WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-mesoscale ocean state

  1. Design and analysis of a global sub-mesoscale and tidal dynamics admitting virtual ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C. N.

    2016-02-01

    We will describe the techniques used to realize a global kilometerscale ocean model configuration that includes representation of sea-ice and tidal excitation, and spans scales from planetary gyres to internal tides. A simulation using this model configuration provides a virtual ocean that admits some sub-mesoscale dynamics and tidal energetics not normally represented in global calculations. This extends simulated ocean behavior beyond broadly quasi-geostrophic flows and provides a preliminary example of a next generation computational approach to explicitly probing the interactions between instabilities that are usually parameterized and dominant energetic scales in the ocean. From previous process studies we have ascertained that this can lead to a qualitative improvement in the realism of many significant processes including geostrophic eddy dynamics, shelf-break exchange and topographic mixing. Computationally we exploit high-degrees of parallelism in both numerical evaluation and in recording model state to persistent disk storage. Together this allows us to compute and record a full three-dimensional model trajectory at hourly frequency for a timeperiod of 5 months with less than 9 million core hours of parallel computer time, using the present generation NASA Ames Research Center facilities. We have used this capability to create a 5 month trajectory archive, sampled at high spatial and temporal frequency for an ocean configuration that is initialized from a realistic data-assimilated state and driven with reanalysis surface forcing from ECMWF. The resulting database of model state provides a novel virtual laboratory for exploring coupling across scales in the ocean, and for testing ideas on the relationship between small scale fluxes and large scale state. The computation is complemented by counterpart computations that are coarsened two and four times respectively. In this presentation we will review the computational and numerical technologies employed

  2. Interannual evolution of (sub)mesoscale dynamics in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charria, Guillaume; Theetten, Sébastien; Vandermeirsch, Frédéric; Yelekçi, Özge; Audiffren, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    In the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the Bay of Biscay is an intersection between a coastal constrained dynamics (wide continental shelf and shelf break regions) and an eastern boundary circulation system. In this framework, the eddy kinetic energy is 1 order of magnitude lower than in western boundary systems. To explore this coastal complex system, a high-resolution (1 km, 100 vertical sigma layers) model experiment including tidal dynamics over a period of 10 years (2001-2010) has been implemented. The ability of the numerical environment to reproduce main patterns over interannual scales is demonstrated. Based on this experiment, the features of the (sub)mesoscale processes are described in the deep part of the region (i.e. abyssal plain and continental slope). A system with the development of mixed layer instabilities at the end of winter is highlighted. Beyond confirming an observed behaviour of seasonal (sub)mesoscale activity in other regions, the simulated period allows exploring the interannual variability of these structures. A relationship between the winter maximum of mixed layer depth and the intensity of (sub)mesoscale related activity (vertical velocity, relative vorticity) is revealed and can be explained by large-scale atmospheric forcings (e.g. the cold winter in 2005). The first submesoscale-permitting exploration of this 3-D coastal system shows the importance of (sub)mesoscale activity in this region with its evolution implying a potentially significant impact on vertical and horizontal mixing.

  3. RRS Discovery Cruise 381, 28 Aug - 03 Oct 2012. Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J T; Naveira-Garabato, A.; et al, .

    2013-01-01

    Cruise D381 was made in support of NERC's Ocean Surface Boundary Layer theme action programme, OSMOSIS (Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study). The ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) deepens in response to convective, wind and surface wave forcing, which produce three-dimensional turbulence that entrains denser water, deepening the layer. The OSBL shoals in response to solar heating and to mesoscale and sub-mesoscale motions that adjust lateral buoyancy gradients into v...

