAN infusion. After selective arterial catheterization, nimodipine was infused at a rate of 0.1 mg/min and a total of 2-3 mg per vessel was infused. We retrospectively reviewed the immediate angiographic results and clinical outcome at discharge. A grade of 5 and 4 in the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were considered favorable outcomes. In 50 patients, 117 procedures of IAN infusion (1-7; mean, 2.3)were done. After the treatment, immediate angiographic improvement was achieved in 113 (96.6%) of 117 procedures. No major complications occurred. At discharge, 38 (76%) patients showed a favorable clinical outcome in the GOS. IAN infusion therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following an aneurysmal SAH. However, the limitation is that repeated treatment is needed.

  15. Medical Management of Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions

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    Peter Adamczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vasospasm is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. Evidence suggests a multifactorial etiology and this concept remains supported by the assortment of therapeutic modalities under investigation. The authors provide an updated review of the literature for previous and recent clinical trials evaluating medical treatments in patients with cerebral vasospasm secondary to aSAH. Currently, the strongest evidence supports use of prophylactic oral nimodipine and initiation of triple-H therapy for patients in cerebral vasospasm. Other agents presented in this report include magnesium, statins, endothelin receptor antagonists, nitric oxide promoters, free radical scavengers, thromboxane inhibitors, thrombolysis, anti-inflammatory agents and neuroprotectants. Although promising data is beginning to emerge for several treatments, few prospective randomized clinical trials are presently available. Additionally, future investigational efforts will need to resolve discrepant definitions and outcome measures for cerebral vasospasm in order to permit adequate study comparisons. Until then, definitive recommendations cannot be made regarding the safety and efficacy for each of these therapeutic strategies and medical management practices will continue to be implemented in a wide-ranging manner.

  16. Astaxanthin Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possible Involvement of Akt/Bad Signaling

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    Xiang-Sheng Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway.

  17. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase scavenges biliverdin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Takashi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Shirota, Ryoko; Nagashima, Mariko; Okada, Tetsuya; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is the second major protein in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and belongs to the lipocalin superfamily composed of various secretory lipophilic ligand transporter proteins. However, the endogenous ligand of L-PGDS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we purified L-PGDS from the CSF of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Lipocalin-type PG D synthase showed absorbance spectra with major peaks at 280 and 392 nm and a minor peak at around 660 nm. The absorbance at 392 nm of L-PGDS increased from 1 to 9 days and almost disappeared at 2 months after SAH, whereas the L-PGDS activity decreased from 1 to 7 days and recovered to normal at 2 months after SAH. These results indicate that some chromophore had accumulated in the CSF after SAH and bound to L-PGDS, thus inactivating it. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of L-PGDS after digestion of it with endoproteinase Lys-C revealed that L-PGDS had covalently bound biliverdin, a by-product of heme breakdown. These results suggest that L-PGDS acted as a scavenger of biliverdin, which is a molecule not found in normal CSF. This is the first report of identification of a pathophysiologically important endogenous ligand for this lipocalin superfamily protein in humans.

  18. [Role of acute alcohol poisoning and craniocerebral trauma in the mechanism of death caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-kun; Shi, Meng; Ou, Gui-sheng; Zhao, Hu

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relation between the expression of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in the human brain tissue and the ethanol concentration under the acute alcohol poison, and to analyze the role of alcohol and trauma in the mechanism of death of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen real cases were collected in this study. The brain tissues were researched by histological examination and the concentration of ethanol in heart blood were detected. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in brainstem, brain and cerebellum were observed respectively by immunohistochemistry. In alcohol poisoning groups with or without trauma, the acute alcohol toxicity resulted in the swelling of brain tissues. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 of brainstem, brain and cerebellum showed high expression in alcohol victims, and the tPA in cerebellum showed no difference. The expression of the MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 showed good relation with the ethanol concentration in blood (P 0.6). The expressions of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 are significant higher in alcohol victims, and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and AEG-1 have positive correlation with the alcohol concentration. The alcohol has acute toxicity to brain cells.

  19. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin; Hartings, Jed A; Graf, Rudolf; Strong, Anthony John

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The implications of these findings are widespread and suggest that intrinsic brain mechanisms have the potential to worsen the outcome of cerebrovascular episodes or brain trauma. The consequences of these intrinsic mechanisms are intimately linked to the composition of the brain extracellular microenvironment and to the level of brain perfusion and in consequence brain energy supply. This paper summarizes the evidence provided by novel invasive techniques, which implicates CSD as a pathophysiological mechanism for this group of acute neurological disorders. The findings have implications for monitoring and treatment of patients with acute brain disorders in the intensive care unit. Drawing on the large body of experimental findings from animal studies of CSD obtained during decades we suggest treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves.

  20. Effect of graded hyperventilation on cerebral metabolism in a cisterna magna blood injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Bay-Hansen, Rikke; Hauerberg, John

    2006-01-01

    In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with cerebrovascular instability, hyperventilation may induce a risk of inducing or aggravating cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRglc), and lactate (CMRlac) at different PaCO2 levels...... after experimental SAH in rats (injection of 0.07 mL of autologous blood into the cisterna magna). Four groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats were studied at predetermined PaCO2 levels: group A: normocapnia (5.01-5.66 kPa [38.0-42.0 mm Hg]); group B: slight hyperventilation (4.34-5.00 kPa [32.5-37.5 mm Hg......]); group C: moderate hyperventilation (3.67-4.33 kPa [27.5-32.4 mm Hg]); group D: profound hyperventilation (3.00-3.66 kPa [22.5-27.4 mm Hg]). Each of the four groups included eight rats with SAH and eight sham-operated controls. CBF was determined by the intracarotid Xe method; CMRo2, CMRglc, and CMRlac...

  1. Increased serum concentrations of signal peptide-Cub-Egf domain-containing protein-1 in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ya-Suo; Sun, Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Jun; Gao, Guang-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Signal peptide-Cub-Epidermal growth factor domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1), a marker for coagulation, is correlated with prognosis of some critical illnesses. The current study was designed to investigate the potential prognostic value of serum SCUBE1 concentrations in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Serum SCUBE1 concentrations of 125 patients and 125 controls were determined. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for 6-month mortality, overall survival and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3). Serum SCUBE1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (17.7±7. vs. 1.2±0.4ng/ml, P<0.001) and were associated highly with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scores (t=5.109, P<0.001) and modified Fisher scores (t=4.329, P<0.001). SCUBE1 emerged as an independent predictor for 6-month clinical outcomes. It had similar area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. Moreover, it could markedly improve the AUC of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores to predict 6-month unfavorable outcome. Enhanced SCUBE1 concentrations are correlated with increasing severity and poor outcomes of aSAH patients, indicating SCUBE1 might have the potential to identify aSAH patients at risk of poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxemia associated with nimodipine in a patient with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew; Bastin, Melissa Thompson; Cook, Aaron M; Fraser, Justin; Hessel, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A case of probable nimodipine-induced hypoxemia in a patient undergoing treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is reported. A 62-year-old man hospitalized for SAH developed symptoms of respiratory distress on several occasions within days of initiation of nimodipine therapy (60 mg every four hours, with three doses withheld during intubation for intracranial surgery). Several hours after extubation (on hospital day 5), the patient had rapidly worsening tachypnea and declining arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2) despite increased oxygen delivery by mask, necessitating reintubation. When a nurse noted that the declines in SPO2 occurred soon after nimodipine administration, the patient's respiratory and hemodynamic functions were closely monitored after a single dose of nimodipine via nasogastic tube; the monitoring results supported the suspicion that nimodipine's vascular effects were a causal or contributory factor in the hypoxemia episodes. With subsequent fractionated dosing (30 mg every two hours), the patient completed the prescribed 21-day course of nimodipine therapy. Using the rating scale of Naranjo et al., this case was assigned a score of 7, indicating a probable pulmonary adverse reaction to nimodipine. As nimodipine is commonly used in cases of SAH to reduce delayed neurologic deficits due to persistent cerebral vasospasm, clinicians should be mindful of its potential hypoxemic effects in vulnerable patients. A patient with aneurysmal SAH developed hypoxemia associated with the administration of nimodipine. Hypoxemia is a known complication of treatment with other vasodilatory agents, particularly in patients who have concomitant pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of topical administration of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow following subarachnoid hemorrhage in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yin, Yu-hua; Jia, Feng; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2013-04-01

    We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04 g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60 min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5 mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (pnimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation.

  4. Long-Term, Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Treatment of Severe Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Danz, Sören; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2016-04-01

    Secondary vasospasm and disturbances in cerebrovascular autoregulation are associated with the development of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. An intra-arterial application of nimodipine has been shown to increase the vessel diameter, although this effect is transient. The feasibility of long-term, continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine treatment and its effects on macrovasospasm, autoregulation parameters, and outcome were evaluated in patients with refractory severe macrovasospasm. Ten patients were included with refractory macrovasospasm despite bolus nimodipine application (n = 4) or with primary severe vasospasm (n = 6). The patients were assessed with continuous multimodal neuromonitoring (mean arterial pressure, intraceranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension probe), daily transcranial Doppler examinations, and computed tomography angiography/perfusion. Autoregulation indices, the pressure reactivity index, and oxygen reactivity index were calculated. Indwelling microcatheters were placed in the extracranial internal carotid arteries and 0.4 mg nimodipine was continuously infused at 50 mL/hour. The duration of continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine ranged from 9 to 15 days. During treatment intracranial pressure remained stable, transcranial Doppler flow velocity decreased, and brain tissue oxygen tension improved by 37%. Macrovasospasm, as assessed via computed tomography angiography, had improved (n = 5) or disappeared (n = 5) at the end of treatment. Cerebrovascular autoregulation according to the pressure reactivity index and oxygen reactivity index significantly worsened during treatment. All patients showed a favorable outcome (median Glasgow Outcome Scale 5) at 3 months. In well-selected patients with prolonged severe macrovasospasm, continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment can be applied as a rescue therapy with relative safety for more than 2 weeks to prevent secondary

  5. Brown-Séquard syndrome following intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced spinal arachnoid cyst

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    Yew-Weng Fong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arachnoid cyst associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a rare complication. Correctly diagnosing this condition and providing an effective treatment are extremely important. Case report: A 60-year-old women had a history of SAH due to an intradural vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm post-coil embolization, without neurologic deficits on discharge from our institution. She experienced left hemiparesis with muscle power graded at 4/5 eight months later due to a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Nine months after stroke rehabilitation, there was a progression of left-side weakness and right-side numbness down below the nipple level. On neurological examination, there were right sensory deficits below T6, and left hemiparesis with muscle power of the left upper extremity graded at 4/5 and that of the left lower extremity graded at 3/5. Deep tendon reflex was symmetrically increased at the bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a cervicothoracic multiseptated arachnoid cyst with a major compression effect at T6. Eight months after T5–6 hemilaminectomy and fenestration of the cyst wall, the neurologic deficits had not improved. The patient then underwent a cysto-peritoneal shunt. A follow-up MRI documented a complete resolution of the arachnoid cyst. The patient's Brown-Séquard syndrome showed clinical improvement. Conclusion: Prompt investigation revealed a spinal arachnoid cyst in a patient with a history of intracranial SAH presenting with unexplained progressive Brown-Séquard syndrome. For cases of multiseptated and long arachnoid cyst, as in our patient, a shunting procedure is a better choice than fenestration alone.

  6. Call for uniform neuropsychological assessment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Swiss recommendations.

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    Zweifel-Zehnder, Antoinette E; Stienen, Martin N; Chicherio, Christian; Studerus-Germann, Aline; Bläsi, Stefan; Rossi, Stefania; Gutbrod, Klemens; Schmid, Nicole; Beaud, Valérie; Mondadori, Christian; Brugger, Peter; Sacco, Leonardo; Müri, Rene; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Keller, Emanuela; Regli, Luca; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi; Raabe, Andreas; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Reinert, Michael; Robert, Thomas; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Monsch, Andreas U

    2015-09-01

    In a high proportion of patients with favorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), neuropsychological deficits, depression, anxiety, and fatigue are responsible for the inability to return to their regular premorbid life and pursue their professional careers. These problems often remain unrecognized, as no recommendations concerning a standardized comprehensive assessment have yet found entry into clinical routines. To establish a nationwide standard concerning a comprehensive assessment after aSAH, representatives of all neuropsychological and neurosurgical departments of those eight Swiss centers treating acute aSAH have agreed on a common protocol. In addition, a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests was selected, optimally suited to the deficits found most prevalent in aSAH patients that was available in different languages and standardized. We propose a baseline inpatient neuropsychological screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) between days 14 and 28 after aSAH. In an outpatient setting at 3 and 12 months after bleeding, we recommend a neuropsychological examination, testing all relevant domains including attention, speed of information processing, executive functions, verbal and visual learning/memory, language, visuo-perceptual abilities, and premorbid intelligence. In addition, a detailed assessment capturing anxiety, depression, fatigue, symptoms of frontal lobe affection, and quality of life should be performed. This standardized neuropsychological assessment will lead to a more comprehensive assessment of the patient, facilitate the detection and subsequent treatment of previously unrecognized but relevant impairments, and help to determine the incidence, characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and the clinical course of these impairments after aSAH.

  7. Diagnosis of a subarachnoid hemorrhage with only mild symptoms using computed tomography in Japan.

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    Tetsuka, Syuichi; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2016-10-18

    Japan is currently an aging society, with a huge proportion of elderly citizens. Consequently, the incidence and severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is predicted to increase in the future. Computed tomography (CT) is very important in the initial diagnosis of SAH. The proportion of hospitals owning CT systems in Japan is around four times greater than the mean number of systems owned by hospitals in other countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Because CT is readily available in Japan, it follows that this technique, with its impressive diagnostic power, might be more in demand in Japan compared to other countries. However, misdiagnosis of SAH is a relatively common problem and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, even in individuals who initially present in good condition. We describe a patient with subtle clinical and CT signs of SAH. A 39-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with a 3-day history of mild headache, shoulder stiffness, and a feeling of dizziness. His physical examination was normal aside from mild neck stiffness. Although CT did not reveal obvious abnormalities, we noticed subtle signs of SAH on CT images, which have been observed in SAH patients with mild symptoms. Thus, we diagnosed our patient with SAH and provided appropriate treatment (aneurysm clipping). Following this, the patient progressed without development of the initial complications, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital without sequela. Thus, physicians should be able to recognize subtle characteristics of CT imaging in case of SAH patients with low grade symptoms, as this can facilitate early diagnosis.

  8. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and the female sex: analysis of risk factors, aneurysm characteristics, and outcomes.

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    Hamdan, Alhafidz; Barnes, Jonathan; Mitchell, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is unclear. Sex may play a role in the outcome of patients with aSAH. The authors retrospectively identified 617 patients with aSAH (April 2005 to February 2010) and analyzed sex differences in risk factors (age, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and family history), admission-related factors (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade and admission delay), aneurysm characteristics (site, side, location, and multiplicity), and outcomes (treatment modalities [coiling/clipping/both/conservative], complications [vasospasm and hydrocephalus], length of stay, and modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months). The female patients with aSAH were older than the male patients (mean age 56.6 vs 51.9 years, respectively, p differences were noted. There were no sex differences in risk factors, admission-related factors, or outcome measures. For both sexes, outcomes varied according to aneurysm location, with odds ratios for a poor outcome of 1.62 (95% CI 0.91-2.86, p = 0.1) for middle cerebral artery, 2.41 (95% CI 1.29-4.51, p = 0.01) for ICA, and 2.41 (95% CI 1.29-4.51, p = 0.006) for posterior circulation aneurysms compared with those for anterior cerebral artery aneurysms. The odds ratio for poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6) in women compared with men after adjusting for significant prognostic factors was 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.11, p > 0.05). The overall outcomes after aSAH between women and men are similar.

  9. Triage Patterns of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Is Referral to a Tertiary Care Center Necessary?

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    Gates, Marcus; Mallory, Grant; Planchard, Ryan; Nothdurft, Georgia; Graffeo, Christopher; Atkinson, John

    2017-04-01

    Isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (iTSAH) in mild head injuries has more evidence that triage to a tertiary care facility, intensive care unit admission, and repeat imaging is not warranted. Certain factors were identified that predict radiographic and clinical progression in hopes of preventing avoidable cost, which occur with transfer and subsequent management. A retrospective analysis identified 67 patients transferred between January 2010 and December 2014 who met inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes assessing neurosurgical intervention, radiographic, and clinical progression were documented. Secondary outcomes included any operative intervention, length of stay, standardized hospital costs, disposition at discharge, and 30-day mortality. The mean age of the cohort was 67.7 ± 16.4 years, with most patients (82.1%) having a Glasgow coma score of 15. Warfarin was used in 10 patients (14.9%), although 55.2% were on an antiplatelet or anticoagulation agent. No patient required neurosurgical intervention. One patient, on clopidogrel (Plavix) and warfarin, neurologically declined with radiographic progression. Older age seem to correlate with radiographic progression (P = 0.05). Dementia (P = 0.05) as well as warfarin use (P = 0.06) correlated with clinical progression. Cost in patients without other injuries was associated with warfarin use (P = 0.0002), injury severity scores (P = 0.01), and initial Glasgow coma score (P = 0.0003) on multivariate analysis. In this series of patients with mild traumatic brain injury, the rate of neurological deterioration due to expansion of iTSAH in patients is low, regardless of the use of antiplatelets/anticoagulants. Triage to a tertiary care facility generally is not warranted and can prove costly to patients with iTSAH without other injures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High Compliance with Scheduled Nimodipine Is Associated with Better Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients Cotreated with Heparin Infusion

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    Aaron Wessell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe sought to determine whether compliance with scheduled nimodipine in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients impacted patient outcomes, with the intent of guiding future nimodipine management in patients who experience nimodipine-induced hypotension.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of 118 consecutive aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with the Maryland Low-Dose IV Heparin Infusion Protocol. Patients were categorized into three independent nimodipine compliance groups: ≥1 dose held, ≥1 dose split, and no missed or split-doses. A split-dose was defined as 30 mg of nimodipine administered every 2 h. Our primary outcome was discharge to home. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of discharge disposition as a function of nimodipine compliance.ResultsOf the 118 patients, 20 (17% received all nimodipine doses, 6 (5% received split-doses but never had a full dose held, and 92 (78% had ≥1 dose held. Forty-five percent of patients were discharged to home, including 75% who received all doses, 67% who received ≥1 split-doses, and 37% with ≥1 missed doses (p = 0.003. Multivariable analysis showed that, along with age and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, nimodipine compliance was an independent predictor of clinical outcome; compared to missing one or more nimodipine doses, full dosing compliance was associated with increased odds of discharge to home (odds ratio 5.20; 95% confidence intervals 1.46–18.56.ConclusionIn aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with modified Fisher scores 2 through 4 who are cotreated with a low-dose heparin infusion, full compliance with nimodipine dosing was associated with increased odds of discharge to home.

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced upregulation of the 5-HT1B receptor in cerebral arteries in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Hoel, Natalie Løvland; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2003-01-01

    OBJECT: Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to reduced blood flow in the brain. Inspired by organ culture-induced changes in the receptor phenotype of cerebral arteries, the authors investigated possible changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) receptor phenotype after...... to the actual development of cerebral vasospasm. Insight into the mechanism of upregulation may provide new targets for developing specific treatment against cerebral vasospasm....... experimental SAH. METHODS: Experimental SAH was induced in rats by using an autologous prechiasmatic injection of arterial blood. Two days later, the middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and basilar artery (BA) were harvested and examined functionally with the aid of a sensitive...

  12. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence...... treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves....... to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The implications of these findings are widespread and suggest that intrinsic brain mechanisms have the potential to worsen the outcome of cerebrovascular episodes or brain trauma...

  13. The curative effect of cinepazide maleate and nimodipine in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    LIU Cui-fen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The curative effect of cinepazide maleate (320 mg/d and nimodipine (30 mg/d on the cerebral vasospasm caused by post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage was compared. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD was used to examine the changes of hemodynamics of middle cerebral artery (MCA before and after treatment. On the 3rd day after treatment the blood flow velocity of MCA in both groups decreased obviously, and the difference between that in pre- and post-treatment was statistically significant (cinepazide maleate group t = 4.364, P = 0.000; nimodipine group t = 7.486, P = 0.000, but there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups (P = 0.124. On the 7th day, the blood flow velocity of 2 groups continously declined (cinepazide maleate group t = 5.793, P = 0.000; nimodipine group t = 10.364, P = 0.000, but there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P = 0.364. No statistically significant difference on total effective rate and adverse drug reaction rate was seen between 2 groups (P > 0.05. It was suggested that cinepazide maleate can replace nimodipine in the treatment for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Continuous Selective Intra-Arterial Application of Nimodipine in Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Stephanie Ott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1–5 days on the intensive care unit. Methods. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Results. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1–3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Conclusion. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies.

