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Sample records for sub-surface fluid monitoring

  1. Study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using Accurately Controlled Routine Operated Seismic Sources (ACROSS); Seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumazawa, M; Ogawa, K; Fujii, N; Yamaoka, K; Kumagai, H; Takei, Y [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ishihara, K; Nakaya, m [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Fourier seismology capable of determining quantities related to elastic wave velocity dispersibility and non-elastic damping is under development, and studies are under way for the development of a sub-surface probing technology utilizing this seismology. It is deemed that the above-said quantities are related to the occurrence of earthquakes, behavior of sub-surface water, and migration of magma. In this method, precisely controlled sinusoidal waves are radiated and the received spectral data is subjected to cepstrum analysis, advantageous over other methods in that it achieves a high S/N ratio in a non-destructive way, facilitates deep structure analysis, and capable of monitoring changes with the elapse of time in such a structure. A newly-developed high-mobility transportable quake generator is described, which covers a wider frequency range and aims at the short-distance exploration of sub-surface conditions. Important components of the quake generator include an eccentric mass bearing capable of dealing with high-speed rotation enabling high frequency oscillation, variable mechanism for the primary moment of inertia, exciter and ground surface coupler allowing operations on a soft ground, and torque cancelling mechanism for the excitation of SH waves only. 3 figs.

  2. Sub-Surface Oil Monitoring Cruise (GU1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives were to evaluate ability of acoustic echosounder measurements to detect and localize a sub-surface plume of oil or related hydrocarbons released from the...

  3. FY1995 study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using accurately controlled routine operated seismic system; 1995 nendo seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The development of new seismic sounding system based on the new concept of ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routine-Operated Signal System) are aimed. The system includes not only new seismic sources but also the analyzing software specialize for the monitoring of the change in subsurface velocity structure, especially in the area of fluid resources. Powerful sources with good portability are strongly required for the practical data acquisition. Portable ACROSS sources (HIT) are developed. The system is mainly used to obtain the high resolution structure with relatively short penetration distance. The principal specifications are as follows: (1) 100Hz in maximum. (2) Linearly oscillating single force. This is generated by the combined two rotator moving opposite directions. (3) Variable force with little work. (4) Very simple source-ground coupler just put even on the soft ground. The system was operated at Yamagawa geothermal plant for two months. The result of the experiments are: (1) We confirmed the stability of the source over wide frequency range up to 100Hz. (2) We confirmed that amplitude and phase of ACROSS signal can be obtained very precisely. (3) Very small change of signal which arise from subsurface velocity change are detected. This indicates that the system can detect the slight velocity change due to variation of subsurface fluid system. (NEDO)

  4. Textural evidence for jamming and dewatering of a sub-surface, fluid-saturated granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, T. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Sand injectites are spectacular examples of large-scale granular flows involving migration of hundreds of cubic meters of sand slurry over hundreds of meters to kilometers in the sub-surface. By studying the macro- and microstructural textures of a kilometer-scale sand injectite, we interpret the fluid flow regimes during emplacement and define the timing of formation of specific textures in the injected material. Fluidized sand sourced from the Santa Margarita Fm., was injected upward into the Santa Cruz Mudstone, Santa Cruz County, California. The sand injectite exposed at Yellow Bank Beach records emplacement of both hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries. Elongate, angular mudstone clasts were ripped from the wall rock during sand migration, providing evidence for high velocity, turbid flow. However, clast long axis orientations are consistently sub-horizontal suggesting the slurry transitioned to a laminar flow as the flow velocity decreased in the sill-like intrusion. Millimeter to centimeter scale laminations are ubiquitous throughout the sand body and are locally parallel to the mudstone clast long axes. The laminations are distinct in exposure because alternating layers are preferentially cemented with limonite sourced from later groundwater infiltration. Quantitative microstructural analyses show that the laminations are defined by subtle oscillations in grain alignment between limonite and non-limonite stained layers. Grain packing, size and shape distributions do not vary. The presence of limonite in alternating layers results from differential infiltration of groundwater, indicating permeability changes between the layers despite minimal grain scale differences. Convolute dewatering structures deform the laminations. Dolomite-cemented sand, a signature of hydrocarbon saturation, forms irregular bodies that cross-cut the laminations and dewatering structures. Laminations are not formed in the dolomite-cemented sand. The relative viscosity difference

  5. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  6. Fluid-flow monitoring using electromagnetic probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, R.J.; Lager, D.L.; Laine, E.F.; Salisbury, J.D.; Okada, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    High-frequency electromagnetic probing is used to monitor the rate and direction of flow of fluids injected into the ground. This method shows the potential for providing more detailed information than procedures presently used. The experimental technique and the test-of-concept experimental results are discussed. This technique has applications in oil-reservoir engineering and in hydrology studies concerning storage of chemical and nuclear wastes. 11 figures

  7. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  8. Intra-hole fluid convection: High-resolution temperature monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Šafanda, Jan; Krešl, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 348, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 464-479 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : temperature monitoring * convection * fluid dynamics * borehole logging Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2008

  9. Annihilation Radiation Gauge for Relative Density and Multiphase Fluid Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the multi-phase flow parameters are important for the petroleum industry, specifically during the transport in pipelines and network related to exploitation’s wells. Crude oil flow is studied by Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally to determine transient liquid phase in a laboratory system. Relative density and fluid phase time variation is monitored employing a fast nuclear data acquisition setup that includes two large volume BaF2 scintillator detectors coupled to an electronic chain and data display in a LabView® environment. Fluid parameters are determined by the difference in count rate of coincidence pulses. The operational characteristics of the equipment indicate that 2 % deviation in the CCR corresponds to a variation, on average, of 20 % in the fraction of liquid of the multiphase fluid.

  10. Conceptual design of intravenous fluids level monitoring system - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prikshit; Padmani, Aniket; Boopathi, M.

    2017-11-01

    In today’s world of automation, there are advancements going on in all the fields. Each work is being automated day by day. However, if we see our current medical care system, some areas require manual caretaker and are loaded with heavy jobs, which consumes a lot of time. Nevertheless, since the work is related to human health, it should be properly done and that too with accuracy. An example of such a particular work is injecting saline or Intravenous (IV) fluids in a patient. The monitoring of such fluids needs utter attention as if the bottle of the fluid is not changed on time, it may lead to various problems for the patients like backflow of blood, blood loss etc. Various researches have been performed to overcome such critical situation. Different monitoring and alerting techniques are described in different researches. So, in our study, we will go through the researches done in this particular field and will see how different ideas are implemented.

  11. Corrosion penetration monitoring of advanced ceramics in hot aqueous fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Nickel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramics are considered as components in energy related systems, because they are known to be strong, wear and corrosion resistant in many environments, even at temperatures well exceeding 1000 °C. However, the presence of additives or impurities in important ceramics, for example those based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 or Al2O3 makes them vulnerable to the corrosion by hot aqueous fluids. The temperatures in this type of corrosion range from several tens of centigrade to hydrothermal conditions above 100 °C. The corrosion processes in such media depend on both pH and temperature and include often partial leaching of the ceramics, which cannot be monitored easily by classical gravimetric or electrochemical methods. Successful corrosion penetration depth monitoring by polarized reflected light optical microscopy (color changes, Micro Raman Spectroscopy (luminescence changes and SEM (porosity changes will be outlined. The corrosion process and its kinetics are monitored best by microanalysis of cross sections, Raman spectroscopy and eluate chemistry changes in addition to mass changes. Direct cross-calibrations between corrosion penetration and mechanical strength is only possible for severe corrosion. The methods outlined should be applicable to any ceramics corrosion process with partial leaching by fluids, melts or slags.

  12. Fluid flow measurements by means of vibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagna, Mauro M; Dinardo, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Laura; Vacca, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of accurate fluid flow measurements is fundamental whenever the control and the monitoring of certain physical quantities governing an industrial process are required. In that case, non-intrusive devices are preferable, but these are often more sophisticated and expensive than those which are more common (such as nozzles, diaphrams, Coriolis flowmeters and so on). In this paper, a novel, non-intrusive, simple and inexpensive methodology is presented to measure the fluid flow rate (in a turbulent regime) whose physical principle is based on the acquisition of transversal vibrational signals induced by the fluid itself onto the pipe walls it is flowing through. Such a principle of operation would permit the use of micro-accelerometers capable of acquiring and transmitting the signals, even by means of wireless technology, to a control room for the monitoring of the process under control. A possible application (whose feasibility will be investigated by the authors in a further study) of this introduced technology is related to the employment of a net of micro-accelerometers to be installed on pipeline networks of aqueducts. This apparatus could lead to the faster and easier detection and location of possible leaks of fluid affecting the pipeline network with more affordable costs. The authors, who have previously proven the linear dependency of the acceleration harmonics amplitude on the flow rate, here discuss an experimental analysis of this functional relation with the variation in the physical properties of the pipe in terms of its diameter and constituent material, to find the eventual limits to the practical application of the measurement methodology. (paper)

  13. Fluid flow measurements by means of vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Mauro M.; Dinardo, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Laura; Vacca, Gaetano

    2015-11-01

    The achievement of accurate fluid flow measurements is fundamental whenever the control and the monitoring of certain physical quantities governing an industrial process are required. In that case, non-intrusive devices are preferable, but these are often more sophisticated and expensive than those which are more common (such as nozzles, diaphrams, Coriolis flowmeters and so on). In this paper, a novel, non-intrusive, simple and inexpensive methodology is presented to measure the fluid flow rate (in a turbulent regime) whose physical principle is based on the acquisition of transversal vibrational signals induced by the fluid itself onto the pipe walls it is flowing through. Such a principle of operation would permit the use of micro-accelerometers capable of acquiring and transmitting the signals, even by means of wireless technology, to a control room for the monitoring of the process under control. A possible application (whose feasibility will be investigated by the authors in a further study) of this introduced technology is related to the employment of a net of micro-accelerometers to be installed on pipeline networks of aqueducts. This apparatus could lead to the faster and easier detection and location of possible leaks of fluid affecting the pipeline network with more affordable costs. The authors, who have previously proven the linear dependency of the acceleration harmonics amplitude on the flow rate, here discuss an experimental analysis of this functional relation with the variation in the physical properties of the pipe in terms of its diameter and constituent material, to find the eventual limits to the practical application of the measurement methodology.

  14. Fluid contact monitoring in some western Canadian reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, J.S.; Heslop, A.

    1978-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since oil was first discovered in reefal reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The early giants such as Redwater, Leduc, and the large Swan Hill pools have been followed in subsequent years by the development of reef pools of declining size, culminating with the discovery of the Keg River reefs of the Rainbow Zama area some 10 years ago. Unfortunately the majority of reef pools are reaching a mature stage in their productive cycle. With this maturity comes an increasing need for the log analyst to diversify his role from merely recognizing hydrocarbons during the discovery process, to the analysis of remaining hydrocarbon distribution within the depleting reservoir. The monitoring of fluid movement has become an integral part of reservoir description. Geologist, log analyst, reservoir and production engineer must work as a coordinated team to explain the often anomalous fluid distributions that occur in the well bore. Oil recovery from the Devonian Leduc age reef at Golden Spike, Alberta has been, until recently, by displacement with a miscible solvent bank. The monitoring of gas--fluid interfaces has been accomplished by the use of pulsed neutron logs in cased holes and the combination of SNP-Density and SNP-Acoustic data in open hole situations. At Judy Creek premature advances of formation water and inefficient reservoir depletion resulted from a highly stratified reefal reservoir. Pulsed neutron logs, used after the recognition of the production problems, have helped define oil-water distributions in the reservoir and led to an improvement in recovery efficiency. Rainbow Devonian Keg River reefs are subjected to gas, miscible and water injection recovery schemes. A pool that has been converted from a primary gas expansion drive to water drive by injection has used the pulsed neutron log to monitor the effectiveness of this change

  15. Optimization of Electrical Methods for Sub -surface Monitoring of Biological Contamination: From Micro-scale to Macroscopic one through Sub-micrometric Topographic and Electrochemical Studies of Oxydation/Reduction Processes Provoked by Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, S.; Marliere, C.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of biological matter (bacteria) in deep geological sites for storage of, for instance, radioactive elements or groundwater in aquifers was clearly proved. That biomass triggers physical and chemical processes which greatly modify the durability and the sustainability of the storage sites. These processes, mainly from oxidative/reductive reactions, are poorly understood. This is mainly due to the fact that former studies were done at the macroscopic level far away from the micrometric scale where relevant processes induced by bacteria take place. Investigations at microscopic level are needed. Thus, we developed an experimental set -up based on the combined use of optical microscopy (epifluorescence and transmission), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electro -chemical microscopy (SECM) in order to get simultaneous information on topographic and electro -chemical processes at different length scales. The first highly sensitive step was to use AFM and optical microscopy with biological samples in liquid environment: We will present a new, non -perturbative method for imaging bacteria in their natural liquid environment using AFM. No immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, is needed, contrary to what has been regarded till now as essential. Furthermore we were able to follow the natural gliding movements of bacteria, directly proving their living state during the AFM investigation: we thus directly prove the low impact of these breakthrough AFM observations on the native behavior of the bacteria. The second delicate step was to combine AFM and optical measurements with electrical ones. We mounted a new experimental set-up coupling real -time (i) monitoring of optical properties as the optical density (OD) evolution related to bulk bacterial growth in liquid or as the counting of number of bacteria adhering on the surface of the sample as well and (ii) electrical and electrochemical measurements. We thus will present results on

  16. Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil

  17. The spring balance: a simple monitoring system for fluid overload during hysteroscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Vonk, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid overload may arise during hysteroscopic surgery, caused by absorption of fluid used to distend the uterus. Continuous monitoring of the fluid balance is required to prevent this serious complication. Commercial equipment does not serve this purpose adequately. We describe a simple solution. We

  18. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be located in the drilling fluid-logging compartment... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor drilling... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  19. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  20. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  1. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  2. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2012-02-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  3. Oral Fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multipliedimmunoassay- technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Testing Augmented Reality Systems for Spotting Sub-Surface Impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes setup and procedure for testing augmented reality systems for showing sub-surface positions of foreign elements in an opaque mass. The goal is it test four types of setup in terms of user accuracy and speed, the four setups being a head-mounted see-through display, an arm...

  5. Perioperative Intravascular Fluid Assessment and Monitoring: A Narrative Review of Established and Emerging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessments of intravascular fluid status are an essential part of perioperative care and necessary in the management of the hemodynamically unstable patient. Goal-directed fluid management can facilitate resuscitation of the hypovolemic patient, reduce the risk of fluid overload, reduce the risk of the injudicious use of vasopressors and inotropes, and improve clinical outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the strengths and limitations of a spectrum of noninvasive and invasive techniques for assessing and monitoring intravascular volume status and fluid responsiveness in the perioperative and critically ill patient.

  6. Investigating the recording and accuracy of fluid balance monitoring in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Diacon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accurate assessment of fluid balance data collected during physical assessment as well as during monitoring and record-keeping forms an essential part of the baseline patient information that guides medical and nursing interventions aimed at achieving physiological stability in patients. An informal audit of 24-hour fluid balance records in a local intensive care unit (ICU showed that seven out of ten fluid balance calculations were incorrect.Objective. To identify and describe current clinical nursing practice in fluid balance monitoring and measurement accuracy in ICUs, conducted as part of a broader study in partial fulfilment of a Master of Nursing degree.Methods. A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive, exploratory study design was applied. An audit of 103 ICU records was conducted to establish the current practices and accuracy in recording of fluid balance monitoring. Data were collected using a purpose-designed tool based on relevant literature and practice experience. Results. Of the original recorded fluid balance calculations, 79% deviated by more than 50 mL from the audited calculations. Further­more, a significant relationship was shown between inaccurate fluid balance calculation and administration of diuretics (p=0.01. Conclusion. The majority of fluid balance records were incorrectly calculated.

  7. Surface and Subsurface Geochemical Monitoring of an EOR-CO2 Field: Buracica, Brazil Monitoring géochimique en surface et sub-surface d’un gisement en production par récupération assistée et injection de CO2 : le champ de Buracica, Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnier C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a surface and subsurface geochemical survey of the Buracica EOR-CO2 field onshore Brazil. We adopted a methodology coupling the stable isotopes of carbon with noble gases to investigate the adequacy of geochemical monitoring to track deep fluid leakage at the surface. Three campaigns of CO2 flux and concentration in soils were performed to understand the CO2 variability across the field. The distribution of the CO2 soil contents between 0.8 and 14% is in great part controlled by the properties of the soil, with a first-order topographic dependency. These results, together with a δ13CCO2 between –15 and –23‰, suggest that the bulk of the soil CO2 flux is biological. The gas injected and produced at numerous wells across the field showed a great spatial and somewhat temporal heterogeneity with respect to molecular, δ13CCO2 and noble gas compositions. This heterogeneity is a consequence of the EOR-induced sweeping of the petroleum fluids by the injected CO2, producing a heterogeneous mixing controlled by the production scheme and the distribution in reservoir permeability. In light of the δ13CCO2 found in the reservoir, the stable isotopic composition of carbon was insufficient to track CO2 leaks at the surface. We demonstrate how noble gases may be powerful leak discriminators, even for CO2 abundances in soils in the bottom range of the biological baseline (~1%. The results presented in this study show the potential of geochemical monitoring techniques, involving stable isotopes and noble gases at the reservoir and soil levels, for tracing CO2 in CCS projects. Le monitoring géochimique du gisement de Buracica, qui produit des hydrocarbures par récupération assistée et injection de dioxyde de carbone, est présenté dans cet article. Une méthodologie permettant de coupler l’utilisation des isotopes stables du carbone et des isotopes des gaz rares pour étudier la faisabilité de traçage d’une fuite de CO2 du r

  8. A distributed fluid level sensor suitable for monitoring fuel load on board a moving fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkwright, John W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Papageorgiou, Anthony W.

    2018-02-01

    A temperature insensitive fiber Bragg grating sensing array has been developed for monitoring fluid levels in a moving tank. The sensors are formed from two optical fibers twisted together to form a double helix with pairs of fiber Bragg gratings located above one another at the points where the fibers are vertically disposed. The sensing mechanism is based on a downwards deflection of the section of the double helix containing the FBGs which causes the tension in the upper FBG to decrease and the tension in the lower FBG to increase with concomitant changes in Bragg wavelength in each FBG. Changes in ambient temperature cause a common mode increase in Bragg wavelength, thus monitoring the differential change in wavelength provides a temperature independent measure of the applied pressure. Ambient temperature can be monitored simultaneously by taking the average wavelength of the upper and lower FBGs. The sensors are able to detect variations in pressure with resolutions better than 1 mmH2O and when placed on the bottom of a tank can be used to monitor fluid level based on the recorded pressure. Using an array of these sensors located along the bottom of a moving tank it was possible to monitor the fluid level at multiple points and hence dynamically track the total fluid volume in the tank. The outer surface of the sensing array is formed from a thin continuous Teflon sleeve, making it suitable for monitoring the level of volatile fluids such as aviation fuel and gasoline.

  9. Sub-surface defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Huda Abdullah; Abdul Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Ibrahim Ahmad; Vavilov, Vladimir

    2009-04-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 k Watt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with thermo fit TM Pro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔT max and the time of its appearance, τ max (ΔT). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔT max ), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defect area at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (author)

  10. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  12. Smart monitoring of fluid intake and bladder voiding using pressure sensitive mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-McFarlane, Madison; Green, James R; Knoefel, Frank; Goubran, Rafik

    2016-08-01

    Pressure sensitive mats have been used in noninvasive smart monitoring for a variety of problems including breathing rate monitoring, sleep monitoring, mobility, and weight. This paper describes a proof of concept application of pressure mats to monitor fluid intake/output (fluid cycle) events during the night. The ability to more accurately track such events has potential implications for monitoring those individuals who have nocturia, a condition where a person wakes at night to urinate. Data were collected from a healthy young female subject instructed to drink as much water as was comfortable (700mL) and lie in a supine position on a mattress located directly on three pressure mats. This was compared to an initial data set collected immediately after voiding but before drinking, 30 minutes after drinking, 60 minutes after drinking and a final data set after again voiding the bladder. The additional pressure from the 700mL of water was detectible and tracked over the course of the hour-long testing session under idealized conditions. This provides a proof-of-concept that nocturnal fluid intake and bladder voiding events can be tracked using non-invasive pressure-sensitive mats, however additional testing and development is required to achieve a deployable monitoring system.

  13. Multi-parameter monitoring system for hydraulic fluids; Multi-Parameter Monitoring System fuer Hydraulische Fluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sumit; Legner, Wolfgang; Hackner, Angelika; Mueller, Gerhard [EADS Innovation Works, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Sensors, Electronics and Systems Integration; Baumbach, Volker [Airbus Operations GmbH, Bremen (Germany). Bereich Hydraulic Performance and Integrity

    2011-07-01

    A miniaturised sensor system for aviation hydraulic fluids is presented. The system consists of an optochemical sensor and a particle sensor. The optochemical sensor detects the form of the O-H absorption feature around 3500 cm{sup -1} to reveal the water and acid contamination in the fluid. The particle sensor uses a light barrier principle to derive its particle contamination number. (orig.)

  14. Body fluid markers to monitor multiple sclerosis: The assays and the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Thompson, E.J.; Kappos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The need for reliable markers of disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) to better guide basic research, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of therapy is well-recognized. A recent European Charcot Foundation Symposium (Body fluid markers for course and activity of disease in multiple sclerosis

  15. Study of ultrasonic propagation through vortices for acoustic monitoring of high-temperature and turbulent fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massacret, Nicolas; Moysan, Joseph; Ploix, Marie-Aude; Chaouch, Naim; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic monitoring in high temperature fluids with turbulences requires the knowledge of wave propagation in such media and the development of simulation tools. Applications could be the monitoring of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objectives are mainly acoustic telemetry and thermometry, which involve the propagation of ultrasounds in turbulent and heated sodium flows. We developed a ray-tracing model to simulate the wave propagation and to determine wave deviations and delays due to an inhomogeneous medium. In previous work we demonstrated the sensitivity of ultrasounds to temperature gradients in liquid sodium. To complete that study, we need to investigate the sensitivity of ultrasounds to vortices created in a moving fluid. We designed a specific experimental setup called IKHAR (Instabilities of Kelvin-Helmholtz for Acoustic Research) in order to assess the validity of the ray-tracing model and the potential of ultrasounds for monitoring such fluid. In this experiment, Von Karman instabilities were created in a flow of water. Fluid temperature was homogeneous in our experimental setup. Through a careful choice of the parameters, periodic vortices were generated. The experiment was also simulated using Comsol registered to allow discussion about repeatability. The throughtransmission method was used to measure wave delays due to the vortices. Arrays of transducers were used to measure time of flight variations of several nanoseconds with a high spatial resolution. Results were similar to simulation results. They demonstrate that beam delays due to vortices can be measured and confirm the potential of ultrasounds in monitoring very inhomogeneous fluid media such as liquid sodium used as coolant fluid in nuclear fast reactors.

  16. Monitoring of magnetic EOR fluids in reservoir under production by using the electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S.; Min, D. J.; Moon, S.; Kim, W. K.; Shin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    To increase the amount of oil and gas extracted during production, some techniques like EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) are applied by injecting some materials such as water and CO2. Recently, there are some researches for injecting magnetic nanoparticles with fluids during EOR. The size of particle is nano-scale, which can prevent particles from adhering to the pores of reservoir. The main purpose of injecting magnetic nanoparticles is to monitor movement or distribution of EOR fluids. To monitor the injected magnetic EOR fluids in the reservoir, CSEM (controlled source electromagnetic method) can be the most optimized geophysical method among various geophysical monitoring methods. Depending on the reservoir circumstances, we can control the electric or magnetic sources to monitor reservoir during oil or gas production. In this study, we perform numerical simulation of CSEM for 3D horizontal-layered models assuming a reservoir under production. We suppose that there are two wells: one is for the controlled source; the other is for the receiver. By changing the distribution, movement and magnetization of EOR fluids, we compare the electric or magnetic fields recorded at the receiver. Maxwell's equations are the governing equation of CSEM and are approximated by using the edge-based finite-element method. Direct solver is applied to solve the linear equations. Because injected magnetic nanoparticle changes the conductivity of EOR fluid, there is high contrast of conductivity of reservoir. This high contrast of conductivity induces secondary electric or magnetic fields that are recorded at the receiver well. We compare these recorded secondary fields generated by various movement or distribution of magnetic EOR fluid. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea, by the "Civil Military Technology Cooperation Center", and by the International

  17. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  18. Characterization of stratification for an opaque highly stable magnetorheological fluid using vertical axis inductance monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Choi, Young-Tai; Liao, Chang-Rong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for the commercialization of various magnetorheological fluid (MRF)-based applications is sedimentation stability. In this study, a high viscosity linear polysiloxane (HVLP), which has been used for shock absorbers in heavy equipment, is proposed as a new carrier fluid in highly stable MRFs. The HVLP is known to be a thixotropic (i.e., shear thinning) fluid that shows very high viscosity at very low shear rate and low viscosity at higher shear rate. In this study, using the shear rheometer, the significant thixotropic behavior of the HVLP was experimentally confirmed. In addition, a HVLP carrier fluid-based MRF (HVLP MRF) with 26 vol. % was synthesized and its sedimentation characteristics were experimentally investigated. But, because of the opacity of the HVLP MRF, no mudline can be visually observed. Hence, a vertical axis inductance monitoring system (VAIMS) applied to a circular column of fluid was used to evaluate sedimentation behavior by correlating measured inductance with the volume fraction of dispersed particles (i.e., Fe). Using the VAIMS, Fe concentration (i.e., volume fraction) was monitored for 28 days with a measurement taken every four days, as well as one measurement after 96 days to characterize long-term sedimentation stability. Finally, the concentration of the HVLP MRF as a function of the depth in the column and time, as well as the concentration change versus the depth in the column, are presented and compared with those of a commercially available MRF (i.e., Lord MRF-126CD).

  19. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  20. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  2. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  3. Fluid Status in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D.; Covic, Adrian C.; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Background Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. Methods We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Results Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R2 of the model = 0.57). Conclusions The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia. PMID:21390320

  4. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  5. Use of IgG in oral fluid to monitor infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapey, Emmanuelle; Meroni, Valeria; Kieffer, François; Bollani, Lina; Ecochard, René; Garcia, Patricia; Wallon, Martine; Peyron, François

    2015-04-01

    Infants born to mothers who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of sequelae. In the case of a negative work-up at birth, congenital infection can be ruled out only by monitoring the disappearance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) transmitted through the placenta, which can be achieved by regular blood sampling during the first year. To alleviate the discomfort of this follow-up, we developed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect specific IgG diffusing passively from the blood through the gingival epithelium by collecting oral fluid on microsponges. To assess the feasibility of the test, 212 patients were first enrolled. Levels of specific IgG in oral fluid were significantly higher in seropositive (n = 195) than in seronegative (n = 17) patients (mean optical densities, 1.145 ± 0.99 versus 0.092 ± 0.127; P < 0.0001). In a population of 93 patients <15 months of age born to mothers who displayed toxoplasmic infection during pregnancy, 70 were free of congenital infection and were followed up until their serology turned negative, and 23 were congenitally infected. The same patterns of IgG were observed in the oral fluid and sera in each group. Using a cutoff of 0.04 (optical density value), the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 67.9% and 80.3%, respectively, and the probability of not having a congenital infection when the test on oral fluid was negative was 99%. Although the performance of the test needs to be improved, oral fluid sampling appears to be a promising tool for monitoring infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Mechanical Weakening during Fluid Injection in Critically Stressed Sandstones with Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Dautriat, J. D.; Sarout, J.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.