  4. Ocean state indicators from MyOcean altimeter products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bessières

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European MyOcean project (http://www.myocean.eu.org provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the ENSO events in the tropical Pacific, the El Niño/La Niña events, since 1992. The second ocean indicator tracks the contracted or extended state of the Kuroshio Extension. The last ocean indicator is dedicated to the Ionian Basin in the Mediterranean Sea and permits separation of "zonal-cyclonic" state (1998–2005 and since 2011 up to now from the "anticyclonic" state (1993–1996 usually discussed in the literature. In addition, it allows identifying a third state in which both the anticyclonic circulation around the northern part of the basin and the strong zonal Mid-Ionian Jet co-exist (2008–2010.

  5. NAO and extreme ocean states in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Emily; Gallagher, Sarah; Clancy, Colm; Dias, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Large scale atmospheric oscillations are known to have an influence on waves in the North Atlantic. In quantifying how the wave and wind climate of this region may change towards the end of the century due to climate change, it is useful to investigate the influence of large scale oscillations using indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO: fluctuations in the difference between the Icelandic low pressure system and the Azore high pressure system). In this study a statistical analysis of the station-based NAO index was carried out using an ensemble of EC-Earth global climate simulations, where EC-Earth is a European-developed atmosphere ocean sea-ice coupled climate model. The NAO index was compared to observations and to projected changes in the index by the end of the century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. In addition, an ensemble of EC-Earth driven WAVEWATCH III wave model projections over the North Atlantic was analysed to determine the correlations between the NAO and significant wave height (Hs) and the NAO and extreme ocean states. For the most part, no statistically significant differences were found between the distributions of observed and modelled station-based NAO or in projected distributions of the NAO. Means and extremes of Hs are projected to decrease on average by the end of this century. The 95th percentile of Hs is strongly positively correlated to the NAO. Projections of Hs extremes are location dependent and in fact, under the influence of positive NAO the 20-year return levels of Hs were found to be amplified in some regions. However, it is important to note that the projected decreases in the 95th percentile of Hs off the west coast of Ireland are not statistically significant in one of the RCP4.5 and one of the RCP8.5 simulations (me41, me83) which indicates that there is still uncertainty in the projections of higher percentiles.

  6. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    The reliability of the operational Ocean State Forecast system at the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) during tropical cyclones that affect the coastline of India is described in this article. The performance...

  7. State of Climate 2011 - Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Antoine, D.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; d'Andon, O. H. Fanton; Fields, E.; Franz, B. A.; Goryl, P.; Maritorena, S.; McClain, C. R.; Wang, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the sun lit upper layer of the global ocean is the overwhelmingly dominant source of organic matter that fuels marine ecosystems. Phytoplankton contribute roughly half of the global (land and ocean) net primary production (NPP; gross photosynthesis minus plant respiration) and phytoplankton carbon fixation is the primary conduit through which atmospheric CO2 concentrations interact with the ocean s carbon cycle. Phytoplankton productivity depends on the availability of sunlight, macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and micronutrients (e.g., iron), and thus is sensitive to climate-driven changes in the delivery of these resources to the euphotic zone

  8. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  9. Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin

    2017-07-01

    The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR) has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task - a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.

  10. Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gebbie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task – a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere–ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.

  11. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Plankis, Brian J; Meghan E. Marrero

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students’ ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of American adults, most of the student participants in these studies had low initial levels of ocean literacy. Both of these studies, while c...

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  13. The Ocean State Report of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schuckmann, Karina

    2017-04-01

    COPERNICUS is the European Earth observation and monitoring programme, which aims to give the European Union autonomous and operational capability in space-based observation facilities (see the Sentinel missions) and in situ (measurements in the atmosphere, in the ocean and on the ground), and to operate six interlinked environmental monitoring services for the oceans, the atmosphere, territorial development, emergency situations, security and climate change. In this context, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service provides an open and free access to regular and systematic information about the physical state and dynamics of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the global ocean and six European regional seas. Mercator Ocean, the French center of global ocean analysis and forecast has been entrusted by the EU to implement and operate the Copernicus Marine Service. The first Ocean State Report Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service has been prepared, and is planned to appear at an annual basis (fall each year) as a unique reference for ocean state reporting. This report contains a state-of-the-art value-added synthesis of the ocean state for the global ocean and the European regional seas from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service data products and expert analysis. This activity is aiming to reach a wide audience -from the scientific community, over climate and environmental service and agencies, environmental reporting and bodies to the general public. We will give here an overview on the report, highlight main outcomes, and introduce future plans and developments.