  15. Continuous selective intra-arterial application of nimodipine in refractory cerebral vasospasm due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Stephanie; Jedlicka, Sheila; Wolf, Stefan; Peter, Mozes; Pudenz, Christine; Merker, Patrick; Schürer, Ludwig; Lumenta, Christianto Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1-5 days on the intensive care unit. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1-3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies.

  16. Non-Ischemic Cerebral Energy Dysfunction at the Early Brain Injury Phase following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Laurent Carteron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe pathophysiology of early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is still not completely understood.ObjectiveUsing brain perfusion CT (PCT and cerebral microdialysis (CMD, we examined whether non-ischemic cerebral energy dysfunction may be a pathogenic determinant of EBI.MethodsA total of 21 PCTs were performed (a median of 41 h from ictus onset among a cohort of 18 comatose mechanically ventilated SAH patients (mean age 58 years, median admission WFNS score 4 who underwent CMD and brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2 monitoring. Cerebral energy dysfunction was defined as CMD episodes with lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR >40 and/or lactate >4 mmol/L. PCT-derived global CBF was categorized as oligemic (CBF < 28 mL/100 g/min, normal (CBF 28–65 mL/100 g/min, or hyperemic (CBF 69–85 mL/100 g/min, and was matched to CMD/PbtO2 data.ResultsGlobal CBF (57 ± 14 mL/100 g/min and PbtO2 (25 ± 9 mm Hg were within normal ranges. Episodes with cerebral energy dysfunction (n = 103 h of CMD samples, average duration 7.4 h were frequent (66% of CMD samples and were associated with normal or hyperemic CBF. CMD abnormalities were more pronounced in conditions of hyperemic vs. normal CBF (LPR 54 ± 12 vs. 42 ± 7, glycerol 157 ± 76 vs. 95 ± 41 µmol/L; both p < 0.01. Elevated brain LPR correlated with higher CBF (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001.ConclusionCerebral energy dysfunction is frequent at the early phase following poor-grade SAH and is associated with normal or hyperemic brain perfusion. Our data support the notion that mechanisms alternative to ischemia/hypoxia are implicated in the pathogenesis of early brain injury after SAH.

  17. Non-Ischemic Cerebral Energy Dysfunction at the Early Brain Injury Phase following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteron, Laurent; Patet, Camille; Solari, Daria; Messerer, Mahmoud; Daniel, Roy T; Eckert, Philippe; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not completely understood. Using brain perfusion CT (PCT) and cerebral microdialysis (CMD), we examined whether non-ischemic cerebral energy dysfunction may be a pathogenic determinant of EBI. A total of 21 PCTs were performed (a median of 41 h from ictus onset) among a cohort of 18 comatose mechanically ventilated SAH patients (mean age 58 years, median admission WFNS score 4) who underwent CMD and brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) monitoring. Cerebral energy dysfunction was defined as CMD episodes with lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40 and/or lactate >4 mmol/L. PCT-derived global CBF was categorized as oligemic (CBF < 28 mL/100 g/min), normal (CBF 28-65 mL/100 g/min), or hyperemic (CBF 69-85 mL/100 g/min), and was matched to CMD/PbtO2 data. Global CBF (57 ± 14 mL/100 g/min) and PbtO2 (25 ± 9 mm Hg) were within normal ranges. Episodes with cerebral energy dysfunction (n = 103 h of CMD samples, average duration 7.4 h) were frequent (66% of CMD samples) and were associated with normal or hyperemic CBF. CMD abnormalities were more pronounced in conditions of hyperemic vs. normal CBF (LPR 54 ± 12 vs. 42 ± 7, glycerol 157 ± 76 vs. 95 ± 41 µmol/L; both p < 0.01). Elevated brain LPR correlated with higher CBF (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Cerebral energy dysfunction is frequent at the early phase following poor-grade SAH and is associated with normal or hyperemic brain perfusion. Our data support the notion that mechanisms alternative to ischemia/hypoxia are implicated in the pathogenesis of early brain injury after SAH.

  18. Hypothesis on the Role of Cryptochromes in Inflammation and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcome

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    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV in the day–night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24 in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C. Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 − TV mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status. The sleep–wake cycle is absent in these patients and their circadian clock can function properly only by environment light-independent mechanisms. One mechanism involves the circadian clock proteins named cryptochromes (CRYs. CRYs are highly preserved and widespread in the evolutionary tree, are expressed in different cell types in humans [type II CRYs, in two forms: human cryptochrome 1 and 2 (hCRY1 and hCRY2], and in certain species, respond to blue light and play role in magnetoreception. Interestingly, SAH outcome seems to correlate with inflammation, and CRYs decrease inflammatory activity. Our hypothesis derived from these observations is that CRYs modulate the circadian oscillation of temperature even during therapeutic hypothermia and improve outcome in SAH through decrease in inflammation. A strategy to test this hypothesis is to measure periodically during the acute phase of high-grade SAH the level of CRYs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and circulating white blood cells, and to correlate these levels with outcome, TV, ICP24, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in CSF and blood. If this hypothesis is true, the development of therapies targeting inflammation in SAH could take advantage of cryptochrome properties. It has been shown that blue light phototherapy increases the expression of CRYs in blood mononuclear cells in jaundiced

  19. Effects of 14 Versus 21 Days of Nimodipine Therapy on Neurological Outcomes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Susan; Bales, James; Tran, Thao Kim; Korab, Gina; Khandelwal, Nita; Joffe, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Oral nimodipine is standard therapy for patients suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). During a national drug shortage, nimodipine therapy was shortened from a 21-day course to a 14-day course at our institution. The objective of this study was to compare neurological outcomes among patients who had previously received the standard duration of therapy compared with those who received a shortened duration as a result of the national drug shortage. This retrospective cohort study evaluated adult patients receiving nimodipine for aSAH from January 2012 to August 2013. Neurological outcome, graded by Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, was compared between patients receiving a shortened course and those receiving the standard duration of nimodipine. A total of 199 aSAH patients were included in the analysis. There were 164 patients in the standard-duration and 35 patients in the shortened-duration group. Baseline patient severity of illness, assessed by SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score), and severity of aSAH, assessed by Fisher grade, and Hunt and Hess grade scores, did not differ between the treatment groups. A shortened duration of nimodipine was not associated with a higher risk of a poor neurological outcome defined by mRS (odds ratio = 1.85; 95% CI = 0.54-6.32; P = 0.32). Mortality rates were similar between the groups. A 14-day course of nimodipine therapy was not associated with worse neurological outcomes in aSAH patients at one institution. More studies are needed prior to recommending a shortened duration of nimodipine therapy in all aSAH patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n = 23) and WMA- (n = 25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4 ± 1,773.4 vs. 962.9 ± 838.9 pg/mL, p = 0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA.

  1. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Philippe; Graftieaux, Jean Pierre; Sercombe, Richard; Hettler, Dominique; Scherpereel, Bernard; Rousseaux, Pascal

    2010-03-01

    The object of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylprednisolone in reducing symptomatic vasospasm and poor outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Ninety-five patients with proven SAH were recruited into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Starting within 6 hours after angiographic diagnosis of aneurysm rupture, placebo or methylprednisolone, 16 mg/kg, was administered intravenously every day for 3 days to 46 and 49 patients, respectively. Deterioration, defined as development of a focal sign or decrease of more than 1 point on the Glasgow Coma Scale for more than 6 hours, was investigated by using clinical criteria and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, cerebral angiography, or CT when appropriate. The end points were incidence of symptomatic vasospasm (delayed ischemic neurological deficits associated with angiographic arterial narrowing or accelerated flow on Doppler ultrasonography, or both) and outcome 1 year after entry into the study according to a simplified Rankin scale (Functional Outcome Scale [FOS]) in living patients and the Glasgow Outcome Scale in all patients included. All episodes of deterioration and all living patients with a 1-year outcome were assessed by a review committee. In patients treated with methylprednisolone, the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was 26.5% compared with 26.0% in those given placebo. Poor outcomes according to FOS were significantly reduced in the Methylprednisolone Group at 1 year of follow-up; the risk difference was 19.3% (95% CI 0.5-37.9%). The outcome was poor in 15% (6/40) of patients in the Methylprednisolone Group versus 34% (13/38) in the Placebo Group. A safe and simple treatment with methylprednisolone did not reduce the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm but improved ability and functional outcome at 1 year after SAH.

  2. Effect of Intra-Arterial and Intravenous Nimodipine Therapy of Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2017-05-01

    For the treatment and prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the vasodilating agent nimodipine (NDP) is widely employed. This study investigates the effect of NDP on cerebrovascular autoregulation, assessed by pressure reactivity index (PRx), and brain tissue oxygenation (pbrO2) when given continuously intravenously as an intra-arterial bolus or during continuous intra-arterial therapy. Computerized continuous neuromonitoring data (intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP], pbrO2, PRx) of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively evaluated. The effect of NDP on all parameters was compared when applied intra-arterially for the treatment of severe macrovasospasm leading to perfusion deficits as either bolus treatment (n = 111 in 37 patients) or continuous infusion (n = 20 patients) to patients without or with only mild macrovasospasm who received either intravenous NDP or no NDP at all. Compared with patients without treatment, the intravenous application of NDP was associated with a significantly higher PRx. Autoregulation was strongly and long lastingly affected (high PRx) in continuous intra-arterial NDP infusion, accompanied by a sustained improvement of pbrO2. Intra-arterial bolus NDP application resulted as well in a significant increase of pbrO2 and PRx; the induced effect, however, was transient and subsided within 6 hours. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, and CPP were not affected during the monitoring period. The pharmacologically induced alteration of the cerebrovascular autoregulation by NDP correlates with changes of pbrO2 and indicates a beneficial effect on cerebral blood flow if CPP is maintained. This effect is limited to a few hours after bolus treatment and milder for intravenous compared with intra-arterial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Sheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Resveratrol (RSV, a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of digital subtraction angiography in the setting of computed tomographic angiography negative subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Pinakin R; Punia, Vineet; Patel, Tapan D; Duffis, E Jesus; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have documented the high sensitivity of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in detecting a ruptured aneurysm in the presence of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The practice of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) when CTA does not reveal an aneurysm has thus been called into question. We examined this dilemma from a cost-effectiveness perspective by using current decision analysis techniques. A decision tree was created with the use of TreeAge Pro Suite 2012; in 1 arm, a CTA-negative SAH was followed up with DSA; in the other arm, patients were observed without further imaging. Based on literature review, costs and utilities were assigned to each potential outcome. Base-case and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. A Monte Carlo simulation was then conducted by sampling each variable over a plausible distribution to evaluate the robustness of the model. With the use of a negative predictive value of 95.7% for CTA, observation was found to be the most cost-effective strategy ($6737/Quality Adjusted Life Year [QALY] vs $8460/QALY) in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that DSA became the more cost-effective option if the negative predictive value of CTA fell below 93.72%. The Monte Carlo simulation produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $83 083/QALY. At the conventional willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000/QALY, observation was the more cost-effective strategy in 83.6% of simulations. The decision to perform a DSA in CTA-negative SAH depends strongly on the sensitivity of CTA, and therefore must be evaluated at each center treating these types of patients. Given the high sensitivity of CTA reported in the current literature, performing DSA on all patients with CTA negative SAH may not be cost-effective at every institution.

  5. Effects of Radiation Exposure on the Cost-Effectiveness of CT Angiography and Perfusion Imaging in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanidze, J; Charalel, R A; Shuryak, I; Brenner, D; Pandya, A; Kallas, O N; Kesavabhotla, K; Segal, A Z; Simon, M S; Sanelli, P C

    2017-03-01

    CT angiography and perfusion imaging is an important prognostic tool in the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of advanced imaging in patients with SAH, incorporating the risks of radiation exposure from CT angiography and CT perfusion imaging. The risks of radiation-induced brain cancer and cataracts were incorporated into our established decision model comparing the cost-effectiveness of CT angiography and CT perfusion imaging and transcranial Doppler sonography in SAH. Cancer risk was calculated by using National Cancer Institute methodology. The remaining input probabilities were based on literature data and a cohort at our institution. Outcomes were expected quality-adjusted life years gained, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. One-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. CT angiography and CT perfusion imaging were the dominant strategies, resulting in both better health outcomes and lower costs, even when incorporating brain cancer and cataract risks. Our results remained robust in 2-way sensitivity analyses varying the prolonged latency period up to 30 years, with either brain cancer risk up to 50 times higher than the upper 95% CI limit or the probability of cataracts from 0 to 1. Results were consistent for scenarios that considered either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with SAH. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed our findings over a broad range of selected input parameters. While risks of radiation exposure represent an important consideration, CT angiography and CT perfusion imaging remained the preferred imaging compared with transcranial Doppler sonography in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SAH, with improved health outcomes and lower health care costs, even when modeling a significantly higher risk and shorter latency period for both cataract and brain cancer than that currently

  6. Predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with an artificial neural network in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Jesse; Tahir, Rizwan; Abruzzo, Todd; Taylor, John M; Zuccarello, Mario; Vadivelu, Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are increasingly applied to complex medical problem solving algorithms because their outcome prediction performance is superior to existing multiple regression models. ANN can successfully identify symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCV) in adults presenting after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although SCV is unusual in children with aSAH, the clinical consequences are severe. Consequently, reliable tools to predict patients at greatest risk for SCV may have significant value. We applied ANN modeling to a consecutive cohort of pediatric aSAH cases to assess its ability to predict SCV. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients < 21 years of age who presented with spontaneously ruptured, non-traumatic, non-mycotic, non-flow-related intracranial arterial aneurysms to our institution between January 2002 and January 2015. Demographics, clinical, radiographic, and outcome data were analyzed using an adapted ANN model using learned value nodes from the adult aneurysmal SAH dataset previously reported. The strength of the ANN prediction was measured between - 1 and 1 with - 1 representing no likelihood of SCV and 1 representing high likelihood of SCV. Sixteen patients met study inclusion criteria. The median age for aSAH patients was 15 years. Ten underwent surgical clipping and 6 underwent endovascular coiling for definitive treatment. One patient experienced SCV and 15 did not. The ANN applied here was able to accurately predict all 16 outcomes. The mean strength of prediction for those who did not exhibit SCV was - 0.86. The strength for the one patient who did exhibit SCV was 0.93. Adult-derived aneurysmal SAH value nodes can be applied to a simple AAN model to accurately predict SCV in children presenting with aSAH. Further work is needed to determine if ANN models can prospectively predict SCV in the pediatric aSAH population in toto; adapted to include mycotic, traumatic, and flow

  7. Using CT perfusion during the early baseline period in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to assess for development of vasospasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanelli, Pina C. [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States); Jou, Austin; Reichman, Melissa; Greenberg, Edward; Cayci, Zuzan [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gold, Rachel [New York College of Osteopathic Medicine, 1 Northern Boulevard, P.O. Box 8000, Old Westbury, NY (United States); John, Majnu [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States); Ugorec, Igor [Atlantic Neurosurgical Specialists, Department of Neurology, Morristown, NJ (United States); Rosengart, Axel [New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate computed tomography perfusion (CTP) during admission baseline period (days 0-3) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (A-SAH) for development of vasospasm. Retrospective analysis was performed on A-SAH patients from Dec 2004 to Feb 2007 with CTP on days 0-3. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were analyzed for qualitative perfusion deficits. Quantitative analysis was performed using region-of-interest placement to obtain mean CTP values. Development of vasospasm was determined by a multistage hierarchical reference standard incorporating both imaging and clinical criteria. Student's t test and threshold analysis were performed. Seventy-five patients were included, 37% (28/75) were classified as vasospasm. Mean CTP values in vasospasm compared to no vasospasm groups were: CBF 31.90 ml/100 g/min vs. 39.88 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05), MTT 7.12 s vs. 5.03 s (P < 0.01), and CBV 1.86 ml/100 g vs. 2.02 ml/100 g (P = 0.058). Fifteen patients had qualitative perfusion deficits with 73% (11/15) developed vasospasm. Optimal threshold for CBF is 24-25 mL/100 g/min with 91% specificity and 50% sensitivity, MTT is 5.5 s with 70% specificity and 61% sensitivity and CBV is 1.7 mL/100 g with 89% specificity and 36% sensitivity. These initial results support our hypothesis that A-SAH patients who develop vasospasm may demonstrate early alterations in cerebral perfusion, with statistically significant CBF reduction and MTT prolongation. Overall, CTP has high specificity for development of vasospasm. Future clinical implications include using CTP during the baseline period for early identification of A-SAH patients at high risk for vasospasm to prompt robust preventative measures and treatment. (orig.)

  8. Restrictions and satisfaction with participation in patients who are ADL-independent after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenges Wajer, Irene M C; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Greebe, Paut; Post, Marcel W M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2017-03-01

    Most survivors of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are ADL-independent, but they often experience restrictions in (social) activities and, therefore, cannot regain their pre-morbid level of participation. In this study, participation restrictions and participation satisfaction experienced after aSAH were assessed. Moreover, possible predictors of participation after aSAH were examined to identify goals for rehabilitation. Participation restrictions experienced by a series of 67 patients visiting our SAH outpatient clinic were assessed as part of standard clinical care using the Participation Restrictions and Satisfaction sections of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation Participation (USER-Participation) 6 months after aSAH. Cognitive impairments, cognitive and emotional complaints, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, assessed 10 weeks after aSAH, were examined as possible predictors of participation by means of linear regression analysis. Although patients were ADL-independent, 64% reported one or more participation restrictions and 60% were dissatisfied in one or more participation domains. Most commonly experienced restrictions concerned housekeeping, chores in and around the house, and physical exercise. Dissatisfaction was most often reported about outdoor activities, mobility, and work/housekeeping. The main predictors of participation restrictions as well as satisfaction with participation were cognitive complaints (subjective) (β = -.30, p = .03 and β = -.40, p = .002, respectively) and anxiety (β = .32, p = .02 and β = -.34, p = .007, respectively). Almost two-thirds of the ADL-independent patients experienced problems of participation 6 months after aSAH. Cognitive complaints (subjective) and anxiety symptoms showed the strongest association with participation restrictions and satisfaction. Cognitive rehabilitation and anxiety-reducing interventions may help to optimize rehabilitation and increase

  9. Terson syndrome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-its relation to intracranial pressure, admission factors, and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswig, Holger; Epprecht, Lorenz; Valmaggia, Christophe; Leschka, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Stienen, Martin Nikolaus

    2016-06-01

    A large number of reports have not been able to clarify the pathophysiology of Terson syndrome (TS) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Prospective single-center study on aSAH patients. Fundoscopic and radiological signs of TS were assessed. The opening intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients who required a ventriculostomy was recorded with a manometer. Six out of 36 included patients had TS (16.7 %), which was associated with unfavorable admission scores. Twenty-nine patients (80.5 %) required ventriculostomy; TS was associated with higher ICP (median, 40 vs. 15 cm cmH2O, p = .003); all patients with TS had pathological ICP values of >20 cmH2O. Patients with a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery complex were ten times as likely to suffer from TS (OR 10.0, 95 % CI 1.03-97.50). Detection of TS on CT had a sensitivity of 50 %, a specificity of 98.4 %, a positive predictive value of 83.3 %, and a negative predictive value of 92.4 %. Mortality was 45 times as high in patients with TS (OR 45.0, 95 % CI 3.86-524.7) and neurologic morbidity up until 3 months post-aSAH was significantly higher in patients with TS (mRS 4-6; 100 vs. 17 %; p = .001). Our findings demonstrate an association between raised ICP and the incidence of TS. TS should be ruled out in aSAH patients presenting comatose or with raised ICP to ensure upfront ophthalmological follow-up. In alert patients without visual complaints and a TS-negative CT scan, the likelihood for the presence of TS is very low.