    2014-12-01

    Water weakening is a well-known phenomenon which can lead to subsidence during the production of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The example of the Ekofisk oil field in the North Sea has been well documented for years. In order to assess water weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks saturated either with water or with inert fluids. However, little attention has been paid so far on the mechanical behaviour during the fluid injection stage, like in enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behaviour of Sherwood sandstone, a weakly-consolidated sandstone sampled at Ladram Bay in UK. In order to highlight possible weakening effects, water and inert oil have been injected into critically-loaded samples to assess their effect on strength and elastic properties and to derive the acoustic signature of the saturation front for each fluid. The specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P-wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during fluid injection and loading. After conducting standard triaxial tests on three samples saturated with air, water and oil respectively, mechanical creep tests were conducted on dry samples loaded at 80% of the compressive strength of the dry rock. While these conditions are kept constant, a fluid is injected at the bottom end of the sample with a low back pressure (0.5 MPa) to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Both water and oil were used as the injected pore fluid in two experiments. As soon as the fluids start to flow into the samples, creep is taking place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. A transition from secondary creep to tertiary creep is observed in the water injection test whereas in the oil injection test no significant creep acceleration is observed after one pore volume of oil was

  7. Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal; Turiel, Antonio; Wiggins, Stephen; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.

  8. Impact of environmental conditions on sub-surface storage tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast iron made storage tanks with gasoline fluid were buried under the soil at a depth of 4 m under various environment conditions. The simulated conditions include natural rain fail, temperature and acidic, alkaline and neutral soils. A control condition of neutral sea sand as base and filling materials were also investigated.

  9. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  10. Assessment of the use of oral fluid as a matrix for drug monitoring in patients undergoing treatment for opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens.

  11. Monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movement in the Cretaceous Dakota aquifer, western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Allen; Förster, Andrea; Merriam, Daniel; Schrötter, Jörg; Healey, John

    2002-10-01

    Aquifer properties can be evaluated by monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movements between wells, if the fluid is heated. Changes in the temperature profile recorded in observation wells indicate the flow path of the heated fluid, which in effect acts as a tracer. A fluid-flow experiment in the Cretaceous Dakota Formation at the Hodgeman County site, west-central Kansas, demonstrated the advantage of using the distributed optical-fiber temperature sensing method for monitoring transient temperature conditions in this hydrological application. The fluid flow in the aquifer was increased by producing water from a pumping well and injecting heated water in an injection well 13 m (43 ft) distant from the pumping well. The time-temperature series data obtained and compared with results from previous pumping tests point to interwell heterogeneity of the aquifer and to a zone in the sandstone aquifer of high hydraulic conductivity. However, the experiment would have allowed further clarification of aquifer heterogeneity and thermal properties if at least one observation well had been present between the injection and production wells. Résumé. Les caractéristiques d'un aquifère peuvent être évaluées en effectuant un suivi des mouvements du fluide stimulés artificiellement entre des puits, si le fluide est chauffé. Les variations de profils de température enregistrés dans les puits d'observation donnent des informations sur les directions d'écoulement du fluide chauffé, qui en fait se comporte comme un traceur. Réalisée dans la formation crétacée de Dakota, sur le site du Comté de Hodgeman (centre-ouest du Kansas), une expérience a démontré l'intérêt d'utiliser la méthode de détection distribuée de température par fibres optiques pour suivre les variations de température dans cette application hydrologique. L'écoulement du fluide dans l'aquifère a été favorisé en extrayant de l'eau par pompage et en injectant de l'eau chaude dans un

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Magnetic Induction Phase Shift in Rabbit Intracerebral hematoma expansion Monitoring by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mingsheng; Yan, Qingguang; Sun, Jian; Jin, Gui; Qin, Mingxin

    2017-01-01

    In a prior study of intracerebral hemorrhage monitoring using magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS), we found that MIPS signal changes occurred prior to those seen with intracranial pressure. However, the characteristic MIPS alert is not yet fully explained. Combining the brain physiology and MIPS theory, we propose that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be the primary factor that leads to hematoma expansion being alerted by MIPS earlier than with intracranial pressure monitoring. This paper inve...

  13. Monitoring thoracic fluid content using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and Cole modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovancescu, Silviu; Saporito, Salvatore; Herold, Ingeborg H.F.; Korsten, H.H.M.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic disease marked by frequenthospitalizations due to pulmonary fluid congestion. Monitoringthe thoracic fluid status may favor the detection of fluidcongestion in an early stage and enable targeted preventivemeasures. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has beenused in

  14. Revolutionizing Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with the Use of Interstitial Fluid and Microneedles Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Tony K.L.; Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Ensom, Mary H.H.

    2017-01-01

    While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) that uses blood as the biological matrix is the traditional gold standard, this practice may be impossible, impractical, or unethical for some patient populations (e.g., elderly, pediatric, anemic) and those with fragile veins. In the context of finding an alternative biological matrix for TDM, this manuscript will provide a qualitative review on: (1) the principles of TDM; (2) alternative matrices for TDM; (3) current evidence supporting the use of interstitial fluid (ISF) for TDM in clinical models; (4) the use of microneedle technologies, which is potentially minimally invasive and pain-free, for the collection of ISF; and (5) future directions. The current state of knowledge on the use of ISF for TDM in humans is still limited. A thorough literature review indicates that only a few drug classes have been investigated (i.e., anti-infectives, anticonvulsants, and miscellaneous other agents). Studies have successfully demonstrated techniques for ISF extraction from the skin but have failed to demonstrate commercial feasibility of ISF extraction followed by analysis of its content outside the ISF-collecting microneedle device. In contrast, microneedle-integrated biosensors built to extract ISF and perform the biomolecule analysis on-device, with a key feature of not needing to transfer ISF to a separate instrument, have yielded promising results that need to be validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The most promising applications for microneedle-integrated biosensors is continuous monitoring of biomolecules from the skin’s ISF. Conducting TDM using ISF is at the stage where its clinical utility should be investigated. Based on the advancements described in the current review, the immediate future direction for this area of research is to establish the suitability of using ISF for TDM in human models for drugs that have been found suitable in pre-clinical experiments. PMID:29019915

  15. Revolutionizing Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with the Use of Interstitial Fluid and Microneedles Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony K.L. Kiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM that uses blood as the biological matrix is the traditional gold standard, this practice may be impossible, impractical, or unethical for some patient populations (e.g., elderly, pediatric, anemic and those with fragile veins. In the context of finding an alternative biological matrix for TDM, this manuscript will provide a qualitative review on: (1 the principles of TDM; (2 alternative matrices for TDM; (3 current evidence supporting the use of interstitial fluid (ISF for TDM in clinical models; (4 the use of microneedle technologies, which is potentially minimally invasive and pain-free, for the collection of ISF; and (5 future directions. The current state of knowledge on the use of ISF for TDM in humans is still limited. A thorough literature review indicates that only a few drug classes have been investigated (i.e., anti-infectives, anticonvulsants, and miscellaneous other agents. Studies have successfully demonstrated techniques for ISF extraction from the skin but have failed to demonstrate commercial feasibility of ISF extraction followed by analysis of its content outside the ISF-collecting microneedle device. In contrast, microneedle-integrated biosensors built to extract ISF and perform the biomolecule analysis on-device, with a key feature of not needing to transfer ISF to a separate instrument, have yielded promising results that need to be validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The most promising applications for microneedle-integrated biosensors is continuous monitoring of biomolecules from the skin’s ISF. Conducting TDM using ISF is at the stage where its clinical utility should be investigated. Based on the advancements described in the current review, the immediate future direction for this area of research is to establish the suitability of using ISF for TDM in human models for drugs that have been found suitable in pre-clinical experiments.

  16. The use of cardiac output monitoring to guide the administration of intravenous fluid during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaimani, K; Mohamed, F; Cecil, T; Moran, B J; Bell, J

    2013-12-01

    The optimal strategy for intravenous (IV) fluid management during administration of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is unclear. In this prospective study we describe the use of a LiDCOrapid™ (LiDCO, Cambridge, UK) cardiac output monitor to guide IV fluid management during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with HIPEC. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiac output monitoring will allow close maintenance of physiological parameters during the HIPEC phase. Twenty-five patients who underwent CRS combined with HIPEC were included in the study. Intra-operative IV fluid boluses were titrated using parameters measured by the LiDCOrapid™ monitor. Stroke volume variation was maintained below 10% with fluid boluses and mean arterial pressure was maintained within 20% of the baseline figure with vasopressors. There was no significant change in heart rate and cardiac output. The systemic vascular resistance dropped from an average of 966 dyn.s/cm-5 to 797 dyn s/cm(5) at 60 min during the HIPEC phase (P = 0.62) despite an increase in the dose of phenylepherine. The average total volume of fluid given was 748 ml in the first 30 min and 630 ml in the second 30 min with an average urine output of 307 and 445 ml, respectively. The change in lactate levels was not statistically or clinically significant. LiDCOrapid™ is an effective noninvasive tool for guiding fluid management in this population. It allows the anaesthesiologist to maintain tight control of essential physiological parameters during a phase of the procedure in which there is a risk of renal injury. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node—Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros El Sachat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous monitoring and management of industrial assets. Here are presented the design, development and operation of a class of low cost photonic sensors for monitoring the ageing process and the operational characteristics of coolant fluids used in an industrial heavy machinery infrastructure. The chemical, physical and spectroscopic characteristics of specific industrial-grade coolant fluids were analyzed along their entire life cycle range, and proper parameters for their efficient monitoring were identified. Based on multimode polymer or silica optical fibers, wide range (3–11 pH sensors were developed by employing sol-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants’ ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications.

  18. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node-Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachat, Alexandros El; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos; Sakellariou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Aggelos; Katsikas, Serafim; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-03-11

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous monitoring and management of industrial assets. Here are presented the design, development and operation of a class of low cost photonic sensors for monitoring the ageing process and the operational characteristics of coolant fluids used in an industrial heavy machinery infrastructure. The chemical, physical and spectroscopic characteristics of specific industrial-grade coolant fluids were analyzed along their entire life cycle range, and proper parameters for their efficient monitoring were identified. Based on multimode polymer or silica optical fibers, wide range (3-11) pH sensors were developed by employing sol-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants' ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications.

  19. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node—Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sachat, Alexandros; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos; Sakellariou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Aggelos; Katsikas, Serafim; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous monitoring and management of industrial assets. Here are presented the design, development and operation of a class of low cost photonic sensors for monitoring the ageing process and the operational characteristics of coolant fluids used in an industrial heavy machinery infrastructure. The chemical, physical and spectroscopic characteristics of specific industrial-grade coolant fluids were analyzed along their entire life cycle range, and proper parameters for their efficient monitoring were identified. Based on multimode polymer or silica optical fibers, wide range (3–11) pH sensors were developed by employing sol-gel derived pH sensitive coatings. The performances of the developed sensors were characterized and compared, towards their coolants’ ageing monitoring capability, proving their efficiency in such a demanding application scenario and harsh industrial environment. The operating characteristics of this type of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications. PMID:28287488

  20. Differential Muon Tomography to Continuously Monitor Changes in the Composition of Subsurface Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Max; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Spooner, Neil J.; Fung, Cora; Gluyas, John

    2013-01-01

    Muon tomography has been used to seek hidden chambers in Egyptian pyramids and image subsurface features in volcanoes. It seemed likely that it could be used to image injected, supercritical carbon dioxide as it is emplaced in porous geological structures being used for carbon sequestration, and also to check on subsequent leakage. It should work equally well in any other application where there are two fluids of different densities, such as water and oil, or carbon dioxide and heavy oil in oil reservoirs. Continuous monitoring of movement of oil and/or flood fluid during enhanced oil recovery activities for managing injection is important for economic reasons. Checking on leakage for geological carbon storage is essential both for safety and for economic purposes. Current technology (for example, repeat 3D seismic surveys) is expensive and episodic. Muons are generated by high- energy cosmic rays resulting from supernova explosions, and interact with gas molecules in the atmosphere. This innovation has produced a theoretical model of muon attenuation in the thickness of rock above and within a typical sandstone reservoir at a depth of between 1.00 and 1.25 km. Because this first simulation was focused on carbon sequestration, the innovators chose depths sufficient for the pressure there to ensure that the carbon dioxide would be supercritical. This innovation demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using the natural cosmic-ray muon flux to generate continuous tomographic images of carbon dioxide in a storage site. The muon flux is attenuated to an extent dependent on, amongst other things, the density of the materials through which it passes. The density of supercritical carbon dioxide is only three quarters that of the brine in the reservoir that it displaces. The first realistic simulations indicate that changes as small as 0.4% in the storage site bulk density could be detected (equivalent to 7% of the porosity, in this specific case). The initial

  1. Fracture mechanics assessment of surface and sub-surface cracks in the RPV under non-symmetric PTS loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E; Shoepper, A; Fricke, S [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    One of the most severe loading conditions of a reactor pressure vessel (rpv) under operation is the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition. Cold water is injected through nozzles in the downcomer of the rpv, while the internal pressure may remain at a high level. Complex thermal hydraulic situations occur and the fluid and downcomer temperatures as well as the fluid to wall heat transfer coefficient at the inner surface are highly non-linear. Due to this non-symmetric conditions, the problem is investigated by three-dimensional non-linear finite element analyses, which allow for an accurate assessment of the postulated flaws. Transient heat transfer analyses are carried out to analyze the effect of non-symmetrical cooling of the inner surface of the pressure vessel. In a following uncoupled stress analysis the thermal shock effects for different types of defects, surface flaws and sub-surface flaws are investigated for linear elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviour. The obtained fracture parameters are calculated along the crack fronts. By a fast fracture analysis the fracture parameters at different positions along the crack front are compared to the material resistance. Safety margins are pointed out in an assessment diagram of the fracture parameters and the fracture resistance versus the transient temperature at the crack tip position. (author). 4 refs, 10 figs.

  2. Thermal healing of the sub-surface damage layer in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas, Malki; Lotem, Haim; Golan, Yuval; Einav, Yeheskel; Golan, Roxana; Chakotay, Elad; Haim, Avivit; Sinai, Ela; Vaknin, Moshe; Hershkovitz, Yasmin; Horowitz, Atara

    2010-01-01

    The sub-surface damage layer formed by mechanical polishing of sapphire is known to reduce the mechanical strength of the processed sapphire and to degrade the performance of sapphire based components. Thermal annealing is one of the methods to eliminate the sub-surface damage layer. This study focuses on the mechanism of thermal healing by studying its effect on surface topography of a- and c-plane surfaces, on the residual stresses in surface layers and on the thickness of the sub-surface damage layer. An atomically flat surface was developed on thermally annealed c-plane surfaces while a faceted roof-top topography was formed on a-plane surfaces. The annealing resulted in an improved crystallographic perfection close to the sample surface as was indicated by a noticeable decrease in X-ray rocking curve peak width. Etching experiments and surface roughness measurements using white light interferometry with sub-nanometer resolution on specimens annealed to different extents indicate that the sub-surface damage layer of the optically polished sapphire is less than 3 μm thick and it is totally healed after thermal treatment at 1450 deg. C for 72 h.

  3. Monitoring nicotine intake from e-cigarettes: measurement of parent drug and metabolites in oral fluid and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaseit, Esther; Farré, Magí; Graziano, Silvia; Pacifici, Roberta; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; García-Algar, Oscar; Pichini, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) known as electronic nicotine devices recently gained popularity among smokers. Despite many studies investigating their safety and toxicity, few examined the delivery of e-cig-derived nicotine and its metabolites in alternative biological fluids. We performed a randomized, crossover, and controlled clinical trial in nine healthy smokers. Nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HCOT) were measured in plasma and oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after consumption of two consecutive e-cig administrations or two consecutive tobacco cigarettes. NIC and its metabolites were detected both in oral fluid and plasma following both administration conditions. Concentrations in oral fluid resulted various orders of magnitude higher than those observed in plasma. Oral fluid concentration of tobacco cigarette and e-cig-derived NIC peaked at 15 min after each administration and ranged between 1.0 and 1396 μg/L and from 0.3 to 860 μg/L; those of COT between 52.8 and 110 μg/L and from 33.8 to 94.7 μg/L; and those of 3-HCOT between 12.4 and 23.5 μg/L and from 8.5 to 24.4 μg/L. The oral fluid to plasma concentration ratio of both e-cig- and tobacco cigarette-derived NIC peaked at 15 min after both administrations and correlated with oral fluid NIC concentration. The obtained results support the measurement of NIC and metabolites in oral fluid in the assessment of intake after e-cig use and appear to be a suitable alternative to plasma when monitoring nicotine delivery from e-cig for clinical and toxicological studies.

  4. Method for monitoring fluid movement behind casing in oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    A new method was developed for locating fluid movement between the casing and the earth formations in a cased earth borehole. It comprises traversing a cased earth borehole with a gamma ray detector, thereby creating a base log; injecting a fluid containing a salt of potassium, thorium or uranium into the formation; and creating a second log indicative of the movement of the injected fluid. (D.N.)

  5. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow

  6. Blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecking Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients. Methods/design BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters, relative to extracellular water (ECW. In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW. Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase. In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study

  7. Measurement of hydrogeologic parameters of Indian volcanic rocks by sub-surface hydronuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Sub-surface hydronuclear techniques namely neutron-neutron, gamma-gamma and tracer dilution logging and single and double well tracer methods were adopted to investigate the hitherto inadequately studied hydrophysical properties of the Deccan lava flows which constitute the principal Indian volcanic suit of rocks. The hydrogeologic parameters measured in the field pertain to hydrostratigraphy, hydrostorage properties and geohydraulic characteristics of these layered hard formations. Results of the studies are presented and discussed briefly. (author)

  8. Quantitative sub-surface and non-contact imaging using scanning microwave microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramse, Georg; Kasper, Manuel; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Brinciotti, Enrico; Rankl, Christian; Kienberger, Ferry; Lucibello, Andrea; Marcelli, Romolo; Patil, Samadhan B.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    The capability of scanning microwave microscopy for calibrated sub-surface and non-contact capacitance imaging of silicon (Si) samples is quantitatively studied at broadband frequencies ranging from 1 to 20 GHz. Calibrated capacitance images of flat Si test samples with varying dopant density (10 15 –10 19 atoms cm −3 ) and covered with dielectric thin films of SiO 2 (100–400 nm thickness) are measured to demonstrate the sensitivity of scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) for sub-surface imaging. Using standard SMM imaging conditions the dopant areas could still be sensed under a 400 nm thick oxide layer. Non-contact SMM imaging in lift-mode and constant height mode is quantitatively demonstrated on a 50 nm thick SiO 2 test pad. The differences between non-contact and contact mode capacitances are studied with respect to the main parameters influencing the imaging contrast, namely the probe tip diameter and the tip–sample distance. Finite element modelling was used to further analyse the influence of the tip radius and the tip–sample distance on the SMM sensitivity. The understanding of how the two key parameters determine the SMM sensitivity and quantitative capacitances represents an important step towards its routine application for non-contact and sub-surface imaging. (paper)

  9. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting h...

  10. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Uemura; Yutaka Yano; Toshinari Suzuki; Taro Yasuma; Toshiyuki Sato; Aya Morimoto; Samiko Hosoya; Chihiro Suminaka; Hiromu Nakajima; Esteban C. Gabazza; Yoshiyuki Takei

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hy...

  11. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.

    2014-12-01

    ISNet (http://isnet.fisica.unina.it) is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  12. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to avoid peri-operative hypovolaemia or fluid overload, goal-directed therapy with individual maximization of flow-related haemodynamic parameters has been introduced. The objectives of this review are to update research in the area, evaluate the effects on outcome and assess...

  13. Multiple sulfur isotopes monitor fluid evolution of an Archean orogenic gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFlamme, Crystal; Sugiono, Dennis; Thébaud, Nicolas; Caruso, Stefano; Fiorentini, Marco; Selvaraja, Vikraman; Jeon, Heejin; Voute, François; Martin, Laure

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of a gold-bearing hydrothermal fluid from its source to the locus of gold deposition is complex as it experiences rapid changes in thermochemical conditions during ascent through the crust. Although it is well established that orogenic gold deposits are generated during time periods of abundant crustal growth and/or reworking, the source of fluid and the thermochemical processes that control gold precipitation remain poorly understood. In situ analyses of multiple sulfur isotopes offer a new window into the relationship between source reservoirs of Au-bearing fluids and the thermochemical processes that occur along their pathway to the final site of mineralisation. Whereas δ34S is able to track changes in the evolution of the thermodynamic conditions of ore-forming fluids, Δ33S is virtually indelible and can uniquely fingerprint an Archean sedimentary reservoir that has undergone mass independent fractionation of sulfur (MIF-S). We combine these two tracers (δ34S and Δ33S) to characterise a gold-bearing laminated quartz breccia ore zone and its sulfide-bearing alteration halo in the (+6 Moz Au) structurally-controlled Archean Waroonga deposit located in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Over 250 analyses of gold-associated sulfides yield a δ34S shift from what is interpreted as an early pre-mineralisation phase, with chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite (δ34S = +0.7‰ to +2.9‰) and arsenopyrite cores (δ34S = ∼-0.5‰), to a syn-mineralisation stage, reflected in Au-bearing arsenopyrite rims (δ34S = -7.6‰ to +1.5‰). This shift coincides with an unchanging Δ33S value (Δ33S = +0.3‰), both temporally throughout the Au-hosting hydrothermal sulfide paragenesis and spatially across the Au ore zone. These results indicate that sulfur is at least partially recycled from MIF-S-bearing Archean sediments. Further, the invariant nature of the observed MIF-S signature demonstrates that sulfur is derived from a

  14. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  15. An evaluation and comparison of intraventricular, intraparenchymal, and fluid-coupled techniques for intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, John; Waller, Jennifer; Dhandapani, Krishnan; McDonnell, Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Intracranial pressure measurements have become one of the mainstays of traumatic brain injury management. Various technologies exist to monitor intracranial pressure from a variety of locations. Transducers are usually placed to assess pressure in the brain parenchyma and the intra-ventricular fluid, which are the two most widely accepted compartmental monitoring sites. The individual reliability and inter-reliability of these devices with and without cerebrospinal fluid diversion is not clear. The predictive capability of monitors in both of these sites to local, regional, and global changes also needs further clarification. The technique of monitoring intraventricular pressure with a fluid-coupled transducer system is also reviewed. There has been little investigation into the relationship among pressure measurements obtained from these two sources using these three techniques. Eleven consecutive patients with severe, closed traumatic brain injury not requiring intracranial mass lesion evacuation were admitted into this prospective study. Each patient underwent placement of a parenchymal and intraventricular pressure monitor. The ventricular catheter tubing was also connected to a sensor for fluid-coupled measurement. Pressure from all three sources was measured hourly with and without ventricular drainage. Statistically significant correlation within each monitoring site was seen. No monitoring location was more predictive of global pressure changes or more responsive to pressure changes related to patient stimulation. However, the intraventricular pressure measurements were not reliable in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid drainage whereas the parenchymal measurements remained unaffected. Intraparenchymal pressure monitoring provides equivalent, statistically similar pressure measurements when compared to intraventricular monitors in all care and clinical settings. This is particularly valuable when uninterrupted cerebrospinal fluid drainage is desirable.

  16. Home blood sodium monitoring, sliding-scale fluid prescription and subcutaneous DDAVP for infantile diabetes insipidus with impaired thirst mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Shihab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Infants with diabetes insipidus (DI, especially those with impaired thirst mechanism or hypothalamic hyperphagia, are prone to severe sodium fluctuations, often requiring hospitalization. We aimed to avoid dangerous fluctuations in serum sodium and improve parental independence. Methods A 16-month old girl with central DI, absent thirst mechanism and hyperphagia following surgery for hypothalamic astrocytoma had erratic absorption of oral DDAVP during chemotherapy cycles. She required prolonged hospitalizations for hypernatremia and hyponatremic seizure. Intensive monitoring of fluid balance, weight and clinical assessment of hydration were not helpful in predicting serum sodium. Discharge home was deemed unsafe. Oral DDAVP was switched to subcutaneous (twice-daily injections, starting with 0.01mcg/dose, increasing to 0.024mcg/dose. The parents adjusted daily fluid allocation by sliding-scale, according to the blood sodium level (measured by handheld i-STAT analyser, Abbott. We adjusted the DDAVP dose if fluid allocation differed from maintenance requirements for 3 consecutive days. Results After 2.5 months, sodium was better controlled, with 84% of levels within reference range (135-145 mmol/L vs. only 51% on the old regimen (p = 0.0001. The sodium ranged from 132-154 mmol/L, compared to 120–156 on the old regimen. She was discharged home. Conclusion This practical regimen improved sodium control, parental independence, and allowed discharge home.

  17. Home blood sodium monitoring, sliding-scale fluid prescription and subcutaneous DDAVP for infantile diabetes insipidus with impaired thirst mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Shihab; Mendoza-Cruz, Abel C; Neville, Kristen A; Woodhead, Helen J; Walker, Jan L; Verge, Charles F

    2012-06-09

    Infants with diabetes insipidus (DI), especially those with impaired thirst mechanism or hypothalamic hyperphagia, are prone to severe sodium fluctuations, often requiring hospitalization. We aimed to avoid dangerous fluctuations in serum sodium and improve parental independence. A 16-month old girl with central DI, absent thirst mechanism and hyperphagia following surgery for hypothalamic astrocytoma had erratic absorption of oral DDAVP during chemotherapy cycles. She required prolonged hospitalizations for hypernatremia and hyponatremic seizure. Intensive monitoring of fluid balance, weight and clinical assessment of hydration were not helpful in predicting serum sodium. Discharge home was deemed unsafe. Oral DDAVP was switched to subcutaneous (twice-daily injections, starting with 0.01mcg/dose, increasing to 0.024mcg/dose). The parents adjusted daily fluid allocation by sliding-scale, according to the blood sodium level (measured by handheld i-STAT analyser, Abbott). We adjusted the DDAVP dose if fluid allocation differed from maintenance requirements for 3 consecutive days. After 2.5 months, sodium was better controlled, with 84% of levels within reference range (135-145 mmol/L) vs. only 51% on the old regimen (p = 0.0001). The sodium ranged from 132-154 mmol/L, compared to 120-156 on the old regimen. She was discharged home. This practical regimen improved sodium control, parental independence, and allowed discharge home.

  18. Reconstruction of sub-surface archaeological remains from magnetic data using neural computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescoby, D. J.; Cawley, G. C.; Chroston, P. N.