  14. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Fenton, Mairi; Meredith, Michael P.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Venables, Hugh J.; de Baar, Henricus

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Omega) for two biologically-important

  15. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.M.; Fenton, M.; Meredith, M.P.; Clargo, N.M.; Ossebaar, S.; Ducklow, H.W.; Venables, H.J.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium

  16. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  17. KARIN: The Ka-Band Radar Interferometer for the Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Peral, Eva; McWatters, Dalia; Pollard, Brian; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Hughes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several nadir profiling radar altimeters have provided our first global look at the ocean basin-scale circulation and the ocean mesoscale at wavelengths longer than 100 km. Due to sampling limitations, nadir altimetry is unable to resolve the small wavelength ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale that are responsible for the vertical mixing of ocean heat and gases and the dissipation of kinetic energy from large to small scales. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would be a partnership between NASA, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales) and the Canadian Space Agency, and would have as one of its main goals the measurement of ocean topography with kilometer-scale spatial resolution and centimeter scale accuracy. In this paper, we provide an overview of all ocean error sources that would contribute to the SWOT mission.

  18. Novel Atmospheric and Sea State Modeling in Ocean Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, George; Galanis, George; Kalogeri, Christina; Larsen, Xiaoli Guo

    2013-04-01

    The rapidly increasing use of renewable energy sources poses new challenges for the research and technological community today. The integration of the, usually, highly variable wind and wave energy amounts into the general grid, the optimization of energy transition and the forecast of extreme values that could lead to instabilities and failures of the system can be listed among them. In the present work, novel methodologies based on state of the art numerical wind/wave simulation systems and advanced statistical techniques addressing such type of problems are discussed. In particular, extremely high resolution modeling systems simulating the atmospheric and sea state conditions with spatial resolution of 100 meters or less and temporal discretization of a few seconds are utilized in order to simulate in the most detailed way the combined wind-wave energy potential at offshore sites. In addition, a statistical analysis based on a variety of mean and variation measures as well as univariate and bivariate probability distributions is used for the estimation of the variability of the power potential revealing the advantages of the use of combined forms of energy by offshore platforms able to produce wind and wave power simultaneously. The estimation and prediction of extreme wind/wave conditions - a critical issue both for site assessment and infrastructure maintenance - is also studied by means of the 50-year return period over areas with increased power potential. This work has been carried out within the framework of the FP7 project MARINA Platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/index.aspx).

  19. Onset of solid state mantle convection and mixing during magma ocean solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Maxime; Tosi, Nicola; Samuel, Henri; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Hüttig, Christian; Breuer, Doris

    2017-04-01

    The fractional crystallization of a magma ocean can cause the formation of a compositional layering that can play a fundamental role for the subsequent long-term dynamics of the interior, for the evolution of geochemical reservoirs, and for surface tectonics. In order to assess to what extent primordial compositional heterogeneities generated by magma ocean solidification can be preserved, we investigate the solidification of a whole-mantle Martian magma ocean, and in particular the conditions that allow solid state convection to start mixing the mantle before solidification is completed. To this end, we performed 2-D numerical simulations in a cylindrical geometry. We treat the liquid magma ocean in a parametrized way while we self-consistently solve the conservation equations of thermochemical convection in the growing solid cumulates accounting for pressure-, temperature- and, where it applies, melt-dependent viscosity as well as parametrized yield stress to account for plastic yielding. By testing the effects of different cooling rates and convective vigor, we show that for a lifetime of the liquid magma ocean of 1 Myr or longer, the onset of solid state convection prior to complete mantle crystallization is likely and that a significant part of the compositional heterogeneities generated by fractionation can be erased by efficient mantle mixing.