  10. A case of acute spinal subdural hematoma with subarachnoid hemorrhage: Rapid spontaneous remission, relapse, and complete resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michito Namekawa

    2017-06-01

    In addition to rostrocaudal spreading of bloody components in the subdural space, rupture of the hematoma into the subarachnoid space must have released pressure, compressing the spinal cord. In this case report, we also describe the serial MRI studies and note the limitations of the resolution of spinal MRI in the acute phase.

  11. High Plasma Levels of Neuropeptide Y Correlate With Good Clinical Outcome But are not Correlated to Cerebral Blood Flow or Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Stavngaard, Trine; Jessing, Iben R

    2016-01-01

    and a role of NPY in the development of DCI has been proposed. This study investigated the relationship between plasma-NPY and cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vasospasm, DCI, and clinical outcome. METHODS: In 90 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, NPY was measured in peripheral blood days 2 to 11. Any...... reduced plasma-NPY and DCI reached borderline statistical significance (P=0.05). Increased levels of NPY measured on days 2 to 4 were correlated to good outcome (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in peripheral blood were not supportive of a causal relationship between NPY secretion and DCI. Although...... high levels of plasma-NPY were correlated with good clinical outcome, NPY did not show promise as a clinically useful biomarker....

  12. ERK1/2 inhibition attenuates cerebral blood flow reduction and abolishes ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beg, Saema A S; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob A; Vikman, Petter J

    2006-01-01

    in conjunction with and after the induced SAH in rats. At 2 days after the SAH, cerebral arteries were harvested for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and analysis of contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1; ET(A) and ET(B) receptor agonist) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5......Upregulation of endothelin B (ET(B)) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1B)) receptors via transcription has been found after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and this is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal......-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). In the present study, we hypothesized that inhibition of ERK1/2 alters the ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor upregulation and at the same time prevents the sustained cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction associated with SAH. The ERK1/2 inhibitor SB386023-b was injected intracisternally...

  13. Focal spinal arachnoiditis increases subarachnoid space pressure: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilston, L E; Fletcher, D F; Stoodley, M A

    2006-07-01

    Enlarging fluid filled cystic cavitations form within the spinal cord in up to 28% of spinal cord injured patients. These post-traumatic syrinxes can cause neurological deterioration and current treatment results are unsatisfactory. Localized scar tissue (arachnoiditis) within the subarachnoid space at the level of injury has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of syrinx formation. This study tests the hypothesis that pressure pulses in the subarachnoid space are accentuated adjacent to regions of arachnoiditis, which may drive fluid into the spinal cord and contribute to syrinx formation. An axisymmetric, cylindrical computational fluid dynamics model was developed to represent the subarachnoid space under normal physiological conditions and in the presence of arachnoiditis. Cerebrospinal fluid flow into the model was estimated from magnetic resonance imaging flow studies. Arachnoiditis was modelled as a porous obstruction in the subarachnoid space. Peak fluid pressures were higher above the obstruction than in the absence of obstruction. The peak pressures were strongly dependent on the permeability of the obstruction. Elevations in subarachnoid space pressures due to arachnoiditis may facilitate fluid flow into the spinal cord, enhancing syrinx formation. This suggests that it may be worthwhile to investigate strategies that inhibit arachnoiditis or minimize systolic pressure peaks for treating or preventing syringomyelia.

  14. Functional analysis of Pro-inflammatory properties within the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Ulf C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To functionally characterize pro-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive properties of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in vivo and in vitro. Methods The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 10 patients suffering from SAH was applied to the transparent skinfold chamber model in male NMRI mice which allows for in vivo analysis of the microcirculatory response to a superfusat. Microvascular diameter changes were quantified and the numbers of rolling and sticking leukocytes were documented using intravital multifluorescence imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory properties of CSF were assessed in vitro using a monocyte transendothelial migration assay. Results CSF superfusion started to induce significant vasoconstriction on days 4 and 6 after SAH. In parallel, CSF superfusion induced a microvascular leukocyte recruitment, with a significant number of leukocytes rolling (day 6 and sticking (days 2-4 to the endothelium. CSF of patients presenting with cerebral edema induced breakdown of blood vessel integrity in our assay as evidenced by fluorescent marker extravasation. In accordance with leukocyte activation in vivo, significantly higher in vitro monocyte migration rates were found after SAH. Conclusion We functionally characterized inflammatory and vasoactive properties of patients' CSF after SAH in vivo and in vitro. This pro-inflammatory milieu in the subarachnoid space might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of early and delayed brain injury as well as vasospasm development following SAH.

  15. Prevalence and Characterization of ECG Abnormalities After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Maurits D. R.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van der Bilt, Ivo A. C.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; de Gans, Koen; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are well known in ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, these changes have only rarely been investigated systematically in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Detection of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; A Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Mohammad; Farahangiz, Siamak; Yadollahi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) compared to intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detection of intracranial aneurysms in those suffering from acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: This observational diagnostic study was performed at a tertiary teaching hospital and reference center in Shiraz, Iran. We included 55 patients who presented to our center with the diagnosis of acute SAH. All the patients underwent MRA and DSA during their hospital course in order to detect the intracranial aneurysms. The time-of-flight MRA protocol was used and the results were compared to the results of DSA as the gold standard test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for MRA. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.3 ± 7.9 including 26 (47.3%%) men and 29 (52.7%) women. In 46 patients, 51 intracranial aneurysms were diagnosed by DSA (5 patients had two aneurysms). No evidence of intracranial aneurysm was found in 9 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRA correctly identified 42 of the 51 aneurysms (sensitivity 82%) and missed 9 small aneurysms (less than 10 mm). MRA revealed one false- positive finding, resulting in a specificity of 88.8%. The PPC and NPV for MRA were 97% and 47%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy per aneurysm was 0.83 for MRA. Conclusion: High sensitivity and specificity of MRA compared to DSA in diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms in those with acute SAH indicate that MRA could be reliably used as a diagnostic tool for this purpose. However we cannot recommend it as a routine substitute for DSA before surgery. PMID:27162847

  17. Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials.

  18. Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of CT-angiography in the diagnosis of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbarli, Ramazan; Shah, Mukesch; Hippchen, Beate; Velthoven, Vera van [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg/Breisgau (Germany); Taschner, Christian [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kaier, Klaus [University Hospital of Freiburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    CT-angiography gains an increasing role in the initial diagnosis of patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the implementation of CT-angiography does not always exclude the necessity of conventional angiography. Our objective was to determine the practical utility and cost-effectiveness of CT-angiography. All patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our university hospital after implementation of CT-angiography between June 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012 were retrospectively analyzed in regard to factors of treatment flow, radiation exposure, harms of contrast medium loading, and diagnostic costs. A control group of the same size was assembled from previously admitted SAH patients, who did not undergo pretreatment CT-angiography. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. The final analysis consisted of 93 patients in each group. Of 93 patients with pretreatment CT-angiography, 74 had to undergo conventional angiography for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. CT-angiography had significant impact on the reduction of collective effective radiation dose by 4.419 mSv per person (p = 0.0002) and was not associated with additional harms. Despite the significantly earlier detection of aneurysms with CT-angiography (p < 0.0001), there were no significant differences in the timing of aneurysm repair and duration of ICU and general hospital stay. There was an increase of diagnostic costs - the cost-effectiveness analysis showed, however, that benefits of CT-angiography in respect to radiation exposure and risk of conventional angiography-related complications justify the additional costs of CT-angiography. Although the implementation of CT-angiography in SAH diagnosis cannot completely replace conventional angiography, it can be approved in regard to radiation hygiene and cost-effectiveness. (orig.)

  19. Initial hyperglycemia as an indicator of severity of the ictus in poor-grade patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, O; Becker, R; Benes, L; Wallenfang, T; Bertalanffy, H

    2000-06-01

    An association between hyperglycemia and outcome in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been sporadically reported. Our hypothesis was that hyperglycemia is a sign of central metabolic disturbance linked with specific appearances on computerized tomography (CT) scans reflecting different degrees of corresponding brain injury. The admission plasma glucose level, initial CT findings, and outcome after 6 months were analysed in a cohort of 99 patients with SAH in Hunt & Hess Grade IV or V. The CT scans were quantitatively assessed for subarachnoid blood, intracerebral hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, midline shift and compression of the perimesencephalic cisterns. These findings were combined to determine a three-point CT severity score. All patients showed elevated (>5.8 mmol/l) plasma glucose levels on admission. Mortality among 33 patients with glucose concentration below 9.0 mmol/l was 33.3%, 71.1% for the 45 patients with glucose level between 9.0 and 13.0 mmol/l, and 95.2% for the 21 patients with concentration above 13.0 mmol/l (P<0.0001). Glucose level was higher in Grade V than in Grade IV patients (mean+/-SD) (11.8+/-3.2 vs 9.8+/-2.9 mmol/l; P=0.0012). Patients with mild CT findings (n=10) had the lowest glucose level (8.9+/-1.8 mmol/l; P=0.0082), whereas patients with severe findings (n=56) had the highest glucose (11.4+/-3.5 mmol/l; P=0.011). Despite association with clinical grade and extent of CT findings, logistic multiple regression revealed the admission plasma glucose level to be an independent prognosticator of outcome. The prognostic potential of the initial plasma glucose level may be beneficial in management protocols of poor-grade SAH patients.

  20. Case report: profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Sana; Mazer, C David; Baker, Andrew J; Choi, Mabel; Hare, Gregory M T

    2006-07-01

    Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings, including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case of profound hypotension, refractory to inotropic and vasopressor therapy following an iv infusion of labetalol. Initiation of an iv labetalol infusion resulted in good blood pressure control in a patient suffering from a Fisher grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage with an initial Glascow coma scale of 14/15 and mild hydrocephalus. Progressive deterioration of neurological symptoms and evidence of worsening hydrocephalus preceded the sudden development of profound hypotension (60/35 mmHg) and bradycardia with a minimum heart rate of 40 beats.min(-1). Initial resuscitative efforts included administration of intravascular fluid, hypertonic saline, atropine, adrenalin (more than 10 mg in divided doses) and noradrenalin. These measures restored the blood pressure to 80/45 with a HR of 98 beats.min(-1). Intraoperative placement of an intraventricular drain released cerebrospinal fluid under pressure with an initial intracranial pressure of 15 cm H(2)O. A combination of adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine and vasopressin infusions were required to restore the blood pressure to 130/65 mmHg after an additional two hours. All inotropic and vasopressor support was weaned off after the 14th hr (about two drug half-lives). The patient was awake and responsive the following day, with no obvious neurological consequences. No evidence of neurological injury, drug administration error or myocardial dysfunction was documented. The episode of profound hypotension which occurred after initiating a labetolol infusion required maximal combined vasopressor therapy to restore the blood pressure suggesting that this patient demonstrated an extreme sensitivity to labetalol. Combination therapy with adrenergic and nonadrenergic agonists may be required for optimal treatment

  1. Effect of Fasudil Hydrochloride, a Protein Kinase Inhibitor, on Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemic Symptoms After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Results of a Randomized Trial of Fasudil Hydrochloride Versus Nimodipine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHAO, Jizong; ZHOU, Dingbiao; GUO, Jing; REN, Zyuan; ZHOU, Liangfu; WANG, Shuo; XU, Bainan; WANG, Renzhi

    2006-01-01

    ... with ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This randomized open trial with nimodipine as the control included 72 patients who underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm of Hunt and Hess grades I to IV...

  2. Intracranial subarachnoid fat and hemorrhage secondary to sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres Polo, J; Álvarez Martínez, M V; Sánchez Mateos, D

    We describe a case of fat droplets and blood in the cerebral subarachnoid space secondary in a patient with a complex sacral fracture without associated cranial trauma, a few days after admission. To our knowledge, there is only one published case with similar findings and without any other underlying lesion as cause. We explain the differences in the mechanism of production between this direct fat embolism and brain fat embolism syndrome, which is an intravascular embolism with different radiological appearance. The most important features of sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation are described. Finally, this entity should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of the few causes of fat in the subarachnoid space. In the context of high-energy trauma fractures of the sacrum or spine must be ruled out as a potential cause of this uncommon intracranial finding. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of short-term ε-aminocaproic acid treatment on patients undergoing endovascular coil embolization following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Kulwin, Charles; Bohnstedt, Bradley N; Radmand, Golnar; Sethia, Rishabh; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hendricks, Benjamin K; Leipzig, Thomas; Payner, Troy D; Shah, Mitesh V; Scott, John; DeNardo, Andrew; Sahlein, Daniel; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal rebleeding before definitive obliteration of the aneurysm is a cause of mortality and morbidity. There are limited data on the role of short-term antifibrinolytic therapy among patients undergoing endovascular intervention. METHODS All consecutive patients receiving endovascular therapy for their ruptured saccular aneurysm at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011 were included in this study. These patients underwent endovascular coiling of their aneurysm within 72 hours of admission. In patients receiving ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the EACA administration was continued until the time of the endovascular procedure. Complications and clinical outcomes of endovascular treatment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were compared between EACA-treated and untreated patients. RESULTS During the 12-year study period, 341 patients underwent endovascular coiling. Short-term EACA treatment was administered in 146 patients and was withheld in the other 195 patients. EACA treatment did not change the risk of preinterventional rebleeding in this study (OR 0.782, 95% CI 0.176-3.480; p = 0.747). Moreover, EACA treatment did not increase the rate of thromboembolic events. On the other hand, patients who received EACA treatment had a significantly longer duration of hospital stay compared with their counterparts who were not treated with EACA (median 19 days, interquartile range [IQR] 12.5-30 days vs median 14 days, IQR 10-23 days; p < 0.001). EACA treatment was associated with increased odds of shunt requirement (OR 2.047, 95% CI 1.043-4.018; p = 0.037) and decreased odds of developing cardiac complications (OR 0.138, 95% CI 0.031-0.604; p = 0.009) and respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.471, 95% CI 0.239-0.926; p = 0.029). Short-term EACA treatment did not affect the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge, 6 months, or 1 year following discharge. CONCLUSIONS In this study, short-term EACA treatment in patients who suffered from aSAH and

  4. Early release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Wu, Wei; Hu, Yang-Chun; Li, Hua; Zhang, Dingding; Li, Song; Li, Wei; Li, Wei-De; Ma, Biao; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2014-06-12

    Translocation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from nucleus could trigger inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 up-regulates inflammatory response in sepsis as a late mediator. However, little was known about its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage-inducible inflammation, especially in the early stage. This study aims to identify whether HMGB1 translocation occurred early after SAH and also to clarify the potential role of HMGB1 in brain injury following SAH. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 2 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2. SAH groups suffered experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by injection of 0.3 ml autoblood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Rats injected by recombinant HMGB1(rHMGB1) solution were divided into four groups according to different time points. Cultured neurons were assigned into control group and four hemoglobin (Hb) incubated groups. Mixed glial cells were cultured and stimulated in medium from neurons incubated by Hb. HMGB1 expression is measured by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit P65 and inflammatory factor Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Our results demonstrated HMGB1 translocation occurred as early as 2 h after experimental SAH with mRNA and protein level increased. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated cytosolic HMGB1 was mainly located in neurons while translocated HMGB1 could also be found in some microglia. After subarachnoid injection of rHMGB1, NF-κB, downstream inflammatory response and cleaved caspase-3 were up-regulated in the cortex compared to the saline control group. In-vitro, after Hb incubation, HMGB1 was also rapidly released from neurons to medium. Incubation with medium from neurons up-regulated IL-1β in mixed glial

  5. Risk factors for meningitis after craniotomy in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to anterior circulation aneurysms rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Miki; Sato, Kenichi; Endo, Hidenori; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative meningitis is a serious complication occurring after neurosurgical interventions. However, few investigations have focused specifically on the risk factors that predispose patients to meningitis after major craniotomy. This study identified the risk factors for postoperative meningitis after neurovascular surgery, and investigated the relationship between postoperative meningitis and clinical outcome. A total of 148 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping surgery through a pterional approach within 72 h between January 2007 and September 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment strategy of our hospital for patients with SAH was based on the findings of digital subtraction angiography in the acute phase. Coil embolization was firstly considered, and clipping through craniotomy if indicated was performed as soon as possible. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered before beginning craniotomy and for at least 3 days after. Hydrocortisone was used to prevent hyponatremia if allowed by the medical condition of the patient. Intrathecal administration of nicardipine hydrochloride was given if required for vasospasm treatment. Meningitis was clinically diagnosed from the blood samplings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations. Data were collected from the electronic and paper charts. The status of modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2 at discharge was defined as favorable outcome. A total of 14 patients (9.5%) had meningitis during this study period. Symptomatic vasospasm was detected in 33 patients (22.3%), and 12 patients (8.1%) had permanent neurological deficits caused by vasospasm. Overall, 109 patients (73.6%) had favorable outcome. The longer duration of drainage placement, presence of CSF leakage, and intrathecal administration of vasodilatory agent showed significantly higher incidence of postoperative meningitis in univariate analysis (p=0.0093, 0.0017, and 0.0090, respectively). The proportion of

  6. The safety of vasopressor-induced hypertension in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with coexisting unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Buckley, Robert T; Indrakanti, Santoshi S; Turkmani, Ali H; Oh, Gerald; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fargen, Kyle M; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Naidech, Andrew M; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Hoh, Brian L; Bendok, Bernard R; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-10-01

    Vasopressor-induced hypertension (VIH) is an established treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who develop vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). However, the safety of VIH in patients with coincident, unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms is uncertain. This retrospective multiinstitutional study identified 1) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who required VIH therapy (VIH group), and 2) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who did not require VIH therapy (non-VIH group). All patients had previously undergone surgical or endovascular treatment for the presumed ruptured aneurysm. Comparisons between the VIH and non-VIH patients were made in terms of the patient characteristics, clinical and radiographic severity of SAH, total number of aneurysms, number of ruptured/unruptured aneurysms, aneurysm location/size, number of unruptured and unprotected aneurysms during VIH, severity of vasospasm, degree of hypervolemia, and degree and duration of VIH therapy. For the VIH group (n = 176), 484 aneurysms were diagnosed, 231 aneurysms were treated, and 253 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected during 1293 total days of VIH therapy (5.12 total years of VIH therapy for unruptured, unprotected aneurysms). For the non-VIH group (n = 73), 207 aneurysms were diagnosed, 93 aneurysms were treated, and 114 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected. For the VIH and non-VIH groups, the mean sizes of the ruptured (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.27) and unruptured (3.4 ± 0.2 vs 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, respectively; p = 0.40) aneurysms did not differ. The authors observed 1 new SAH from a previously unruptured, unprotected aneurysm in each group (1 of 176 vs 1 of 73 patients; p = 0.50). Baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. While the degree of hypervolemia was similar between the VIH and non-VIH patients

  7. Effects of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hye Myung; Lee, Sung Jae; Chung, Yong Gu

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study, the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program was applied to patients presenting with depression and anxiety after surgery from spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the effects were assessed. Methods The subjects were patients admitted for cerebral aneurysm rupture and treated by means of surgery from March to December, 2007. More than 6 months had passed after surgery, without any special lesions showing up on computed tomography (CT), and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was 5 points. Among patients with anxiety and depression symptoms, 11 patients completed the program. The MBSR program was conducted once a week, 2.5 hours each, for 8 weeks. The evaluation criteria were : 1) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): it measures the type and level of depression, 2) the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory : the anxiety state of normal adults without mental disorder, and 3) Heart Rate Variability (HRV) : the influence of the autonomous nervous system on the sinoarterial node varies continuously in response to the change of the internal/external environment. Results The BDI value was decreased from 18.5 ± 10.9 to 9.5 ± 7.1 (p = 0.013) : it was statistically significant, and the depression level of patients was lowered. The state anxiety was decreased from 51.3 ± 13.9 to 42.3 ± 15.2; the trait anxiety was reduced from 50.9 ± 12.3 to 41.3 ± 12.8, and a borderline significant difference was shown (p = 0.091, p = 0.056). In other words, after the treatment, although it was not statistically significant, a decreased tendency in anxiety was shown. In the HRV measurement, standard deviation normal to normal (SDNN), square root of the square root of the mean sum of squared differences between adjacent normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), and total power (TP) showed significant increase, Physical Stress Index (PSI) showed a significant reduction, and thus an improvement in the homeostatic control mechanism of the autonomic nervous system

  8. Local delivery of nimodipine by prolonged-release microparticles-feasibility, effectiveness and dose-finding in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Daniel; Perrin, Jason; Eicker, Sven; Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Kamp, Marcel Alexander; Heiroth, Hi-Jae; Bege, Nadia; Macht, Stephan; Frauenknecht, Katrin; Sommer, Clemens; Kissel, Thomas; Steiger, Hans-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of locally applied nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles on angiographic vasospasm and secondary brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). 70 male Wistar rats were categorized into three groups: 1) sham operated animals (control), 2) animals with SAH only (control) and the 3) treatment group. SAH was induced using the double hemorrhage model. The treatment group received different concentrations (20%, 30% or 40%) of nimodipine microparticles. Angiographic vasospasm was assessed 5 days later using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Histological analysis of frozen sections was performed using H&E-staining as well as Iba1 and MAP2 immunohistochemistry. DSA images were sufficient for assessment in 42 animals. Severe angiographic vasospasm was present in group 2 (SAH only), as compared to the sham operated group (pnimodipine microparticles concentration (40%) as well as group 1 (sham) demonstrated the largest intracranial artery diameters. Variation in vessel calibers, however, did not result in differences in Iba-1 or MAP2 expression, i.e. in histological findings for secondary brain injury. Local delivery of high-dose nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles at high concentration resulted in significant reduction in angiographic vasospasm after experimental SAH and with no histological signs for matrix toxicity.