    2003-04-01

    The remains of a former Roman colonial settlement, once part of the classical city of Butrint in southern Albania have been the subject of a high resolution magnetic survey using a caesium-vapour magnetometer. The survey revealed the surviving remains of an extensive planned settlement and a number of outlying buildings, today buried beneath over 0.5 m of alluvial deposits. The aim of the current research is to derive a sub-surface model from the magnetic survey measurements, allowing an enhanced archaeological interpretation of the data. Neural computing techniques are used to perform the non-linear mapping between magnetic data and corresponding sub-surface model parameters. The adoption of neural computing paradigms potentially holds several advantages over other modelling techniques, allowing fast solutions for complex data, while having a high tolerance to noise. A multi-layer perceptron network with a feed-forward architecture is trained to estimate the shape and burial depth of wall foundations using a series of representative models as training data. Parameters used to forward model the training data sets are derived from a number of trial trench excavations targeted over features identified by the magnetic survey. The training of the network was optimized by first applying it to synthetic test data of known source parameters. Pre-processing of the network input data, including the use of a rotationally invariant transform, enhanced network performance and the efficiency of the training data. The approach provides good results when applied to real magnetic data, accurately predicting the depths and layout of wall foundations within the former settlement, verified by subsequent excavation. The resulting sub-surface model is derived from the averaged outputs of a ‘committee’ of five networks, trained with individualized training sets. Fuzzy logic inference has also been used to combine individual network outputs through correlation with data from a second

  19. Prospect of Continuous VLBI Measurement of Earth Rotation in Monitoring Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. The excitation process is via the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore Earth rotation observations contain information about the integrated angular momentum (consisting of both the mass term and the motion term) of the geophysical fluids, which include atmosphere, hydrosphere, mantle, and the outer and inner cores. Such global information is often important and otherwise unattainable depending on the nature of the mass transport, its magnitude and time scale. The last few years have seen great advances in VLBI measurement of Earth rotation in precision and temporal resolution. These advances have opened new. areas in geophysical fluid studies, such as oceanic tidal angular momentum, atmospheric tides, Earth librations, and rapid atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations. Precision of 10 microseconds in UTI and 200 microarcseconds in polar motion can now be achieved on hourly basis. Building upon this heritage, the multi-network geodetic VLBI project, Continuous Observation of the Rotation of the Earth (CORE), promises to further these studies and to make possible studies on elusive but tell-tale geophysical processes such as oscillatory modes in the core and in the atmosphere. Currently the early phase of CORE is underway. Within a few years into the new mellinnium, the upcoming space gravity missions (such as GRACE) will measure the temporal variations in Earth's gravitational field, thus providing complementary information to that from Earth rotation study for a better understanding of global geophysical fluid processes.

  20. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  1. Development and validation of spectroscopic methods for monitoring density changes in pressurized gaseous and supercritical fluid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Marc A; Wallen, Scott L

    2002-04-15

    The further development of new processes utilizing liquid or supercritical CO2 as a solvent will benefit from the rational design of new CO2-philes. Understanding solvation structures and mechanisms of these molecules is an important part of this process. In such studies, determining the change in density as a function of the measured thermodynamic conditions (pressure and temperature) provides an excellent means of directly monitoring the solution conditions in the detection volume for a given technique. By integrating spectroscopic peaks, changes in area can be used to determine changes in analyte concentration in the detection volume, and thus, it should be possible to monitor the system density in situ. In the present study, we examine the utility of Raman and NMR spectroscopy as a means of following changes in solution density conditions and validate this approach in pure fluids and gases (N2 and CO2) and supercritical fluid mixtures (acetaldehyde vapor in N2). In addition, we present the design of a simple, inexpensive cell for conducting Raman and NMR measurements under moderate pressure conditions.

  2. In-line near real time monitoring of fluid streams in separation processes for used nuclear fuel - 5146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, K.; Nilsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Applying spectroscopic tools for chemical processes has been intensively studied in various industries owing to its rapid and non-destructive analysis for detecting chemical components and determine physical characteristic in a process stream. The general complexity of separation processes for used nuclear fuel, e.g., chemical speciation, temperature variations, and prominent process security and safety concerns, require a well-secured and robust monitoring system to provide precise information of the process streams at real time without interference. Multivariate analysis accompanied with spectral measurements is a powerful statistic technique that can be used to monitor this complex chemical system. In this work, chemometric models that respond to the chemical components in the fluid samples were calibrated and validated to establish an in-line near real time monitoring system. The models show good prediction accuracy using partial least square regression analysis on the spectral data obtained from UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopies. The models were tested on a solvent extraction process using a single stage centrifugal contactor in our laboratory to determine the performance of an in-line near real time monitoring system. (authors)

  3. Influence of Si wafer thinning processes on (sub)surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Fumihiro, E-mail: fumihiro.inoue@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jourdain, Anne; Peng, Lan; Phommahaxay, Alain; De Vos, Joeri; Rebibis, Kenneth June; Miller, Andy; Sleeckx, Erik; Beyne, Eric [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mono-vacancy free Si-thinning can be accomplished by combining several thinning techniques. • The grinding damage needs to be removed prior to dry etching, otherwise vacancies remain in the Si at a depth around 0.5 to 2 μm after Si wafer thickness below 5 μm. • The surface of grinding + CMP + dry etching is equivalent mono vacancy level as that of grinding + CMP. - Abstract: Wafer-to-wafer three-dimensional (3D) integration with minimal Si thickness can produce interacting multiple devices with significantly scaled vertical interconnections. Realizing such a thin 3D structure, however, depends critically on the surface and subsurface of the remaining backside Si after the thinning processes. The Si (sub)surface after mechanical grinding has already been characterized fruitfully for a range of few dozen of μm. Here, we expand the characterization of Si (sub)surface to 5 μm thickness after thinning process on dielectric bonded wafers. The subsurface defects and damage layer were investigated after grinding, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), wet etching and plasma dry etching. The (sub)surface defects were characterized using transmission microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Although grinding provides the fastest removal rate of Si, the surface roughness was not compatible with subsequent processing. Furthermore, mechanical damage such as dislocations and amorphous Si cannot be reduced regardless of Si thickness and thin wafer handling systems. The CMP after grinding showed excellent performance to remove this grinding damage, even though the removal amount is 1 μm. For the case of Si thinning towards 5 μm using grinding and CMP, the (sub)surface is atomic scale of roughness without vacancy. For the case of grinding + dry etch, vacancy defects were detected in subsurface around 0.5–2 μm. The finished surface after wet etch remains in the nm scale in the strain region. By inserting a CMP step in

  4. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E. [FOM Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  5. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...... damage factor is highest. Subsequently the stress history is imposed as boundary conditions in a periodic unit cell model, where an alumina inclusion is embedded in a AISI 52100 matrix. Cracks are assumed to grow radially from the inclusion under cyclic loading. The growth is predicted by means...

  6. In situ monitoring of localized shear stress and fluid flow within developing tissue constructs by Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2008-02-01

    Mechanical stimuli can be introduced to three dimensional (3D) cell cultures by use of perfusion bioreactor. Especially in musculoskeletal tissues, shear stress caused by fluid flow generally increase extra-cellular matrix (ECM) production and cell proliferation. The relationship between the shear stress and the tissue development in situ is complicated because of the non-uniform pore distribution within the cell-seeded scaffold. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is capable of monitoring localized fluid flow and shear stress in the complex porous scaffold by examining their variation trends at perfusion rate of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ml/hr. Then, we developed the 3D porous cellular constructs, cell-seeded chitosan scaffolds monitored during several days by DOCT. The fiber based fourier domain DOCT employed a 1300 nm superluminescent diode with a bandwidth of 52 nm and a xyz resolution of 20×20×15 μm in free space. This setup allowed us not only to assess the cell growth and ECM deposition by observing their different scattering behaviors but also to further investigate how the cell attachment and ECM production has the effect on the flow shear stress and the relationship between flow rate and shear stress in the developing tissue construct. The possibility to monitor continuously the constructs under perfusion will easily indicate the effect of flow rate or shear stress on the cell viability and cell proliferation, and then discriminate the perfusion parameters affecting the pre-tissue formation rate growth.

  7. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    (n = 725) found a reduced hospital stay. Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and ileus were reduced in three studies and complications were reduced in four studies. Of the monitors that may be applied for goal-directed therapy, only oesophageal Doppler has been tested adequately; however......, several other options exist. CONCLUSION: Goal-directed therapy with the maximization of flow-related haemodynamic variables reduces hospital stay, PONV and complications, and facilitates faster gastrointestinal functional recovery. So far, oesophageal Doppler is recommended, but other monitors...

  8. Leaching of 14-Carbofuran into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Misman Sumin; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir; Kubiak, R.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental setup was constructed to investigate leaching of 14C C arbofuran into sub-surface water through Bungor series sandy loam soil. The indoor lysimeter was constructed using homogenous and packed disturbed soil column. The outdoor lysimeter was constructed using undisturbed soil column. In the field, leachate production was influenced by rainfall intensity but tracer transport was independent of water transport to a certain degree. A high rainfall intensity at 39 DAA has not enhanced tracer leaching into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem whereas a lower rainfall intensity at 21 DAA has enhanced its leaching. Indoor lysimeter behaved incoherently and showed non-parallel relationship between applied water and also volume of leachate produced with tracer transport. In both types of lysimeter, tracer transport and carbofuran transport generally correlated. Carbofuran and tracer were leached at a lower magnitude in outdoor lysimeter compared to the indoor lysimeter. The maximum total radioactivities leached were 1.1% and 0.4% of applied radio activities from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter at 35 and 21 DAA respectively. The maximum total carbofuran equivalent leached were 193.9 μg/L and 39.3 μg/L at 35 DAA and 21 DAA from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter respectively. (author)

  9. Process induced sub-surface damage in mechanically ground silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; De Munck, Koen; Teixeira, Ricardo Cotrin; Swinnen, Bart; De Wolf, Ingrid; Verlinden, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy, atomic force microscopy and preferential etching were used to characterize the sub-surface damage induced by the rough and fine grinding steps used to make ultra-thin silicon wafers. The roughly and ultra-finely ground silicon wafers were examined on both the machined (1 0 0) planes and the cross-sectional (1 1 0) planes. They reveal similar multi-layer damage structures, consisting of amorphous, plastically deformed and elastically stressed layers. However, the thickness of each layer in the roughly ground sample is much higher than its counterpart layers in the ultra-finely ground sample. The residual stress after rough and ultra-fine grinding is in the range of several hundreds MPa and 30 MPa, respectively. In each case, the top amorphous layer is believed to be the result of sequential phase transformations (Si-I to Si-II to amorphous Si). These phase transformations correspond to a ductile grinding mechanism, which is dominating in ultra-fine grinding. On the other hand, in rough grinding, a mixed mechanism of ductile and brittle grinding causes multi-layer damage and sub-surface cracks

  10. Effective Detection of Sub-Surface Archeological Features from Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wierzbicki, D.; Delis, P.; Lada, A.

    2017-08-01

    The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  11. EFFECTIVE DETECTION OF SUB-SURFACE ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  12. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  13. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  14. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Magnetic Induction Phase Shift in Rabbit Intracerebral hematoma expansion Monitoring by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Yan, Qingguang; Sun, Jian; Jin, Gui; Qin, Mingxin

    2017-09-11

    In a prior study of intracerebral hemorrhage monitoring using magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS), we found that MIPS signal changes occurred prior to those seen with intracranial pressure. However, the characteristic MIPS alert is not yet fully explained. Combining the brain physiology and MIPS theory, we propose that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be the primary factor that leads to hematoma expansion being alerted by MIPS earlier than with intracranial pressure monitoring. This paper investigates the relationship between CSF and MIPS in monitoring of rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage models, which is based on the MIPS measurements data, the quantified data on CSF from medical images and the amount of injected blood in the rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage model. In the investigated results, a R value of 0.792 with a significance of 0.019 is observed between the MIPS and CSF, which is closer than MIPS and injected blood. Before the reversal point of MIPS, CSF is the leading factor in MIPS signal changing in an early hematoma expansion stage. Under CSF compensation, CSF reduction compensates for hematoma expansion in the brain to keep intracranial pressure stable. MIPS decrease results from the reducing CSF volume. This enables MIPS to detect hematoma expansion earlier than intracranial pressure.

  16. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-04-21

    A typical small-scale seismic survey (such as 240 shot gathers) takes at least 16 working hours to be completed, which is a major obstacle in case of time-lapse monitoring experiments. This is especially true if the subject that needs to be monitored is rapidly changing. In this work, we will discuss how to decrease the recording time from 16 working hours to less than one hour of recording. Here, the virtual data has the same accuracy as the conventional data. We validate the efficacy of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water from the ground surface down to a few meters.

  17. The heater system monitoring and control of the fuelling machines test rig fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorga, C.; Iorga, H.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical hot loop (HL) of the testing rig for the fuelling machines (F/Ms) represents a set of facilities and equipment that perform the pressure, temperature and flow thermo-hydraulic parameters similar to those from the fuel channel for CANDU 600 reactor types. The 2.1 MW electric heater (EH), part of the HL, working under the conditions of a pressure vessel (110 bars) and provides an average temperature of 300°C of the working agent. The monitoring equipment implemented aims to simultaneously control the temperature for each of the 12 modules that compose the EH, without influencing the work logic of the display/recording and protecting existing equipment. This paper presents the structure of the monitoring equipment and its performance obtained after performing the functional tests. (authors)

  18. Real-time imaging as an emerging process analytical technology tool for monitoring of fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Venkata Ramana; Deshpande, Rucha S; Syed, Moinuddin R; Wakte, Pravin S

    2018-07-01

    A direct imaging system (Eyecon TM ) was used as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to monitor fluid bed coating process. Eyecon TM generated real-time onscreen images, particle size and shape information of two identically manufactured laboratory-scale batches. Eyecon TM has accuracy of measuring the particle size increase of ±1 μm on particles in the size range of 50-3000 μm. Eyecon TM captured data every 2 s during the entire process. The moving average of D90 particle size values recorded by Eyecon TM were calculated for every 30 min to calculate the radial coating thickness of coated particles. After the completion of coating process, the radial coating thickness was found to be 11.3 and 9.11 μm, with a standard deviation of ±0.68 and 1.8 μm for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. The coating thickness was also correlated with percent weight build-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dissolution. GPC indicated weight build-up of 10.6% and 9.27% for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. In conclusion, weight build-up of 10% can also be correlated with 10 ± 2 μm increase in the coating thickness of pellets, indicating the potential applicability of real-time imaging as an endpoint determination tool for fluid bed coating process.

  19. Multiple reaction monitoring assay based on conventional liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization for simultaneous monitoring of multiple cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Kelvin H

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, but early and accurate diagnosis remains challenging. Previously, a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker candidates distinguishing AD and non-AD CSF accurately (>90 %) was reported. Furthermore, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay based on nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was developed to help validate putative AD CSF biomarker candidates including proteins from the panel. Despite the good performance of the MRM assay, wide acceptance may be challenging because of limited availability of nLC-MS/MS systems in laboratories. Thus, here, a new MRM assay based on conventional LC-MS/MS is presented. This method monitors 16 peptides representing 16 (of 23) biomarker candidates that belonged to the previous AD CSF panel. A 30-times more concentrated sample than the sample used for the previous study was loaded onto a high capacity trap column, and all 16 MRM transitions showed good linearity (average R(2) = 0.966), intra-day reproducibility (average coefficient of variance (CV) = 4.78 %), and inter-day reproducibility (average CV = 9.85 %). The present method has several advantages such as a shorter analysis time, no possibility of target variability, and no need for an internal standard.

  20. Can oral fluid cannabinoid testing monitor medication compliance and/or cannabis smoking during oral THC and oromucosal Sativex administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Karschner, Erin L; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-06-01

    We characterize cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid (OF) after dronabinol, synthetic oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and Sativex, a cannabis-extract oromucosal spray, and evaluate whether smoked cannabis relapse or Sativex compliance can be identified with OF cannabinoid monitoring. 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low (5.4 mg THC, 5.0 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) and high (16.2 mg THC, 15.0 mg CBD) dose Sativex, and placebo were administered in random order (n=14). Oral fluid specimens were collected for 10.5 h after dosing and analyzed for THC, CBD, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). After oral THC, OF THC concentrations decreased over time from baseline, reflecting residual THC excretion from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. CBD and CBN also were rarely detected. After Sativex, THC, CBD and CBN increased greatly, peaking at 0.25-1 h. Median CBD/THC and CBN/THC ratios were 0.82-1.34 and 0.04-0.06, respectively, reflecting cannabinoids' composition in Sativex. THCCOOH/THC ratios within 4.5 h post Sativex were ≤ 1.6 pg/ng, always lower than after oral THC and placebo. THCCOOH/THC ratios increased throughout each dosing session. Lack of measurable THC, CBD and CBN in OF following oral THC, and high OF CBD/THC ratios after Sativex distinguish oral and sublingual drug delivery routes from cannabis smoking. Low THCCOOH/THC ratios suggest recent Sativex and smoked cannabis exposure. These data indicate that OF cannabinoid monitoring can document compliance with Sativex pharmacotherapy, and identify relapse to smoked cannabis during oral THC medication but not Sativex treatment, unless samples were collected shortly after smoking. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Direct investigation of (sub-) surface preparation artifacts in GaAs based materials by FIB sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, Jürgen; Beyer, Andreas; Torunski, Torsten; Stolz, Wolfgang; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of preparation artifacts is almost inevitable when producing samples for (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). These artifacts can be divided in extrinsic artifacts like damage processes and intrinsic artifacts caused by the deviations from the volume strain state in thin elastically strained material systems. The reduction and estimation of those effects is of great importance for the quantitative analysis of (S)TEM images. Thus, optimized ion beam preparation conditions are investigated for high quality samples. Therefore, the surface topology is investigated directly with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the actual TEM samples. Additionally, the sectioning of those samples by a focused ion beam (FIB) is used to investigate the damage depth profile directly in the TEM. The AFM measurements show good quantitative agreement of sample height modulation due to strain relaxation to finite elements simulations. Strong indications of (sub-) surface damage by ion beams are observed. Their influence on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging is estimated with focus on thickness determination by absolute intensity methods. Data consolidation of AFM and TEM measurements reveals a 3.5 nm surface amorphization, negligible surface roughness on the scale of angstroms and a sub-surface damage profile in the range of up to 8.0 nm in crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) and GaAs-based ternary alloys. A correction scheme for thickness evaluation of absolute HAADF intensities is proposed and applied for GaAs based materials. - Highlights: • The damage by Ar-ion milling during TEM sample preparation is investigated directly. • After FIB sectioning damage and deep disorder of c-GaAs is seen in cross-section. • The influence of such disorder on conventional ADF measurements is estimated. • A correction for HAADF measurements is proposed with focus on thickness estimations.

  2. Sub-surface defects detection of by using active thermography and advanced image edge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Wang, Gaochao

    2017-01-01

    Active or pulsed thermography is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) tool for inspecting the integrity and anomaly of industrial equipment. One of the recent research trends in using active thermography is to automate the process in detecting hidden defects. As of today, human effort has still been using to adjust the temperature intensity of the thermo camera in order to visually observe the difference in cooling rates caused by a normal target as compared to that by a sub-surface crack exists inside the target. To avoid the tedious human-visual inspection and minimize human induced error, this paper reports the design of an automatic method that is capable of detecting subsurface defects. The method used the technique of active thermography, edge detection in machine vision and smart algorithm. An infrared thermo-camera was used to capture a series of temporal pictures after slightly heating up the inspected target by flash lamps. Then the Canny edge detector was employed to automatically extract the defect related images from the captured pictures. The captured temporal pictures were preprocessed by a packet of Canny edge detector and then a smart algorithm was used to reconstruct the whole sequences of image signals. During the processes, noise and irrelevant backgrounds exist in the pictures were removed. Consequently, the contrast of the edges of defective areas had been highlighted. The designed automatic method was verified by real pipe specimens that contains sub-surface cracks. After applying such smart method, the edges of cracks can be revealed visually without the need of using manual adjustment on the setting of thermo-camera. With the help of this automatic method, the tedious process in manually adjusting the colour contract and the pixel intensity in order to reveal defects can be avoided. (paper)

  3. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Broekaert, José A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed. - Highlights: • All mobile sub-surface and depth-profiling techniques for paintings are reviewed. • The number of techniques available has increased considerably in the last years. • X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography are still the most used techniques. • Scanning macro-XRF and optical coherence tomography begin to establish. • Industrial non destructive testing techniques support the preservation of paintings

  4. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.alfeld@desy.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Groenenbrogerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Broekaert, José A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed. - Highlights: • All mobile sub-surface and depth-profiling techniques for paintings are reviewed. • The number of techniques available has increased considerably in the last years. • X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography are still the most used techniques. • Scanning macro-XRF and optical coherence tomography begin to establish. • Industrial non destructive testing techniques support the preservation of paintings.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  6. Monitoring reservoir response to earthquakes and fluid extraction, Salton Sea geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka’aki; Nayak, Avinash; Brenguier, Florent; Manga, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0.08 MPa and up to 0.45 MPa) from local and regional earthquakes. Depths of velocity changes are estimated to be about 0.5 to 1.5 km, similar to the depths of the injection and production wells. We derive an empirical in situ stress sensitivity of seismic velocity changes by relating velocity changes to dynamic stresses. We also observe systematic velocity reductions (0.04 to 0.05%) during earthquake swarms in mid-November 2009 and late-December 2010. On the basis of volumetric static and dynamic stress changes, the expected velocity reductions from the largest earthquakes with magnitude ranging from 3 to 4 in these swarms are less than 0.02%, which suggests that these earthquakes are likely not responsible for the velocity changes observed during the swarms. Instead, we argue that velocity reductions may have been induced by poroelastic opening of fractures due to aseismic deformation. We also observe a long-term velocity increase (~0.04%/year) that is most likely due to poroelastic contraction caused by the geothermal production. Our observations demonstrate that seismic interferometry provides insights into in situ reservoir response to stress changes. PMID:29326977

  7. Monitoring reservoir response to earthquakes and fluid extraction, Salton Sea geothermal field, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Nayak, Avinash; Brenguier, Florent; Manga, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0.08 MPa and up to 0.45 MPa) from local and regional earthquakes. Depths of velocity changes are estimated to be about 0.5 to 1.5 km, similar to the depths of the injection and production wells. We derive an empirical in situ stress sensitivity of seismic velocity changes by relating velocity changes to dynamic stresses. We also observe systematic velocity reductions (0.04 to 0.05%) during earthquake swarms in mid-November 2009 and late-December 2010. On the basis of volumetric static and dynamic stress changes, the expected velocity reductions from the largest earthquakes with magnitude ranging from 3 to 4 in these swarms are less than 0.02%, which suggests that these earthquakes are likely not responsible for the velocity changes observed during the swarms. Instead, we argue that velocity reductions may have been induced by poroelastic opening of fractures due to aseismic deformation. We also observe a long-term velocity increase (~0.04%/year) that is most likely due to poroelastic contraction caused by the geothermal production. Our observations demonstrate that seismic interferometry provides insights into in situ reservoir response to stress changes.

  8. Intrathecal pressure monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid drainage in acute spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Curt, Armin; Belanger, Lise M; Bernardo, Arlene; Chan, Donna; Markez, John A; Gorelik, Stephen; Slobogean, Gerard P; Umedaly, Hamed; Giffin, Mitch; Nikolakis, Michael A; Street, John; Boyd, Michael C; Paquette, Scott; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2009-03-01

    Ischemia is an important factor in the pathophysiology of secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and, in the setting of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, can be the primary cause of paralysis. Lowering the intrathecal pressure (ITP) by draining CSF is routinely done in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery but has not been evaluated in the setting of acute traumatic SCI. Additionally, while much attention is directed toward maintaining an adequate mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in the acute postinjury phase, little is known about what is happening to the ITP during this period when spinal cord perfusion pressure (MABP - ITP) is important. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the safety and feasibility of draining CSF to lower ITP after acute traumatic SCI; 2) evaluate changes in ITP before and after surgical decompression; and 3) measure neurological recovery in relation to the drainage of CSF. Twenty-two patients seen within 48 hours of injury were prospectively randomized to a drainage or no-drainage treatment group. In all cases a lumbar intrathecal catheter was inserted for 72 hours. Acute complications of headache/nausea/vomiting, meningitis, or neurological deterioration were carefully monitored. Acute Spinal Cord Injury motor scores were documented at baseline and at 6 months postinjury. On insertion of the catheter, mean ITP was 13.8 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (+/- SD), and it increased to a mean peak of 21.7 +/- 1.5 mm Hg intraoperatively. The difference between the starting ITP on catheter insertion and the observed peak intrathecal pressure after decompression was, on average, an increase of 7.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg (p drainage group was 30.6 +/- 2.3 mm Hg, which was significantly higher than the peak intraoperative ITP (p = 0.0098). During the same period, the peak recorded ITP in patients randomized to receive drainage was 28.1 +/- 2.8 mm Hg, which was not statistically higher than the peak intraoperative ITP (p = 0.15). The

  9. Potential of electrical resistivity tomography and muon density imaging to study spatio-temporal variations in the sub-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Courbet, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    affecting density and electrical resistivity physical parameters. We show with data sets acquired before and after an important rainfall event how muon density and electrical resistivity imaging may complementary characterize variations of the medium properties. The development of such innovative experiments for hydrogeophysical studies presents then the ability to supply new information on fluid dynamics in the sub-surface.

  10. Nitrogen isotope ratios in surface and sub-surface soil horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennie, D.A.; Paul, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Nitrogen isotope analysis of surface soils and soil-derived nitrate for selected chernozemic and luvisolic soils showed mean delta 15 N values of 11.7 and 11.3, respectively. Isotope enrichment of the total N reached a maximum in the lower B horizon. Sub-soil parent material samples from the one deep profile included in the study indicated a delta 15 N value (NO 3 -N) of 1/3 that of the Ap horizon, at a depth of 180 cm. The delta 15 N of sub-surface soil horizons containing residual fertilizer N were low (-2.2) compared to the surface horizon (9.9). The data reported from this preliminary survey suggest that the natural variations in 15 N abundance between different soils and horizons of the same soil reflect the cumulative effects of soil genesis and soil management. More detailed knowledge and understanding of biological and other processes which control N isotope concentrations in these soils must be obtained before the data reported can be interpreted. (author)

  11. A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M

    2014-03-15

    A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Surface complexation models for uranium adsorption in the sub-surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption experiments with soil component minerals under a range of conditions are being used to develop models of uranium(VI) uptake in the sub-surface environment. The results show that adsorption of U on iron oxides and clay minerals is influenced by chemical factors including the pH, partial pressure of CO 2 , and the presence of ligands such as phosphate. Surface complexation models (SCMs) can be used to simulate U adsorption on these minerals. The SCMs are based on plausible mechanistic assumptions and describe the experimental data more adequately than Kd values or sorption isotherms. It is conceptually possible to simulate U sorption data on complex natural samples by combining SCMs for individual component minerals. This approach was used to develop a SCM for U adsorption to mineral assemblages from Koongarra (Australia), and produced a reasonable description of U uptake. In order to assess the applicability of experimental data to the field situation, in-situ measurements of U distributions between solid and liquid phases were undertaken at the Koongarra U deposit. This field partitioning data showed a satisfactory agreement with laboratory sorption data obtained under comparable conditions. (author)

  13. The Potential of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Serial Monitoring of Hemodynamic Change in Type B Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Simon C. H., E-mail: simonyu@cuhk.edu.hk; Liu, Wen [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Randolph H. L.; Underwood, Malcolm [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong); Wang, Defeng [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe aimed to assess the potential of computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) in detecting changes in pressure and flow velocity in response to morphological changes in type B aortic dissection.Materials and MethodsPressure and velocity in four morphological models of type B aortic dissection before and after closure of the entry tear were calculated with CFD and analyzed for changes among the different scenarios. The control model (Model 1) was patient specific and built from the DICOM data of CTA, which bore one entry tear and three re-entry tears. Models 2–4 were modifications of Model 1, with two re-entry tears less in Model 2, one re-entry tear more in Model 3, and a larger entry tear in Model 4.ResultsThe pressure and velocity pertaining to each of the morphological models were unique. Changes in pressure and velocity findings were accountable by the changes in morphological features of the different models. There was no blood flow in the false lumen across the entry tear after its closure, the blood flow direction across the re-entry tears was reversed after closure of the entry tear.ConclusionCFD simulation is probably useful to detect hemodynamic changes in the true and false lumens of type B aortic dissection in response to morphological changes, it may potentially be developed into a non-invasive and patient-specific tool for serial monitoring of hemodynamic changes of type B aortic dissection before and after treatment.

