Vovlas, N.; Landa, B.B.; Liébanas, G.; Handoo, Z.A.; Subbotin, S.A.; Castillo, P.
A population of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in southern Italy. The morphological identification of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which clearly separated it from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni. A phylogenetic analysis of M. kirjanovae with species of related genera was conducted using sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with trees from an extended dataset for Criconematina and Tylenchida. The basal position of the genus Meloidoderita together with Sphaeronema within the Criconematina clade in this tree may indicate their close relationships. The anatomical changes induced by M. kirjanovae population from Italy in water mint were similar to those reported for a nematode population infecting roots of M. longifolia in Israel. Nematode feeding caused the formation of a stellar syncytium that disorganized the pericycle and vascular root tissues. PMID:19259543
Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing
Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506
Uwe Braun; S. Krishna Mohan
In the course of routine examinations of powdery mildews collected in Idaho and Oregon, USA, some of the identified species proved to be new to North America, in some cases on new host plants. Leveillula papilionacearum and L. picridis are first records from the USA. Astragalus filipes, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae are new hosts for Leveillula papilionacearum....
Juan E. Palomares-Rius
. Some species do not produce specialized feeding sites (viz. Ditylenchus, Subanguina, but may develop a specialized modification of the root system (e.g., unspecialized root galls or a profusion of roots. This review introduces new data on cell types and plant organs stimulated by PPNs using sources varying from traditional histopathology to new holistic methodologies.
Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Lodema, M; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S
Without applying an a priori bias for species boundaries, specimen identities in the plant-parasitic nematode genus Mesocriconema were evaluated by examining mitochondrial COI nucleotide sequences, morphology, and biogeography. A total of 242 specimens that morphologically conformed to the genus were individually photographed, measured, and amplified by a PCR primer set to preserve the linkage between specimen morphology and a specific DNA barcode sequence. Specimens were extracted from soil samples representing 45 locations across 23 ecoregions in North America. Dendrograms constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference using a 721-bp COI barcode were used to group COI haplotypes. Each tree-building approach resulted in 24 major haplotype groups within the dataset. The distinctiveness of these groups was evaluated by node support, genetic distance, absence of intermediates, and several measures of distinctiveness included in software used for the exploration of species boundaries. Five of the 24 COI haplotype groups corresponded to morphologically characterized, Linnaean species. Morphospecies conforming to M. discus, Discocriconemella inarata, M. rusticum, M. onoense, and M. kirjanovae were represented by groups composed of multiple closely related or identical COI haplotypes. In other cases, morphospecies names could be equally applied to multiple haplotype groups that were genetically distant from each other. Identification based on morphology alone resulted in M. curvatum and M. ornatum species designations applied to seven and three groups, respectively. Morphological characters typically used for species level identification were demonstrably variable within haplotype groups, suggesting caution in assigning species names based on published compendia that solely consider morphological characters. Morphospecies classified as M. xenoplax formed a monophyletic group composed of seven genetically distinct COI subgroups. The species