  9. Local delivery of nimodipine by prolonged-release microparticles-feasibility, effectiveness and dose-finding in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hänggi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of locally applied nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles on angiographic vasospasm and secondary brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. METHODS: 70 male Wistar rats were categorized into three groups: 1 sham operated animals (control, 2 animals with SAH only (control and the 3 treatment group. SAH was induced using the double hemorrhage model. The treatment group received different concentrations (20%, 30% or 40% of nimodipine microparticles. Angiographic vasospasm was assessed 5 days later using digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Histological analysis of frozen sections was performed using H&E-staining as well as Iba1 and MAP2 immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: DSA images were sufficient for assessment in 42 animals. Severe angiographic vasospasm was present in group 2 (SAH only, as compared to the sham operated group (p<0.001. Only animals within group 3 and the highest nimodipine microparticles concentration (40% as well as group 1 (sham demonstrated the largest intracranial artery diameters. Variation in vessel calibers, however, did not result in differences in Iba-1 or MAP2 expression, i.e. in histological findings for secondary brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: Local delivery of high-dose nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles at high concentration resulted in significant reduction in angiographic vasospasm after experimental SAH and with no histological signs for matrix toxicity.

  10. Local Delivery of Nimodipine by Prolonged-Release Microparticles—Feasibility, Effectiveness and Dose-Finding in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Daniel; Perrin, Jason; Eicker, Sven; Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Kamp, Marcel Alexander; Heiroth, Hi-Jae; Bege, Nadia; Macht, Stephan; Frauenknecht, Katrin; Sommer, Clemens; Kissel, Thomas; Steiger, Hans-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose To investigate the effect of locally applied nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles on angiographic vasospasm and secondary brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods 70 male Wistar rats were categorized into three groups: 1) sham operated animals (control), 2) animals with SAH only (control) and the 3) treatment group. SAH was induced using the double hemorrhage model. The treatment group received different concentrations (20%, 30% or 40%) of nimodipine microparticles. Angiographic vasospasm was assessed 5 days later using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Histological analysis of frozen sections was performed using H&E-staining as well as Iba1 and MAP2 immunohistochemistry. Results DSA images were sufficient for assessment in 42 animals. Severe angiographic vasospasm was present in group 2 (SAH only), as compared to the sham operated group (pnimodipine microparticles concentration (40%) as well as group 1 (sham) demonstrated the largest intracranial artery diameters. Variation in vessel calibers, however, did not result in differences in Iba-1 or MAP2 expression, i.e. in histological findings for secondary brain injury. Conclusions Local delivery of high-dose nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles at high concentration resulted in significant reduction in angiographic vasospasm after experimental SAH and with no histological signs for matrix toxicity. PMID:23049732

  11. Heparin and Heparin-Derivatives in Post-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Brain Injury: A Multimodal Therapy for a Multimodal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik G. Hayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacologic efforts to improve outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH remain disappointing, likely owing to the complex nature of post-hemorrhage brain injury. Previous work suggests that heparin, due to the multimodal nature of its actions, reduces the incidence of clinical vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia that accompany the disease. This narrative review examines how heparin may mitigate the non-vasospastic pathological aspects of aSAH, particularly those related to neuroinflammation. Following a brief review of early brain injury in aSAH and heparin’s general pharmacology, we discuss potential mechanistic roles of heparin therapy in treating post-aSAH inflammatory injury. These roles include reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury, preventing leukocyte extravasation, modulating phagocyte activation, countering oxidative stress, and correcting blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Following a discussion of evidence to support these mechanistic roles, we provide a brief discussion of potential complications of heparin usage in aSAH. Our review suggests that heparin’s use in aSAH is not only safe, but effectively addresses a number of pathologies initiated by aSAH.

  12. A 'Benign' Sphenoid Ridge Meningioma Manifesting as a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Tumor Invasion into the Middle Cerebral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Nae Jung; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Sun Yong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Meningioma rarely manifests as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and invasion directly into a major intracranial artery is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, meningioma presenting with an SAH associated with major intracranial arterial invasion has never been reported. We present a case of sphenoid ridge meningotheliomatous meningioma manifesting as an SAH without pathologically atypical or malignant features, due to direct tumor invasion into the middle cerebral artery

  13. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Tushar B; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many café-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key

  14. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p < 0.001). Patients with brain edema on admission or during hospitalization (N = 20; 80 %) and patients developing DCI (N = 5; 20 %) had higher brain extracellular taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p < 0.01; Wald = 10.1, df = 1, p = 0.001, respectively) even after adjusting for disease severity and CMD-probe location. There was no correlation between parenteral taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p < 0.001), lactate (r = 0.56, p < 0.02), pyruvate (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), potassium (r = 0.37, p = 0.01), and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (r = 0.24, p = 0.02) was found. Significantly higher CMD-taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a

  15. Outcome after Hunt and Hess Grade V subarachnoid hemorrhage: a comparison of pre-coiling era (1980-1995) versus post-ISAT era (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczalla, Juergen; Seifert, Volker; Beck, Juergen; Güresir, Erdem; Vatter, Hartmut; Raabe, Andreas; Marquardt, Gerhard

    2017-02-24

    OBJECTIVE Outcome analysis of comatose patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still lacking. The aims of this study were to analyze the outcome of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH and to compare outcomes in the current period with those of the pre-International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) era as well as with published data from trials of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. METHODS The authors analyzed cases of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH from 1980-1995 (referred to in this study as the earlier period) and 2005-2014 (current period) and compared the results for the 2 periods. The outcomes of 257 cases were analyzed and stratified on the basis of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores obtained 6 months after SAH. Outcomes were dichotomized as favorable (mRS score of 0-2) or unfavorable (mRS score of 3-6). Data and number needed to treat (NNT) were also compared with the results of decompressive craniectomy (DC) trials for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. RESULTS Early aneurysm treatment within 72 hours occurred significantly more often in the current period (in 67% of cases vs 22% in earlier period). In the earlier period, patients had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate (83% vs 39% in the current period) and 6-month mortality rate (94% vs 49%), and no patient (0%) had a favorable outcome, compared with 23% overall in the current period (p Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH compared with the earlier period. Independent predictors for favorable outcome were younger age and bilateral intact corneal reflexes. Despite a high rate of cerebral infarction (65%) in the current period, 29.5% of the patients who received treatment for their aneurysms during the current era (2005-2014) had a favorable outcome. However, careful individual decision making is essential in these cases.

  16. Choque cardiogênico associado à hemorragia subaracnóidea Cardiogenic shock associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Adrieno Westphal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Complicações sistêmicas são vistas frequentemente em indivíduos acometidos por hemorragia subaracnóidea. Dentre estas alterações podem ocorrer anormalidades eletrocardiográficas que simulam miocardiopatia isquêmica que podem ou não estar associadas com disfunção miocárdica. O objetivo deste é relatar um caso de associação de hemorragia subaracnóidea com disfunção miocárdica e choque cardiogênico. Mulher de 45 anos foi internada com quadro de coma secundário a hemorragia subaracnóidea. À admissão apresentava Glasgow = 7, Hunt-Hess = 5 e classificação tomográfica de Fisher = 3. O aneurisma cerebral de artéria comunicante anterior evidenciado pela arteriografia cerebral foi embolizado com sucesso no segundo dia de internação. Evoluiu com dispnéia e infiltrado pulmonar difuso. Havia alteração da repolarização ventricular em parede lateral, aumento da CK-MB (36 U/L e hipotensão. O índice cardíaco de 2,03 L/min/m², a resistência vascular sistêmica 3728 dynes.seg/cm5/m², e a irresponsividade a volume evidenciavam o padrão hemodinâmico de choque cardiogênico. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo era de 39%. A cineangiocoronariografia não apresentava lesões coronarianas obstrutivas. Após 6 dias a paciente foi extubada e ao oitavo dia foi possível a retirada completa da dobutamina. A fração de ejeção passou a 65%. Sucessivos exames de Doppler transcraniano não apresentaram vasoespasmo. A paciente recebeu alta da unidade de terapia intensiva no décimo quarto dia. Pacientes com hemorragia subaracnóidea podem apresentar disfunção ventricular e choque cardiogênico, aumentando o risco de isquemia cerebral. O diagnóstico e a otimização hemodinâmica são essenciais para minimizar os riscos de vasoespasmo e isquemia cerebral.Systemic complications are frequent in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Among these complications, electrocardiographic abnormalities simulating ischemic

  17. Indications for CSF shunting in normal pressure hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage with lateral ventricular size change on cine-MR

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    Fujitsuka, Mitsuyuki [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    To clarify the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the author investigated changes in the pulsatile brain motions during a cardiac cycle in 17 cases with ventriculomegaly following SAH on cardiac gated cine MR images comparing with those in 50 normal adults. In 15 of these seventeen cases, the lateral ventricles not only constricted immediately following the R-wave related to brain expansion but also expanded paradoxically over the initial size during a cardiac diastole. These patterns were different from those of normal adults, and eleven of them showed excellent response to CSF shunting. Theses findings in ventricular motion during a cardiac cycle indicate that the forceful intraventricular CSF flows and stagnancy expand the ventricular walls causing compression of the surrounding brain against the skull. In the remaining two, the lateral ventricles only constricted immediately following the R-wave and the ventricular size change was similar to those of normal adults, and they were diagnosed as not requiring CSF shunting. Assessing ventricular size change on cine-MR enables non-invasive differentiation of NPH from other form of ventriculomegaly, and evaluation of the benefit of CSF shunting is also possible by this technique preoperatively. (author)

  18. External validation of the Practical Risk Chart for the prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Paul M; Chua, Michelle H; Harrigan, Mark R; Fisher, Winfield S; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Griessenauer, Christoph J

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs in approximately 30% of patients. The Practical Risk Chart was developed to predict DCI based on admission characteristics; the authors seek to externally validate and critically appraise this prediction tool. METHODS A prospective cohort of aSAH patients was used to externally validate the previously published Practical Risk Chart. The model consists of 4 variables: clinical condition on admission, amount of cisternal and intraventricular blood on CT, and age. External validity was assessed using logistic regression. Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS In a cohort of 125 patients with aSAH, the Practical Risk Chart adequately predicted DCI, with an AUC of 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.77). Clinical grade on admission and amount of intracranial blood on CT were the strongest predictors of DCI and clinical vasospasm. The best-fit model used a combination of the Hunt and Hess grade and the modified Fisher scale to yield an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI 0.675-0.85) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.602-0.8) for the prediction of DCI and clinical vasospasm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The Practical Risk Chart adequately predicts the risk of DCI following aSAH. However, the best-fit model represents a simpler stratification scheme, using only the Hunt and Hess grade and the modified Fisher scale, and produces a comparable AUC.

  19. Efficacy and safety of fasudil in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: final results of a randomized trial of fasudil versus nimodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizong; Zhou, Dingbiao; Guo, Jing; Ren, Zuyuan; Zhou, Liangfu; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Bainan; Zhao, Kuiming; Wang, Renzhi; Mao, Ying; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Fasudil is believed to be at least equally effective as nimodipine for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury in patients undergoing surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report the final results of a randomized, open trial to compare the efficacy and safety of fasudil with nimodipine. A total of 63 patients undergoing surgery for SAH received fasudil and 66 received nimodipine between 1998 and 2004. Symptomatic vasospasm, low density areas on computed tomography (CT), clinical outcomes, and adverse events were all recorded, and the results were compared between the fasudil and nimodipine groups. Absence of symptomatic vasospasm, occurrence of low density areas associated with vasospasm on CT, and occurrence of adverse events were similar between the two groups. The clinical outcomes were more favorable in the fasudil group than in the nimodipine group (p = 0.040). The proportion of patients with good clinical outcome was 74.5% (41/55) in the fasudil group and 61.7% (37/60) in the nimodipine group. There were no serious adverse events reported in the fasudil group. The present results suggest that fasudil is equally or more effective than nimodipine for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury in patients undergoing surgery for SAH.

  20. Early ambulation produces favorable outcome and nondemential state in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients older than 70 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Norihito; Matsuda, Naoya; Satou, Junko; Nakano, Takahiro; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) cases in patients older than 70 years of age who underwent aneurysm surgery. We report the influence of early ambulation on outcome in advanced-age SAH. From 2005 through 2010, 71 aneurysmal SAH cases whose Hunt-Hess grades ranged from 1 to 3 were included. All cases underwent clip ligation or coil embolization. Male to female ratio was 8/63; median age was 76 years (range, 70-87). We routinely have patients become ambulatory the day after surgery. The ambulation date was used to determine four groupings: 0-5 days, 6-10 days, 11-15 days, and 16 days and longer. We analyzed the relationship between ambulation date and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) or dementia at 30 days after the SAH. Favorable outcome was defined as good recovery and moderate disability according to the GOS. Dementia was screened by use of the revised-Hasegawa dementia scale. The chi-square test was used and a P Early ambulation positively correlated with favorable GOS and postoperative nondemential state. Elderly SAH patients with good Hunt-Hess grades should have a clip ligation or endovascular coiling. Early ambulation produces favorable outcome and a nondemential state in elderly SAH patients. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Subdural Hematoma and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Ruptured Cortical Artery Aneurysm: Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Ahmad Shekarchizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, due to ruptured cortical aneurysm. To our knowledge, extremely rare cases of this sort have been reported so far. A 23-year-old male patient without previous trauma presented with severe headache and rapidly decreasing level of consciousness to decerebrate status. Computed tomography (CT scan has demonstrated an ASDH together with SAH. Hematoma has immediately been evacuated without any evaluation by angiography. After evacuation of the thick subdural clot, a 10-mm aneurysm was revealed on a precentral artery of frontal cortex, which was ligated. However, after 35 days the patient discharged with left side hemiparesis and dysphasia, and just after several months of admission he got symptom free. Ruptured cortical aneurysm should be considered as one of the causes of spontaneous ASDH. Vascular anomaly investigations are suggested for these cases, thus CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography has to be considered if clinical condition allows.

  2. NADH fluorescence imaging and the histological impact of cortical spreading depolarization during the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohisa; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Nishihiro, Shingo; Shinji, Yukei; Takasugi, Yuji; Haruma, Jun; Hiramatsu, Masafumi; Kawase, Hirokazu; Sato, Sachiko; Mizoue, Ryoichi; Takeda, Yoshimasa; Sugiu, Kenji; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Date, Isao

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) has been observed during the early phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in clinical settings, the pathogenicity of CSD is unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of loss of membrane potential on neuronal damage during the acute phase of SAH. METHODS Twenty-four rats were subjected to SAH by the perforation method. The propagation of depolarization in the brain cortex was examined by using electrodes to monitor 2 direct-current (DC) potentials and obtaining NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) fluorescence images while exposing the parietal-temporal cortex to ultraviolet light. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was monitored in the vicinity of the lateral electrode. Twenty-four hours after onset of SAH, histological damage was evaluated at the DC potential recording sites. RESULTS Changes in DC potentials (n = 48 in total) were sorted into 3 types according to the appearance of ischemic depolarization in the entire hemisphere following induction of SAH. In Type 1 changes (n = 21), ischemic depolarization was not observed during a 1-hour observation period. In Type 2 changes (n = 13), the DC potential demonstrated ischemic depolarization on initiation of SAH and recovered 80% from the maximal DC deflection during a 1-hour observation period (33.3 ± 15.8 minutes). In Type 3 changes (n = 14), the DC potential displayed ischemic depolarization and did not recover during a 1-hour observation period. Histological evaluations at DC potential recording sites showed intact tissue at all sites in the Type 1 group, whereas in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups neuronal damage of varying severity was observed depending on the duration of ischemic depolarization. The duration of depolarization that causes injury to 50% of neurons (P 50 ) was estimated to be 22.4 minutes (95% confidence intervals 17.0-30.3 minutes). CSD was observed in 3 rats at 6 sites in the Type 1 group 5.1 ± 2.2 minutes after

  3. Pterostilbene Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Nox2-Related Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixiao; Zhao, Lei; Yue, Liang; Wang, Bodong; Li, Xia; Guo, Hao; Ma, Yihui; Yao, Chen; Gao, Li; Deng, Jianping; Li, Lihong; Feng, Dayun; Qu, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Pterostilbene (PTE), one of the polyphenols present in plants such as blueberries and grapes, has been suggested to have various effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-cancer effects. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe neurological event known for its high morbidity and mortality. Recently, early brain injury (EBI) has been reported to play a significant role in the prognosis of patients with SAH. The present study aimed to investigate whether PTE could attenuate EBI after SAH was induced in C57BL/6 J mice. We also studied possible underlying mechanisms. After PTE treatment, the neurological score and brain water content of the mice were assessed. Oxidative stress and neuronal injury were also evaluated. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity was assessed using western blot analysis. Our results indicated that PTE treatment reduces the SAH grade, neurological score, and brain water content following SAH. PTE treatment also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PTE alleviated the oxidative stress following SAH as evidenced by the dihydroethidium staining, superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde content, 3-nitrotyrosie and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and gp91phox and 4-hydroxynonenal expression levels. Additionally, PTE treatment reduced neuronal apoptosis. In conclusion, our study suggests that PTE attenuates EBI following SAH possibly via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nox2-related oxidative stress.

  4. Phosphorylation of Akt by SC79 Prevents Iron Accumulation and Ameliorates Early Brain Injury in a Model of Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Shuangying Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Akt may alleviate early brain injury (EBI following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. This study is undertaken to determine whether iron metabolism is involved in the beneficial effect of Akt activation after SAH. Therefore, we used a novel molecule, SC79, to activate Akt in an experimental Sprague–Dawley rat model of SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: sham, SAH, SAH + vehicle, SAH + SC79. The results confirmed that SC79 effectively enhanced the defense against oxidative stress and alleviated EBI in the temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, we found that phosphorylation of Akt by SC79 reduced cell surface transferrin receptor-mediated iron uptake and promoted ferroportin-mediated iron transport after SAH. As a result, SC79 administration diminished the iron content in the brain tissue. Moreover, the impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis was recovered and loss of the activities of the Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes were regained, indicating that injured mitochondrial functions are restored to healthy levels. These findings suggest that disrupted iron homeostasis could contribute to EBI and Akt activation may regulate iron metabolism to relieve iron toxicity, further protecting neurons from EBI after SAH.