  14. Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Murty, C.S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The distribution of some sub-surface water masses in the western bay of Bengal during the south-west monsoon period is presented. Based on the salinity maxima and sigma t values the existence of waters of Persian Gulf and Red Sea origin could...

  15. Alternative techniques to monitoring the corrosive potential for fluids in submarine pipelines; Tecnicas alternativas para monitorar o potencial corrosivo de fluidos transportados em oleodutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Brito, Rosane Fernandes de; Paiva, Eva M. de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao; Freitas, Nair Domingues de; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    PETROBRAS in search of being a benchmark in safety, environment and health, established in July 2001 a work group to elaborate a standard for Pipeline Integrity Management. This standard set the requirements for Pipeline Integrity Management and establishes, among others criteria, the actions required to detect, monitor and control internal corrosion of pipelines. The first step to evaluate, monitor and control the internal corrosion is to define the corrosive potential of transported fluids. Some oil pipelines located in central and southern areas of the Campos Basin transport high water cut produced fluids (> 30%) and with demulsifiers, which allow oil and water separation and increase internal corrosion risks. Despite of these, it is not possible to check the internal corrosion rates using conventional techniques because the fluids are produced through sub-sea 'manifolds'. In order to investigate the possibility of corrosion inhibition by crude oils, laboratory tests were performed simulating real field conditions in terms of fluid compositions, water cut and temperature. Experiments were conducted to determine the corrosion rate of specimens, the emulsion stability and the initial temperature of wax precipitation. This paper presents the results of the study realized to define the fluids' corrosive potential of four Campos Basin platforms that are transported through sub-sea 'manifolds. (author)

  16. The Borexino Thermal Monitoring & Management System and simulations of the fluid-dynamics of the Borexino detector under asymmetrical, changing boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Berguño, D.; Mereu, R.; Cavalcante, P.; Carlini, M.; Ianni, A.; Goretti, A.; Gabriele, F.; Wright, T.; Yokley, Z.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Calaprice, F.; Inzoli, F.

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive monitoring system for the thermal environment inside the Borexino neutrino detector was developed and installed in order to reduce uncertainties in determining temperatures throughout the detector. A complementary thermal management system limits undesirable thermal couplings between the environment and Borexino's active sections. This strategy is bringing improved radioactive background conditions to the region of interest for the physics signal thanks to reduced fluid mixing induced in the liquid scintillator. Although fluid-dynamical equilibrium has not yet been fully reached, and thermal fine-tuning is possible, the system has proven extremely effective at stabilizing the detector's thermal conditions while offering precise insights into its mechanisms of internal thermal transport. Furthermore, a Computational Fluid-Dynamics analysis has been performed, based on the empirical measurements provided by the thermal monitoring system, and providing information into present and future thermal trends. A two-dimensional modeling approach was implemented in order to achieve a proper understanding of the thermal and fluid-dynamics in Borexino. It was optimized for different regions and periods of interest, focusing on the most critical effects that were identified as influencing background concentrations. Literature experimental case studies were reproduced to benchmark the method and settings, and a Borexino-specific benchmark was implemented in order to validate the modeling approach for thermal transport. Finally, fully-convective models were applied to understand general and specific fluid motions impacting the detector's Active Volume.

  17. [Significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Ai, L; Zhang, H

    2000-01-01

    To discuss the significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor. 136 cases with frequent variable deceleration (VD) and meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor were divided into two groups: the study group (68 cases) and the control group (68 cases). The former were treated by amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange, while oxygen inhalation, change of body position, and intravenous infusion for the control group. In the study group, VD disappeared or relieved in 62 cases obviously, and the efficacy rate reached 91.2% (62/68). 48 cases with II degree meconium stained amniotic fluid were treated by amniotic fluid exchange, amniotic fluid became clear or turned to I degree stained in 39 cases. In the control group, VD relieved in 20 cases, the efficacy rate was 19.4%, significantly lower than that of the study group (P 0.05). Amnioinfusion and AF exchange during labor are one of the effective treatment methods for fetal distress and prevention for MAS.

  18. The study of sub-surface damage distributions during grinding process on different abrasion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yu, Zong-Ru; Shu, Shyu-Cheng; Chang, Keng-Shou; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    The grinding process is the primary technology for curvature generation (CG) on glass optics. The higher material removal rate (MRR) leads to deeper sub-surface damage (SSD) on lens surface. The SSD must be removed by following lapping and polishing processes to ensure the lens quality. However, these are not an easy and an efficient process to remove the SSD from ground surface directly for aspheric surfaces with tens or hundreds microns departure from bestfit- sphere (BFS). An efficient fabrication procedure for large aspheric departure on glass materials must be considered. We propose 3-step fabrication procedures for aspheric surface with larger departure. 1st step is to generate a specific aspheric surface with depth less than 10 μm of SSD residual. 2nd step is to remove SSD and keep the aspheric form by using Zeeko polisher with higher MRR pad. Final step is to figure and finish the aspheric surface by using QED MRF machine. In this study, we focus on the 1st step to investigate the residual depth of SSD after grinding process on different abrasion materials. The materials of tested part are fused silica, S-NPH2, and S-PHM52. The cross grinding would be configured and depth of SSD/surface roughness would be evaluated in this study. The characteristic of SSD could be observed after etching by confocal microscope. The experimental results show the depth of SSD below 31.1 μm with #400 grinding wheel. And the near 10 μm depth of SSD would be achieved with #1,000 grinding wheel. It means the aspherization polishing on large parts with large departure from best fit sphere would be replaced. The fabrication of large aspheric part would be efficient.

  19. Extended Sleeve Products Allow Control and Monitoring of Process Fluid Flows Inside Shielding, Behind Walls and Beneath Floors - 13041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Mark W. [Flowserve Corporation, 1978 Foreman Drive Cookeville, TN 38506 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Throughout power generation, delivery and waste remediation, the ability to control process streams in difficult or impossible locations becomes increasingly necessary as the complexity of processes increases. Example applications include radioactive environments, inside concrete installations, buried in dirt, or inside a shielded or insulated pipe. In these situations, it is necessary to implement innovative solutions to tackle such issues as valve maintenance, valve control from remote locations, equipment cleaning in hazardous environments, and flow stream analysis. The Extended Sleeve family of products provides a scalable solution to tackle some of the most challenging applications in hazardous environments which require flow stream control and monitoring. The Extended Sleeve family of products is defined in three groups: Extended Sleeve (ESV), Extended Bonnet (EBV) and Instrument Enclosure (IE). Each of the products provides a variation on the same requirements: to provide access to the internals of a valve, or to monitor the fluid passing through the pipeline through shielding around the process pipe. The shielding can be as simple as a grout filled pipe covering a process pipe or as complex as a concrete deck protecting a room in which the valves and pipes pass through at varying elevations. Extended Sleeves are available between roughly 30 inches and 18 feet of distance between the pipeline centerline and the top of the surface to which it mounts. The Extended Sleeve provides features such as ± 1.5 inches of adjustment between the pipeline and deck location, internal flush capabilities, automatic alignment of the internal components during assembly and integrated actuator mounting pads. The Extended Bonnet is a shorter fixed height version of the Extended Sleeve which has a removable deck flange to facilitate installation through walls, and is delivered fully assembled. The Instrument Enclosure utilizes many of the same components as an Extended Sleeve

  20. Bacterial diversity and community structure of a sub-surface aquifer exposed to realistic low herbicide concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipthay, Julia R. de; Johnsen, Kaare; Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    contaminants. We examined the effect of in situ exposure to realistic low concentrations of herbicides on the microbial diversity and community structure of sub-surface sediments from a shallow aquifer near Vejen (Denmark). Three different community analyses were performed: colony morphology typing, sole...... community analyses. In contrast, no significant effect was found on the bacterial diversity, except for the culturable fraction where a significantly increased richness and Shannon index was found in the herbicide acclimated sediments. The results of this study show that in situ exposure of sub-surface...... aquifers to realistic low concentrations of herbicides may alter the overall structure of a natural bacterial community, although significant effects on the genetic diversity and carbon substrate usage cannot be detected. The observed impact was probably due to indirect effects. In future investigations...

  1. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  2. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  3. Feasibility of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for anti-spoof sub-surface fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh M; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Enfield, Joey; Larin, Kirill; Leahy, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    We propose the use of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) to deliver additional biometrics associated with the finger that could complement existing fingerprint technology for law enforcement applications. The current study extends the existing fingerprint paradigm by measuring additional biometrics associated with sub-surface finger tissue such as sub-surface fingerprints, sweat glands, and the pattern of the capillary bed to yield a user-friendly cost effective and anti-spoof multi-mode biometric solution associated with the finger. To our knowledge no other method has been able to capture sub-surface fingerprint, papillary pattern and horizontal vessel pattern in a single scan or to show the correspondence between these patterns in live adult human fingertip. Unlike many current technologies this approach incorporates 'liveness' testing by default. The ultimate output is a biometric module which is difficult to defeat and complements fingerprint scanners that currently are used in border control and law enforcement applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring fluid flow between a borehole and the surrounding formations in the course of drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J. L.; Gehrig, G. F.; Speers, J. M.

    1985-11-19

    A method and apparatus for establishing the rate at which fluid is transferred between a borehole and the surrounding formations in the course of moving drill string upward or downward in the borehole. A bell nipple is situated at the upper portion of the borehole. While tripping, drilling fluid is circulated into the borehole and exits through an outflow port in the bell nipple. The level of drilling fluid is maintained constant at the outflow port. Meters are provided to measure inflow and outflow rates. Circuitry is provided to establish the volume rate at which the amount of drill string within the borehole changes. The outputs of the meters and rate establishing means are summed to establish the compensated rate at which fluid is transferred between the formations and the borehole. This compensated rate is compared to an alarm limit. An alarm is activated if the compensated rate exceeds the alarm limit.

  5. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  6. Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridsklev, Inger Cecilie; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Langård, Sverre

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni during their whole working careers, with emphasis on the week of monitoring, about the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The air concentrations were mean 200 microg/m(3) (range 2.4-2,744) for total Cr, 11.3 microg/m(3) (416.7) for Ni during the workdays for the five welders who were monitored with air measurements. The levels of Cr and Ni in biological fluids varied between different workplaces. For Cr in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25 (<0.4-8.3) and 1.68 (<0.2-8.0) and 0.9 (<0.4-7.2) microg/l, respectively. For Ni most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits, the mean levels after work being 0.84 (<0.8-3.3) and 0.57 microg/l (<0.4-1.7), respectively. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 (0.34-40.7) and 2.50 (0.56-5.0) microg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. The results seem to support the view that monitoring of Cr in the urine may be versatile for indirect monitoring of the Cr(VI) air level in FCW welders. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding SS is low in general.

  7. An integrated methodology for sub-surface fracture characterization using microseismic data: A case study at the NW Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Fred; Tafti, Tayeb A.; Maity, Debotyam

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs are often characterized by low permeability and porosity. So, they are difficult to produce and require stimulation techniques, such as thermal shear deactivation and hydraulic fracturing. Fractures provide porosity for fluid storage and permeability for fluid movement and play an important role in production from this kind of reservoirs. Hence, characterization of fractures has become a vitally important consideration in every aspect of exploration, development and production so as to provide additional energy resources for the world. During the injection or production of fluid, induced seismicity (micro-seismic events) can be caused by reactivated shears created fractures or the natural fractures in shear zones and faults. Monitoring these events can help visualize fracture growth during injection stimulation. Although the locations of microseismic events can be a useful characterization tool and have been used by many authors, we go beyond these locations to characterize fractures more reliably. Tomographic inversion, fuzzy clustering, and shear wave splitting are three methods that can be applied to microseismic data to obtain reliable characteristics about fractured areas. In this article, we show how each method can help us in the characterization process. In addition, we demonstrate how they can be integrated with each other or with other data for a more holistic approach. The knowledge gained might be used to optimize drilling targets or stimulation jobs to reduce costs and maximize production. Some of the concepts discussed in this paper are general in nature, and may be more applicable to unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs than the metamorphic and igneous reservoir rocks at The Geysers geothermal field.

  8. High-resolution seismic survey for the characterization of planned PIER-ICDP fluid-monitoring sites in the Eger Rift zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H.; Buske, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift zone (Czech Republic) is a intra-continental non-volcanic region and is characterized by outstanding geodynamic activities, which result in earthquake swarms and significant CO2 emanations. Because fluid-induced stress can trigger earthquake swarms, both natural phenomena are probably related to each other. The epicentres of the earthquake swarms cluster at the northern edge of the Cheb Basin. Although the location of the cluster coincides with the major Mariánské-Lázně Fault Zone (MLFZ) the strike of the focal plane indicates another fault zone, the N-S trending Počátky-Plesná Zone (PPZ). Isotopic analysis of the CO2-rich fluids revealed a significant portion of upper mantle derived components, hence a magmatic fluid source in the upper mantle was postulated. Because of these phenomena, the Eger Rift area is a unique site for interdisciplinary drilling programs to study the fluid-earthquake interaction. The ICDP project PIER (Probing of Intra-continental magmatic activity: drilling the Eger Rift) will set up an observatory, consisting of five monitoring boreholes. In preparation for the drilling, the goal of the seismic survey is the characterization of the projected fluid-monitoring drill site at the CO2 degassing mofette field near Hartoušov. This will be achieved by a 6 km long profile with dense source and receiver spacing. The W-E trending profile will cross the proposed drill site and the surface traces of MLFZ and PPZ. The outcome of the seismic survey will be a high-resolution structural image of potential reflectors related to these fault zones. This will be achieved by the application of advanced pre-stack depth migration methods and a detailed P-wave velocity distribution of the area obtained from first arrival tomography. During interpretation of the seismic data, a geoelectrical resistivity model, acquired along the same profile line, will provide important constraints, especially with respect to fluid pathways.

  9. Sub-surface microstructure of single and polycrystalline tungsten after high flux plasma exposure studied by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, A., E-mail: adubinko@sckcen.be [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Terentyev, D. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bakaeva, A. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hernández-Mayoral, M. [Division of Materials, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Buzi, L. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst. Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Unterberg, B. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst. Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Plasma exposure induces dislocation-dominated microstructure as indicated by TEM. • Plasma exposure increases surface dislocation density by an order of magnitude in the polycrystalline tungsten. • Intensive dislocation-grain boundary interaction observed in polycrystalline tungsten. • Dislocation loops are observed in both polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten. - Abstract: We have performed high flux plasma exposure of tungsten and subsequent microstructural characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The aim was to reveal the nanometric features in the sub-surface region as well as to compare the microstructural evolution in tungsten single crystal and ITER-relevant specification. In both types of samples, TEM examination revealed the formation of a dense dislocation network and dislocation tangles. The estimated dislocation density in the sub-surface region was of the order of 10{sup 14} m{sup −2} and it gradually decreased with a depth position of the examined sample. Besides individual dislocation lines, networks and tangles, the interstitial dislocation loops have been observed in all examined samples only after the exposure. Contrary to that, examination of the pristine single crystal W and backside of the plasma-exposed samples did not reveal the presence of dislocation loops and tangles. This clearly proves that high flux plasma exposure induces severe plastic deformation in the sub-surface region irrespective of the presence of initial dislocations and sub-grains, and the formation of dislocation tangles, networks and interstitial loops is a co-product of thermal stress and intensive plasma particles uptake.

  10. Warming Effects on Enzyme Activities are Predominant in Sub-surface Soils of an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem over 6-Year Field Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.; Seo, J.; Kim, M.; Jung, J. Y.; Lee, Y. K.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems are of great importance because they store a large amount of carbon as un-decomposed organic matter. Global climate change is expected to affect enzyme activities and heterotrophic respiration in Arctic soils, which may accelerate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through positive biological feedbacks. Unlike laboratory-based incubation experiments, field measurements often show different warming effects on decomposition of organic carbon and releases of GHGs. In the present study, we conducted a field-based warming experiment in Cambridge Bay, Canada (69°07'48″N, 105°03'36″W) by employing passive chambers during growing seasons over 6 years. A suite of enzyme activities (ß-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase and phenol oxidase), microbial community structure (NGS), microbial abundances (gene copy numbers of bacteria and fungi), and soil chemical properties have been monitored in two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) of tundra soils, which were exposed to four different treatments (`control', `warming-only', `water-addition only', and both `warming and water-addition'). Phenol oxidase activity increased substantially, and bacterial community structure and abundance changed in the early stage (after 1 year's warming manipulation), but these changes disappeared afterwards. Most hydrolases were enhanced in surface soils by `water-addition only' over the period. However, the long-term effects of warming appeared in sub-surface soils where both `warming only' and `warming and water addition' increased hydrolase activities. Overall results of this study indicate that the warming effects on enzyme activities in surface soils are only short-term (phenol oxidase) or masked by water-limitation (hydrolases). However, hydrolases activities in sub-surface soils are more strongly enhanced than surface soils by warming, probably due to the lack of water limitation. Meanwhile, negative correlations between hydrolase

  11. Nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water in some areas of North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khawaja, M.A.; Imdadullah

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water samples from Peshawar, Charsada, Mardan and Nowshera districts of NWFP has been studied. In all the areas under study, nitrate concentration of sub-surface water was found to be below WHO approved limit of 45 mg/l. Whereas city area after 1987 showed a decreasing level of nitrate contamination of sub-surface water, it appeared to be on the increase in water samples from the outskirts of Peshawar-Charsada road. No uniform increasing or decreasing patterns of nitrate contamination were observed for water samples from cantonment, University and Hayatabad, areas of Mardan, Charsada and Nowshera under study. The nitrate contamination of sub-surface water appeared to be due to both the agricultural activities as well as human and animal wastes. A few sub-surface water samples from Peshawar city, Mardan and Nowshera areas indicated high concentration of nitrite, which is alarming in view of the earlier reports showing absence of nitrite in water samples from these areas. However, since 1993, nitrite presence has not been detected in sub-surface water samples from all the areas under present investigation. (author)

  12. Microbial Diversity in Hydrothermal Surface to Sub-surface Environment of Suiyo Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Kitamura, K.; Kurusu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Maruyama, A.

    2002-12-01

    After excavation trials to a hydrothermal subsurface biosphere of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined using samples collected from drilled boreholes and natural vents with an catheter-type in situ microbial entrapment/incubator. This instrument consisted of a heat-tolerant cylindrical pipe with entrapment of a titanium-mesh capsule, containing sterilized inorganic porous grains, on the tip. After 3-10 day deployment in venting fluids with the maximum temperatures from 156 to 305degC, Microbial DNA was extracted from the grains and a 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. Through the phylogenetic analysis of total 72 Bacteria and 30 Archaea clones, we found three novel phylogenetic groups in this hydrothermal surface to subsurface biosphere. Some new clades within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, which seemed to be microaerophilic, moderate thermophilic, and/or sulfur oxidizing, were detected. Clones related to moderate thermophilic and photosynthetic microbes were found in grain-attached samples at collapsed borehole and natural vent sites. We also detected a new clade closely related to a hyperthermophilic Archaea, Methanococcus jannashii, which has the capability of growing autotrophically on hydrogen and producing methane. However, the later two phylogroups were estimated as below a detection limit in microscopic cell counting, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization and direct counting. Most of microbes in venting fluids were assigned to be Bacteria, but difficult in specifying them using any known probes. The environment must be notable in microbial and genetic resources, while the ecosystem seems to be mainly supported by chemosynthetic products through the microbial sulfur oxidation, as in most deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  13. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of 'inadvertent human intrusion or rare natural event scenarios' for sub-surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Takayoshi; Ishitoya, Kimihide; Funabashi, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Sone, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Nakai, Kunihiro

    2010-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of radioactive wastes, in an integrated fashion according to the properties of the waste material regardless of the generators or waste sources. In this study, 'Inadvertent Human Intrusion or Rare Natural Event Scenarios' of 'Three Types scenarios' was considered according to the standard of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) on the sub-surface disposal system that was based on 'Basic Policy for Safety Regulation Concerning Land Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (Interim Report)' by Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). Selection of the assessed scenarios, development of the assessment tool and preliminary exposure dose assessment for general public were conducted. Among the assessed scenarios, the exposure dose of 'well water drinking scenario' was the highest under the very conservative assessment condition. This scenario assumed that the groundwater in Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) was directly used as drinking water without any dilution. Although this was very conservative condition and the result exceeded 10 mSv/y, it stayed under the upper limit of standard dose value for 'Inadvertent Human Intrusion or Rare Natural Event Scenarios' (10 - 100 mSv/y). (author)

  15. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  16. Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324

  17. Changes in Wetting Hysteresis During Bioremediation: Changes in fluid flow behavior monitored with low-frequency seismic attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wempe, W.; Spetzler, H.; Kittleson, C.; Pursley, J.

    2003-12-01

    We observed significant reduction in wetting hysteresis with time while a diesel-contaminated quartz crystal was dipped in and out of an oil-reducing bacteria solution. This wetting hysteresis is significantly greater than the wetting hysteresis when the diesel-contaminated quartz crystal is dipped in and out of (1) water, (2) diesel and (3) the bacterial food solution that does not contain bacteria. The reduction in wetting hysteresis of the bacteria solution on the quartz surface results from a reduction in the advancing contact angle formed at the air-liquid-quartz contact with time; the receding contact angle remains the same with time. Our results suggest that the bacteria solution moves across the quartz surface with less resistance after bioremediation has begun. These results imply that bioremediation may influence fluid flow behavior with time. For many fluid-solid systems there is a difference between the contact angle while a contact line advances and recedes across a solid surface; this difference is known as wetting hysteresis. Changes in wetting hysteresis can occur from changes in surface tension or the surface topography. Low contact angle values indicate that the liquid spreads or wets well, while high values indicate poor wetting or non-wetting. Contact angles are estimated in the lab by measuring the weight of the meniscus formed at the air-liquid-quartz interface and by knowing the fluid surface tension. In the lab, we have been able to use low-frequency seismic attenuation data to detect changes in the wetting characteristics of glass plates and of Berea sandstone. The accepted seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of seismic energy due to the hysteresis of meniscus movement (wetting hysteresis) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (bioremediation progress using seismic attenuation data. We are measuring low-frequency seismic attenuation in the lab while flowing bacteria solution through Berea

  18. Characterization of Industrial Coolant Fluids and Continuous Ageing Monitoring by Wireless Node-Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachat, Alexandros El; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally robust chemical sensors for monitoring industrial processes or infrastructures are lately becoming important devices in industry. Low complexity and wireless enabled characteristics can offer the required flexibility for sensor deployment in adaptable sensing networks for continuous...... of sensors allowed their integration in an autonomous wireless sensing node, thus enabling the future use of the demonstrated platform in wireless sensor networks for a variety of industrial and environmental monitoring applications....

  19. Measurement of glucose area under the curve using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of glucose monitoring concepts without blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maekawa, Yasunori; Isobe, Kazuki; Koike, Reona; Nakajima, Hiromu; Asano, Kaoru

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia is crucial in treating diabetes, although its dynamics make accurate monitoring difficult. We developed a new technology for monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia using interstitial fluid (ISF) extraction technology without blood sampling. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) using this system was measured as accumulated ISF glucose (IG) with simultaneous calibration with sodium ions. The objective of this study was to evaluate this technological concept in healthy individuals. Minimally invasive ISF extraction technology (MIET) comprises two steps: pretreatment with microneedles and ISF accumulation over a specific time by contact with a solvent. The correlation between glucose and sodium ion levels using MIET was evaluated in 12 subjects with stable blood glucose (BG) levels during fasting. BG and IG time courses were evaluated in three subjects to confirm their relationship while BG was fluctuating. Furthermore, the accuracy of glucose AUC measurements by MIET was evaluated several hours after a meal in 30 subjects. A high correlation was observed between glucose and sodium ion levels when BG levels were stable (R=0.87), indicating that sodium ion is a good internal standard for calibration. The variation in IG and BG with MIET was similar, indicating that IG is an adequate substitute for BG. Finally, we showed a strong correlation (R=0.92) between IG-AUC and BG-AUC after a meal. These findings validate the adequacy of glucose AUC measurements using MIET. Monitoring glucose using MIET without blood sampling may be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  20. Rheometrical experiments with monitoring of resistivity: for a better understanding of the solid-fluid transition in clayey landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Simon; Bièvre, Grégory; Chambon, Guillaume; Jongmans, Denis; Lebourg, Thomas; Larose, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are natural and complex phenomena which affect all types of geological formations and present a large variety of size, morphology and displacements rates. Among these phenomena, flow-like events in clay-rich formations are particularly complex due to the unpredictable acceleration and fluidization that characterize them. Because of their suddenness, such landslides constitute serious threat for population living in these areas. The forecast and the understanding of these events has then been an active topic of research in the scientific community during the past decades. In that respect, rheometrical experiments in the laboratory bring some insight into the processes occurring during the solid-fluid transition. In creep tests, the evolution of the shear strain rate is measured under constant levels of shear stress, allowing to follow changes in apparent viscosity with time and to observe fluidization. Rheometrical oscillatory tests have been designed to capture the evolution of the elastic shear modulus G (and hence the shear wave velocity Vs) during these creep phases. Previous results have shown that Vs exhibits a drop at the solid-fluid transition, with complex time-dependent effects which could lead, under transient loading, to the occurrence of Vs variations prior to the transition. A complementary way to understand the processes is to measure the electrical resistivity during these rheometrical tests. This parameter, which depends on the water content and salinity, as well as on the amount of clay particles, could also exhibit some changes before or during the solid-fluid transition. For that purpose, the metallic plates of the rotational rheometer have been replaced by new ones made in an electrically insulating material (PVC) with a configuration of four inserted circular electrodes. Rheometrical tests made with this new apparatus provide similar rheological results. For the electrical tests, the geometrical factor has been computed using Finite

  1. Seismic sensitivity to sub-surface solar activity from 18 yr of GOLF/SoHO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-06-01

    Solar activity has significantly changed over the last two Schwabe cycles. After a long and deep minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the weaker activity of Cycle 24 contrasts with the previous cycles. In this work, the response of the solar acoustic oscillations to solar activity is used in order to provide insights into the structural and magnetic changes in the sub-surface layers of the Sun during this on-going unusual period of low activity. We analyze 18 yr of continuous observations of the solar acoustic oscillations collected by the Sun-as-a-star GOLF instrument on board the SoHO spacecraft. From the fitted mode frequencies, the temporal variability of the frequency shifts of the radial, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes are studied for different frequency ranges that are sensitive to different layers in the solar sub-surface interior. The low-frequency modes show nearly unchanged frequency shifts between Cycles 23 and 24, with a time evolving signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation, which is particularly visible for the quadrupole component revealing the presence of a complex magnetic structure. The modes at higher frequencies show frequency shifts that are 30% smaller during Cycle 24, which is in agreement with the decrease observed in the surface activity between Cycles 23 and 24. The analysis of 18 yr of GOLF oscillations indicates that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for the frequency shifts remained comparable between Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 in the deeper sub-surface layers below 1400 km as revealed by the low-frequency modes. The frequency shifts of the higher-frequency modes, sensitive to shallower regions, show that Cycle 24 is magnetically weaker in the upper layers of Sun. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe following 68 GOLF frequency tables are available and Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  2. Correlation of inferior vena cava (ivc) diameter and central venous pressure (cvp) for fluid monitoring in icu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Hayat, A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine intravascular fluid status in critically ill patients using inferior vena cava diameter and correlating it with central venous pressure. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Intensive care department, Military Hospital Rawalpindi from Jan 2013 to Aug 2013. Material and Methods: We included 115 adult patients of both genders in age range of 18 to 87 years by consecutive sampling admitted in intensive care unit. Ultrasound guided IVC diameter was assessed in supine patients. Data was simultaneously collected from the CVP catheter. Variables included in study were age, gender, CVP, IVC diameter. Results: CVP ranged from -4 to 26 cm H/sub 2/O with mean of 8 cm H/sub 2/O (SD = 6.24). Mean IVC diameters increased with increase in CVP. Correlation between CVP and max IVC diameter was moderate and significant (r = 0.53, p < 0.001). Correlation between CVP and min IVC diameter was also moderate and significant (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A simple bedside sonography of inferior vena cava diameter correlates well with extremes of CVP values and can be helpful in assessing intravascular fluid status in these patients. (author)

  3. Development of a visiometric process analyzer for real-time monitoring of bottom spray fluid-bed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Celine Valeria; Wang, Li Kun; Wan Sia Heng, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Particle recirculation within the partition column is a major source of process variability in the bottom spray fluid-bed coating process. However, its locality and complex nature make it hidden from the operator. The aim of this study was to take snapshots of the process by employing a visiometric process analyzer based on high-speed imaging and ensemble correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify particle recirculation. High-speed images of particles within the partition column of a bottom spray fluid-bed coater were captured and studied by morphological image processing and ensemble correlation PIV. Particle displacement probability density function (PDF) obtained from ensemble correlation PIV was consistent with validation experiments using an image tracking method. Particle displacement PDF was further resolved into particle velocity magnitude and particle velocity orientation histograms, which gave information about particle recirculation probability, thus quantifying the main source of process variability. Deeper insights into particle coating process were obtained and better control of coat uniformity can thus be achieved with use of the proposed visiometric process analyzer. The concept of visiometric process analyzers was proposed and their potential applications in pharmaceutical processes were further discussed.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  5. Micrograph evidence of meniscus solidification and sub-surface microstructure evolution in continuous-cast ultralow-carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, J.; Shin, H.-J.; Thomas, B.G.; Kim, S.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Hooks and other sub-surface features in continuous-cast ultralow-carbon steel samples were examined using optical microscopy, electron backscattering diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis techniques. Special etching reagents revealed dendrites growing from both sides of the line of hook origin. This line was found to represent the frozen meniscus and persisted into the final microstructure, as revealed by grain orientation measurements. A broken hook tip was observed in one micrograph, which explains the characteristic truncated shape of most hooks. Mold powder was found entrapped along the frozen meniscus. These results provide evidence of both solidification and subsequent overflow of the liquid steel meniscus. Thus, the instantaneous meniscus shape governs the shape and microstructure of the final hook, and the extent of the liquid steel overflow determines the shape of oscillation marks. This mechanism has important implications for the entrapment of inclusions and other surface defects

  6. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  7. Using GNSS-R techniques to investigate the near sub-surface of Mars with the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, H. M.; Bell, D. J.; Jin, C.; Decrossas, E.; Asmar, S.; Lazio, J.; Preston, R. A.; Ruf, C. S.; Renno, N. O.