  20. What is the metabolic state of the oligotrophic ocean? A debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Doney, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade there has been controversy in oceanography regarding the metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical gyres of the open ocean. Here we review the background of this controversy, commenting on several issues to set the context for a moderated debate between two groups of scientists. In one of the two companion articles, Williams et al. (2013) take the view that these gyres exhibit a state of net autotrophy-that is, their gross primary production (GPP) exceeds community respiration (R) when averaged over some suitably extensive region and over a long duration. In the other companion article, Duarte et al. (2013) take the opposite view, that these gyres are net heterotrophic, with R exceeding the GPP. This idea-that large, remote areas of the upper ocean could be net heterotrophic-raises a host of fundamental scientific questions about the metabolic processes of photosynthesis and respiration that underlie ocean ecology and global biogeochemistry. The question remains unresolved in part because the net state is finely balanced between large opposing fluxes and most current measurements have large uncertainties. This challenging question must be studied against the background of large, anthropogenically driven changes in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. Current trends of anthropogenic change make it an urgent problem to solve and also greatly complicate finding that solution.

  1. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Fenton, Mairi; Meredith, Michael P.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Venables, Hugh J.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite was observed in Ryder Bay, in the coastal sea-ice zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Glacial meltwater and melting sea ice stratified the water column and facilitated the development of large phytoplankton blooms and subsequent strong uptake of atmospheric CO2 of up to 55 mmol m-2 day-1 during austral summer. Concurrent high pH (8.48) and calcium carbonate mineral supersaturation (Ωaragonite 3.1) occurred in the meltwater-influenced surface ocean. Biologically-induced increases in calcium carbonate mineral saturation states counteracted any effects of carbonate ion dilution. Accumulation of CO2 through remineralisation of additional organic matter from productive coastal waters lowered the pH (7.84) and caused deep-water corrosivity (Ωaragonite 0.9) in regions impacted by Circumpolar Deep Water. Episodic mixing events enabled CO2-rich subsurface water to become entrained into the surface and eroded seasonal stratification to lower surface water pH (8.21) and saturation states (Ωaragonite 1.8) relative to all surface waters across Ryder Bay. Uptake of atmospheric CO2 of 28 mmol m-2 day-1 in regions of vertical mixing may enhance the susceptibility of the surface layer to future ocean acidification in dynamic coastal environments. Spatially-resolved studies are essential to elucidate the natural variability in carbonate chemistry in order to better understand and predict carbon cycling and the response of marine organisms to future ocean acidification in the Antarctic coastal zone.

  2. Challenges and potential solutions for European coastal ocean modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun; Stanev, Emil

    2017-04-01

    Coastal operational oceanography is a science and technological platform to integrate and transform the outcomes in marine monitoring, new knowledge generation and innovative technologies into operational information products and services in the coastal ocean. It has been identified as one of the four research priorities by EuroGOOS (She et al. 2016). Coastal modelling plays a central role in such an integration and transformation. A next generation coastal ocean forecasting system should have following features: i) being able to fully exploit benefits from future observations, ii) generate meaningful products in finer scales e.g., sub-mesoscale and in estuary-coast-sea continuum, iii) efficient parallel computing and model grid structure, iv) provide high quality forecasts as forcing to NWP and coastal climate models, v) resolving correctly inter-basin and inter-sub-basin water exchange, vi) resolving synoptic variability and predictability in marine ecosystems, e.g., for algae bloom, vi) being able to address critical and relevant issues in coastal applications, e.g., marine spatial planning, maritime safety, marine pollution protection, disaster prevention, offshore wind energy, climate change adaptation and mitigation, ICZM (integrated coastal zone management), the WFD (Water Framework Directive), and the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), especially on habitat, eutrophication, and hydrographic condition descriptors. This presentation will address above challenges, identify limits of current models and propose correspondent research needed. The proposed roadmap will address an integrated monitoring-modelling approach and developing Unified European Coastal Ocean Models. In the coming years, a few new developments in European Sea observations can expected, e.g., more near real time delivering on profile observations made by research vessels, more shallow water Argo floats and bio-Argo floats deployed, much more high resolution sea level data from SWOT