  5. Increased ICP promotes CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of neuronal NOS at Ser⁸⁴⁷ in the hippocampus immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kazushige; Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Hara, Masahito; Aoyama, Masahiro; Takayasu, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-08-07

    Early brain injury has recently been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) has been shown to phosphorylate neuronal NOS (nNOS) at Ser(847), resulting in a reduction in nNOS activity. In this study, we revealed chronological changes in the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus and cortex immediately after SAH. In a rat single-hemorrhage model of SAH, the hippocampus and adjacent cortex were collected up to 24h after SAH. Samples from rats that were not injected with blood were used as controls. NOS was partially purified from the crude samples using ADP-agarose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that nNOS phosphorylated (p-nNOS) at Ser(847) was significantly increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, at 1h after SAH compared with that resulting from the control treatment. Immunoreactivity of p-nNOS at Ser(847) was observed in interneurons of the hippocampus at 1h after SAH. Injection of saline instead of blood also significantly induced p-nNOS at Ser(847) levels in the hippocampus at 1h after injection. The colocalization of CaMKIIα and nNOS was transiently increased in the hippocampus at 0.5h after SAH. Our data suggest that immediately after SAH, an increase in intracranial pressure might induce transient cerebral ischemia, potentially promoting the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) by CaMKIIα in the hippocampus. The activation of p-nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus may alleviate ischemic insults immediately after SAH to exert a neuroprotective effect against early brain injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

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    Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of oxyhemoglobin in vitro in cerebral arteries from normal animals and animals subject to subarachnoid hemorrhage or indomethacin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Dinh, Y R; Roche, S; Debdi, M; Seylaz, J; Sercombe, R

    1998-04-20

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes functionally relevant perturbations of cyclooxygenase activity in cerebral arteries. Four groups of rabbits were formed: (I) controls; (II) sham injected animals (2 ml physiological solution in the cisterna magna); (III) SAH group (2 ml blood in cisterna magna); (IV) indomethacin group (4 mg/kg i.v. 30 min before sacrifice). Animals of groups II and III were used 3 days after injection. The basilar arteries (BAs) were removed and perfused at a constant flow rate (after electrocoagulation of all branches) in vitro in a 2-ml bath at 37 degrees C. After 45 min equilibration, the arteries were subjected to a fixed protocol: first, in Krebs solution, contraction to increasing extraluminal concentrations of histamine (HA), followed by a single maximal extraluminal concentration of acetylcholine (ACh); then, after 30 min rest, the same tests were repeated in oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) solution (extraluminal, 10-4 M). Perfusion pressure changes reflected changes in artery resistance. Although oxyHb alone increased pressure, indicating contraction of the arteries, its most important effect was to increase contraction to HA (in groups II, III, and IV but not controls) and to strongly inhibit ACh-induced relaxation in the SAH (-66.3%) and indomethacin (-46.9%) groups (III and IV) but not the control (-27.6%) group. The latter result suggests that a relaxing factor released by ACh in oxyHb solution in the control group was not present in groups III and IV. In conjunction with the results on HA, which is known to normally release prostacyclin (PGI2) from the endothelium, it is concluded that PGI2 was not or little released from arteries of the SAH group when they bathed in oxyHb solution. Alternatively, in the SAH group constrictor prostaglandins were released in response to HA and ACh in place of PGI2. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Prolonged Cerebral Circulation Time Is the Best Parameter for Predicting Vasospasm during Initial CT Perfusion in Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Patients.

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    Chun Fu Lin

    Full Text Available We sought to imitate angiographic cerebral circulation time (CCT and create a similar index from baseline CT perfusion (CTP to better predict vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.Forty-one SAH patients with available DSA and CTP were retrospectively included. The vasospasm group was comprised of patients with deterioration in conscious functioning and newly developed luminal narrowing; remaining cases were classified as the control group. The angiography CCT (XA-CCT was defined as the difference in TTP (time to peak between the selected arterial ROIs and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS. Four arterial ROIs were selected to generate four corresponding XA-CCTs: the right and left anterior cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRA2 and XA-CCTLA2 and right- and left-middle cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRM2 and XA-CCTLM2. The CCTs from CTP (CT-CCT were defined as the differences in TTP from the corresponding arterial ROIs and the SSS. Correlations of the different CCTs were calculated and diagnostic accuracy in predicting vasospasm was evaluated.Intra-class correlations ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. The correlations of XA-CCTRA2, XA-CCTRM2, XA-CCTLA2, and XA-CCTLM2 with the corresponding CT-CCTs were 0.64, 0.65, 0.53, and 0.68, respectively. All CCTs were significantly prolonged in the vasospasm group (5.8-6.4 s except for XA-CCTLA2. CT-CCTA2 of 5.62 was the optimal cut-off value for detecting vasospasm with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity 82.4.CT-CCTs can be used to interpret cerebral flow without deconvolution algorithms, and outperform both MTT and TTP in predicting vasospasm risk. This finding may help facilitate management of patients with SAH.

  9. The Development of Neuroendocrine Disturbances over Time: Longitudinal Findings in Patients after Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Anna Kopczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may still develop or resolve months or even years after the trauma. We investigated a cohort of n = 168 patients (81 patients after TBI and 87 patients after SAH in whom hormone levels had been determined at various time points to assess the course and pattern of hormonal insufficiencies. Data were analyzed using three different criteria: (1 patients with lowered basal laboratory values; (2 patients with lowered basal laboratory values or the need for hormone replacement therapy; (3 diagnosis of the treating physician. The first hormonal assessment after a median time of three months after the injury showed lowered hormone laboratory test results in 35% of cases. Lowered testosterone (23.1% of male patients, lowered estradiol (14.3% of female patients and lowered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I values (12.1% were most common. Using Criterion 2, a higher prevalence rate of 55.6% of cases was determined, which correlated well with the prevalence rate of 54% of cases using the physicians’ diagnosis as the criterion. Intraindividual changes (new onset insufficiency or recovery were predominantly observed for the somatotropic axis (12.5%, the gonadotropic axis in women (11.1% and the corticotropic axis (10.6%. Patients after TBI showed more often lowered IGF-I values at first testing, but normal values at follow-up (p < 0.0004. In general, most patients remained stable. Stable hormone results at follow-up were obtained in 78% (free thyroxine (fT4 values to 94.6% (prolactin values.

  10. The Association Between Spontaneous Hyperventilation, Delayed Cerebral Ischemia, and Poor Neurological Outcome in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Williamson, Craig A; Sheehan, Kyle M; Tipirneni, Renuka; Roark, Christopher D; Pandey, Aditya S; Thompson, B Gregory; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and associations of spontaneous hyperventilation in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are unknown. Because hyperventilation decreases cerebral blood flow, it may exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and worsen neurological outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospectively collected cohort of SAH patients at an academic medical center. Spontaneous hyperventilation was defined by PaCO2 7.45 and subdivided into moderate and severe groups. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with and without spontaneous hyperventilation were compared using χ (2) or t tests. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of moderate and severe hyperventilation with DCI and discharge neurological outcome. Of 207 patients, 113 (55 %) had spontaneous hyperventilation. Spontaneously hyperventilating patients had greater illness severity as measured by the Hunt-Hess, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and SAH sum scores. They were also more likely to develop the following complications: pneumonia, neurogenic myocardial injury, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), radiographic vasospasm, DCI, and poor neurological outcome. In a multivariable logistic regression model including age, gender, WFNS, SAH sum score, pneumonia, neurogenic myocardial injury, etiology, and SIRS, only moderate [odds ratio (OR) 2.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.62] and severe (OR 3.12, 95 % CI 1.30-7.49) spontaneous hyperventilation were associated with DCI. Severe spontaneous hyperventilation (OR 4.52, 95 % CI 1.37-14.89) was also significantly associated with poor discharge outcome in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Spontaneous hyperventilation is common in SAH and is associated with DCI and poor neurological outcome.

  11. CT perfusion during delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: distinction between reversible ischemia and ischemia progressing to infarction

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    Cremers, Charlotte H.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, PO Box 85500, Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vos, Pieter C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, PO Box 85500, Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) can be reversible or progress to cerebral infarction. In patients with a deterioration clinically diagnosed as DCI, we investigated whether CT perfusion (CTP) can distinguish between reversible ischemia and ischemia progressing to cerebral infarction. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients, we included those with DCI, CTP on the day of clinical deterioration, and follow-up imaging. In qualitative CTP analyses (visual assessment), we calculated positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) with 95 % confidence intervals (95%CI) of a perfusion deficit for infarction on follow-up imaging. In quantitative analyses, we compared perfusion values of the least perfused brain tissue between patients with and without infarction by using receiver-operator characteristic curves and calculated a threshold value with PPV and NPV for the perfusion parameter with the highest area under the curve. In qualitative analyses of 33 included patients, 15 of 17 patients (88 %) with and 6 of 16 patients (38 %) without infarction on follow-up imaging had a perfusion deficit during clinical deterioration (p = 0.002). Presence of a perfusion deficit had a PPV of 71 % (95%CI: 48-89 %) and NPV of 83 % (95%CI: 52-98 %) for infarction on follow-up. Quantitative analyses showed that an absolute minimal cerebral blood flow (CBF) threshold of 17.7 mL/100 g/min had a PPV of 63 % (95%CI: 41-81 %) and a NPV of 78 % (95%CI: 40-97 %) for infarction. CTP may differ between patients with DCI who develop infarction and those who do not. For this purpose, qualitative evaluation may perform marginally better than quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy presenting with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and interval development of neurological deficits: a case report and review of literature.

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    Yang, Li; Bai, Harrison X; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Yanqiao; Tan, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebrovascular disease that occurs during the postpartum period. It is characterized by reversible multifocal vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. We report a patient with PCA proven by cerebral angiography that revealed multifocal, segmental narrowing of the cerebral arteries and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient suddenly deteriorated with focal neurological deficits on the 5 th day of hospitalization. She was treated with calcium-channel blockers and monitored with daily transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Her symptoms gradually improved and she was discharged on the 11 th day of hospitalization. At 1-month follow-up, patient was completely symptom-free with no neurological deficits.

  13. Intracranial extravasation of contrast medium during diagnostic CT angiography in the initial evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage: report of 16 cases and review of the literature

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    Kobata, Hitoshi; Sugie, Akira; Yoritsune, Erina; Miyata, Tomo; Toho, Taichiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) is increasingly used in the initial evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is a risk of aneurysm re-rupture in the hyperacute phase. We sought to clarify the incidence of re-rupture and characterize the subgroup in which extravasation of contrast media was seen on 3D-CTA. Methods We examined the records of 356 consecutive patients presenting to our institution with non-traumatic SAH between October 2003 and December 2...

  14. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-06-06

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit.

  15. Intracranial biodegradable silica-based nimodipine drug release implant for treating vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage in an experimental healthy pig and dog model.

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    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Simola, Outi; Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant.

  16. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

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    Janne Koskimäki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant.

  17. Temporal evolution of vasospasm and clinical outcome after intra-arterial vasodilator therapy in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Daftari Besheli

    Full Text Available Intra-arterial (IA vasodilator therapy is one of the recommended treatments to minimize the impact of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm refractory to standard management. However, its usefulness and efficacy is not well established. We evaluated the effect IA vasodilator therapy on middle cerebral artery blood flow and on discharge outcome. We reviewed records for 115 adults admitted to Neurointensive Care Unit to test whether there was a difference in clinical outcome (discharge mRS in those who received IA infusions. In a subset of 19 patients (33 vessels treated using IA therapy, we tested whether therapy was effective in reversing the trends in blood flow. All measures of MCA blood flow increased from day -2 to -1 before infusion (maximum Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV 232.2±9.4 to 262.4±12.5 cm/s [p = 0.02]; average PSV 202.1±8.5 to 229.9±10.9 [p = 0.02]; highest Mean Flow Velocity (MFV 154.3±8.3 to 172.9±10.5 [p = 0.10]; average MFV 125.5±6.3 to 147.8±9.5 cm/s, [p = 0.02] but not post-infusion (maximum PSV 261.2±14.6 cm/s [p = .89]; average PSV 223.4±11.4 [p = 0.56]; highest MFV 182.9±12.4 cm/s [p = 0.38]; average MFV 153.0±10.2 cm/s [p = 0.54]. After IA therapy, flow velocities were consistently reduced (day X infusion interaction p<0.01 for all measures. However, discharge mRS was higher in IA infusion group, even after adjusting for sex, age, and admission grades. Thus, while IA vasodilator therapy was effective in reversing the vasospasm-mediated deterioration in blood flow, clinical outcomes in the treated group were worse than the untreated group. There is need for a prospective randomized controlled trial to avoid potential confounding effect of selection bias.

  18. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: epidemiological studies on aetiology and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Risselada (Roelof)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSubarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space ‒ the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. SAH occurs spontaneously or can be caused by traumatic injury of the head. Spontaneous SAH is caused by rupture of an intracranial

  19. Tert-butylhydroquinone alleviates early brain injury and cognitive dysfunction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: role of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway.

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    Zhong Wang

    Full Text Available Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ, an Nrf2 activator, has demonstrated neuroprotection against brain trauma and ischemic stroke in vivo. However, little work has been done with respect to its effect on early brain injury (EBI after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. At the same time, as an oral medication, it may have extensive clinical applications for the treatment of SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of tBHQ on EBI, secondary deficits of learning and memory, and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in a rat SAH model. SD rats were divided into four groups: (1 Control group (n=40; (2 SAH group (n=40; (3 SAH+vehicle group (n=40; and (4 SAH+tBHQ group (n=40. All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once in 20 s. In SAH+tBHQ group, tBHQ was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, changes in cognition and memory were investigated in a Morris water maze. Results shows that administration of tBHQ after SAH significantly ameliorated EBI-related problems, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB impairment, clinical behavior deficits, cortical apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. Learning deficits induced by SAH was markedly alleviated after tBHQ therapy. Treatment with tBHQ markedly up-regulated the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GSTα1 after SAH. In conclusion, the administration of tBHQ abated the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction in this SAH model. Its action was probably mediated by activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway.

  20. Long-term reintegration and quality of life in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a good neurological outcome: findings after more than 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Bengt; Kronvall, Erik; Säveland, Hans; Brandt, Lennart; Nilsson, Ola G

    2017-04-28

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to examine long-term quality of life (QOL) and reintegration in patients with good neurological recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and SAH of unknown cause (SAH NUD). METHODS A long-term follow-up was performed in an original cohort of 113 individuals who had suffered SAH (93 with aSAH and 20 with SAH NUD) between 1977 and 1984. Self-reporting assessments, performed > 20 years after the bleeding episode, included the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS), Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and Reintegration to Normal Living (RNL) index, along with information on sleep disturbances and work status. RESULTS Seventy-one survivors were identified. Questionnaires were returned by 67 individuals who had suffered SAH 20-28 years previously. The QOL was rated in the normal range for both the QOLS score (aSAH 90.3 vs SAH NUD 88.6) and the PGWB index (aSAH 105.9 vs SAH NUD 102.8). Ninety percent of patients had returned to their previous employment. Complete RNL was reported by 40% of patients with aSAH and by 46% of patients with SAH NUD; mild to moderate readjustment difficulties by 55% and 38%, respectively; and severe difficulties by 5% of patients with aSAH and 15% of patients with SAH NUD. Self-rated aspects of cognition, mood, and energy resources in addition resulted in a substantial drop in overall reintegration. Sleep disturbances were reported by 26%. CONCLUSIONS More than half of patients with SAH who had early good neurological recovery experienced reintegration difficulties after > 20 years. However, the general QOL was not adversely affected by this impairment. Inability to return to work after SAH was associated with lower QOLS scores. Sleep disturbances were associated with lower PGWB scores.

  1. The dilemma of complicated shunt valves: How to identify patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who will benefit from a simple valve?

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    Christian von der Brelie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sophisticated shunt valves provide the possibility of pressure adjustment and antisiphon control but have a higher probability of valve dysfunction especially in a posthemorrhagic setting. The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical outcome of patients with shunt dependent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in order to identify patients who would benefit from a simple differential pressure valve. Methods: From 2000 to 2013, 547 patients with aneurysmatic SAH were treated at our institution, 114 underwent ventricular shunt placement (21.1%. 47 patients with available pre- and post-operative computed tomography scans, and an available follow-up of minimum 6 months were included. In order to measure the survival time which a nonprogrammable differential pressure valve would have had in an individual patient we defined the initial equalized shunt survival time (IESS. IESS is the time until surgical revisions of fixed differential pressure or flow-regulated valves for the treatment of over- or under-drainage as well as re-programming of adjustable valves due to over- or under-drainage. Results: Twenty patients were treated with fixed differential pressure valves, 15 patients were treated with flow-regulated valves, and 12 underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt placement with differential pressure valves assisted by a gravitational unit. Patients who reacted with remarkable changes of the ventricular width after the insertion of external ventricular drainage (EVD, before shunt placement, showed a significantly longer IESS. Conclusions: Decline of the ventricular width after EVD placement was a predictor for successful VP shunt therapy in the later course of disease. Possibly, this could allow identifying patients who benefit from a simple differential pressure valve or a flow-regulated valve, and thus could possibly avoid valve-associated complications of a programmable valve in the

  2. MR-angiography allows defining severity grades of cerebral vasospasm in an experimental double blood injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model in rats.

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    Vesna Malinova

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been used for the detection of cerebral vasospasm (VSP related infarction in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH in rats. Conventional angiography is generally used to visualize VSP, which is an invasive technique with a possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the validity of MR-angiography (MRA in detecting VSP and its feasibility to define VSP severity grades after eSAH in rats.SAH was induced using the double-hemorrhage model in 12 rats. In two rats, saline solution was injected instead of blood (sham group. MR was performed on day 1, 2 and on day 5. T1-, T2-, T2*-weighted and time-of-flight MR sequences were applied, which were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Vessel narrowing of 25-50% was defined as mild, 50-75% as moderate and >75% as severe VSP.We performed a total of 34 MRAs in 14 rats. In 14 rats, MRA was performed on day 2 and day 5. In six rats MRA was additionally performed on day1 before the blood injection. A good visualization of cerebral vessels was possible in all cases. No VSP was seen in the sham group neither on day 2 nor on day 5. We found vasospasm on day 2 in 7 of the 14 rats (50% whereas all 7 rats had mild and one rat had additionally moderate and severe vasospasm in one vessel, respectively. On day 5 we found vasospasm in 8 of the 14 rats (60% whereas 4 rats had severe vasospasm, 1 rat had moderate vasospasm and 3 rats demonstrated mild vasospasm. In 4 of the 14 rats (30% an ischemic lesion was detected on day 5. Three of these rats had severe vasospasm and one rat had mild vasospasm. Severe vasospasm on day 5 was statistically significant correlated with the occurrence of ischemic lesions (Fisher's Exact test, OR 19.5, p = 0.03.MRA is a noninvasive diagnostic tool, which allows a good visualization of the cerebral vasculature and provides reproducible results concerning the detection of VSP and the differentiation into three severity

  3. Improvement in neurological outcome and abolition of cerebrovascular endothelin B and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B receptor upregulation through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Rasmussen, Marianne Nelly Paola

    2011-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a major cause of death and disability. It has been hypothesized that cerebrovascular upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors is a key step in the development of delayed cerebral ischemia. Upregulation of endothelin-B (ET(B)) ...

  4. Incorporating a Modified Graeb Score to the Modified Fisher Scale for Improved Risk Prediction of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Matt E; Jaja, Blessing N R; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-04-17

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Risk scales to predict DCI have scarcely been evaluated for predictive accuracy. Accounting for volume of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in the modified Fischer scale (mFS) may improve its predictive accuracy. To compare the modified Graeb score (mGS) to the mFS for risk prediction of DCI, and to investigate whether incorporating an mGS cut-point into the mFS could improve predictive accuracy. This retrospective analysis was based on the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial cohort. IVH volume was quantified with the mGS. The relation of the mGS to DCI was evaluated using logistic regression and the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). An optimized mGS cut-point was identified using the Youden index, and was incorporated into the mFS to dichotomize grades 2 and 4. The AUC was used to compare the predictive performance of the mGS with that of the mFS, and to assess whether there was an improvement in DCI prediction after creation of the dichotomized scale. The mFS and the mGS had similar discrimination for DCI (AUC: 0.608 vs 0.618; P = .79). A new scale including both the mFS and mGS significantly improved the AUC compared to the mFS (AUC: 0.647 vs 0.608; P = .022). The mFS and the mGS have similar prognostic utility. Accounting for IVH volume improved prediction of DCI by the mFS.

  5. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA) : a randomized single- blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, C. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Slooter, A. J. C.

    RationaleDelayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article

  6. Subarachnoid hemorrhage enhances endothelin receptor expression and function in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Hoel, Natalie Løvland; Zhou, Mingfang

    2003-01-01

    into the prechiasmatic cistern. After 2 days, the middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, and posterior communicating artery were harvested. Pharmacological studies were performed in vitro, and levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) were quantified in real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays....... RESULTS: In the middle cerebral artery and basilar artery from rats with induced SAH, enhanced biphasic responses to ET-1 were observed. The -log(50% effective concentration) value for the high-affinity phase was approximately 12, compared with approximately 8.5 for sham-operated animals....... At a concentration of ET-1 of 10(-9) mmol/L (approximately equal to the physiological concentration of ET-1 in the plasma), submaximal contractions of 50 to 75% of the contraction obtained through stimulation with 60 mmol/L K(+) were now observed. Quantitative mRNA studies with the same arteries demonstrated...