    2017-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has shown that passive measurements using separate active sources can infer the soil moisture, snow pack depth and other quantities of scientific interest. Here, we expand upon this method and propose that a passive measurement of the sub-surface dielectric profile of Mars can be made by using multipath interference between reflections off the surface and subsurface dielectric discontinuities. This measurement has the ability to reveal changes in the soil water content, the depth of a layer of sand, thickness of a layer of ice, and even identify centimeter-scale layering which may indicate the presence of a sedimentary bed. We have created a numerical ray tracing model to understand the potential of using multipath interference techniques to investigate the sub-surface dielectric properties and structure of Mars. We have further verified this model using layered beds of sand and concrete in laboratory experiments and then used the model to extrapolate how this technique may be applied to future Mars missions. We will present new results demonstrating how to characterize a multipath interference patterns as a function of frequency and/or incidence angle to measure the thickness of a dielectric layer of sand or ice. Our results demonstrate that dielectric discontinuities in the subsurface can be measured using this passive sensing technique and it could be used to effectively measure the thickness of a dielectric layer in the proximity of a landed spacecraft. In the case of an orbiter, we believe this technique would be effective at measuring the seasonal thickness of CO2 ice in the Polar Regions. This is exciting because our method can produce similar results to traditional ground penetrating radars without the need to have an active radar transmitter in-situ. Therefore, it is possible that future telecommunications systems can serve as both a radio and a scientific instrument when used in conjunction with

  8. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

    2013-04-01

    Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

  9. SR-XRD in situ monitoring of copper-IUD corrosion in simulated uterine fluid using a portable spectroelectrochemical cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayburn, Rosie A; Dowsett, Mark G; Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Wermeille, Didier; Anjos, Jorge Alves; Flexer, Victoria; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Wildermeersch, Dirk; Adriaens, Annemie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work is to study the initial corrosion of copper in the presence of gold when placed in simulated uterine fluid in order to better understand the evolution of active components of copper-IUDs. In order to carry out this study, a portable cell was designed to partially simulate the uterine environment and provide a way of tracking the chemical changes occurring in the samples in situ within a controlled environment over a long period of time using synchrotron spectroelectrochemistry. The dynamically forming crystalline corrosion products are determined in situ for a range of copper-gold surface ratios over the course of a 10-day experiment in the cell. It is concluded that the insoluble deposits forming over this time are not the origin of the anticonception mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Mei; Yano, Yutaka; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yasuma, Taro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morimoto, Aya; Hosoya, Samiko; Suminaka, Chihiro; Nakajima, Hiromu; Gabazza, Esteban C; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference. Thirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. A significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76) and nighttime (r=0.82). The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity. We showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association

  11. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Uemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundContinuous glucose monitoring (CGM is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET. Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference.MethodsThirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. ResultsA significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76 and nighttime (r=0.82. The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity.ConclusionWe showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day.

  12. Monitoring of chlorsulfuron in biological fluids and water samples by molecular fluorescence using rhodamine B as fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesso, Magdalena; Escudero, Luis A; Talio, María Carolina; Fernández, Liliana P

    2016-11-01

    A new simple methodology is proposed for chlorsufuron (CS) traces quantification based upon enhancement of rhodamine B (RhB) fluorescent signal. Experimental variables that influence fluorimetric sensitivity have been studied and optimized. The zeroth order regression calibration was linear from 0.866 to 35.800µgL(-1) CS, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. At optimal experimental conditions, a limit of detection of 0.259µgL(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.866µgL(-1) were obtained. The method showed good sensitivity and adequate selectivity and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of CS in plasma, serum and water samples with satisfactory results analyzed by ANOVA test. The proposed methodology represents an alternative to traditional chromatographic techniques for CS monitoring in complex samples, using an accessible instrument in control laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring Amphotericin B and Fluconazole Concentrations in the Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether amphotericin B (AmB and fluconazole cross the blood-brain barrier in a similar manner in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis based on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF/plasma drug ratio through a comparative study. Methods: This prospective, open-label clinical protocol included 21 male and female patients, 28-55 years of age. The patients were infected with HIV (CD4 50-200 cells/mL and cryptococcal meningitis and were receiving AmB (1 mg/kg daily, infusion of four hours; 6-10 weeks and fluconazole (400 mg 12 qh; until CSF was negative for fungal growth. The patients were informed in detail about all procedures to be performed in the hospital, including blood and CSF sample collection, if required. The study protocol was approved by the hospital’s ethical committee. Plasma samples were obtained by centrifugation at 2800 g for 30 min, and CSF samples were collected by the physician to relieve symptoms caused by intracranial hypertension. The drug concentrations of both antifungal agents were determined in the biological samples using HPLC. Results: The mean drug plasma: CSF concentrations were 2.30:0.3 μg/mL and 31.7:19.4 μg/mL for AmB and fluconazole, respectively. The CSF:plasma ratios were 0.20 (AmB and 0.67 (fluconazole. Conclusions: Unlike fluconazole, the conventional AmB formulation did not reach the optimum CSF drug concentration. However, a high-dose regimen of fluconazole contributes to the outcome of HIV inpatients with severe cryptococcal meningitis.

  14. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    suitability of SDI for globe artichoke cultivation, reducing the water consumption, while maintaining (or even increasing) crop production and (ii) assess the crop water use efficiency respect to surface drip-irrigation. The field test is located in Venturina (Italy) and it covers a surface of 4 ha. The soil is characterized by sandy-loam texture, 1.72% of organic matter at 7.81 pH. Groundwater is the main source of supply for irrigation. By the chemical point of view, a monitoring campaign in spring 2016 showed a neutral pH of 7.2, electrical conductivity of 1363 μS/cm, 373 and 243 mg/l of total sulphate and carbonate, respectively, thus demonstrating the suitability of groundwater for SDI application. The SDI system was implemented at the beginning of September 2016. The sub-surface buried pipelines, were placed at 0.25 m depth, with emitters spaced 0.5 m. The distance between pipelines was 1.5 m, according to globe artichoke layout (1.5 m between rows, 1 m in-row spacing). Surface-buried tubes were placed in an area about 0.75 ha wide for the comparison with SDI. Artichoke var. Terom were transplanted after the SDI operation test. In the next 3 years, both crop productivity and water use will be assessed. Results will be presented and discussed with the whole farmer's community. Acknowledgement This paper is presented within the framework of the project LIFE REWAT, which has received funding from the LIFE Programme of the European Union Grant Agreement LIFE14 ENV/IT/001290.

  15. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  16. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O’Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment. PMID:26446348

  17. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. On the development of a new methodology in sub-surface parameterisation on the calibration of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, D. K. S. Y.; Imteaz, M. A.; Sudiayem, I.; Klaas, E. M. E.; Klaas, E. C. M.

    2017-10-01

    In groundwater modelling, robust parameterisation of sub-surface parameters is crucial towards obtaining an agreeable model performance. Pilot point is an alternative in parameterisation step to correctly configure the distribution of parameters into a model. However, the methodology given by the current studies are considered less practical to be applied on real catchment conditions. In this study, a practical approach of using geometric features of pilot point and distribution of hydraulic gradient over the catchment area is proposed to efficiently configure pilot point distribution in the calibration step of a groundwater model. A development of new pilot point distribution, Head Zonation-based (HZB) technique, which is based on the hydraulic gradient distribution of groundwater flow, is presented. Seven models of seven zone ratios (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) using HZB technique were constructed on an eogenetic karst catchment in Rote Island, Indonesia and their performances were assessed. This study also concludes some insights into the trade-off between restricting and maximising the number of pilot points and offers a new methodology for selecting pilot point properties and distribution method in the development of a physically-based groundwater model.

  19. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  20. Image-based overlay and alignment metrology through optically opaque media with sub-surface probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Maarten H.; Mohtashami, Abbas; Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive subsurface nanoimaging through optically opaque media is considered to be extremely challenging and is essential for several semiconductor metrology applications including overlay and alignment and buried void and defect characterization. The current key challenge in overlay and alignment is the measurement of targets that are covered by optically opaque layers. Moreover, with the device dimensions moving to the smaller nodes and the issue of the so-called loading effect causing offsets between between targets and product features, it is increasingly desirable to perform alignment and overlay on product features or so-called on-cell overlay, which requires higher lateral resolution than optical methods can provide. Our recently developed technique known as SubSurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) has shown the capability for high-resolution imaging of structures below a surface based on (visco-)elasticity of the constituent materials and as such is a promising technique to perform overlay and alignment with high resolution in upcoming production nodes. In this paper, we describe the developed SSURFM technique and the experimental results on imaging buried features through various layers and the ability to detect objects with resolution below 10 nm. In summary, the experimental results show that the SSURFM is a potential solution for on-cell overlay and alignment as well as detecting buried defects or voids and generally metrology through optically opaque layers.

  1. Degradation of atrazine and isoproturon in surface and sub-surface soil materials undergoing different moisture and aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Salah; Wood, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different moisture and aeration conditions on the degradation of atrazine and isoproturon was investigated in environmental samples aseptically collected from surface and sub-surface zones of agricultural land. The materials were maintained at two moisture contents corresponding to just above field capacity or 90% of field capacity. Another two groups of samples were adjusted with water to above field capacity, and, at zero time, exposed to drying-rewetting cycles. Atrazine was more persistent (t(1/2) = 22-35 days) than isoproturon (t(1/2) = 5-17 days) in samples maintained at constant moisture conditions. The rate of degradation for both herbicides was higher in samples maintained at a moisture content of 90% of field capacity than in samples with higher moisture contents. The reduction in moisture content in samples undergoing desiccation from above field capacity to much lower than field capacity enhanced the degradation of isoproturon (t(1/2) = 9-12 days) but reduced the rate of atrazine degradation (t(1/2) = 23-35 days). This demonstrates the variability between different micro-organisms in their susceptibility to desiccation. Under anaerobic conditions generated in anaerobic jars, atrazine degraded much more rapidly than isoproturon in materials taken from three soil profiles (0-250 cm depth). It is suggested that some specific micro-organisms are able to survive and degrade herbicide under severe conditions of desiccation. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O'Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-10-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment.

  3. Nocturnal soil CO2 uptake and its relationship to sub-surface soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their prevalence, little attention has been given to quantifying aridland soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes over prolonged, annually occurring dry periods. We measured surface soil respiration (Rsoil), volumetric soil moisture and temperature in inter- and under-canopy soils, sub-surface soi...

  4. Seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: techniques for determining fluid flow paths and state of stress away from a wellbore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, M.; House, L.; Kaieda, H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to determine the orientations and magnitudes of tectonic stresses. By augmenting conventional hydraulic fracturing measurements with detection and mapping of the microearthquakes induced by fracturing, we can supplement and idependently confirm information obtained from conventional analysis. Important information obtained from seismic monitoring includes: the state of stress of the rock, orientation and spacing of the major joint sets, and measurements of rock elastic parameters at locations distant from the wellbore. While conventional well logging operations can provide information about several of these parameters, the zone of interrogation is usually limited to the immediate proximity of the borehole. The seismic waveforms of the microearthquakes contain a wealth of information about the rock in regions that are otherwise inaccessible for study. By reliably locating the hypocenters of many microearthquakes, we have inferred the joint patterns in the rock. We observed that microearthquake locations do not define a simple, thin, planar distribution, that the fault plane solutions are consistent with shear slippage, and that spectral analysis indicates that the source dimensions and slip along the faults are small. Hence we believe that the microearthquakes result from slip along preexisting joints, and not from tensile extension at the tip of the fracture. Orientations of the principal stresses can be estimated by using fault plane solutions of the larger microearthquakes. By using a joint earthquake location scheme, and/or calibrations with downhole detonators, rock velocities and heterogeneities thereof can be investigated in rock volumes that are far enough from the borehole to be representative of intrincis rock properties.

  5. Real-time monitoring of spinal cord blood flow with a novel sensor mounted on a cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheter in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Matsunaga, Tadao; Haga, Yoichi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a novel monitoring system for spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) to test the efficacy of the SCBF sensor in an animal model. The sensor system consisted of 2 optical fibers, a pedestal for fiber fixation, and a mirror for the laser reflection and was incorporated into a cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheter. In vivo studies were performed in a swine model (n=10) to measure SCBF during spinal cord ischemia induced by clamping the descending thoracic aorta and supra-aortic neck vessels, when necessary. A temporary low cardiac output model was also created by inflow clamping of the inferior vena cava to analyze the quantitative changes in SCBF during this maneuver. The developed SCBF monitoring catheter placed intrathecally could detect SCBF in all the swine. The SCBF after aortic crossclamping at the fourth intercostal level exhibited diverse changes reproducibly among the swine, with a >25% reduction in SCBF in 5 pigs, an increase in 3, and no significant changes in 2. Consistent reductions were recorded during inferior vena cava occlusion. The mean SCBF decreased by 32% after inferior vena cava occlusion when the cardiac output had decreased by 27%. We have developed a novel SCBF sensor that could detect real-time changes in spinal cord perfusion in a swine model. The device holds promise to detect imminent ischemia or ensure acceptable blood perfusion in the spinal cord and could further enhance our understanding of spinal cord circulation. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intact protein analysis of ubiquitin in cerebrospinal fluid by multiple reaction monitoring reveals differences in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeckl, Patrick; Steinacker, Petra; von Arnim, Christine A F; Straub, Sarah; Nagl, Magdalena; Feneberg, Emily; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus

    2014-11-07

    The impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is thought to be an early event in neurodegeneration, and monitoring UPS alterations might serve as a disease biomarker. Our aim was to establish an alternate method to antibody-based assays for the selective measurement of free monoubiquitin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Free monoubiquitin was measured with liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in CSF of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Parkinson's disease (PD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent intra- and interassay precision (4.4-7.4% and 4.9-10.3%) and accuracy (100-107% and 100-106%). CSF ubiquitin concentration was increased compared with that of controls (33.0 ± 9.7 ng/mL) in AD (47.5 ± 13.1 ng/mL, p < 0.05) and CJD patients (171.5 ± 103.5 ng/mL, p < 0.001) but not in other neurodegenerative diseases. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis of AD vs control patients revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.832, and the specificity and sensitivity were 75 and 75%, respectively. ROC analysis of AD and FTLD patients yielded an AUC of 0.776, and the specificity and sensitivity were 53 and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, our LC-MS/MS method may facilitate ubiquitin determination to a broader community and might help to discriminate AD, CJD, and FTLD patients.

  7. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  9. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for α, β and γ emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for γ and α/β monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in α/β liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure 241 Am produced from 241 Pu by β decay. Because 241 Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., 137 Cs)

  10. Study of parameters for safety assessment of sub-surface disposal. Tunnel-excavating speed and thickness of additional soil in residential land development by filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitoya, Kimihide; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Funabashi, Hideyuki

    2012-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of own low level radioactive wastes. In order to carry out the disposal, it is necessary to confirm the safety of the disposal. Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) issued 'Policy of the Safety Assessment of Sub-surface Disposal after the Period for Active Control' (April 1, 2010). Then, we investigated the parameters for dose assessment in tunnel excavation scenario and large-scale land use scenario which were described in the 'Policy of the Safety Assessment', in order to perform the assessment based on actual conditions. To be concrete, we investigated the tunnel excavating speeds in Japan for the former scenario, and investigated technical standards of the filling for the latter scenario. We studied the realistic parameters for the dose assessment with the results of those investigations. (author)

  11. Medusa-Isosampler: A modular, network-based observatory system for combined physical, chemical and microbiological monitoring, sampling and incubation of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Flynn, M.; Taylor, P.

    2004-12-01

    The study of life in extreme environments provides an important context from which we can undertake the search for extraterrestrial life, and through which we can better understand biogeochemical feedback in terrestrial hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The Medusa-Isosampler project is aimed at fundamental research into understanding the potential for, and limits to, chemolithoautotrophic life, i.e. primary production without photosynthesis. One environment that might foster such life is associated with the high thermal and chemical gradient environment of hydrothermal vent structures. Another is associated with the lower thermal and chemical gradient environment of continental margin cold seeps. Under NERC, NASA and industrial support, we have designed a flexible instrumentation system, operating as networked, autonomous modules on a local area network, that will make possible simultaneous physical and chemical sampling and monitoring of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids, and the in situ and laboratory incubation of chemosynthetic microbes under high pressure, isobaric conditions. The system has been designed with long-term observatory operations in mind, and may be reconfigured dynamically as the requirements of the observatory installation change. The modular design will also accommodate new in situ chemical and biosensor technologies, provided by third parties. The system may be configured for seafloor use, and can be adapted to use in IODP boreholes. Our overall project goals are provide an instrumentation system capable of probing both high and low-gradient water-rock systems for chemolithoautotrophic biospheres, to identify the physical and chemical conditions that define these microhabitats and explore the details of the biogeochemical feedback loops that mediate these microhabitats, and to attempt to culture and identify chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities that might exist there. The Medusa-Isosampler system has been produced and is now

  12. When enough is enough: how the decision was made to stop the FEAST trial: data and safety monitoring in an African trial of Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy (FEAST) for critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jim; Heyderman, Robert S; Musoke, Philippa; Peto, Tim

    2013-03-26

    In resource-rich countries, bolus fluid expansion is routinely used for the treatment of poor perfusion and shock, but is less commonly used in many African settings. Controversial results from the recently completed FEAST (Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy) trial in African children have raised questions about the use of intravenous bolus fluid for the treatment of shock. Prior to the start of the trial, the Independent data monitoring committee (IDMC) developed stopping rules for the proof of benefit that bolus fluid resuscitation would bring. Although careful safety monitoring was put in place, there was less expectation that bolus fluid expansion would be harmful and differential stopping rules for harm were not formulated.In July 2010, two protocol amendments were agreed to increase the sample size from 2,880 to 3,600 children, and to increase bolus fluid administration. There was a non-significant trend against bolus treatment, but although the implications were discussed, the IDMC did not comment on the results, or on the amendments, in order to avoid inadvertent partial unblinding of the study.In January 2011, the trial was stopped for futility, as the combined intervention arms had significantly higher mortality (relative risk 1.46, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.90, P = 0.004) than the control arm. The stopping rule for proof of benefit was not achieved, and the IDMC stopped the trial with a lower level of significance (P = 0.01) due to futility and an increased risk of mortality from bolus fluid expansion in children enrolled in the trial. The basis for this decision was that the local standard of care was not to use bolus fluid for the care of children with shock in these African countries, and this was a different standard of care to that used in the UK. These decisions emphasize two important principles: firstly, the IDMC should avoid inadvertent unblinding of the trial by commenting on amendments, and secondly, when considering stopping a trial, the IDMC

  13. Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. It involves damage to the myelin sheath surrounding axons and to the axons themselves. MS most often presents with a series of relapses and remissions but then evolves over a variable period of time into a slowly progressive form of neurological dysfunction termed secondary progressive MS (SPMS. The reasons for this change in clinical presentation are unclear. The absence of a diagnostic marker means that there is a lag time of several years before the diagnosis of SPMS can be established. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms that underlie SPMS is critical to the development of rational therapies for this untreatable stage of the disease. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC; we have established a highly specific and sensitive selected reaction monitoring (SRM assay. Our multiplexed SRM assay has facilitated the simultaneous detection of surrogate peptides originating from 26 proteins present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Protein levels in CSF were generally ~200-fold lower than that in human sera. A limit of detection (LOD was determined to be as low as one femtomol. We processed and analysed CSF samples from a total of 22 patients with SPMS, 7 patients with SPMS treated with lamotrigine, 12 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND and 10 healthy controls (HC for the levels of these 26 selected potential protein biomarkers. Our SRM data found one protein showing significant difference between SPMS and HC, three proteins differing between SPMS and NIND, two proteins between NIND and HC, and 11 protein biomarkers showing significant difference between a lamotrigine-treated and untreated SPMS group. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that these 26 proteins were correlated, and could be represented by four principal components. Overall, we established an

  14. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  15. Ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment of iron nanomaterials for sub-surface remediation – Recommendations from the FP7 project NanoRem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Coutris, Claire; Nguyen, Nhung

    2017-01-01

    engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron® and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V. fisheri, E. coli), algae (P. subcapitata...... milled nZVI (FerMEG12), showed no toxicity in the test battery when tested in concentrations up to 100 mg/L, which is the cutoff for hazard labeling in chemicals regulation in Europe. However it should be noted that Fe nanomaterials proved challenging to test adequately due to their turbidity...

  16. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  17. Bayesian spatial modeling applied to environmental monitoring due to the use of different drilling fluids in the maritime exploration activity; Modelagem espacial Bayesiana aplicada ao monitoramento ambiental decorrente do uso de diferentes fluidos de perfuracao na atividade exploratoria maritima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulgati, Fernando H. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Zouain, Ricardo N.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Fachel, Jandyra M.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    Controlling and monitoring environmental researches have accompanied the development of offshore exploration drill activities aimed at finding oil and gas reserves, as there has been an increase in the environmental demands and restrictions. Three stages of the drilling process were isolated and the effects of different fluids were measured using Bayesian spatial models. The probable impact of the use of non-aqueous fluid (NAF) was measured through changes observed in sea sediments in three different occasions: previous to the activity, one (1) month after the end of the activity, and one (1) year after the end of the activity. BACI (Before-After Control Impact) design, which allows the control of temporal and spatial variation components, was chosen. (author)

  18. The design of long wavelength planetary SAR sensor and its applications for monitoring shallow sub-surface of Moon and planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    SAR observations over planetary surface have been conducted mainly in two ways. The first is the subsurface sounding, for example Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and Shallow Surface Radar (SHARAD), using ground penetration capability of long wavelength electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, imaging SAR sensors using burst mode design have been employed to acquire surface observations in the presence of opaque atmospheres such as in the case of Venus and Titan. We propose a lightweight SAR imaging system with P/L band wavelength to cover the vertical observation gap of these planetary radar observation schemes. The sensor is for investigating prominent surface and near-subsurface geological structures and physical characteristics. Such measurements will support landers and rover missions as well as future manned missions. We evaluate required power consumption, and estimate mass and horizontal resolution, which can be as good as 3-7 meters. Initial specifications for P/L dual band SARs for the lunar case at 130 km orbital altitude were designed already based on a assumptions that sufficient size antenna (>3m width diameter or width about 3m and >10kg weight) can be equipped. Useful science measurements to be obtained include: (1) derivation of subsurface regolith depth; 2) Surface and shallow subsurface radar imaging, together with radar ranging techniques such as radargrammetry and inteferometry. The concepts in this study can be used as an important technical basis for the future solid plant/satellite missions and already proposed for the 2018 Korean Lunar mission.

  19. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  20. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  1. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  2. Materials and proportion's design of self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer in sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwase, Kazuhito; Sugihashi, Naoyuki; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure for the material selection and mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer cementitious material in the sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan. The low diffusion layer is required for reducing transportation by controlling diffusion of a radionuclide. Therefore the low diffusion, cracks control, and low leaching are the important matters in the mix design. The process to select mortar mix design of the low diffusion layer is explained in detail. Of 33 kinds mix proportions used in laboratory comparative testing, the combinations of low heat portland cement, fly ash, lime powder and expansive addition was provisionally set to the mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer. (author)

  3. The role of the northward-directed (sub)surface limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the 8.2 ka Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegzes, A. D.; Jansen, E.; Telford, R. J.