  7. Short- and long-term outcomes in non-aneurysmal non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Aida; López-Cuevas, Rogelio; Tembl, Jose Ignacio; Fortea, Gerardo; Górriz, David; Aparici, Fernando; Parkhutik, Vera

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the short- and long-term prognosis in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal non-perimesencephalic SAH (Na-NPM-SAH). Based on admission CT-scan, SAH was categorized as perimesencephalic (PM) or non-perimesencephalic (NPM). Based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) results, patients were classified as normal DSA (Na-SAH) or aneurysmal SAH (aSAH). Between 1997 and 2010, 67 of 571 patients with non-traumatic SAH (11.7%) suffered from non-aneurysmal non-perimesencephalic SAH. Retrospective analyses of the 67 patients were undertaken, and compared with the aneurysmal SAH group. Long-term follow-up was assessed. The cohort consisted of 67 Na-NPM-SAH patients, mean age 54.8 years (range: 21-84), 56.7% male. Acute phase: 10.4% mortality and 3% rebleeding (two patients) during the acute phase. Long-term: extensive follow-up was possible in all except one of the survivors at discharge. Mortality was 6.6% during the 510 patient-years follow-up period (median follow-up time per patient, 8.95 years); rebleeding rate was 0-1.6%. An aneurysmal source was found in 13% of patients who underwent a second angiography. Aneurysmal SAH: 312 patients, with confirmed aneurysm by angiography. The mortality rate for Na-NPM-SAH during the acute phase was 10.4%, vs. 20% for aneurysmal SAH in the general database, p = 0.049. Na-NPM-SAH patients without an identifiable bleeding source on initial angiography might have a more benign short- and long-term prognosis than aneurysmal SAH patients. Our study confirms an important diagnostic advantage of a second arteriography. Still, despite the major concern of an undetected aneurysm, the long-term rebleeding rate was low in this subgroup of patients.

  8. Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Two Important Italian Political Leaders: A Paradigm of Ethical and Technological Evolution of Neurosurgery During the Past Half-Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longatti, Pierluigi; Giombelli, Ermanno; Pavesi, Giacomo; Carteri, Alessandro; Feletti, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    For a curious and extraordinary coincidence, 5 of the 7 most relevant leaders of the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, which was established in 1921, has been the biggest Communist Party in Western Countries) suffered a cerebral stroke. Cerebrovascular diseases afflicted also Stalin and Lenin, and a number of Presidents of the United States. We present the stories of 2 important Italian political leaders who shared both the leadership role of the major left Italian Party and the dramatic experience of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Retracing their medical incidents, separated by 50 years of history, we show how a fatal medical disease has become neurosurgical and successfully cured thanks to the advances of neurosurgery, neuroradiology, and hospital organization. A neurologic disease that was disgraceful 50 years ago has lost any disquieting and embarrassing significance in the present time to the light of evolution of vascular neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of magnesium treatment and glucose levels on delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage : A substudy of the Magnesium in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage trial (MASH-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijenaar, Jolien F.; Dorhout Mees, Sanne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818828; Algra, Ale|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X; van den Bergh, Walter M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272886157; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnesium treatment did not improve outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the Magnesium in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage II trial. We hypothesized that high glucose levels may have offset a potential beneficial effect to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia.

  10. Apolipoprotein E ε4: A Possible Risk Factor of Intracranial Pressure and White Matter Perfusion in Good-Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients at Early Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Hua; Qin, Xing-Hu; Pang, Jin-Wei; Wu, Yue; Dong, Jin-Hu; Huang, Chang-Ren; Wan, Wei-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Li-Gang; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating and complicated disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that genetic susceptibility may play an important role in the outcome of a given individual with aSAH. This study evaluates the potential association in effects of the APOE allele on the early brain injury (EBI) in light of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion disorders in a consecutive series of non-comatose Chinese patients with aSAH. A total of 122 patients with aSAH (54 males and 68 females) were enrolled in this study. Demographic and clinical data were collected. We measured ICP before microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling during the first 72 h after aneurysm rupture. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) examination in patients was performed before treatment. The distributions of APOE genotypes and alleles matched Hardy-Weinberg law (p > 0.05). In this study, 68 patients (55.7%) had a normal ICP, whereas 54 (44.3%) had an elevated ICP. Fourteen of 21 patients with APOE ε4 had an elevated ICP, which was significantly different from those without APOE ε4 (p = 0.03). The patients with the ε4 allele had a higher incidence of elevated ICP [p = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.481-15.432, odds ratio = 4.780] than those without this allele. For CTP measurements, a lower mean cerebral blood flow (difference, -4.74; 95% CI, 0.53-8.94 s, p = 0.03), longer mean transit time (difference, 0.47; 95% CI, -0.87 to -0.78, p = 0.02), and time-to-peak (difference, 2.29; 95% CI, -3.64 to -0.93 s, p = 0.02) were observed in patients with ε4 allele than in those without in the internal capsule regions. In conclusion, the APOE ε4 allele predisposes patients to elevated ICP and perfusion disorders in white matter regions during the first 72 h after aSAH. The presence of an APOE ε4 allele plays an important role in the EBI response to aSAH.

  11. Roles of Pannexin-1 Channels in Inflammatory Response through the TLRs/NF-Kappa B Signaling Pathway Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

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    Ling-Yun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Pannexin-1 channels, as a member of gap junction proteins located on the plasma membrane, releases ATP, ions, second messengers, neurotransmitters, and molecules up to 1 kD into the extracellular space, when activated. Previous studies identified that the opening of Pannexin-1 channels is essential for cellular migration, apoptosis and especially inflammation, but its effects on inflammatory response in SAH model have not been explored yet.Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: sham group (n = 20, SAH group (n = 20, SAH + LV-Scramble-ShRNA group (n = 20, SAH + LV-ShRNA-Panx1 group (n = 20, SAH + LV-NC group (n = 20, and SAH + LV-Panx1-EGFP group (n = 20. The rat SAH model was induced by injection of 0.3 ml fresh arterial, non-heparinized blood into the prechiasmatic cistern in 20 s. In SAH + LV-ShRNA-Panx1 group and SAH + LV-Panx1-EGFP group, lentivirus was administered via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v. at 72 h before the induction of SAH. The Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence staining, and western blotting were performed to explore the potential interactive mechanism between Pannexin-1 channels and TLR2/TLR4/NF-κB-mediated signaling pathway. Cognitive and memory changes were investigated by the Morris water maze test.Results: Administration with LV-ShRNA-Panx1 markedly decreased the expression levels of TLR2/4/NF-κB pathway-related agents in the brain cortex and significantly ameliorated neurological cognitive and memory deficits in this SAH model. On the contrary, administration of LV-Panx1-EGFP elevated the expressions of TLR2/4/NF-κB pathway-related agents, which correlated with augmented neuronal apoptosis.Conclusion: Pannexin-1 channels may

  12. Xenon Reduces Neuronal Hippocampal Damage and Alters the Pattern of Microglial Activation after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Randomized Controlled Animal Trial

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    Michael Veldeman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe neuroprotective properties of the noble gas xenon have already been demonstrated using a variety of injury models. Here, we examine for the first time xenon’s possible effect in attenuating early brain injury (EBI and its influence on posthemorrhagic microglial neuroinflammation in an in vivo rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.MethodsSprague-Dawley rats (n = 22 were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n = 9; divided into two groups or SAH induction via endovascular perforation (n = 13, divided into two groups. Of those randomized for SAH, 7 animals were postoperatively ventilated with 50 vol% oxygen/50 vol% xenon for 1 h and 6 received 50 vol% oxygen/50 vol% nitrogen (control. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after SAH. Of each animal, a cerebral coronal section (−3.60 mm from bregma was selected for assessment of histological damage 24 h after SAH. A 5-point neurohistopathological severity score was applied to assess neuronal cell damage in H&E and NeuN stained sections in a total of four predefined anatomical regions of interest. Microglial activation was evaluated by a software-assisted cell count of Iba-1 stained slices in three cortical regions of interest.ResultsA diffuse cellular damage was apparent in all regions of the ipsilateral hippocampus 24 h after SAH. Xenon-treated animals presented with a milder damage after SAH. This effect was found to be particularly pronounced in the medial regions of the hippocampus, CA3 (p = 0.040, and dentate gyrus (DG p = 0.040. However, for the CA1 and CA2 regions, there were no statistical differences in neuronal damage according to our histological scoring. A cell count of activated microglia was lower in the cortex of xenon-treated animals. This difference was especially apparent in the left piriform cortex (p = 0.017.ConclusionIn animals treated with 50 vol% xenon (for 1 h after SAH, a less pronounced neuronal damage was

  13. Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets, Severe Fetal Growth Restriction, Postpartum Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Craniotomy: A Rare Case Report and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Shadi; Faye, Justin; Hughes, Alexander; Cheung, Mon-Lai; Cohen, Joel R; Kaia, Judy A; Fuller, Paul N; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is a relatively uncommon but traumatic condition occurring in the later stage of pregnancy as a complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. Prompt brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a multidisciplinary management approach are required to improve perinatal outcome. Case . A 37-year-old, Gravida 6, Para 1-0-4-1, Hispanic female with a history of chronic hypertension presented at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestational age. She was noted to have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome accompanied by fetal growth restriction (FGR), during ultrasound evaluation, warranting premature delivery. The infant was delivered in stable condition suffering no permanent neurological deficit. Conclusion . HELLP syndrome is an uncommon and traumatic obstetric event which can lead to neurological deficits if not managed in a responsive and rapid manner. The central aggravating factor seems to be hypertension induced preeclamptic or eclamptic episode and complications thereof. The syndrome itself is manifested by hemolytic anemia, increased liver enzymes, and decreasing platelet counts with a majority of neurological defects resulting from hemorrhagic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To minimize adverse perinatal outcomes, obstetric management of this medical complication must include rapid clinical assessment, diagnostic examination, and neurosurgery consultation.

  14. Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets, Severe Fetal Growth Restriction, Postpartum Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Craniotomy: A Rare Case Report and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome is a relatively uncommon but traumatic condition occurring in the later stage of pregnancy as a complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. Prompt brain computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a multidisciplinary management approach are required to improve perinatal outcome. Case. A 37-year-old, Gravida 6, Para 1-0-4-1, Hispanic female with a history of chronic hypertension presented at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestational age. She was noted to have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome accompanied by fetal growth restriction (FGR, during ultrasound evaluation, warranting premature delivery. The infant was delivered in stable condition suffering no permanent neurological deficit. Conclusion. HELLP syndrome is an uncommon and traumatic obstetric event which can lead to neurological deficits if not managed in a responsive and rapid manner. The central aggravating factor seems to be hypertension induced preeclamptic or eclamptic episode and complications thereof. The syndrome itself is manifested by hemolytic anemia, increased liver enzymes, and decreasing platelet counts with a majority of neurological defects resulting from hemorrhagic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. To minimize adverse perinatal outcomes, obstetric management of this medical complication must include rapid clinical assessment, diagnostic examination, and neurosurgery consultation.

  15. Hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and acute glucocorticoid deficiency

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective data suggests that the syndrome of inappropriate diuresis (SIAD) is the most common cause of hyponatraemia in SAH, though cerebral salt wasting has been postulated by some workers to be the predominant abnormality. Data which has shown acute glucocorticoid deficiency following SAH has suggested that some cases of euvolaemic hyponatraemia may also be caused by this mechanism.We prospectively studied the hormonal and haemodynamic influences involved in the development of hyponatraemia in 100 patients (61% female, median age 53 (range 16-82)) with non-traumatic aneurysmal SAH. Each patient had plasma sodium (pNa), urea, osmolality, glucose and 0900h cortisol (PC), and urinary sodium and osmolality measured on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 following SAH. Fluid balance and haemodynamic parameters were recorded daily. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PC<300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low.49% of patients developed hyponatraemia (pNa<135 mmol\\/L), including 14% who developed clinically significantly hyponatraemia (pNa<130 mmol\\/L). 36\\/49 (73.4%) developed hyponatraemia between days 1 and 3 post SAH. The median duration of hyponatraemia was 3 days (range 1–10 days).In 35\\/49 (71.4%), hyponatraemia was due to SIAD as defined by standard diagnostic criteria. 14% of SAH patients had at least one PC<300nmol\\/L; 5 of these (35.7%) developed hyponatraemia. In 4 patients hyponatraemia was preceded by acute cortisol deficiency and responded to hydrocortisone treatment. In contrast, all controls had PC>500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–12. There were no cases of cerebral salt wasting. There was no relationship between the incidence of hyponatraemia and the defined anatomical territory or severity of

  16. [Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therapeutic value of treatment with calcium antagonists, hypervolemic hemodilution and induced arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Hannemann, L; Specht, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1995-04-01

    Only 53%-58% of patients with a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAB) following the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm survive without neurological damage. Morbidity and mortality are closely related to the delayed ischaemic neurological deficit due to cerebral vasospasm. The following review gives an account of pathophysiological mechanisms; the importance of treatment with calcium antagonists, hypervolaemic haemodilution, and induced arterial hypertension is discussed in light of the current literature. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY. In addition to other vasoactive substances in the blood, haemoglobin, which is released from lysed erythrocytes on the 2nd to 4th day after the haemorrhage, plays an important role in inducing vasospasm. An inflammatory angiopathy ensues, with complete resolution after 6-12 weeks. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced depending on the extent of vasospasm. Irreversible infarction may follow the decrease of CBF below a critical value. Severe vasospasm causes autoregulatory disturbances and reduced responsiveness of cerebral vessels to CO2. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS. The calcium blocker nimodipine causes dilatation of small pial vessels with increased CBF. However, systemic vasodilation with the subsequent fall in blood pressure may limit the increase in CBF. Furthermore, it is known that nimodipine decreases intracellular calcium concentrations resulting in some protection against ischaemic cellular injury. Seven placebo-controlled clinical studies have shown that nimodipine improves the outcome of patients with severe neurological damage due to cerebral vasospasm. HYPERVOLAEMIC HAEMODILUTION. Volume expansion and haemodilution to a hematocrit of 30%-33% is suggested to improve cerebral perfusion during vasospasm. The central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures should be 10-12 mm Hg and 15-18 mm Hg, respectively. But there is no evidence of improved outcome with this measure, and pulmonary edema is a frequent side effect. However, impairment of

  17. The effects of fluid balance and colloid administration on outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a propensity score-matched analysis.

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    Ibrahim, George M; Macdonald, R Loch

    2013-10-01

    Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a significant cause of mortality and disability. The administration of colloids and the induction of a positive fluid balance during the vasospasm risk period remain controversial. Here, we compared DIND and outcomes among propensity score-matched cohorts who did and did not receive colloids and also tested the effect of a positive fluid balance on these endpoints. Exploratory analysis was performed on 413 patients enrolled in CONSCIOUS-1, a prospective randomized trial of clazosentan for the prevention of angiographic vasospasm. Propensity score matching was performed on the basis of age, gender, pre-existing heart conditions, hypertension, nicotine use, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scores, aneurysm location, clazosentan treatment, subarachnoid clot burden, and severity of angiographic vasospasm. Inferential statistics were used for group-wise comparisons. One hundred twenty-three subjects were matched (41 received colloids, whereas 82 did not). The covariate balance and propensity score distributions were acceptable. There was no difference between the groups with respect to DIND (17 vs. 22%; p = 0.64) or the presence (48 vs. 51%; p = 0.71) or volume of delayed infarcts (volume >7.5 cm3; 62 vs. 48%; p = 0.41). Similarly, no differences were found on multivariate analysis between patients who did and did not have a positive fluid balance, although patients with severe angiographic vasospasm had more delayed infarcts with a negative fluid balance (p = 0.01). Among all subjects, the administration of colloids and a positive fluid balance were associated with worse outcomes on the NIHSS (p = 0.04) and modified Rankin (p = 0.02) scales, respectively. Colloid administration and induction of a positive fluid balance during the vasospasm risk period may be associated with poor outcomes in specific patient groups. Patient selection is of utmost importance

  18. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.

  19. Effect of magnesium treatment and glucose levels on delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage : a substudy of the Magnesium in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage trial (MASH-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijenaar, Jolien F.; Mees, Sanne M. Dorhout; Algra, Ale; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundMagnesium treatment did not improve outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the Magnesium in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage II trial. We hypothesized that high glucose levels may have offset a potential beneficial effect to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia. We

  20. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Examination, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture With an Exploration of Test Thresholds.

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    Carpenter, Christopher R; Hussain, Adnan M; Ward, Michael J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. The objective was to perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH. A secondary objective was to delineate probability of disease thresholds for imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and research meeting abstracts were searched up to June 2015 for studies of emergency department patients with acute headache clinically concerning for spontaneous SAH. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios. To identify test and treatment thresholds, we employed the Pauker-Kassirer method with Bernstein test indication curves using the summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy. A total of 5,022 publications were identified, of which 122 underwent full-text review; 22 studies were included (average SAH prevalence = 7.5%). Diagnostic studies differed in assessment of history and physical examination findings, CT technology, analytical techniques used to identify xanthochromia, and criterion standards for SAH. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was variable; however, most had a relatively low risk of biases. A history of neck pain (LR+ = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 to 7.6) and neck stiffness on physical examination (LR+ = 6.6; 95% CI = 4.0 to 11.0) were the individual findings most strongly associated with SAH. Combinations of findings may rule out SAH, yet promising clinical decision rules await external validation. Noncontrast cranial CT within 6 hours of headache onset accurately ruled in (LR+ = 230; 95

  1. Multidetector-Row CT Angiography of Cerebral Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Comparison of Bone Subtraction and Standard CT Angiography with Digital Subtraction Angiography

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    Lee, Yong Hee; You, Jin Jong; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae Seob [Gyeongsang Institue of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Jae Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by comparison of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and to compare the bone subtraction CT angiography (BS-CTA) and standard CT angiography (S-CTA). Thirty-three patients who were treated with intraarterial nimodipine infusion for the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH were evaluated with MDCTA and DSA. BS-CTA images were reconstructed from the S-CTA and unenhanced CT source images. A total of 207 vascular segments were evaluated. A four-step scale for the degree of stenosis was applied for each segment. With DSA as the standard images, BS-CTA and S-CTA images were comparied. On DSA, 56 segments (27%) presented vasospasm. Concordance between the DSA and S-CTA and between DSA and BS-CTA were 94.7% and 82.1%, respectively. Overestimation for the degree of stenosis was shown in 37 segments on BS-CTA and in 8 segments on S-CTA, but underestimated segments were only shown on S-CTA (n = 4). MDCTA with standard technique seems to be a useful imaging tool for the evaluation of the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH. However, BS-CTA is not needed because of additional radiation and overestimation of the degree of stenosis.

  2. [Curcumin improves learning and memory function through decreasing hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Yue, Shuangzhu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on learning and memory function of rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the possible mechanism. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham group, SAH group and curcumin (Cur) therapy group. Experimental SAH rat models were established by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Neurological deficits of rats were examined at different time points. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze test. The hippocampal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by ELISA. RESULTS Experimental SAH rat models were established successfully. Neurological scores of the SAH rats were significantly lower than those of the sham group. Curcumin therapy obviously improved the neurological deficits of rats compared with the SAH rats. Morris water maze test showed that SAH caused significant cognitive impairment with longer escape latency compared with the sham group. After treatment with curcumin for 4 weeks, the escape latency decreased significantly. The levels of TNF-α and iNOS in the curcumin-treated group were significantly lower than those of the SAH group. SAH can cause learning and memory impairment in rats. Curcumin can recover learning and memory function through down-regulating hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels.