    2014-02-01

    The so-called "8.2 ka Event" has been widely regarded as a major climate perturbation over the Holocene. It is most readily identifiable in the oxygen-isotope records from Greenland ice cores as an approximately 160 yr-long cold interval between 8250-8090 yr BP. The prevailing view has been that the cooling over Greenland, and potentially over the northern North Atlantic at least, was triggered by the catastrophic final drainage of the Agassiz-Ojibway proglacial lake as part of the remnant Laurentide Ice Sheet collapsed over Hudson Bay at around 8420 ± 80 yr BP. The consequent freshening of surface waters in the northern North Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas resulted in weaker overturning, hence reduced northward heat transport. Here we present proxy records from site JM97-MD95-2011 on the mid-Norwegian Margin indicating a (sharp) decline in the strength of the eastern branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas immediately following a uniquely large drop in (sub)surface ocean temperatures coeval with the lake outbursts. We propose that the final drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway was accompanied by a major iceberg discharge from Hudson Bay, which resulted in the cooling of the northward-directed northern Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Drift-Norwegian Atlantic Current system. Since our current-strength proxy records from the mid-Norwegian Margin do not evidence an exceptionally strong reduction in the main branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas at the time, we argue that a chilled northward-directed (sub)surface-current system and an already colder background climate state could be the main factors responsible for the 8.2 ka climate perturbation.

  4. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of transitions involving the lamellar, cubic, inverted hexagonal, and fluid isotropic phases of hydrated monoacylglycerides monitored by time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the dynamics and mechanism of the various thermotropic phase transitions undergone by the hydrated monoacylglycerides monoolein and monoelaidin, in the temperature range of 20-120 0 C and from 0 to 5 M NaCl, has been undertaken. Measurements were made by using time-resolved X-ray diffraction at the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source. The lamellar chain order/disorder, lamellar/cubic (body centered, space group No.8), cubic (body centered, No.8)/cubic (primitive No.4), cubic (body centered, No.12)/cubic (primitive, No.4), cubic (primitive, No.4)/fluid isotropic, cubic (body centered, No.12)/inverted hexagonal, cubic (primitive, No.4)/inverted hexagonal, and hexagonal/fluid isotropic transitions were examined under active heating and passive cooling by using a jump in temperature to effect phase transformation. All of the transitions with the exception of the cubic (body centered, No.8)/cubic (primitive, No.4) and the cubic (body centered, No.12)/cubic (primitive, No.4) cooling transitions were found (1) to be repeatable, (2) to be reversible, and (3) to have an upper bound on the transit time (time required to complete the transition) of ≤ 3s. In addition to the time-resolved measurements, data were obtained on the stability of the various phases in the temperature range of 20-120 0 C and from 0 to 5 M NaCl. In the case of fully hydrated monoolein, high salt strongly favors the hexagonal over the cubic (body centered, No.8) phase and slightly elevates the hexagonal/fluid isotropic transition temperature. With fully hydrated monoelaidin, the hexagonal phase which is not observed in the absence of salt becomes the dominant phase at high salt concentration

  6. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  7. A Pilot Trial of Pioglitazone HCl and Tretinoin in ALS: Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Monitor Drug Efficacy and Predict Rate of Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd D. Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine if therapy with pioglitazone HCl and tretinoin could slow disease progression in patients with ALS. Levels of tau and pNFH in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured to see if they could serve as prognostic indicators. Methods. 27 subjects on stable doses of riluzole were enrolled. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone 30 mg/d and tretinoin 10 mg/BID for six months or two matching placebos. ALSFRS-R scores were followed monthly. At baseline and at the final visit, lumbar punctures (LPs were performed to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker levels. Results. Subjects treated with tretinoin, pioglitazone, and riluzole had an average rate of decline on the ALSFRS-R scale of −1.02 points per month; subjects treated with placebo and riluzole had a rate of decline of -.86 (P=.18. Over six months of therapy, CSF tau levels decreased in subjects randomized to active treatment and increased in subjects on placebo. Further higher levels of pNF-H at baseline correlated with a faster rate of progression. Conclusion. ALS patients who were treated with tretinoin and pioglitazone demonstrated no slowing on their disease progression. Interestingly, the rate of disease progression was strongly correlated with levels of pNFH in the CSF at baseline.

  8. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  9. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  10. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  11. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  12. Optical and electronic properties of sub-surface conducting layers in diamond created by MeV B-implantation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems van Beveren, L. H., E-mail: laurensw@unimelb.edu.au; Bowers, H.; Ganesan, K.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Prawer, S. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Liu, R. [SIMS Facility, Office of the Deputy-Vice Chancellor (Research and Development) Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales 2751 (Australia)

    2016-06-14

    Boron implantation with in-situ dynamic annealing is used to produce highly conductive sub-surface layers in type IIa (100) diamond plates for the search of a superconducting phase transition. Here, we demonstrate that high-fluence MeV ion-implantation, at elevated temperatures avoids graphitization and can be used to achieve doping densities of 6 at. %. In order to quantify the diamond crystal damage associated with implantation Raman spectroscopy was performed, demonstrating high temperature annealing recovers the lattice. Additionally, low-temperature electronic transport measurements show evidence of charge carrier densities close to the metal-insulator-transition. After electronic characterization, secondary ion mass spectrometry was performed to map out the ion profile of the implanted plates. The analysis shows close agreement with the simulated ion-profile assuming scaling factors that take into account an average change in diamond density due to device fabrication. Finally, the data show that boron diffusion is negligible during the high temperature annealing process.

  13. UASB followed by Sub-Surface Horizontal Flow Phytodepuration for the Treatment of the Sewage Generated by a Small Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental process designed for the treatment of the sewage generated by a rural community located in the north-east of Brazil. The process consists of a preliminary mechanical treatment adopting coarse screens and grit traps, followed by a biological treatment in a UASB reactor and a sub-surface horizontal flow phytodepuration step. The use of a UASB reactor equipped with a top cover, as well as of the phytodepuration process employing a porous medium, showed to present important health advantages. In particular, there were no significant odor emissions and there was no evidence of the proliferation of insects and other disease vectors. The plant achieved the following mean abatement efficiencies: 92.9% for BOD5, 79.2% for COD and 94% for Suspended Solids. With regard to fecal indicators average efficiencies of 98.8% for fecal coliforms and 97.9% for fecal enterococci were achieved. The UASB reactor showed an important role in achieving this result. The research was also aimed at evaluating the optimal operating conditions for the UASB reactor in terms of hydraulic load and organic volumetric loading. The achieved results hence indicated that the process may be highly effective for small rural communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  14. NEWTON - NEW portable multi-sensor scienTific instrument for non-invasive ON-site characterization of rock from planetary surface and sub-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Michelena, M.; de Frutos, J.; Ordóñez, A. A.; Rivero, M. A.; Mesa, J. L.; González, L.; Lavín, C.; Aroca, C.; Sanz, M.; Maicas, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Cobos, P.; Pérez, M.; Kilian, R.; Baeza, O.; Langlais, B.; Thébault, E.; Grösser, J.; Pappusch, M.

    2017-09-01

    In space instrumentation, there is currently no instrument dedicated to susceptibly or complete magnetization measurements of rocks. Magnetic field instrument suites are generally vector (or scalar) magnetometers, which locally measure the magnetic field. When mounted on board rovers, the electromagnetic perturbations associated with motors and other elements make it difficult to reap the benefits from the inclusion of such instruments. However, magnetic characterization is essential to understand key aspects of the present and past history of planetary objects. The work presented here overcomes the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by developing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for ground breaking high-resolution magnetic characterization of planetary surfaces and sub-surfaces. This new technology introduces for the first time magnetic susceptometry (real and imaginary parts) as a complement to existing compact vector magnetometers for planetary exploration. This work aims to solve the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by means of providing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for use in space, science and planetary exploration to solve some of the open questions on the crustal and more generally planetary evolution within the Solar System.

  15. Transport of plutonium in surface and sub-surface waters from the Arctic shelf to the North Pole via the Lomonosov Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Vintro, L.; McMahon, C.A.; Mitchell, P.I.; Josefsson, D.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.

    2002-01-01

    New data on the levels and long-range transport of plutonium in the Arctic Ocean, recorded in the course of two expeditions to this zone in 1994 and 1996, are discussed in this paper. Specifically, approximately 100 plutonium measurements in surface and sub-surface water sampled at 58 separate stations throughout the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian Seas, as well as along latitudinal transects across the Lomonosov Ridge, are reported and interpreted in terms of the circulation pathways responsible for the transport of this element from the North Atlantic to the Arctic Shelf and into the Arctic interior. In addition, the behaviour of plutonium in its transit through the vast Arctic shelf seas to open waters under extreme environmental conditions is discussed in terms of the partitioning of plutonium between filtered (<0.45 μm) seawater and suspended particulate, and its association with colloidal matter. Finally, limited evidence of the presence of a colloidal plutonium component in Arctic waters subject to direct riverine input is adduced

  16. Molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambo, Adewale J.; Strapoc, Dariusz; Pittenger, Michelle; Huizinga, Bradley [ConocoPhillips (Canada); Wood, Ladonna; Ashby, Matt [Taxon Biosciences (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field. From field sampling, variability was seen in water chemistry and environmental parameters across the field; DNA yield also varied across the field and showed distinct spatial variation. The composition of microbial populations and relative distribution of archaea populations in the Cooks Inlet water is represented using pie and bar charts. The nutrient recipe was developed using known information on nutrient requirements of mathematically correlated microbial associations. The process of on-site nutrient injection is explained. Some of the mitigation plans for the risks involved during the process include, among others, limiting biofilm prevalence and avoiding bio-plugging and bio-corrosion. Biofilm is likely to develop in the injection line but less likely in nutrient mixing due to the high nutrient concentration. From the study, it can be concluded that community composition correlates with field geochemical parameters and methane pathways.

  17. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.

    2015-06-01

    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  18. The use of chemical analyses of borehole samples in sub-surface mapping: an example of the Delmas-Bapsfontein area is given

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudman, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The East Rand Dolomites around Delmas-Bapsfontein underlie an area of about 1000 sq. km. but do not outcrop. An intensive ground water exploration programme had been carried out and the percussion samples obtained were analysed in an attempt to differentiate the sub-surface geology based on the chemistry of the samples. The gross chemistry of the various rock types has been well defined and various computer-aided graphical methods were used to highlight changes in the chemistry. Samples were analysed by means of x-ray fluorescence. The chert-rich dolomite formations near surface have been leached to the extent that all of the carbonate minerals have been removed, leaving a chert residium of commonly 80 m thick. The carbonates in this area can be regarded as 'pure' dolomites. There are however two discretely different CaO/MgO ratios present in the study area. Intrusives with up to 16% Na 2 O are noted. The effect of de-dolomitization at the contacts of the intrusives is clearly illustrated. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. Final Report to DOE EERE – Geothermal Technologies Program Project Title: Monitoring and modeling of fluid flow in a developing enhanced geothermal system (EGS) reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to improve our ability to predict performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir over time by relating, in a quantitative manner, microseismic imaging with fluid and temperature changes within the reservoir. Historically, microseismic data have been used qualitatively to place bounds on the growth of EGS reservoirs created by large hydraulic fracturing experiments. Previous investigators used an experimentally based fracture opening relationship (fracture aperture as a function of pressure), the spatial extent of microseismic events, and some assumptions about fracture frequency to determine the size of an EGS reservoir created during large pumping tests. We addressed a number of issues (1) locating microearthquakes that occur during hydraulic fracturing, (2) obtaining more information about a reservoir than the microearthquake locations from the microearthquake data, for example, information about the seismic velocity structure of the reservoir or the scattering of seismic waves within the reservoir, (3) developing an improved methodology for estimating properties of fractures that intersect wellbores in a reservoir, and (4) developing a conceptual model for explaining the downward growth of observed seismicity that accompanies some hydraulic injections into geothermal reservoirs. We used two primary microseismic datasets for our work. The work was motivated by a dataset from the Salak Geothermal Field in Indonesia where seismicity accompanying a hydraulic injection was observed to migrate downward. We also used data from the Soultz EGS site in France. We also used Vertical Seismic Profiling data from a well in the United States. The work conducted is of benefit for characterizing reservoirs that are created by hydraulic fracturing for both EGS and for petroleum recovery.

  20. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  1. Apparatus and method for monitoring stored material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.E.; Lewis, D.R.; Galloway, L.A.; Lowrey, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Material, e.g. radioactive waste or other hazardous material, which is to be stored and monitored is placed within the innermost container of a series of nested containers and monitoring fluids are circulated in a closed loop of fluid flow through the spaces between the nested containers. Monitoring devices are used to analyse said monitoring fluids to detect leakage of the stored material from the innermost nested container and to detect the migration of external fluids into the series of nested containers. A computer based monitoring system continually checks the values of various parameters of the monitoring fluids to immediately detect and report the presence of stored material or external fluid in the monitoring fluids. The stored material may then be immediately retrieved from storage to repair leaks in the series of nested containers. (author)

  2. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  3. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  4. Mechanisms, Monitoring and Modeling Earth Fissure generation and Fault activation due to subsurface Fluid exploitation (M3EF3): A UNESCO-IGCP project in partnership with the UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, P.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Galloway, D. L.; Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction was recently mentioned as one of the most urgent threats to sustainable development in the latest UNESCO IHP-VIII (2014-2020) strategic plan. Although advances have been made in understanding, monitoring, and predicting subsidence, the influence of differential vertical compaction, horizontal displacements, and hydrostratigraphic and structural features in groundwater systems on localized near-surface ground ruptures is still poorly understood. The nature of ground failure may range from fissuring, i.e., formation of an open crack, to faulting, i.e., differential offset of the opposite sides of the failure plane. Ground ruptures associated with differential subsidence have been reported from many alluvial basins in semiarid and arid regions, e.g. China, India, Iran, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the United States. These ground ruptures strongly impact urban, industrial, and agricultural infrastructures, and affect socio-economic and cultural development. Leveraging previous collaborations, this year the UNESCO Working Group on Land Subsidence began the scientific cooperative project M3EF3 in collaboration with the UNESCO International Geosciences Programme (IGCP n.641; www.igcp641.org) to improve understanding of the processes involved in ground rupturing associated with the exploitation of subsurface fluids, and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable groundwater management practices in vulnerable aquifer systems. The project is developing effective tools to help manage geologic risks associated with these types of hazards, and formulating recommendations pertaining to the sustainable use of subsurface fluid resources for urban and agricultural development in susceptible areas. The partnership between the UNESCO IHP and IGCP is ensuring that multiple scientific competencies required to optimally investigate earth fissuring and faulting caused by groundwater withdrawals are being employed.

  5. Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Lapen, David R.; Topp, Edward

    2015-01-01

    In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with 14 C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. - Highlights: • We characterized the soil fate of four organic contaminants carried in biosolids. • Biosolids were placed on the soil surface or incorporated within the soil profile. • Naproxen, triclosan and triclocarban were dissipated more rapidly when incorporated. • Depth of placement did not influence the rate of carbamazepine dissipation. • Soil incorporation of biosolids will result in more rapid dissipation of contaminants

  6. Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Lapen, David R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Department of Biology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with {sup 14}C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. - Highlights: • We characterized the soil fate of four organic contaminants carried in biosolids. • Biosolids were placed on the soil surface or incorporated within the soil profile. • Naproxen, triclosan and triclocarban were dissipated more rapidly when incorporated. • Depth of placement did not influence the rate of carbamazepine dissipation. • Soil incorporation of biosolids will result in more rapid dissipation of contaminants.

  7. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  8. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  9. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  10. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  12. Genome sequencing reveals the potential of an indigenous arsenotrophic bacterium; Achromobacter sp. KAs 3-5 for sub-surface arsenic mobilization and strategies for bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaram Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    desired traits through horizontal gene transfer events. The ability of the organism to metabolize mono-poly aromatics like benzene, toluene, naphthalene, anthracene, etc. (by catechol, homogentisate pathways coupled to As reduction (through arsHBC, arsC, ACR3 found to be well validated by genomic observations. X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES also enabled us to decipher detailed Fe-based reductive As release process from sediment and its interaction. The obtained genome data provide us with a better understanding of sub-surface mechanisms of hydrocarbon (organic matter driven As release, which may contribute to the future design of rational strategies for bioremediation of As/other heavy metal contaminated environments.

  13. Computational Approach for Improving Three-Dimensional Sub-Surface Earth Structure for Regional Earthquake Hazard Simulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    In our Exascale Computing Project (ECP) we seek to simulate earthquake ground motions at much higher frequency than is currently possible. Previous simulations in the SFBA were limited to 0.5-1 Hz or lower (Aagaard et al. 2008, 2010), while we have recently simulated the response to 5 Hz. In order to improve confidence in simulated ground motions, we must accurately represent the three-dimensional (3D) sub-surface material properties that govern seismic wave propagation over a broad region. We are currently focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) with a Cartesian domain of size 120 x 80 x 35 km, but this area will be expanded to cover a larger domain. Currently, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) has a 3D model of the SFBA for seismic simulations. However, this model suffers from two serious shortcomings relative to our application: 1) it does not fit most of the available low frequency (< 1 Hz) seismic waveforms from moderate (magnitude M 3.5-5.0) earthquakes; and 2) it is represented with much lower resolution than necessary for the high frequency simulations (> 5 Hz) we seek to perform. The current model will serve as a starting model for full waveform tomography based on 3D sensitivity kernels. This report serves as the deliverable for our ECP FY2017 Quarter 4 milestone to FY 2018 “Computational approach to developing model updates”. We summarize the current state of 3D seismic simulations in the SFBA and demonstrate the performance of the USGS 3D model for a few selected paths. We show the available open-source waveform data sets for model updates, based on moderate earthquakes recorded in the region. We present a plan for improving the 3D model utilizing the available data and further development of our SW4 application. We project how the model could be improved and present options for further improvements focused on the shallow geotechnical layers using dense passive recordings of ambient and human-induced noise.

  14. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  15. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  16. [Arterial pressure curve and fluid status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Fukui, K

    2009-04-01

    Fluid optimization is a major contributor to improved outcome in patients. Unfortunately, anesthesiologists are often in doubt whether an additional fluid bolus will improve the hemodynamics of the patient or not as excess fluid may even jeopardize the condition. This article discusses physiological concepts of liberal versus restrictive fluid management followed by a discussion on the respective capabilities of various monitors to predict fluid responsiveness. The parameter difference in pulse pressure (dPP), derived from heart-lung interaction in mechanically ventilated patients is discussed in detail. The dPP cutoff value of 13% to predict fluid responsiveness is presented together with several assessment techniques of dPP. Finally, confounding variables on dPP measurements, such as ventilation parameters, pneumoperitoneum and use of norepinephrine are also mentioned.

  17. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  18. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  19. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  20. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  1. Fluid management in infants and children during intracranial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangi S Karnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid management in neurosurgical paediatric patients can be a real challenge due to their different pathophysiology, sensitivity to fluid loss, inability to accurately judge the degree of abnormality and adequacy of replacement in face of limited monitoring. For infants and children undergoing neurosurgical procedures, isotonic fluids should be used for maintenance and replacement to avoid increase in intracranial pressure and maintain cerebral perfusion. Routine use of added dextrose is not needed, but blood glucose monitoring should be done in high risk population. Preoperative deficits and intraoperative blood loss should be closely monitored and treated. Hyponataemia and other electrolyte derangements are common and should be monitored.

  2. Numerical simulation and experimental analysis for a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy (BSR); Simulacao numerica e ensaio experimental da Boia de Sub-superficie de Suporte de Risers - BSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jairo B. de; Almeida, Jose Carlos L. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Marcos; Fernandes, Antonio C.; Santos, Melquisedec F. dos; Sales Junior, Joel Sena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents results, numeric and experimental, due to installation operation of a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy, (BSR). This kind of installation developed by PETROBRAS is unique in the world. The work of BSR installation was based on a numeric pre analysis to verify the system and determine the main parameters to be experimentally verified. The second phase of the work was the experimental analysis in a deep water ocean basin. s. The work describes the BSR and their main accessories, the experimental environment and the model constructed in aluminum in a 1:12 scale and the main results. (author)

  3. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  4. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  5. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  6. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  7. Geophysical monitoring of the EDZ during a gallery excavation in the Opalinus clay of the Mont Terri URL: anomalies of noble gases and self-potential associated with fractures and fluid dynamics in a horizontal borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineult, A.; Mahiouz, K.; Lesparre, N.; Thomas, B.; Lavielle, B.; Nussbaum, C.; Wieczorek, K.; Gibert, D.; Kergosien, B.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The research underground rock laboratory (URL) of Mont Terri (Switzerland) was established in 1996 in a Mesozoic clay-stone formation (Opalinus Clay). It is aimed at studying the hydro-mechanical, thermal, geochemical and geophysical behaviour of argillaceous formations in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The EZ-G experiments were designed to monitor the EDZ evolution. The EZ-G08 experiment started in September 2007 to study the EDZ changes at different time scales during the tunnelling of gallery Ga08 starting from the northern part of the URL toward the end-face of the gallery Ga04. Before the excavation process started, we characterized the petrology and the structural properties of the core of the horizontal, 12-m long borehole BEZ-G5 drilled in the end-face of gallery Ga04 (first 2 meters in the shaly facies, the rest in the sandy facies). We quantified its noble gas content for studying gas transport processes in rocks and connected fracture networks. Depletion in He can be observed in the EDZ and other noble gases can also increase as desaturation processes occur. Inflows of water occurred in the borehole few weeks after its drilling until the junction of galleries Ga08 and Ga04. Water amounts of few litres were commonly released in other boreholes in the URL. We recorded the natural electrical potentials (self-potentials - SP), in BEZ-G5. SP originate from the movement of fluid, the diffusion of concentration or temperature gradients, and are sensitive to any change occurring in them. Borehole BEZ-G5 was equipped with a specific device, on which custom-made electrodes were fixed every 15 cm. The signals showed coherent perturbations during the drilling operations in the boreholes BEZ-G12 and in the end-face of the gallery Ga04. Afterwards, an early, strong but rather smooth increase of a few tens of mV, followed by a very slow decrease of much smallest amplitude, can be observed in some signals

  8. Minimizing the Fluid Used to Induce Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The less fluid injected to induce fracturing means less fluid needing to be produced before gas is produced. One method is to inject as fast as possible until the desired fracture length is obtained. Presented is an alternative injection strategy derived by applying optimal system control theory to the macroscopic mass balance. The picture is that the fracture is constant in aperture, fluid is injected at a controlled rate at the near end, and the fracture unzips at the far end until the desired length is obtained. The velocity of the fluid is governed by Darcy's law with larger permeability for flow along the fracture length. Fracture growth is monitored through micro-seismicity. Since the fluid is assumed to be incompressible, the rate at which fluid is injected is balanced by rate of fracture growth and rate of loss to bounding rock. Minimizing injected fluid loss to the bounding rock is the same as minimizing total injected fluid How to change the injection rate so as to minimize the total injected fluid is a problem in optimal control. For a given total length, the variation of the injected rate is determined by variations in overall time needed to obtain the desired fracture length, the length at any time, and the rate at which the fracture is growing at that time. Optimal control theory leads to a boundary condition and an ordinary differential equation in time whose solution is an injection protocol that minimizes the fluid used under the stated assumptions. That method is to monitor the rate at which the square of the fracture length is growing and adjust the injection rate proportionately.

  9. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  10. Appropriate fluid regimens to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, O K

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is an important problem in premature neonates with surfactant deficiency because of fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium and reduced urine output. Some retrospective reports suggest that excessive early hydration might increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Only three prospective studies evaluating low or conventional fluid administration regimens to very low birth weight infants have been published. According to their results no significant differences in the incidence of BPD have been shown. However, fluid restriction seems to improve the outcome of the infants because of decreased incidence of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary air leaks and decreased mortality. The appropriate amount of sodium in the intravenous fluids during the first days of life needs further evaluation. In tiny infants with birth weights from 500 to 800g intensive monitoring of fluid balance is essential to control the extremely high fluid losses due to evaporation. Undernutrition is a risk factor of BPD and therefore it is important to start parenteral nutrition early. The benefit of the use of colloids as volume expanders is controversial. According to some retrospective reports there might be an association with increased use of colloidal fluids during the first days of life and the development of BPD. Early excessive fluid administration might constitute a potential risk for low birth weight infants with hyaline membrane disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  12. Familiarity of Alpine magnitude and geometry as a critical pedagogic element in student visualisation of basin- & crustal-scale sub-surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    A geoscience education stumbling block that typically re-currs throughout the early years of student progress is bringing three dimensional spatial scales of Earth's features in perspective. This far more so than temporal scales; the concept of geological timescale is normally quickly adopted into a students perception. Providing a sense of proportion for three dimensional objects is two fold: the first, the actual "thinking in 3D" while often depicting in 2D (e.g. seismic moment "beachballs", stereonets, cross-sections, atmospheric circulation cells) has been dramatically assisted by accelerated graphics imaging software. The second, proportion across all scales, is subtle yet crucial and not necessarily better-conveyed to students exclusively via computer-assisted learning. My experiences teaching students from a range of geographical backgrounds strongly indicates a much firmer grasp overall, by students from Alpine regions, of magnitudes and scales of crustal features. The intensity of topography in these regions, where cablecar and steep walking are the primary accesses, is a unique opportunity to illustrate the km-scale of structures in 3D, a lesson far beyond one of simply illustrating the appearance of typical rocks "in the great outdoors" and very tricky to convery through "virtual" field trips alone. Examples include; 1. the embodiment of a shallow seismic reflection profile to a several hundrend metre cliff of intercalated (i.e. switching impedance contrast) turbidites whose km-long overthrust line is traceable along a valley floor far below. 2. the weight of the thrust pile underfoot and corresponding amounts of lithosphere bending and foreland basin growth - a perspective often lost with beam engineering-only approaches. 3. fluid-volumes: intensely solution-strained &/or vein-bearing masses can be estimated for volume percentage and total cubic amount across a mountain region. 4. instantaneous river bedload versus yearly versus m.y. total volumes. Such

  13. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  14. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  15. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk

    1999-06-01

    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  19. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  20. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  1. Fluid-structure interaction in BWR suppression pool systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1979-09-01

    The discharge of safety relief valves or a severe loss-of-coolant event in a boiling-water-cooled reactor steam supply system triggers a complex pressure suppression system that is based upon sub-surface steam condensation in large pools of water. The physical problems fall into two categories. The first is referred to as vent clearing and describes the process of expelling non-condensables from the system prior to steam flow. The second category covers a variety of phenomena related to the transient overexpansion of a condensable volume and the subsequent inertially-driven volume decrease. The dynamic loading of either event, depending upon fluid-structural design parameters, can be of concern in safety analysis. This report describes the development of a method for calculating the loads and the structural response for both types of problems. The method is embedded in a computer code, called PELE-IC, that couples a two-dimensional, incompressible eulerian fluid algorithm to a finite element shell algorithm. The fluid physics is based upon the SOLA algorithm, which provideds a trial velocity field using the Navier-Stokes equations that is subsequently corrected iteratively so that incompressibility, fluid-structure interface compatibility, and boundary conditions are satisfied. These fluid and fluid-structure algorithms have been extensively verified through calculations of known solutions from the classical literature, and by comparison to air and steam blowdown experiments

  2. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  3. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  4. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  5. Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraghi, Mana

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume.