  3. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E Sander; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo; Derdeyn, Colin P; Dion, Jacques; Higashida, Randall T; Hoh, Brian L; Kirkness, Catherine J; Naidech, Andrew M; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Patel, Aman B; Thompson, B Gregory; Vespa, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). A formal literature search of MEDLINE (November 1, 2006, through May 1, 2010) was performed. Data were synthesized with the use of evidence tables. Writing group members met by teleconference to discuss data-derived recommendations. The American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm was used to grade each recommendation. The guideline draft was reviewed by 7 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Leadership and Manuscript Oversight Committees. It is intended that this guideline be fully updated every 3 years. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients presenting with aSAH. The focus of the guideline was subdivided into incidence, risk factors, prevention, natural history and outcome, diagnosis, prevention of rebleeding, surgical and endovascular repair of ruptured aneurysms, systems of care, anesthetic management during repair, management of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia, management of hydrocephalus, management of seizures, and management of medical complications. aSAH is a serious medical condition in which outcome can be dramatically impacted by early, aggressive, expert care. The guidelines offer a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with aSAH.

  4. Evaluations for abuse in young children with subdural hemorrhages: findings based on symptom severity and benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer B; Frazier, Terra; Moffatt, Mary; Zinkus, Timothy; Anderst, James D

    2017-11-03

    OBJECTIVE Children who have subdural hematomas (SDHs) with no or minimal neurological symptoms (SDH-mild symptoms) often present a forensic challenge. Nonabusive causes of SDH, including birth-related SDH, benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces (BESS), and other proposed causes have been offered as etiologies. These alternative causes do not provide explanations for concomitant suspicious injuries (CSIs). If SDH with mild symptoms in young children are frequently caused by these alternative causes, children with SDH-mild symptoms should be more likely to have no other CSIs than those who have SDH with severe symptoms (SDH-severe symptoms). Additionally, if SDH with mild symptoms is caused by something other than abuse, the location and distribution of the SDH may be different than an SDH caused by abuse. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of other CSIs in patients who present with SDH-mild symptoms and to compare that prevalence to patients with SDH-severe symptoms. Additionally, this study sought to compare the locations and distributions of SDH between the two groups. Finally, given the data supporting BESS as a potential cause of SDH in young children, the authors sought to evaluate the associations of BESS with SDH-mild symptoms and with other CSIs. METHODS The authors performed a 5-year retrospective case-control study of patients younger than 2 years of age with SDH evaluated by a Child Abuse Pediatrics program. Patients were classified as having SDH-mild symptoms (cases) or SDH-severe symptoms (controls). The two groups were compared for the prevalence of other CSIs. Additionally, the locations and distribution of SDH were compared between the two groups. The presence of BESS was evaluated for associations with symptoms and other CSIs. RESULTS Of 149 patients, 43 presented with SDH-mild symptoms and 106 with SDH-severe symptoms. Patients with SDH-mild symptoms were less likely to have other CSIs (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95

  5. Preventive effect of continuous cisternal irrigation with magnesium sulfate solution on angiographic cerebral vasospasms associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro; Esaki, Takanori; Nakao, Yasuaki; Tokugawa, Joji; Watanabe, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Although cerebral vasospasm (CV) is one of the most important predictors for the outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), no treatment has yet been established for this condition. This study investigated the efficacy of continuous direct infusion of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution into the intrathecal cistern in patients with an aneurysmal SAH. METHODS An SAH caused by a ruptured aneurysm was identified on CT scans within 72 hours after SAH onset. All patients were treated by surgical clipping and randomized into 2 groups: a control group of patients undergoing a standard treatment and a magnesium (Mg) group of patients additionally undergoing continuous infusion of 5 mmol/L MgSO4 solution for 14 days. The Mg(2+) concentrations in serum and CSF were recorded daily. Neurological examinations were performed by intensive care clinicians. Delayed cerebral ischemia was monitored by CT or MRI. To assess the effect of the Mg treatment on CV, the CVs were graded on the basis of the relative degree of constriction visible on cerebral angiograms taken on Day 10 after the SAH, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed daily to measure blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurological outcomes and mortality rates were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale at 3 months after SAH onset. RESULTS Seventy-three patients admitted during the period of April 2008 to March 2013 were eligible and enrolled in this study. Three patients were excluded because of violation of protocol requirements. The 2 groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, or Fisher grade. In the Mg group, the Mg(2+) concentration in CSF gradually increased from Day 4 after initiation of the continuous MgSO4 intrathecal administration. No such increase was observed in the control group. No significant changes in the serum Mg(2+) levels were observed for 14 days, and no

  6. Side Effects of Long-Term Continuous Intra-arterial Nimodipine Infusion in Patients with Severe Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Kieninger, Martin; Flessa, Julia; Lindenberg, Nicole; Bele, Sylvia; Redel, Andreas; Schneiker, André; Schuierer, Gerhard; Wendl, Christina; Graf, Bernhard; Silbereisen, Vera

    2017-07-06

    Long-term continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion (CIAN) is a rescue therapy option in cases of severe refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, CIAN therapy can be associated with relevant side effects. Available studies focus on intracerebral complications, whereas extracerebral side effects are rarely examined. Aim of the present study was to generate descriptive data on the clinical course during CIAN therapy and expectable extracerebral side effects. All patients treated with CIAN therapy for at least 5 days between May 2011 and December 2015 were included. We retrospectively extracted data from the patient data management system regarding the period between 2 days before the beginning and 5 days after the termination of CIAN therapy to analyze the course of ventilation parameters and pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamic support, renal and liver function, integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, and the occurrence of infectious complications. In addition, we recorded the mean daily values of intracranial pressure (ICP) and intracerebral problems associated with CIAN therapy. Data from 28 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean duration of long-term CIAN therapy was 10.5 ± 4.5 days. Seventeen patients (60.7%) reached a good outcome level (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] 4-5) 6 months after SAH. An impairment of the pulmonary gas exchange occurred only at the very beginning of CIAN therapy. The required vasopressor support with norepinephrine was significantly higher on all days during and the first day after CIAN therapy compared to the situation before starting CIAN therapy. Two patients required short-time resuscitation due to cardiac arrest during CIAN therapy. Acute kidney injury was observed in four patients, and one of them required renal replacement therapy with sustained low-efficiency daily dialysis. During CIAN therapy, 23 patients (82.1%) needed the escalation

  7. Astaxanthin Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Related Factor 2 and the Antioxidant Responsive Element (Nrf2-ARE Pathway in the Brain after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats and Attenuates Early Brain Injury

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    Qi Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ATX has been proven to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH by modulating cerebral oxidative stress. This study was performed to assess the effect of ATX on the Nrf2-ARE pathway and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of antioxidant properties of ATX in EBI after SAH. A total of 96 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Autologous blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rat to induce an experimental SAH model. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The mRNA levels of HO-1, NAD (P H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1, and glutathione S-transferase-α1 (GST-α1 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. It was observed that administration of ATX post-SAH could up-regulate the cortical expression of these agents, mediated in the Nrf2-ARE pathway at both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Meanwhile, oxidative damage was reduced. Furthermore, ATX treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption, cellular apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction in SAH models. This study demonstrated that ATX treatment alleviated EBI in SAH model, possibly through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway by inducing antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes.

  8. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Zen Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p<0.01. The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p<0.01. This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  9. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p < 0.01). The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p < 0.01). This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  10. Hemorragia subaracnoídea com tomografia de crânio sem sinais de sangramento Subarachnoidal hemorrhage with cranial tomography without bleeding signals

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    Silvio Francisco

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram observados 23 casos de pacientes com suspeita clínica de hemorragia subaracnoídea (HSA, com tomografia de crânio (CT sem sinais de sangramento, com diagnóstico definitivo realizado por exame de líquido cefalorraquiano(LCR. Desses, 20 casos foram submetidos a angiografia cerebral. Estabeleceu-se a classificação clínica de Hunt & Hess. Os principais achados neste estudo foram:1 um terço dos pacientes apresentou intervalo de tempo entre o ictus e a realização da CT e do LCR entre 24 e 48 horas, período de maior sensiblidade da CT; 2 dos pacientes estudados com angiografia cerebral, 55% tiveram o diagnóstico de aneurisma com predomínio no território de carótida e cerebral anterior; 3 o grau clínico dominante foi Hunt & Hess I e II. Todos os achados encontrados demonstraram a necessidade da realização de LCR em suspeita de HSA sem sinais de sangramento na CT.We observed 23 pacients with clinical hypothesis of subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH having cranial tomography (CT without bleeding signals. The final diagnosis of SAH was made upon the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF results. Twenty cases were submitted to brain angiography. They were focused under the clinical classification of Hunt & Hess. The main results were: 1 1/3 of patients had interval time between 24 and 48 hours after ictus and before CT and CSF making; this was the most sensitive CT time; 2 55% of patients with brain angiography had aneurysm predominantly in the carotid and anterior cerebral artery territory; 3 the dominant clinical degree was Hunt & Hess I e II. Conclusion: the results demonstrate the need of CSF test in case of SAH clinical diagnosis with CT showing no bleeding signals.

  11. High Early Fluid Input After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Combined Report of Association With Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Feasibility of Cardiac Output-Guided Fluid Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouw, Leonie J M; Egal, Mohamud; Bergmans, Bas; Dippel, Diederik W J; Lingsma, Hester F; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Willems, Peter W A; Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W; Bakker, Jan; van der Jagt, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines on the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) recommend euvolemia, whereas hypervolemia may cause harm. We investigated whether high early fluid input is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and if fluid input can be safely decreased using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPT). We retrospectively included aSAH patients treated at an academic intensive care unit (2007-2011; cohort 1) or managed with TPT (2011-2013; cohort 2). Local guidelines recommended fluid input of 3 L daily. More fluids were administered when daily fluid balance fell below +500 mL. In cohort 2, fluid input in high-risk patients was guided by cardiac output measured by TPT per a strict protocol. Associations of fluid input and balance with DCI were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression (cohort 1), and changes in hemodynamic indices after institution of TPT assessed with linear mixed models (cohort 2). Cumulative fluid input 0 to 72 hours after admission was associated with DCI in cohort 1 (n=223; odds ratio [OR] 1.19/L; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.32), whereas cumulative fluid balance was not. In cohort 2 (23 patients), using TPT fluid input could be decreased from 6.0 ± 1.0 L before to 3.4 ± 0.3 L; P = .012), while preload parameters and consciousness remained stable. High early fluid input was associated with DCI. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring was feasible to reduce fluid input while maintaining preload. These results indicate that fluid loading beyond a normal preload occurs, may increase DCI risk, and can be minimized with TPT.

  12. Optimal cerebrospinal fluid magnesium ion concentration for vasodilatory effect and duration after intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate solution in a canine subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

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    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Hara, Yasukazu; Aiko, Yasuhisa; Koike, Nobuhiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke; Nakao, Yasuaki; Esaki, Takanori

    2011-04-01

    The optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration for vasodilation of spastic cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its duration are unknown. The temporal profile of the vasodilatory effect and optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration after the intracisternal injection of MgSO(4) solution were investigated in an SAH model in canines. Cerebral vasospasm was induced by experimental SAH using a 2-hemorrhage model in 26 female beagles. On Day 7, 0.5 ml/kg of 15, 10, 5, or 0 mmol/L MgSO(4) in Ringer solution was injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern. Angiography was performed on Day 1 (before SAH) and before and 1, 3, and 6 hours after the intracisternal injection on Day 7 to measure arterial diameters of the basilar artery (BA), superior cerebellar artery (SCA), and vertebral artery (VA). Cerebrospinal fluid Mg(++) was also measured at the same time. Arterial diameters of the BA, SCA, and VA were significantly decreased by vasospasm on Day 7. Arterial diameter ratios (ratio of arterial diameter after MgSO(4) injection to diameter before injection on Day 7) of the BA and SCA at 1 and 3 hours after and the VA at 1 hour after intracisternal injection of the MgSO(4) solution were positively correlated with the CSF Mg(++) concentration. All arterial diameter ratios, except 1 point of the SCA, exceeded 1 if the CSF Mg(++) concentration was > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection. Animals with CSF Mg(++) concentrations > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection (11 dogs) showed significantly increased arterial diameters of the BA at 1 and 3 hours after and of the SCA and VA at 1, 3, and 6 hours after injection, as compared with the diameters before injection. The CSF Mg(++) concentration significantly increased at 1 hour (3.73 ± 0.69 mEq/L, p 3 mEq/L. The vasodilatory effect continues for 3-6 hours after injection. These results suggest that the continuous infusion or intermittent intracisternal injection of MgSO(4) is needed to maintain the optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration and

  13. [Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage in poor grade neurological status: Study of prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Pérez, Coralia; Morera-Molina, Jesús; Espino-Postigo, Carlos; Jiménez-O'Shanahan, Aruma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and predict factors influencing prognosis and/or clinical outcome at 6 months in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades iv and v. This was a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 394 patients admitted to our hospital with clinical and radiological diagnosis of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, from 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2009. We selected 121 patients who met the criteria of being in WFNS grades iv or v before treatment; 3 patients were excluded due to loss of tracking. The outcome variable was assessed 6 months after the event using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. A P valueGlasgow Coma Scale lower than 7 points (Pde Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a New Brain Tissue Probe for Intracranial Pressure, Temperature, and Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seule, Martin; Sikorski, Christopher; Sakowitz, Oliver; von Campe, Gord; Santos, Edgar; Orakcioglu, Berk; Unterberg, Andreas; Keller, Emanuela

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate an intraparenchymal probe for intracranial pressure (ICP) and temperature (TEMP) monitoring as well as determination of cerebral hemodynamics using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and indocyanine green (ICG) dye dilution method (NIRS-ICP probe). The NIRS-ICP probe was applied after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage if multimodal monitoring was established due to poor neurological condition. ICP and TEMP values were obtained from ventricular catheters and systemic temperature sensors. Repeated NIRS-ICG measurements (2 injections within 30 min) were performed daily for determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time of ICG (mttICG). Secondary neurologic dysfunction was defined as brain tissue oxygen tension 35 obtained from cerebral probing. A total of 128 NIRS-ICG measurements were performed in ten patients. The correlation coefficients between ICP and TEMP values obtained with the NIRS-ICP probe and values from routine monitoring were r = 0.72 and r = 0.96, respectively. The mean values were 30.3 ± 13.6 ml/100 g/min for CBF, 3.3 ± 1.2 ml/100 g for CBV, and 6.8 ± 1.6 s for mttICG. The coefficients of variation from repeated NIRS-ICG measurements were 10.9 % for CBF, 11.7 % for CBV, and 3.8 % for mttICG. The sensitivity for detection of secondary neurologic dysfunction was 85 % and the specificity 83 % using a CBF-threshold of 25 ml/100 g/min. Multimodal monitoring using the NIRS-ICP probe is feasible with high reproducibility of measurement values and the ability to detect secondary neurologic dysfunction. No safety concerns exist for the routine clinical use of the NIRS-ICP probe.

  15. Dihydrolipoic Acid Inhibits Lysosomal Rupture and NLRP3 Through Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein-1/Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II/TAK1 Pathways After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keren; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Xie, Zhiyi; Sun, Chengmei; Wu, Lingyun; Malaguit, Jay; Chen, Sheng; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

    2018-01-01

    The NLRP3 (nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated a role of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in lysosomal rupture, NLRP3 activation, and determined the underlying pathway. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. DHLA was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour after SAH. Small interfering RNA for lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and CaMKIIα (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α) was administered through intracerebroventricular 48 hours before SAH induction. SAH grade evaluation, short- and long-term neurological function testing, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining experiments were performed. DHLA treatment increased the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and decreased phosphorylated CaMKIIα and NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby alleviating neurological deficits after SAH. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 small interfering RNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of DHLA and increased the level of phosphorylated CaMKIIα, p-TAK1 (phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase), p-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase), and NLRP3 inflammasome. CaMKIIα small interfering RNA downregulated the expression of p-TAK1, p-JNK, and NLRP3 and improved the neurobehavior after SAH. DHLA treatment improved neurofunction and alleviated inflammation through the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1/CaMKII/TAK1 pathway in early brain injury after SAH. DHLA may provide a promising treatment to alleviate early brain injury after SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Management of intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): An observational cohort study.

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    Fletcher-Sandersjöö, Alexander; Thelin, Eric Peter; Bartek, Jiri; Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Broman, Mikael; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a common complication in adults treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of outcome and investigate intervention strategies following ICH development in ECMO-treated adult patients. We conducted a retrospective review of adult patients (≥18 years) who developed an ICH during ECMO treatment at the Karolinska University Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) between September 2005 and May 2017. Outcome was assessed by 30-day mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) after 6 months. The statistical analysis was supplemented by a case series of patients who were surgically treated for an ICH. Sixty-five patients developed an ICH during ECMO treatment. 30-day mortality was 74% (n = 48), and was significantly associated with low level of consciousness at ICH diagnosis (p = 0.036), presence of intraparenchymal hematoma (IPH) (p = 0.049), IPH volume (p = 0.002), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.001), subarachnoid hemorrhage Fisher grade (pECMO patients is associated with a high mortality rate. Outcome predictors can help to identify patients where ICH treatment is indicated. Treating a patient with an ICH during ECMO represents an intricate balance between pro- and anticoagulatory demands. Furthermore, surgical treatment is associated with several risks but may be indicated in life-threatening lesions. Prospective studies are warranted.

  17. Rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe and prolonged disorders of consciousness after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke-Maria; Howell, Kaitlen; Straube, Andreas; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Bender, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate rehabilitation outcome of aSAH survivors with severe disorders of consciousness (DOC) and to examine potential predictors of long-term outcome. Severe DOC includes patients in a vegetative state (VS) and in a minimally conscious state (MCS). This is a retrospective single-center cohort study of consecutive aSAH patients with severe and prolonged DOC upon admission to neurorehabilitation. Clinical assessments started right after discharge from ICU, a median of 26 days after the aSAH. Two different outcome criteria were used, one addressing the functional aspect (assessed by the Functional Independence Measure [FIM]) the other one addressing the level of consciousness ("behavioral outcome", assessed by the Coma Remission Scale [CRS]). Improved outcome was defined by an increase in FIM scores of at least 22 points (minimal clinically important difference) or by reaching a full score of 24 points on the CRS. Separate least square linear regression models were calculated to examine potential predictors for functional and behavioral outcome. Out of 63 patients, 19.0% and 39.7% of the patients achieved an improved functional and behavioral outcome, respectively. Age and level of consciousness upon admission to neurorehabilitation were independent prognostic factors for both outcome definitions. Both groups reached the better outcome category after a median of 11 and 9 weeks, respectively. In an individual patient, the longest delay to achievement of improved functional outcome was 30 weeks and to favorable behavioral outcome was 22 weeks after rehabilitation admission. About one-third of severely affected aSAH patients with DOC regained at least a favorable behavioral status during early neurorehabilitation. It is interesting to note that in our study population, the beginning of clinical improvement took up to 6 months after aSAH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of barometric pressure changes and standard meteorological variables on the occurrence and clinical features of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, Matthias; Beck, Jürgen; Hermann, Elvis; Raabe, Andreas; Seifert, Volker; Vatter, Hartmut; Marquardt, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible association between standard meteorological variables and their changes and the occurrence and clinical features of SAH. Univariate association between the clinical/radiographic variables of patients with SAH and standard meteorological variables was evaluated. Next, a multivariate analysis was performed to find independent meteorological predictors for the occurrence of SAH by using a binary logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed significant differences between bleeding days and non-bleeding days for the number of change days (maximal atmospheric difference of the day >10 hPa) (P pressure of the day 24 hours before the bleeding day (P pressure difference of the day (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.8) were retained as independent predictors for the occurrence of SAH. For the variable cluster day as dependent variable, only change day was maintained in the model (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 4.7-10.8). Atmospheric pressure changes of more than 10 hPa within 24 hours are an independent predictor of clustering of patients with SAH. Hypertension is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of SAH at change day.