  6. Monitoring electrical properties for improving the lithological and hydrological characterization of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, J. P.; Gance, J.; Lajaunie, M.; Gallistl, J.; Denchik, N.; Flores Orozco, A.; Ottowitz, D.; Supper, R.; Sailhac, P.; Gautier, S.; Schmutz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging water flows in landslides is of critical importance as the distribution of pore-fluid pressures controls the dynamics (acceleration, deceleration) of the material. Detecting and imaging water is a difficult task, not only because of the complex topography and the small dimensions of the geological structures, but also because the landslide material consists of unsaturated porous and heterogeneous fractured media, leading to multi-scale water-flow properties. Further, these properties can change in time, in relation to temperature, rainfall and biological forcings. Electrical properties are relevant proxies of the sub-surface hydrological properties. In order to image water in landslide bodies, we propose to combine multi-frequency electrical and electromagnetic measurements using campaigns or permanent instruments, and surface/boreole investigations, installed on several unstable slopes in France. To evaluate the information gained from electrical properties for different geological conditions, we discuss electrical and electro-magnetic imaging results for data collected at four different landslides located in France (Super-Sauze and La Valette in the South East Alps, Lodève lin the southern border of the Massif Central Massif, and Séchilienne in the North French Alps). Time-lapse electrical DC resistivity observations, complex electrical conductivity (conduction and polarization/chargeability) measured by IP imaging methods, and controlled-source electromagnetic (CS-AMT) methods are discussed. Imaging results demonstrate an improved lithological characterization of the landslide structures (delineation of the sliding planes, identification of the fractures, discrimination of clay lenses with enhanced resolution); further, water infiltration within the soil matrix and/or the fractures is discriminated allowing better modelling of the hydrological regime of the landslides at the slope scale. This research is conducted in the frame of the project HYDROSLIDE

  7. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  8. Fullerol ionic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  9. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  12. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  13. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  14. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  15. 21 CFR 868.2450 - Lung water monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lung water monitor. 868.2450 Section 868.2450 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2450 Lung water monitor. (a) Identification. A lung water monitor is a device used to monitor the trend of fluid volume changes in a patient's lung by...

  16. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  17. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject's Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria

  18. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  19. Pleural fluid smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  20. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  1. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  2. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  3. Time Independent Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  4. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  5. Bioimpedance-Guided Fluid Management in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Guillén, Marta; Wabel, Peter; Fontseré, Néstor; Carrera, Montserrat; Campistol, José Maria; Maduell, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Achieving and maintaining optimal fluid status remains a major challenge in hemodialysis therapy. The aim of this interventional study was to assess the feasibility and clinical consequences of active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy in chronic hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Fluid status was optimized prospectively in 55 chronic hemodialysis patients over 3 months (November 2011 to February 2012). Predialysis fluid overload was measured weekly using the Fresenius Body Composition Monitor. Time-averaged fluid overload was calculated as the average between pre- and postdialysis fluid overload. The study aimed to bring the time-averaged fluid overload of all patients into a target range of 0.5±0.75 L within the first month and maintain optimal fluid status until study end. Postweight was adjusted weekly according to a predefined protocol. Results Time-averaged fluid overload in the complete study cohort was 0.9±1.6 L at baseline and 0.6±1.1 L at study end. Time-averaged fluid overload decreased by −1.20±1.32 L (P<0.01) in the fluid-overloaded group (n=17), remained unchanged in the normovolemic group (n=26, P=0.59), and increased by 0.59±0.76 L (P=0.02) in the dehydrated group (n=12). Every 1 L change in fluid overload was accompanied by a 9.9 mmHg/L change in predialysis systolic BP (r=0.55, P<0.001). At study end, 76% of all patients were either on time-averaged fluid overload target or at least closer to target than at study start. The number of intradialytic symptoms did not change significantly in any of the subgroups. Conclusions Active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy was associated with an improvement in overall fluid status and BP. PMID:23949235

  6. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  7. Between-hole acoustic surveying and monitoring of a granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to present preliminary results of an acoustic monitoring study performed as part of a comprehensive rock mechanic and geophysics research program (Ref.20) associated with large-scale heater tests in an abandoned iron-ore mine in central Sweden. The investigation was performed in a fractured granitic rock mass at a sub-surface depth of 340 m, in a drift adjacent to the original iron-ore mine workings. Acoustic monitoring took place between four empty, dry, vertical boreholes of 10 m depth spaced in the vicinity of a vertical heater borehole in the floor of a drift

  8. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  9. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.

    1980-01-01

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  11. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  12. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  13. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. E.

    1995-08-01

    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  14. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1984-01-01

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  15. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  16. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  17. Phoresis in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  18. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  19. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2 absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  20. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  1. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  2. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.

    1992-03-01

    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  5. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, R.; Marinkovich, P.S.; Spadaro, P.R.; Stout, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution. 1 claim, 7 figures

  6. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  8. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  9. Size-dependent δ18O and δ13C variations in a planktic foraminiferal Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) record from Chukchi Plateau: implications for (sub)surface water conditions in the western Arctic Ocean over the past 50 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Xiao, W.; Mei, J.; Polyak, L.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) (Nps) have a promising potential for reconstructing (sub)surface water conditions in the Arctic Ocean. Size-dependent (63-154 µm, 154-250 µm, and >250 µm) Nps δ18O and δ13C were measured along with Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and scanned XRF Ca and Mn contents in sediment core ARC3-P31 from the Chukchi Plateau (434 m water depth) representing paleoceanographic conditions during the last 50 ka (Marine Isotope Stages 1-3). While the interval corresponding to the Last Glacial Maximum is represented by a hiatus, the following deglaciation is clearly marked by a strong depletion in both δ18O and δ13C in all Nps size fractions along with a peak in detrital carbonate IRD indicative of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago provenance. This pronounced feature presumably indicates a collapse event of the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet, potentially linked to the rising sea level. In the overall record under study, average values of Nps δ18O and δ13C fluctuate in the range of 1.2-2.1‰ and 0.3-0.9 ‰, respectively. Mid-size Nps δ18O values (154-250 µm) are in average lighter by 0.2-0.5 ‰ than those of small (63-154 µm) and large (>250 µm) Nps tests. This offset may indicate a different water-depth dwelling, possibly affected by a relatively warm subsurface Atlantic water.

  10. Modelling the environmental transport of tritium in the vicinity of long term atmospheric and sub-surface sources. Report of the Tritium Working Group of the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Programme, Theme 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3) radionuclide migration and accumulation in forest ecosystems. This report describes results of the studies undertaken by the Tritium Working Group under Theme 3. It discusses the six model test exercises (three model-model intercomparisons and three model-data exercises) and the twenty-month field sampling programme undertaken to investigate the environmental transport of tritium in the vicinity of long term atmospheric and sub-surface sources

  11. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  12. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  13. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  15. The fluid systems for the SLD Cherenkov ring imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Schneider, M.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.

    1992-10-01

    We describe the design and operation of the fluid delivery, monitor and control systems for the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The systems deliver drift gas (C 2 H 6 + TMAE), radiator gas (C 5 F 12 + N 2 ) and radiator liquid (C 6 F 14 ). Measured critical quantities such as electron lifetime in the drift gas and ultra-violet (UV) transparencies of the radiator fluids, together with the operational experience, are also reported

  16. Fluid structure coupling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D

  17. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  18. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  19. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  1. Valve packing leakage monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    A device for monitoring leakage of fluid across a seal in a component connected to a pressurized fluid system including a housing having a chamber with an inlet for receiving fluid leaking across the seal and an outlet. A positioning means is connected to an orifice plug so as to move the plug for permitting the fluid to be discharged through the orifice at the same rate at which it enters the first chamber and means for detecting the movement of the plug is provided to produce and output signal corresponding to the distance moved by the plug and thereby indicate flow rate. The positioning means compromise a piston attached to the plug by a hollow tube and springs, which at low flow rates locate the piston. When flow increases sufficiently pressure increases and urges the piston upwards. A magnetic portion of tube actuates a succession of proximity switches to indicate flow rate. (author)

  2. The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaebjornsdottir, Sandra O.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Mesfin, Kiflom

    2017-01-01

    is supersaturated prior to and during the mixed gas injection and in the following months. In July 2013, the HN-04 fluid sampling pump broke down due to calcite precipitation, verifying the carbonation of the injected CO2. Mass balance calculations, based on the recovery of non-reactive tracers co......-gas mixture were sequentially injected into basaltic rocks at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland from January to August 2012. This paper reports the chemistry and saturation states with respect to potential secondary minerals of sub-surface fluids sampled prior to, during, and after...

  3. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  4. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  5. Incompressible ionized fluid mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2006), s. 493-509 ISSN 0935-1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chemically reacting fluids * Navier-Stokes * Nernst-Planck * Possion equation s * heat equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2006

  6. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  7. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  8. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  9. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  10. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  11. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; van Foreest, N.D.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a Markov process' with

  12. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  13. The X'tal cube PET detector with a monolithic crystal processed by the 3D sub-surface laser engraving technique: Performance comparison with glued crystal elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-09-21

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from six sides of the crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of a 3D crystal block with isotropic segments. Each face of the 3D crystal block is covered with a 4×4 array of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). Previously, in order to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. A dense arrangement of multiple micro-cracks carved by the laser beam works efficiently as a scattering wall for the scintillation photons. The X'tal cube with the laser-processed block showed excellent performance with respect to crystal identification and energy resolution. In this work, for characteristics comparison between the laser-processed block and the conventional segmented array block, we made the laser-processed block and two types of segmented array blocks, one with air gaps and the other with glued segmented small crystals. All crystal blocks had 3D grids of 2 mm pitch. The 4×4 MPPC arrays were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. When performance was evaluated using a uniform irradiation of 511 keV, we found that the X'tal cubes with the laser-processed block could easily achieve 2 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification. Also, the average energy resolution of each 3D grid was 11.1±0.7%. On the other hand, the glued segmented array block had a pinched distribution and crystals could not be separated clearly. The segmented array block with air gaps had satisfactory crystal identification performance; however, the laser-processed block had higher crystal identification performance. Also, the energy resolution of the laser-processed block was better than for the segmented array blocks. In summary, we found the laser-processed X'tal cube had

  14. Chemistry of fluids from a natural analogue for a geological CO{sub 2} storage site (Montmiral, France): Lessons for CO{sub 2}-water-rock interaction assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, Helene [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)], E-mail: h.pauwels@brgm.fr; Gaus, Irina; Le Nindre, Yves Michel [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Pearce, Jonathan [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG125GG (United Kingdom); Czernichowski-Lauriol, Isabelle [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    these elements in the brine, which are attributed to CO{sub 2} interactions, illustrate the relevance of monitoring the water quality at future industrial CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  15. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  16. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS...

  17. Electrical potential changes and acoustic emissions generated by fracture and fluid flow during experimental triaxial rock deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint, Oswald Conan

    Natural electrical potential signals have been recorded from numerous seismically active areas around the world and therefore have been proposed as a potential earthquake prediction tool. The streaming potential is being used to locate sub-surface water reservoirs, to monitor steam fronts during enhanced oil recovery techniques, and to delineate the anisotropy of fractures in geothermal and oil reservoirs. The generating mechanism for these signals is still unclear although plausible theories include: - Piezoelectric fields produced through stress changes on piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, found in many rocks. - Electrokinetic currents induced through a pressure gradient and caused by electrical charge transport within a moving fluid. - Less well-established theories for instance involving current carrying mobile O' charges. To investigate the relative significance of these mechanisms, I have measured the direct current electrical potential and acoustic emissions during constant strain rate rock deformation under simulated crustal conditions of pressure and pore fluid pressure. Some sixty-one experiments were done on rock samples of quartz rich Darley Dale and Bentheim sandstone and quartz free basalt from Iceland. A computer and servo-controlled conventional triaxial cell was used to deform dry, water-saturated and brine-saturated rock samples at confining pressures between 20 and 200MPa, pore fluid pressures between 10 and 50MPa and strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 10-6 s-1 I identify the primary sources of the electrical potential signals as being generated by (i) piezoelectricity in dry sandstone experiments and (ii) electrokinetic effect in saturated basalt experiments. I show that electrical potential signals from the other proposed methods are not detectable above the background noise level. It can therefore be argued that the electrokinetic effect is the main electrical potential generating mechanism within the upper crust.Both precursory and

  18. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  19. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana contains selected papers from two conferences related to fluid mechanics held in India recently, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power conference at NIT, Hamirpur, and an International Union of Theoretical ... A simple, well thought out, flow visualization experiment or a computation can sometimes ...

  20. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  1. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  2. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  3. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  4. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  5. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  6. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  7. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  8. Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Frank

    2017-12-28

    The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically

  9. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  10. Recording fluid currents by holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Convection in fluids can be studied with aid of holographic apparatus that reveals three-dimensional motion of liquid. Apparatus eliminates images of fixed particles such as dust on windows and lenses, which might mask behavior of moving fluid particles. Holographic apparatus was developed for experiments on fluid convection cells under zero gravity. Principle is adaptable to study of fluid processes-for example, electrochemical plating and combustion in automotive engines.

  11. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  12. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathi, Ramon; Sage, Michael; Slavotinek, John; Hanieh, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    A case of an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is reported to illustrate this known but rare complication. In the setting of a VP shunt, the frequency of abdominal CSF pseudocyst formation is approximately 3.2%, often being precipitated by a recent inflammatory or infective process or recent surgery. Larger pseudocysts tend to be sterile, whereas smaller pseudocysts are more often infected. Ultrasound and CTeach have characteristic findings Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  13. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  14. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  15. Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.; Moffatt, H. K.; Worster, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    With applications ranging from modelling the environment to automotive design and physiology to astrophysics, conventional textbooks cannot hope to give students much information on what topics in fluid dynamics are currently being researched, or how to choose between them. This book rectifies matters. It consists of eleven chapters that introduce and review different branches of the subject for graduate-level courses, or for specialists seeking introductions to other areas. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-78061-6

  16. Fluid circulation control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Henri; Henocque, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontal fluid circulation control device, of the type having a pivoting flap. This device is intended for being fitted in the pipes of hydraulic installation, particularly in a bleed and venting system of a nuclear power station shifting radioactive or contaminated liquids. The characteristic of this device is the cut-out at the top of the flap to allow the air contained in the pipes to flow freely [fr

  17. Problems in fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasch, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and mineral engineering students require texts which give guidance to problem solving to complement their main theoretical texts. This book has a broad coverage of the fluid flow problems which these students may encounter. The fundamental concepts and the application of the behaviour of liquids and gases in unit operation are dealt with. The book is intended to give numerical practice; development of theory is undertaken only when elaboration of treatments available in theoretical texts is absolutely necessary

  18. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  19. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  20. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  1. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  2. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  3. Dynamics of radiating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Weaver, R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is essential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations, and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved is presented

  4. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  5. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  6. Evaluation of stroke volume variation obtained by arterial pulse contour analysis to predict fluid responsiveness intraoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, D; Kabon, B; Marschalek, C; Chiari, A; Pestel, G; Kaider, A; Fleischmann, E; Hetz, H

    2009-09-01

    Fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitor has been reported to improve perioperative outcome. Stroke volume variation (SVV) is considered a reliable clinical predictor of fluid responsiveness. Consequently, the aim of the present trial was to evaluate the accuracy of SVV determined by arterial pulse contour (APCO) analysis, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, to predict fluid responsiveness as measured by the oesophageal Doppler. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received intraoperative fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitoring. Fluid boluses of 250 ml each were administered in case of a decrease in corrected flow time (FTc) to 10%. The ability of SVV to predict fluid responsiveness was assessed by calculation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Twenty patients received 67 fluid boluses. Fifty-two of the 67 fluid boluses administered resulted in fluid responsiveness. SVV achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.512 [confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.70]. A cut-off point for fluid responsiveness was found for SVV > or =8.5% (sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 43%; positive predictive value: 84%; and negative predictive value: 33%). This prospective, interventional observer-blinded study demonstrates that SVV obtained by APCO, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, is not a reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness in the setting of major abdominal surgery.

  7. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  8. Hazards of organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, S.

    1977-08-01

    We present several brief reviews on working fluids proposed for use in organic Rankine and bi-phase bottoming cycles. There are several general problems with many organic working fluids: flammability, toxicity, and a tendency to leak through seals. Besides, two of the proposed working fluids are to be used at temperatures above the manufacturer's maximum recommended temperature, and one is to be used in a way different from its customary usage. It may, in some cases, be more profitable to first seek alternative working fluids before committing large amounts of time and money to research projects on unsafe working fluids

  9. Memory Correlates of Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijs, Babette L R; Ramakers, Inez H G B; Köhler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance on episodic, semantic, and working memory tests is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia, but it is unclear which type of memory test is most strongly associated with early AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and most useful for monitoring disease...

  10. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  11. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  12. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  13. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  14. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  15. Which goal for fluid therapy during colorectal surgery is followed by the best outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandstrup, B; Svendsen, P E; Rasmussen, M

    2012-01-01

    /st> We aimed to investigate whether fluid therapy with a goal of near-maximal stroke volume (SV) guided by oesophageal Doppler (ED) monitoring result in a better outcome than that with a goal of maintaining bodyweight (BW) and zero fluid balance in patients undergoing colorectal surgery....

  16. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  17. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2017-08-15

    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  18. Guidelines for European workplace drug testing in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moore, Christine; George, Claire; Pichini, Simona

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decade, oral fluid has established itself as a robust testing matrix for monitoring drug use or misuse. Commercially available collection devices provide opportunities to collect and test oral fluid by the roadside and near-patient testing with both clinical and criminal justice applications. One of the main advantages of oral fluid relates to the collection of the matrix which is non-invasive, simple, and can be carried out under direct observation making it ideal for workplace drug testing. Laboratories offering legally defensible oral fluid workplace drug testing must adhere to national and international quality standards (ISO/IEC 17025); however, these standards do not address issues specific to oral fluid testing. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) recognizes the importance of providing best practice guidelines to organizations offering testing and those choosing to use oral fluid drug testing to test their employees. The aim of this paper is to present the EWDTS guidelines for oral fluid workplace drug testing. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fluid Therapy: Double-Edged Sword during Critical Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Jan; Kirov, Mikhail; Kuzkov, Vsevolod; Lainscak, Mitja; Molnar, Zsolt; Voga, Gorazd; Monnet, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Fluid therapy is still the mainstay of acute care in patients with shock or cardiovascular compromise. However, our understanding of the critically ill pathophysiology has evolved significantly in recent years. The revelation of the glycocalyx layer and subsequent research has redefined the basics of fluids behavior in the circulation. Using less invasive hemodynamic monitoring tools enables us to assess the cardiovascular function in a dynamic perspective. This allows pinpointing even distinct changes induced by treatment, by postural changes, or by interorgan interactions in real time and enables individualized patient management. Regarding fluids as drugs of any other kind led to the need for precise indication, way of administration, and also assessment of side effects. We possess now the evidence that patient centered outcomes may be altered when incorrect time, dose, or type of fluids are administered. In this review, three major features of fluid therapy are discussed: the prediction of fluid responsiveness, potential harms induced by overzealous fluid administration, and finally the problem of protocol-led treatments and their timing.

  20. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  1. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M

    2012-01-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  2. Reliability and Validity of a Prototype Fluid Intake Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Karis, Anthony J; Hoyt, Reed W

    2009-01-01

    .... There was no difference in mean sip volume measured using the FIM vs. the scale (25.7 + 10.7 ml vs. 25.6 + 8.7 ml, respectively). Field Test Results: of 31 trials, 4 trials under-measured water consumption in excess of 15...

  3. Investigating the recording and accuracy of fluid balance monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 TASK Applied Science, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa ... conducted as part of a broader study in partial fulfilment of a Master of Nursing .... A sample size of N=103 was selected and divided specifically among the ...

  4. Deep Learning Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Gomes, Joseph; Pande, Vijay

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a new data-driven model paradigm for the rapid inference and solution of the constitutive equations of fluid mechanic by deep learning models. Using generative adversarial networks (GAN), we train models for the direct generation of solutions to steady state heat conduction and incompressible fluid flow without knowledge of the underlying governing equations. Rather than using artificial neural networks to approximate the solution of the constitutive equations, GANs can directly generate the solutions to these equations conditional upon an arbitrary set of boundary conditions. Both models predict temperature, velocity and pressure fields with great test accuracy (>99.5%). The application of our framework for inferring and generating the solutions of partial differential equations can be applied to any physical phenomena and can be used to learn directly from experiments where the underlying physical model is complex or unknown. We also have shown that our framework can be used to couple multiple physics simultaneously, making it amenable to tackle multi-physics problems.

  5. A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant

    1996-05-01

    This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

  6. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  7. Rulison Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    The Project Rulison Monitoring Plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management's mission to protect human health and the environment. The purpose of the plan is to monitor fluids from gas wells for radionuclides that would indicate contamination is migrating from the Rulison detonation zone to producing gas wells, allowing action to be taken before the contamination could pose a risk. The Monitoring Plan (1) lists the contaminants present and identifies those that have the greatest potential to migrate from the detonation zone (radionuclide source term), (2) identifies locations that monitor the most likely transport pathways, (3) identifies which fluids will be sampled (gas and liquid) and why, (4) establishes the frequency of sampling, and (5) specifies the most practical analyses and where the analysis results will be reported. The plan does not affect the long-term hydrologic sampling conducted by DOE since 1972, which will continue for the purpose of sampling shallow groundwater and surface water near the site. The Monitoring Plan was developed in anticipation of gas wells being drilled progressively nearer the Rulison site. DOE sampled 10 gas wells in 1997 and 2005 at distances ranging from 2.7 to 7.6 miles from the site to establish background concentrations for radionuclides. In a separate effort, gas industry operators and the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) developed an industry sampling and analysis plan that was implemented in 2007. The industry plan requires the sampling of gas wells within 3 miles of the site, with increased requirements for wells within 1 mile of the site. The DOE plan emphasizes the sampling of wells near the site (Figure 1), specifically those with a bottom-hole location of 1 mile or less from the detonation, depending on the direction relative to the natural fracture trend of the producing formation. Studies indicate that even the most mobile

  8. Personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  9. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  10. Personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-31

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  11. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  12. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  13. Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallqvist, T.

    1990-05-01

    The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC 50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.

  15. Supercritical fluids processing: emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaly, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    This publication on the emerging opportunities of supercritical fluids processing reveals the latest research findings and development trends in this field. These findings and development trends are highlighted, and the results of applications of technology to the business of supercritical fluids are reported. Applications of supercritical fluids to chemical intermediates, environmental applications, chemical reactions, food and biochemistry processing, and fuels processing are discussed in some detail

  16. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  17. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  18. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ventricular puncture; Lumbar puncture; Cisternal puncture; Cerebrospinal fluid culture ... the meaning of your specific test results. The examples above show the common measurements for results for ...

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.P.; Price, A.C.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E.; Runge, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of CSF dynamics has been discussed utilizing nuclear medicine, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are readily diagnosed by both CT and nuclear scintigraphy. The major advantage of CT is the exact anatomic localization of the site of CSF leakage. Contrast toxicity, as well as complex and costly technology, often limit the wide applicability of CT in the diagnosis of CSF leaks. Nuclear scintigraphy, on the other hand, offers nonexact localization of CSF leaks, but is often more readily available than Ct. Magnetic resonance resolution is presently insufficient for diagnosis of CSF leaks. The anatomic diagnosis of hydrocephalus is more readily established with CT and MRI as compared to nuclear scintigraphy. However, none of the imaging modalities discussed are clearly superior in differentiating communicating from obstructive hydrocephalus. Nuclear scintigraphy remains the imaging modality of choice in the quantitative evaluation of CSF shunts and their patency

  20. Spin and Madelung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, G.

    1995-07-01

    Starting from the Pauli current the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity has been obtained in two parts (in the ordinary tensorial language): one parallel and the other orthogonal to the impulse. The former is recognized to be the classical part, that is, the center-of-mass (CM) velocity, and the latter the quantum one, that is, the velocity of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the internal spin motion or Zitterbewegung). Inserting this complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e. Newtonian) Lagrangian, the author straightforwardly get the appearance of the so called quantum potential associates as it is known, to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung

  1. Improved Fluid Perturbation Theory: Equation of state for Fluid Xenon

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiong; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Gong-Mu; Zhao, Yan-Hong; Tian, Ming-Feng; Song, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The traditional fluid perturbation theory is improved by taking electronic excitations and ionizations into account, in the framework of average ion spheres. It is applied to calculate the equation of state for fluid Xenon, which turns out in good agreement with the available shock data.

  2. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a shark is more efficient than a propeller; the notoriously complicated and nonlinear Navier–. Stokes equations governing fluid motion provide fertile ground for research to both applied and pure mathematicians. There is the phenomenon of turbulence in fluid flows. A statement in 1932, attributed to Horace Lamb, author of ...

  3. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear ... The proposed models account for the appropriate .... where gHNM(1,1) is the expression for the contact value of the correlation func- tion of two ...

  4. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengers, J.V.

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of the research is to extend the theory of critical phenomena in fluids and fluid mixtures to obtain scientifically based equations that include the crossover from the asymptotic singular behavior of the thermophysical properties close to the critical point to the regular behavior of these properties far away from the critical point

  5. Method of measuring the mass flow rate of a substance entering a cocurrent fluid stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of monitoring the mass flow rate of a substance entering a coherent fluid stream is described. The method very basically consists of heating equal sections of the fluid stream above and below the point of entry of the substance to be monitored, and measuring and comparing the resulting change in temperature of the sections. Advantage is taken of the difference in thermal characteristics of the fluid and the substance to be measured to correlate temperature differences in the sections above and below the substance feed point for providing an indication of the mass flow rate of the substance

  6. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  8. Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement System Equips Boat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    While developing a measurement acquisition system to be used to retrofit aging aircraft with vehicle health monitoring capabilities, Langley Research Center developed an innovative wireless fluid-level measurement system. The NASA technology was of interest to Tidewater Sensors LLC, of Newport News, Virginia, because of its many advantages over conventional fuel management systems, including its ability to provide an accurate measurement of volume while a boat is experiencing any rocking motion due to waves or people moving about on the boat. These advantages led the company to license this novel fluid-level measurement system from NASA for marine applications.

  9. Control of chemical usage in drilling fluid formulations to minimize discharge to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geehan, T.; Forbes, D.M.; Moore, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A reduction in the environmental footprint from drilling operations can best be addressed by minimizing the sources of that footprint. One of the principal sources of possible environmental damage is drilling fluid and drill solid discharge. The toxicity as measured by acute and/or sub-chronic testing regimes depends on the composition of the drilling fluid/drill solids slurry. The trend within the drilling fluids industry has been to direct its attention to finding drilling fluid products which alone and in combination are considered to be non-toxic as determined by required testing procedures. This paper goes on to describe a parallel approach in which the total volume of chemicals discharged (whether considered toxic or benign) is reduced. Both approaches can be considered complimentary. The reduction in volume/mass of discharge is achieved by increased monitoring of both drilling fluid properties, composition and solids control operational efficiency. Additionally the increased monitoring allows less complicated formulations to be used to produce the desired drilling fluid properties; as specified by the mud programme. The need for more complete rigsite monitoring packages, will become more important as oilbased muds are replaced by waterbased mud for difficult drilling situations with stricter environmental regulations on discharge of drilling waste. The paper also outlines how the optimization of the drilling fluid operation was linked to a reduction in drilling fluid costs at the same time maintaining drilling efficiency

  10. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  11. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  12. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Howard A [Ripon, CA

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  13. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  14. Supercritical fluids in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.; Plechkova, N.V.; Seddon, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids and supercritical fluids are both alternative environmentally benign solvents, but their properties are very different. Ionic liquids are non-volatile but often considered highly polar compounds, whereas supercritical fluids are non-polar but highly volatile compounds. The combination

  15. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jay Wook

    2010-12-01

    Disturbances in fluid and electrolytes are among the most common clinical problems encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies have reported that fluid and electrolyte imbalances are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. To provide optimal care, health care providers should be familiar with the principles and practice of fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology. Fluid resuscitation should be aimed at restoration of normal hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Early goal-directed therapy has been shown to be effective in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. On the other hand, liberal fluid administration is associated with adverse outcomes such as prolonged stay in the ICU, higher cost of care, and increased mortality. Development of hyponatremia in critically ill patients is associated with disturbances in the renal mechanism of urinary dilution. Removal of nonosmotic stimuli for vasopressin secretion, judicious use of hypertonic saline, and close monitoring of plasma and urine electrolytes are essential components of therapy. Hypernatremia is associated with cellular dehydration and central nervous system damage. Water deficit should be corrected with hypotonic fluid, and ongoing water loss should be taken into account. Cardiac manifestations should be identified and treated before initiating stepwise diagnostic evaluation of dyskalemias. Divalent ion deficiencies such as hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia should be identified and corrected, since they are associated with increased adverse events among critically ill patients.