  19. Thalamic hemorrhage. A prospective study of 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, E; Kocaer, T; Ertübey, N O; Kumral, K

    1995-06-01

    The clinical features of thalamic hemorrhage in terms of localization are of great interest in many studies. To better understand the relationship between the localization of thalamic hemorrhage and clinical features. we evaluated the characteristics of patients with four different topographic types of thalamic hemorrhage. We prospectively studied 100 patients with thalamic hemorrhage who were admitted consecutively to our primary care unit. We divided them into two groups according to large (> 2 cm in diameter and/or > 4 mL in volume) and small thalamic hemorrhage. Four topographic subgroups (large and small) were compared to identify clinical syndromes associated with distinct lesion locations. All patients with posterolateral thalamic hemorrhage had severe sensorimotor deficit. Neuropsychological disturbances in patients with posterolateral thalamic hemorrhage were prominent, with primarily transcortical aphasia in those with left-sided lesions and hemineglect and anosognosia in those with right-sided lesions. Several variants of vertical gaze dysfunction, skew ocular deviation, gaze preference toward the site of the lesion, and miotic pupils were frequent in posterolateral thalamic hemorrhage, particularly in the large type. Patients with small and large anterolateral thalamic hemorrhage were characterized by severe motor and sensory deficits; language and oculomotor disturbances were also observed, although less frequently than in posterolateral hemorrhage. Sensorimotor deficits were observed in patients with medial thalamic hemorrhage (moderate in small hemorrhages and severe in large hemorrhages because of involvement of the adjacent internal capsule). Language disturbances in patients with left-sided lesions and neglect in patients with right-sided lesions were seen only in large medial thalamic hemorrhage. Dorsal thalamic hemorrhage was rare and characterized by mild and transient sensorimotor disturbances. Among patients with dorsal thalamic hemorrhages

  20. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

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    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  1. Follow-up study of macrocephalic children with enlargement of the subarachnoid space

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    J. L. D. Gherpelli

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen macrocephalic children with enlargement of the subarachnoid space (ESAS, with or without mild ventricular dilatation, were followed prospectively to a mean age of 56 months. All were born at term, with uneventful neonatal period and negative tests for congenital infections. There were 17 boys and 1 girl and the mean follow-up period was 46 months (8-58 months. The initial neurologic evaluation, between ages of 2 to 33 months, disclosed abnormalities in 2 cases. At the follow-up one was still abnormal and the other had a normal neurological examination. Another child, who had a normal neurological examination at the age of 5 months, at the age of 7 years and 7 months had an IQ of 77. Thus the abnormality rate at follow-up was 11%. The OFC returned to the normal range in 45% of the children at the follow-up period. There were no cases of intracranial hypertension. One infant had subdural taps performed at the age of 13 months that disclosed a fluid with the same characteristics as the CSF. All the children had a CT-scan performed at the beginning of the study that revealed a large subarachnoid space; in 77% it was associated with mild ventricular dilatation. Eleven had CT-scans repeated, during the study period, which showed resolution of the process in 3 cases, improvement in 2, and unchanged in 6. We conclude that enlargement of the subarachnoid space in macrocephalic children is often a benign entity. ESAS and macrocephaly will still be present in the majority of children in the long-term follow-up.

  2. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  3. [Virological study of simian hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtosova, Z V; Karmysheva, V Ia; Chumakov, M P

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of different routes of inoculation of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) virus to Macaca monkeys are presented as well as the results of virological examinations of sick animals. Only the parenteral route of inoculation has been found to be effective. After virus penetration, a long-term viremia and generalization of the infection are observed. The virus is found in the brain, the spinal cord and bone marrow, the spleen, the liver, the kidneys, the cerebrospinal fluid, the urine and nasopharyngeal washings. By the fluorescent antibody technique the virus-specific antigen is demonstrated in the capillary endothelium, neurons and glial cells of the brain, and in the reticulo-endothelial and macrophagal elements of parenchymatous organs.

  4. Evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhages by neuroendoscopy with transparent sheath. Experimental study

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    Alvaro Otero-Rodriguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH has been developed in order to reduce the tissue injury that conventional craniotomy could generate. Experimental studies are important to assess the effectiveness of the technique and its modifications. The objectives of this study are to develop in pig an experimental model of endoscopic evacuation of ICHs, to assess effectiveness of surgical evacuation, and to evaluate a new transparent sheath as complement to the endoscopy. Methods: Autologous blood was infused into the frontal lobe white matter in 16 pigs. In the problem group, endoscopic evacuation was performed with the aid of a new transparent sheath, which has outer and inner sheaths with blunt and closed finals. Pigs were sacrificed at 4 h, 24 h and 5 days. The volumes of hematoma and histopathological features were determined. Results: Residual volume of the problem group was significantly 70.09% lower than in control group, without significant differences in injected volumes, in percentage of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in time interval from hematoma induction to pig´s death. The vital reaction after hemorrhage was similar in both groups. Conclusions: The experimental model developed is useful to assess endoscopic evacuation of ICHs. The endoscopy is an effective technique in the treatment of ICHs, without increasing the vital reaction secondary to hematoma. The new transparent sheath increases the visualization of surgical field and allows a continuous visual control since the beginning of the procedure. Its closed final prevents unwanted injury of the brain by the instruments used to remove the hematoma.

  5. Electrocardiographic findings in acute cerebrovascular hemorrhage a prospective study of 70 patients

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    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy patients with hemorrhagic stroke were prospectively evaluated regarding the electrocardiographic abnormalities observed within the first 48 hours of the ictus. Group I comprised 55 patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and group II 15 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients taking cardiac drugs (beta blockers, calcium-channel blockers, inotropic drugs or with severe metabolic/electrolyte disturbances were excluded. The most common ECG abnormality was a prolonged Q-Tc interval: group I, 37 (67.2%; group II, 8 (53.3%. Only 4 (7.2% patients of group I and no patient of group II had a normal ECG. No relation was found between the site of the intracerebral hematoma and the occurrence of any particular ECG change. A prolonged Q-Tc may be related to the development of severe cardiac arrhythmias observed in some patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage.

  6. Primary pontine hemorrhage. A clinical study

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    Saito, Jun; Kagimoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masanobu; Soda, Takao [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Izumo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We studied the relationship between outcome and clinical symptoms or CT findings of 34 cases with primary pontine hemorrhage diagnosed by CT scan from April 1994 to March 1999. This series comprised 19 males and 15 females ranging in age from 45 to 89 years with a mean of 67.1 years. According to their outcome at discharge, the cases were divided into 6 groups. Sixteen cases died within 2 weeks after onset (group AD), 4 cases died with complication in the chronic phase (group D), 3 cases were severely disabled to bed-ridden state (group C), 2 cases recovered to a daily life with wheelchair (group B), 4 cases recovered to a daily life with partial assistance (group A), and 5 cases showed a full recovery (group J). The factors significantly correlated with bed outcome are as follows: young age, consciousness disturbance, respiratory disturbance, tachycardia over 90 beats per minute, hyperthermia over 39 deg C, abnormal pupils, loss of oculocephalic reflex, tetraplegia, decerebrate rigidity, bilateral extension or over 30 mm transverse diameter of the hematoma. (author)

  7. [Vitreous hemorrhage after ruptured intracerebral aneurysms (Terson syndrome) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaki, H; Tamaki, N; Shirakuni, T; Kudo, H; Matsumoto, S

    1981-03-01

    Operative mortality and morbidity for intracerebral aneurysms has recently reduced with microsurgical technique, so more functional prognosis such as visual disturbance due to fundal hemorrhages has been studied. Here vitreous hemorrhage secondary to ruptured cerebral aneurysms (Terson syndrome) was attentioned. Three patients had more over 2 hours of unconsciousness and one patient experienced repeated episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a week. This suggested rapid increased intracranial pressure resulted in vitreous hemorrhage through the venous congestion, which had been reported by Castrén (1963). All patients became blind because of severe vitreous hemorrhage. First case was followed over 7 years with only conservative therapy, but failed to improve. Another 3 cases regained visual acuity soon after operation. We emphasized vitreous hemorrhage as an important functional prognostic factor after ruptured intracerebral aneurysms and effective results of vitrectomy was showed.

  8. Submacular hemorrhage: A study amongst Indian eyes

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    Ekta Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the management outcomes amongst various treatment modalities for submacular hemorrhage (SMH in Indian subjects. Settings and Design: Retrospective, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with SMH between 1999 and 2006 were included. Treatment modalities included: vitrectomy with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA assisted SMH evacuation (group 1, n = 14; pneumatic displacement with intravitreal r-tPA and gas (group 2, n = 25; and pneumatic displacement with intraocular gas (group 3, n = 7. Favorable anatomical outcome was defined as complete displacement of SMH from fovea and favorable functional outcome was defined as a gain of >2 Snellen lines from the baseline. Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare the three groups, while Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used to evaluate the influence of duration and size of SMH on outcomes. Results: There was no difference amongst groups in terms of favorable anatomical (P = 0.121 or functional outcomes (P = 0.611. Eyes with median duration of SMH less than 7.5 days had a significantly higher probability of achieving favorable anatomical outcome compared to eyes with SMH >14.5 days (P = 0.042. However, duration of SMH did not influence functional outcome (P = 0.595. Similarly, size of SMH did not affect anatomical (P = 0.578 or functional (P = 0.381 outcome. Median follow-up was 31.5, 6.5, and 2.5 months in the three groups, respectively. Conclusions: Co- existing posterior segment conditions and duration of SMH may influence the choice of treatment modality and treatment outcomes. Pneumatic displacement with r-tPA and r-tPA assisted vitrectomy appear to be favorable options for the management of SMH.

  9. Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage from Uterine Atony: A Multicentric Study

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    Carlos Montufar-Rueda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH is an important cause of maternal mortality (MM around the world. Seventy percent of the PPH corresponds to uterine atony. The objective of our study was to evaluate multicenter PPH cases during a 10-month period, and evaluate severe postpartum hemorrhage management. Study Design. The study population is a cohort of vaginal delivery and cesarean section patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. The study was designed as a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, during 10 months in 13 teaching hospitals. Results. Total live births during the study period were 124,019 with 218 patients (0.17% with severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPHH. Total maternal deaths were 8, for mortality rate of 3.6% and a MM rate of 6.45/100,000 live births (LB. Maternal deaths were associated with inadequate transfusion therapy. Conclusions. In all patients with severe hemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemic shock, the most important therapy is intravascular volume resuscitation, to reduce the possibility of target organ damage and death. Similarly, the current proposals of transfusion therapy in severe or massive hemorrhage point to early transfusion of blood products and use of fresh frozen plasma, in addition to packed red blood cells, to prevent maternal deaths.

  10. Epidemiological Features of Nontraumatic Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in China: A Nationwide Hospital-based Multicenter Study

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    Jian-Ping Song

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: DSA can be performed safely for pathological diagnosis in the acute stage of SAH. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms, AVM, and Moyamoya disease are the major causes of SAH detected by emergent DSA in China.

  11. [Emergency transcranial doppler ultrasound: predictive value for the development of symptomatic vasospasm in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients in good neurological condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanchez, M A; Murillo-Cabezas, F; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Gascón-Castillo, M L; Cancela, P; Amaya-Villar, R; Rincón-Ferrari, M D; Flores-Cordero, J M; Cayuela, A; García-Alfaro, C

    2012-12-01

    To examine the predictive value of an early transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study performed in the emergency department in patients with spontaneous subarachoniod hemorrhage (SAH) in good neurological condition, in order to know which patients are at high risk of developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). A descriptive observational study was carried out involving a period of 3 years. Critical Care and Emergency Department. The study consecutively included patients with SAH of grade I-III on the Hunt and Hess scale. DCI (decrease of 2 points in GCS or focal deficit), Mean Velocity (MV) of middle cerebral arteries (MCA), Lindegaard Index (IL). Sonographic vasospasm pattern (SVP) was considered if MCA-MV>120cm/sc and IL>3. The mean age of the 122 patients was 54.1±13.7 years; 57.3% were women. SVP was detected in 24 patients (19.7%), although high velocities patterns (HVP) were present in 38 patients (31.1%). DCI developed in 21 patients (MV183+/-49cm/sc), all with previous SVP. In this group MV increased 22+/-5cm/sc/day during the first 3 days. The group without HVP (84 patients/MV of 67+/-16.6cm/sc), compared with DCI group, showed differences in highest MV (p<0.001), and also ΔMV/day (8.30+/-4,5cm/sc Vs 22+/-5cm/sc) during the first 3 days (p=0.009). In our series, ROC analysis selected the best cut-off value for ΔMV/day as 21cm/sc (p<0.001). During the first 3 days, an increase of 21cm/s/24h in MCA-MV was associated with the development of symptomatic vasospasm. TCD is a useful tool for the early detection of patients at risk of DCI after SAH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnesium therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage a dose-finding study for long term treatment

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    van den Bergh, W. M.; Albrecht, K. W.; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, J. W.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnesium is a neuroprotective agent which might prevent or reverse delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Although the dosage for short-term magnesium therapy is well established, there is lack of knowledge on the dosage for extended use of

  13. Leukocyte count and incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Martin; Zia, Elisabet; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-04-03

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, in the majority of cases caused by a rupture of an arterial intracranial aneurysm. The effect of systemic low-grade inflammation on incidence of SAH is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte count, a marker of systemic inflammation, and incidence of SAH in a large cohort study. Leukocyte count and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 19,794 individuals (17,083 men and 2,711 women, mean age 44 years) participating in a health screening program between 1974 and 1981. Incidence of SAH in relation to baseline leukocyte concentration was studied during a mean follow-up of 27 years in participants free from previous stroke. Ninety-five participants had a SAH, corresponding to an incidence of 22 per 100,000 in women and 17 per 100,000 in men. The hazard ratio for SAH per one standard deviation (2.01 × 10⁹ cells/L) increase of leukocyte concentration was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.53, p = 0.014) after adjustment for several potential confounding factors including smoking. In sensitivity analysis, there was a significant association in smokers but not in non-smokers. High leukocyte count at baseline was associated with increased incidence of SAH, although this relationship might be restricted to smokers. The results support the view that low-grade systemic inflammation could be involved in the pathogenesis of SAH, or constitute an early risk marker for the disease.

  14. A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population

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    Smita Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1 The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2 To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3 To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M, females (Group F and parturients (Group PF. SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm. Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI. Stocker′s formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups. Conclusions: We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker′s formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.

  15. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

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    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  16. Glibenclamide for the Treatment of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

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    Nicholas Caffes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are associated with severe functional disability and high mortality. Except for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, therapies targeting the underlying pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS ischemia and hemorrhage are strikingly lacking. Sur1-regulated channels play essential roles in necrotic cell death and cerebral edema following ischemic insults, and in neuroinflammation after hemorrhagic injuries. Inhibiting endothelial, neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendroglial sulfonylurea receptor 1–transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1–Trpm4 channels and, in some cases, microglial KATP (Sur1–Kir6.2 channels, with glibenclamide is protective in a variety of contexts. Robust preclinical studies have shown that glibenclamide and other sulfonylurea agents reduce infarct volumes, edema and hemorrhagic conversion, and improve outcomes in rodent models of ischemic stroke. Retrospective studies suggest that diabetic patients on sulfonylurea drugs at stroke presentation fare better if they continue on drug. Additional laboratory investigations have implicated Sur1 in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic CNS insults. In clinically relevant models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, glibenclamide reduces adverse neuroinflammatory and behavioral outcomes. Here, we provide an overview of the preclinical studies of glibenclamide therapy for CNS ischemia and hemorrhage, discuss the available data from clinical investigations, and conclude with promising preclinical results that suggest glibenclamide may be an effective therapeutic option for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

  17. The choroid plexus as a site of damage in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and its role in responding to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianming; Routhe, Lisa J; Wilkinson, D Andrew; Hua, Ya; Moos, Torben; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F

    2017-03-28

    While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood-brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has received much less attention. The purpose of this review is to examine evidence of choroid plexus injury in clinical and preclinical studies of intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. It then discusses evidence that the choroid plexuses are important in the response to brain injury, with potential roles in limiting damage. The overall aim of the review is to highlight deficiencies in our knowledge on the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the choroid plexus, particularly with reference to intraventricular hemorrhage, and to suggest that a greater understanding of the response of the choroid plexus to stroke may open new avenues for brain protection.

  18. CaMKII inhibition with KN93 attenuates endothelin and serotonin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced deficits in sensorimotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    12 h post-SAH significantly reduced vascular CaMKII immunoreactivity at 72 h. In addition, contractile responses of cerebral arteries to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxycarboxamide (5-CT) were increased at this time-point. KN93 treatment significantly attenuated the contraction induced by ET-1 and 5......L autologous blood into the basal cisterns. The CaMKII activity in cerebral vessels was studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The vasomotor responses of middle cerebral and basilar arteries were measured in a sensitive myograph system. The functional outcome was examined by the rotating pole test 2...... contractile responses to ET-1 and 5-CT in cerebral arteries and enhanced early activation of CaMKII. Treatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 attenuated the contractile responses and prevented impaired sensorimotor function after SAH....

  19. Terson syndrome with bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntt, Chiaki D; Sherry, Richard G; Kannan, Chithra

    2007-09-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with an acute headache and mental status changes due to rupture of an anterior choroidal artery aneurysm. A preoperative CT scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage, and bilateral intraocular hemorrhage. Ophthalmoscopy and B-scan ocular ultrasound disclosed vitreous hemorrhages, features consistent with Terson syndrome. This is the first CT report of Terson syndrome showing bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage.

  20. BILATERAL INTRAOCULAR HEMORRHAGE SECONDARY TO CEREBRAL VENOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunle-Hassan, Feyi; Dattani, Minaxi; Snead, Martin; Subash, Mala

    2016-10-05

    To report a case of bilateral intraocular hemorrhage secondary to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with no associated intracranial hemorrhage. Case report. A 32-year-old Asian gentleman presented with left reduced vision as a result of a left subhyaloid macular hemorrhage associated with severe headache. Right retinal hemorrhages were also present. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography brain imaging demonstrated cerebral transverse venous sinus thrombosis. Intraocular hemorrhage has previously been described in association with intracranial hemorrhage and in particular subarachnoid hemorrhage (Terson syndrome). We describe a similar clinical picture in the context of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with no associated intracranial hemorrhage.

  1. Trends in postpartum hemorrhage from 2000 to 2009: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage, a major cause of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity, increased in frequency in Canada between 1991 and 2004. We carried out a study to describe the epidemiology of postpartum hemorrhage in British Columbia, Canada, between 2000 and 2009. Methods The study population included all women residents of British Columbia who delivered between 2000 and 2009. Data on postpartum hemorrhage by subtypes and severity were obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Among women with postpartum hemorrhage, severe cases were identified by the use of blood transfusions or procedures to control bleeding. Rates of postpartum hemorrhage and changes over time were assessed using rates, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The rate of postpartum hemorrhage increased by 27% (95% CI 21-34%) between 2000 and 2009 (from 6.3% to 8.0%), while atonic postpartum hemorrhage rates increased by 33% (95% CI 26-41%) from 4.8% to 6.4%. Atonic postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion increased from 17.8 to 25.5 per 10,000 deliveries from 2000 to 2009 and atonic postpartum hemorrhage with either suturing of the uterus, ligation of pelvic vessels or embolization increased from 1.8 to 5.6 per 10,000 deliveries from 2001 to 2009. The increase in atonic postpartum hemorrhage was most evident between 2006 and 2009 and occurred across regions, hospitals and various maternal, fetal and obstetric characteristics. Conclusions Atonic postpartum hemorrhage and severe atonic postpartum hemorrhage increased in British Columbia between 2000 and 2009. Further research is required to identify the cause of the increase. PMID:23057683

  2. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  3. The presence of arachnoiditis affects the characteristics of CSF flow in the spinal subarachnoid space: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaokoon; Stoodley, Marcus A; Wong, Johnny; Hemley, Sarah; Fletcher, David F; Bilston, Lynne E

    2012-04-30

    Syringomyelia is a neurological disorder characterised by high pressure fluid-filled cysts within the spinal cord. As syringomyelia is associated with abnormalities of the central nervous system that obstruct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, it is thought that changes in CSF dynamics play an important role in its pathogenesis. Using three-dimensional computational models of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), this study aims to determine SAS obstructions, such as arachnoiditis, change in CSF dynamics in the SAS. The geometry of the SAS was reconstructed from a series of MRI images. CSF is modelled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid with a dynamic viscosity of 1 mPa s. Three computational models simulated CSF flow in either the unobstructed SAS, or with the SAS obstructed by a porous region simulating dorsal or circumferential arachnoiditis. The permeability of this porous obstruction was varied for the model with dorsal arachnoiditis. The results show that arachnoiditis increases flow resistance in the SAS and this is accompanied by a modest increase in magnitude and/or shift in timing (with respect to the cardiac cycle) of the CSF pressure drop across the region of arachnoiditis. This study suggests that syrinx formation may be related to a change in temporal CSF pulse pressure dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Superior cerebellar aneurysm cau