  16. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.

    1999-01-01

    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  17. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  18. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  19. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  20. Economics important in selecting monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.P.; Byars, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    Failure/risk costs need to be considered when deciding on the type of corrosion monitoring and inspection. Locations with high-pressure, high-velocity streams need closer monitoring. This article discusses the risks associated with different types of fluid streams and the various inspection techniques that can range from a low-cost visual examination to mechanical calipers and electromagnetic, radiographic, and ultrasonic tools

  1. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  2. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.

    1982-06-30

    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  3. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed

  4. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  5. Protein profiling reveals inter-individual protein homogeneity of arachnoid cyst fluid and high qualitative similarity to cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berle Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms behind formation and filling of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC fluid by proteomics to gain further knowledge about ACs. Two goals were set: 1 Comparison of AC fluid from individual patients to determine whether or not temporal AC is a homogenous condition; and 2 Evaluate the protein content of a pool of AC fluid from several patients and qualitatively compare this with published protein lists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. Methods AC fluid from 15 patients with temporal AC was included in this study. In the AC protein comparison experiment, AC fluid from 14 patients was digested, analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a semi-quantitative label-free approach and the data were compared by principal component analysis (PCA to gain knowledge of protein homogeneity of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, AC fluid from 11 patients was pooled, digested, and fractionated by SCX chromatography prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified were compared to published databases of proteins identified from CSF and plasma. AC fluid proteins not found in these two databases were experimentally searched for in lumbar CSF taken from neurologically-normal patients, by a targeted protein identification approach called MIDAS (Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM initiated detection and sequence analysis. Results We did not identify systematic trends or grouping of data in the AC protein comparison experiment, implying low variability between individual proteomic profiles of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, we identified 199 proteins. When compared to previously published lists of proteins identified from CSF and plasma, 15 of the AC proteins had not been reported in either of these datasets. By a targeted protein identification approach, we identified 11 of these 15 proteins in pooled CSF from neurologically-normal patients, demonstrating that

  6. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  7. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-15

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  8. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  9. Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Alex D. D.

    1988-07-01

    This up-to-date and comprehensive account of theory and experiment on wave-interaction phenomena covers fluids both at rest and in their shear flows. It includes, on the one hand, water waves, internal waves, and their evolution, interaction, and associated wave-driven means flow and, on the other hand, phenomena on nonlinear hydrodynamic stability, especially those leading to the onset of turbulence. This study provide a particularly valuable bridge between these two similar, yet different, classes of phenomena. It will be of value to oceanographers, meteorologists, and those working in fluid mechanics, atmospheric and planetary physics, plasma physics, aeronautics, and geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics.

  10. Fluid intelligence: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  11. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  12. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  13. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  14. Accuracy of flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring technologies: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Cummings, Michael H; Jennings, Peter; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Rayman, Gerry; Wilmot, Emma G

    2018-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring technologies measure glucose in the interstitial fluid and are increasingly used in diabetes care. Their accuracy, key to effective glycaemic management, is usually measured using the mean absolute relative difference of the interstitial fluid sensor compared to reference blood glucose readings. However, mean absolute relative difference is not standardised and has limitations. This review aims to provide a consensus opinion on assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose sensing technologies. Mean absolute relative difference is influenced by glucose distribution and rate of change; hence, we express caution on the reliability of comparing mean absolute relative difference data from different study systems and conditions. We also review the pitfalls associated with mean absolute relative difference at different glucose levels and explore additional ways of assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid devices. Importantly, much data indicate that current practice of assessing accuracy of different systems based on individualised mean absolute relative difference results has limitations, which have potential clinical implications. Healthcare professionals must understand the factors that influence mean absolute relative difference as a metric for accuracy and look at additional assessments, such as consensus error grid analysis, when evaluating continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring systems in diabetes care. This in turn will ensure that management decisions based on interstitial fluid sensor data are both effective and safe.

  15. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jasani, B.; Lingenfelder, I.

    2009-01-01

    of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment...... companies, national research institutions and international organizations, all of whom were brought together under the aegis of the European research project GMOSS (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability). This book is tailored for the scientific community that deals with the application of EO data...... of civil security. Written for: Scientists, researchers in spatial sciences as well as practitioners, politicians, decision makers at NGO's in the field of security, crisis management, risk assessment and vulnerability....

  16. [Intrapartum amnioinfusion in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Karina; Samborska, Monika; Bilar, Marek; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Ronin-Walknowska, Elzbieta

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intrapartum amnioinfusion in the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid. 93 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid were assigned to receive amnioinfusion or no amnioinfusion (128 women). The trials were evaluated for fetal distress syndrome, route of delivery, fetal acidemia, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min., meconium aspiration syndrome, postpartum endometritis and maternal hospital stays. Amnioinfusion in cases of meconium-stained fluid did not improve the number of fetal distress symptoms during fetal heart rate monitoring. Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease of neonatal acidemia although it did not improve Apgar score. In our study amnioinfusion was not associated with reduction in the incidence of neonatal outcome and puerperial complications.

  17. Autoradiographic investigations of cells from the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamm, W.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 155 samples of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from 61 patients were subjected to cytological examination and incubated together with 3 1 H-thymidine. Radioactive labelling was thus achieved for lymphocytes, monocytes and tumour cells. The highest contents of radioactivity were seen in tumour cells. To a lesser degree had the isotope become attached to the lymphocytes, while the tendency to take up radioactivity was lowest in cells from autochthonous tumours of the brain. In cerebral and meningeal metastases the labelling index rose proportionately to the progress of the disease. Autoradiography can be used to monitor cytostatic treatment carried out to control the spread of meningeal carcinoma cells. In non-inflammatory disorders, lymphocytes and monocytes of the cerebrospinal fluid only rarely show radioactivity. A suprisignly high labelling index was determined for lymphocytes and monocytes of cerebrospinal fluid from young children, which was considered to be attributable to the high proliferation rates to be expected here. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales.

    KAUST Repository

    Setu, Siti Aminah; Dullens, Roel P A; Herná ndez-Machado, Aurora; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid

  19. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  20. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  1. Monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    An improved monitoring apparatus for use with process plants, such as nuclear reactors, is described. System failure in the acquisition of data from the plant, owing to stuck signals, is avoided by arranging input signals from transducers in the plant in a test pattern. (U.K.)

  2. Monitor 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Ekberg, E.L.; Lambert, J.E.; Meyer, R.E.; Stroik, P.J.; Wickham, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    The status, improvements, and accomplishments of the Monitor remote-handling system previously reported are updated. It also outlines the goals for the future to improve the efficiency and speed of remote-maintenance operations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility

  3. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  4. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  5. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  6. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery

  7. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  8. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  9. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000112.htm Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features ... to Expect at Home When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes ...

  10. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  11. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  12. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  13. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  14. Crevicular fluid biomarkers and periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Janet S; Morelli, Thiago; Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Sugai, Jim V; Giannobile, William V

    2014-02-01

    Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). In this study, 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and were categorized into four groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Subgingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6 months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6 to 12 months. GCF samples were analysed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, Osteoprotegerin, C-reactive Protein and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p = 0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61, 86). Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado, E-mail: cargar08@ucm.es, E-mail: maroto@ucm.es, E-mail: pradomm@ucm.es [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by the effective bimetric fluid.

  16. Fluid element in SAP IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.; Akkas, N.

    1979-01-01

    In previous studies a fluid element is incorporated in the widely used general purpose finite element program SAPIV. This type of problem is of interest in the design of nuclear components involving geometric complexities and nonlinearities. The elasticity matrix of a general-purpose finite element program is modified in such a way that it becomes possible to idealize fluid as a structural finite element with zero shear modulus and a given bulk modules. Using the modified version of SAPIV, several solid-fluid interactions problems are solved. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions. They are shown to be in reasonable aggrement. It is also shown that by solving an exterior-fluid interaction problem, the pressure wave propagation in the acoustic medium can be solved with the same approach. In this study, two of the problem not studied in the previous work will be presented. These problems are namely the effects of the link elements used at solid-fluid interfaces and of the concentrated loads on the response of the fluid medium. Truss elements are used as the link elements. After these investigations, it is decided that general purpose finite element programs with slight modifications can be used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactor plants. By this procedure it is possible to handle two-dimensional plane strain and tridimensional axisymmetric problems of this type. (orig.)

  17. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengers, J.V.

    1991-07-01

    This research is concerned with the development of a quantitative scientific description of the thermodynamic and transport properties of supercritical and subcritical fluids and fluid mixtures. It is known that the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures asymptotically close to the critical point satisfy scaling laws with universal critical exponents and universal scaling functions. However, the range of validity of these asymptotic scaling laws is quite small. As a consequence, the impact of the modern theory of critical phenomena on chemical engineering has been limited. On the other hand, an a priori estimate of the range of temperatures and densities, where critical fluctuations become significant, can be made on the basis of the so-called Ginzburg criterion. A recent analysis of this criterion suggests that this range is actually quite large and for a fluid like carbon dioxide can easily extend to 100 degrees or so above the critical temperature. Hence, the use of traditional engineering equations like cubic equations is not scientifically justified in a very wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point. We have therefore embarked on a scientific approach to deal with the global effects of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures. For this purpose it is not sufficient to consider the asymptotic critical fluctuations but we need to deal also with the nonasymptotic critical fluctuations. The goal is to develop scientifically based questions that account for the crossover of the thermophysical properties from their asymptotic singular behavior in the near vicinity of the critical point to their regular behavior very far away from the critical point

  18. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results

  19. Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendam, Miranda; Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hooft, Lotty; DeVries, J. Hans; Mudde, Aart H.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to optimise glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems measure interstitial fluid glucose levels to provide semi-continuous information about glucose levels, which identifies fluctuations that

  20. Grain scale observations of stick-slip dynamics in fluid saturated granular fault gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Dorostkar, O.; Guyer, R. A.; Marone, C.; Carmeliet, J.

    2017-12-01

    We are studying granular mechanics during slip. In the present work, we conduct coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study grain scale characteristics of slip instabilities in fluid saturated granular fault gouge. The granular sample is confined with constant normal load (10 MPa), and sheared with constant velocity (0.6 mm/s). This loading configuration is chosen to promote stick-slip dynamics, based on a phase-space study. Fluid is introduced in the beginning of stick phase and characteristics of slip events i.e. macroscopic friction coefficient, kinetic energy and layer thickness are monitored. At the grain scale, we monitor particle coordination number, fluid-particle interaction forces as well as particle and fluid kinetic energy. Our observations show that presence of fluids in a drained granular fault gouge stabilizes the layer in the stick phase and increases the recurrence time. In saturated model, we observe that average particle coordination number reaches higher values compared to dry granular gouge. Upon slip, we observe that a larger portion of the granular sample is mobilized in saturated gouge compared to dry system. We also observe that regions with high particle kinetic energy are correlated with zones of high fluid motion. Our observations highlight that spatiotemporal profile of fluid dynamic pressure affects the characteristics of slip instabilities, increasing macroscopic friction coefficient drop, kinetic energy release and granular layer compaction. We show that numerical simulations help characterize the micromechanics of fault mechanics.

  1. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  2. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  3. Personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts

  4. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  5. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  6. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  7. Turbine lubrication fluid varnish mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Khalid [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Varnish deposits on internal surfaces in turbine lube systems result in a number of adverse operational issues, especially the restriction and sticking of the moving parts of servo- or directional control valves, resulting in their malfunction. The lubrication fluid has limited solvency for the varnish-forming material, hence a typical turbine will have the majority of this material as deposits and a relatively small portion as suspension in the fluid phase, in quasi-equilibrium with the deposits. The lube system needs to be cleaned by removing the suspended varnish-forming material from the fluid phase, which allows the deposits to re-entrain into the fluid phase, until the majority of the transferable deposits are removed and the fluid carries no significant amount of the material to have any adverse effect. The methods used for the removal of varnish from turbine lube systems include chemical cleaning/flushing, electrostatic charge induced agglomeration/retention, and the adsorption of the varnish suspended in the oil on an adsorbent medium. The paper discusses an absorption-based removal method that utilizes a fibrous medium that has pronounced affinity for the removal and retention of the varnish-forming material from the fluid as well as the deposits from surfaces that are in quasi-equilibrium with the varnish precursors in the fluid. The filtration medium is a composite, made with cellulose bonded by specially formulated, temperature-cured resins. The absorptive medium exhibits high structural and chemical integrity and has been thoroughly tested on operating turbines, showing reduction in varnish levels from the critical range to below normal range in a relatively short time. The experience with the utilization of the absorptive medium in laboratory tests and in two operating turbines is presented. (orig.)

  8. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  9. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  10. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  11. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  12. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  13. [Fluid therapy in cardiac surgery. An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, E; Vicente, R; Pérez-Artacho, J

    2014-01-01

    The anesthetist has 2 major tools for optimizing haemodynamics in cardiac surgery: Vasoactive drugs and the intravascular volume. It is necessary to identify which patients would benefit from one or the other therapies for a suitable response to treatment. Hemodynamic monitoring with the different existing parameters (pressure, volumetric static, volumetric functional and echocardiography) allows the management of these patients to be optimized. In this article a review is presented on the most recent and relevant publications, and the different tools available to control the management of the fluid therapy in this context, and to suggest a few guidelines for the haemodynamics monitoring of patients submitted to cardiac surgery. A systematic search has been made in PubMed, limiting the results to the publications over the last five years up to February 2012. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for measuring particulate and gaseous metals in a fluid stream, device for measuring particulate and gaseous metals in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Paul S.; Huang, Hann-Shen

    2001-01-01

    A method for analyzing metal in a fluid is provided comprising maintaining a first portion of a continuous filter media substrate at a temperature coinciding with the phase in which the metal is to be analyzed; contacting the fluid to a first portion of said substrate to retain the metal on the first portion of said substrate; preventing further contact of the fluid to the first portion of substrate; and contacting the fluid to a second portion of said substrate to retain metal on the second portion of the said substrate while simultaneously analyzing the first portion for metal. Also provided is a device for the simultaneous monitoring and analysis of metal in a fluid comprising a continuous filter media substrate; means for maintaining a first portion of said filter media substrate at a temperature coinciding with the phase in which the metal is to be analyzed; a means for contacting the fluid to the first portion of said substrate; a means for preventing further contact of the fluid to the first portion of substrate; a means for contacting the fluid to a second portion of said substrate to retain metal on the second portion of the said substrate; and means for analyzing the first portion for metal.

  15. Fluid observers and tilting cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A; Hervik, S; Lim, W C

    2006-01-01

    We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter γ in which there are two naturally defined timelike congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e. γ > 4/3), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e. γ < 4/3), the tilt can become extreme at late times and give rise to an effective quintessential equation of state. To establish the connection with phantom cosmology and quintessence, we calculate the effective equation of state in the models under consideration and we determine the future asymptotic behaviour of the tilting models in the fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant

  16. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  17. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.

  18. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  19. Spinodal decomposition in fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kyozi; Koga, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    We study the late stage dynamics of spinodal decomposition in binary fluids by the computer simulation of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain a temporary linear growth law of the characteristic length of domains in the late stage. This growth law has been observed in many real experiments of binary fluids and indicates that the domain growth proceeds by the flow caused by the surface tension of interfaces. We also find that the dynamical scaling law is satisfied in this hydrodynamic domain growth region. By comparing the scaling functions for fluids with that for the case without hydrodynamic effects, we find that the scaling functions for the two systems are different. (author)

  20. Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.

  1. Fluid-structure-coupling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed here have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D

  2. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  3. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  4. Edge Fracture in Complex Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-07-14

    We study theoretically the edge fracture instability in sheared complex fluids, by means of linear stability analysis and direct nonlinear simulations. We derive an exact analytical expression for the onset of edge fracture in terms of the shear-rate derivative of the fluid's second normal stress difference, the shear-rate derivative of the shear stress, the jump in shear stress across the interface between the fluid and the outside medium (usually air), the surface tension of that interface, and the rheometer gap size. We provide a full mechanistic understanding of the edge fracture instability, carefully validated against our simulations. These findings, which are robust with respect to choice of rheological constitutive model, also suggest a possible route to mitigating edge fracture, potentially allowing experimentalists to achieve and accurately measure flows stronger than hitherto possible.

  5. Ammonia Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  6. Oscillator monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification

  7. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  8. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jr., John B.

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  9. Nonlinear rheology of complex fluid-fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Fischer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid–fluid interfaces stabilized by proteins, protein aggregates, polymers, or colloidal particles, tend to have a complex microstructure. Their response to an applied deformation is often highly nonlinear, even at small deformation (rates). The nonlinearity of the response is a result of changes

  10. CT findings of a unicameral calcaneal bone cyst containing a fluid-fluid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas A; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer E; Vade, Aruna

    2007-03-01

    Calcaneal unicameral bone cysts often contain fluid, but rarely contain fluid-fluid levels. We present a case focusing on the CT findings of a large calcaneal bone cyst with a fluid-fluid level and a review of the literature.

  11. Relativistic fluid theories - Self organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.M.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Yoshida, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Developments in two distinct but related subjects are reviewed: 1) Formulation and investigation of closed fluid theories which transcend the limitations of standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in particular, theories which are valid in the long mean free path limit and in which pressure anisotropy, heat flow, and arbitrarily strong sheared flows are treated consistently, and 2) Exploitation of the two-fluid theories to derive new plasma configurations in which the flow-field is a co-determinant of the overall dynamics; some of these states belong to the category of self-organized relaxed states. Physical processes which may provide a route to self-organization and complexity are also explored. (author)

  12. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  13. Analysis of giant electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok

    2013-07-15

    The yield stress dependence on electric field strength for giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric fields was examined using Seo's scaling function which incorporated both the polarization and the conductivity models. If a proper scaling was applied to the yield stress data to collapse them onto a single curve, the Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions, even at very high electric field strengths. The model predictions were also compared with recently proposed Choi et al.'s model to allow a consideration of the universal framework of ER fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  15. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  16. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  17. Piezooptic behavior of certain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of pressure--volume data for certain optical fluids, which characterizes them by two parameters: their bulk moduli and the pressure derivative of their bulk moduli, both evaluated at zero pressure. We then relate their refractive-index changes to density and pressure using this analysis and the Lorentz-Lorenz equation with a density-dependent polarizability. An example of the use of such fluids in a fiber-optic pressure gauge being developed at Sandia is also discussed

  18. Analysis and hazard evaluation of heat-transfer fluids for the direct contact cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Hi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Shin, You Hwan; Karng, Sarng Woo; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Young Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several low-temperature heat-transfer fluids, including water-based inorganic salt, organic salt, alcohol/glycol mixtures, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbons in order to choose the best heat-transfer fluid for the newly designed direct contact refrigeration system. So, it contains a survey on commercial products such as propylene glycol and potassium formate as newly used in super market and food processing refrigeration. The stability of commercial fluids at the working temperature of -20 .deg. C was monitored as a function of time up to two months. And organic and inorganic compositions of candidate fluids were obtained by analytical instruments such as ES, XRF, AAS, ICP-AES, GC, and GC-MS. Analysis results indicate that commercial propylene glycol is very efficient and safe heat transfer fluids for the direct cooling system with liquid phase

  19. Monitoring device for the reactor pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Akira.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid and accurate operator's monitoring for the state of pipelines in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Specific symbols are attached respectively to a fluid supply source constituting the pipelines of a nuclear reactor facility, a plurality of fluid passing points and equipments to be supplied with the fluid, and a symmetrical matrix comprising these symbols in rows and columns is constituted. Then, a matrix is prepared based on detection signals for the states of the liquid supply source, equipments to be supplied with fluid and pipeline equipments by rendering the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state capable of passing the fluid as 1 and the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state incapable of passing the fluid as 0 . The matrix thus prepared in a signal procession circuit and a matrix in a memory circuit previously storing the matrix expressing the normal state of the pipelines are compared to judge the state of the pipelines in a short time and with no misjudging. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. The Challenge of Fluid Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    makes fluid flows so rich, so complex - some times so highly ordered ..... to other frequencies, which again can grow in amplitude before they also eventually decay again. On the ..... think of it as a slice of flow issuing towards this sheet of paper.

  1. Free Falling in Stratified Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD...

  3. Fluid mechanics of heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganathan, Ajit P; He, Zhaoming; Casey Jones, S

    2004-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a life-threatening disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide and leads to approximately 250,000 valve repairs and/or replacements each year. Malfunction of a native valve impairs its efficient fluid mechanic/hemodynamic performance. Artificial heart valves have been used since 1960 to replace diseased native valves and have saved millions of lives. Unfortunately, despite four decades of use, these devices are less than ideal and lead to many complications. Many of these complications/problems are directly related to the fluid mechanics associated with the various mechanical and bioprosthetic valve designs. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art experimental and computational fluid mechanics of native and prosthetic heart valves in current clinical use. The fluid dynamic performance characteristics of caged-ball, tilting-disc, bileaflet mechanical valves and porcine and pericardial stented and nonstented bioprostheic valves are reviewed. Other issues related to heart valve performance, such as biomaterials, solid mechanics, tissue mechanics, and durability, are not addressed in this review.

  4. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our ... is based on energy expenditure indexed to bodyweight.2 Energy ... fragile and poorly keratinised.5 ... neonates means that very conservative fluid regimes in neonates ..... I make an estimation of insensible loss from the skin, viscera,.

  5. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...

  6. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  7. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Essential Fluid Dynamics for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    The book is an introduction to the subject of fluid mechanics, essential for students and researchers in many branches of science. It illustrates its fundamental principles with a variety of examples drawn mainly from astrophysics and geophysics as well as from everyday experience. Prior familiarity with basic thermodynamics and vector calculus is assumed.

  9. Fluid Power, Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of hydraulics and pneumatics are presented in this manual, prepared for regular navy and naval reserve personnel who are seeking advancement to Petty Officer Third Class. The history of applications of compressed fluids is described in connection with physical principles. Selection of types of liquids and gases is discussed with a…

  10. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Schep, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notion of invariance is introduced in terms of Lie derivatives and a general procedure for the construction of local and integral fluid invariants is presented. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. A generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism for finite-dimensional systems to continuous media is proposed. Analogously to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids are introduced as systems that annihilate an exact two-form. It is shown that Euler and ideal, charged fluids satisfy this local definition of a Hamiltonian structure. A new class of scalar invariants of Hamiltonian fluids is constructed that generalizes the invariants that are related with gauge transformations and with symmetries (Noether). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  12. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  13. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  14. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  15. Dissecting spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Crevier, Louis; Weil, Alexander G

    2018-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common condition in the pediatric population known to have many causes and presentation patterns. We report from the analysis of 2 cases the existence of a new complication of pediatric hydrocephalus. Naming this entity "dissecting intraparenchymal cerebrospinal fluid collection", we advance a hypothesis regarding its pathophysiology and discuss its clinical implications and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in California: Recommendations for permit-required monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carroll, S.; Cherry, J. A.; Jackson, R. B.; Jordan, P. D.; Madrid, V.; Morris, J.; Parker, B. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Varadharajan, C.; Vengosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    California recently passed legislation mandating dedicated groundwater quality monitoring for new well stimulation operations. The authors provided the State with expert advice on the design of such monitoring networks. Factors that must be considered in designing a new and unique groundwater monitoring program include: Program design: The design of a monitoring program is contingent on its purpose, which can range from detection of individual well leakage to demonstration of regional impact. The regulatory goals for permit-required monitoring conducted by operators on a well-by-well basis will differ from the scientific goals of a regional monitoring program conducted by the State. Vulnerability assessment: Identifying factors that increase the probability of transport of fluids from the hydrocarbon target zone to a protected groundwater zone enables the intensity of permit-required monitoring to be tiered by risk and also enables prioritization of regional monitoring of groundwater basins based on vulnerability. Risk factors include well integrity; proximity to existing wellbores and geologic features; wastewater disposal; vertical separation between the hydrocarbon and groundwater zones; and site-specific hydrogeology. Analyte choice: The choice of chemical analytes in a regulatory monitoring program is guided by the goals of detecting impact, assuring public safety, preventing resource degradation, and minimizing cost. Balancing these goals may be best served by tiered approach in which targeted analysis of specific chemical additives is triggered by significant changes in relevant but more easily analyzed constituents. Such an approach requires characterization of baseline conditions, especially in areas with long histories of oil and gas development. Monitoring technology: Monitoring a deep subsurface process or a long wellbore is more challenging than monitoring a surface industrial source. The requirement for monitoring multiple groundwater aquifers across

  17. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these

  18. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  19. Analysis of fluid flow around a beating artificial cilium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Vilfan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological cilia are found on surfaces of some microorganisms and on surfaces of many eukaryotic cells where they interact with the surrounding fluid. The periodic beating of the cilia is asymmetric, resulting in directed swimming of unicellular organisms or in generation of a fluid flow above a ciliated surface in multicellular ones. Following the biological example, externally driven artificial cilia have recently been successfully implemented as micropumps and mixers. However, biomimetic systems are useful not only in microfluidic applications, but can also serve as model systems for the study of fundamental hydrodynamic phenomena in biological samples. To gain insight into the basic principles governing propulsion and fluid pumping on a micron level, we investigated hydrodynamics around one beating artificial cilium. The cilium was composed of superparamagnetic particles and driven along a tilted cone by a varying external magnetic field. Nonmagnetic tracer particles were used for monitoring the fluid flow generated by the cilium. The average flow velocity in the pumping direction was obtained as a function of different parameters, such as the rotation frequency, the asymmetry of the beat pattern, and the cilium length. We also calculated the velocity field around the beating cilium by using the analytical far-field expansion. The measured average flow velocity and the theoretical prediction show an excellent agreement.

  20. On the efficiency of a fluid-fluid centrifugal separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apazidis, N.

    1984-05-01

    Efficiency of a separation process of two immiscible incompressible fluids of different densities occuring under the influence of a combined centrifugal and gravitational force field is investigated. The analysis is based on the set of equations for a rotating two-phase flow of a mixture as presented by Greenspan (1983). The geometry of the separation process is considered and the total flow of the separated phases evaluated. (author)