  3. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  4. The Kra Canal: An Analysis of a Foreign Policy Alternative for the United States Navy in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    LEADERSHIP OF THE LITTORAL ---------- 135 D. SUMMARY -------------------------------------- 137 VT. EVALUATION OF HYPOTHESIS --------------------------- 138 A...Finney, 11T. S. Opens SyiAl rost in Indian Ocean ," New Vorh lriim(-. 18 Junt- 1973, p. 3. 76) b ., 88 U.S. presence in the Indian Ocean. United States...the littoral, the prevailirg 134 littorel attitude supports nonalignment and a zone of peace within the Indian Ocean, C. INDIA AND LEADERSHIP OF THE

  5. Uncertainties in the mean ocean dynamic topography before the launch of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossepoel, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    In anticipation of the future observations of the gravity mission Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), the present-day accuracy of mean dynamic topography (MDT) is estimated from both observations and models. A comparison of five observational estimates illustrates that

  6. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  7. A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Keller, C. Brenhin

    2018-01-01

    The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago. Deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations over this interval are typically estimated using geochemical signatures preserved in ancient continental shelf or slope sediments, which only indirectly reflect the geochemical state of the deep ocean. Here we present a record that more directly reflects deep-ocean oxygen concentrations, based on the ratio of Fe3+ to total Fe in hydrothermally altered basalts formed in ocean basins. Our data allow for quantitative estimates of deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations from 3.5 billion years ago to 14 million years ago and suggest that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic (541 million years ago to the present) and potentially not until the late Palaeozoic (less than 420 million years ago).

  8. A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Daniel A; Keller, C Brenhin

    2018-01-18

    The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago. Deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations over this interval are typically estimated using geochemical signatures preserved in ancient continental shelf or slope sediments, which only indirectly reflect the geochemical state of the deep ocean. Here we present a record that more directly reflects deep-ocean oxygen concentrations, based on the ratio of Fe 3+ to total Fe in hydrothermally altered basalts formed in ocean basins. Our data allow for quantitative estimates of deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations from 3.5 billion years ago to 14 million years ago and suggest that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic (541 million years ago to the present) and potentially not until the late Palaeozoic (less than 420 million years ago).

  9. Predictability and prediction of persistent cool states of the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nandini; Cane, Mark A.; Seager, Richard; Lee, Dong Eun

    2017-10-01

    The Tropical Pacific Ocean displays persistently cool sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that last several years to a decade, with either no El Niño events or a few weak El Niño events. These cause large-scale droughts in the extratropics, including major North American droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, and also modulate the global mean surface temperature. Here we show that two models with different levels of complexity—the Zebiak-Cane intermediate model and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1—are able to produce such periods in a realistic manner. We then test the predictability of these periods in the Zebiak-Cane model using an ensemble of experiments with perturbed initial states. Our results show that in most cases the cool mean state is predictable. We then apply this method to make retrospective forecasts of shifts in the decadal mean state and to forecast the mean state of the Tropical Pacific Ocean for the upcoming decade. Our results suggest that the Pacific will undergo a shift to a warmer mean state after the 2015-2016 El Niño. This could imply the cessation of the drier than normal conditions that have generally afflicted southwest North America since the 1997-1998 El Niño, as well as the twenty-first-century pause in global warming. Implications for our understanding of the origins of such persistent cool states and the possibility of improving predictions of large-scale droughts are discussed.

  10. Time-Series Data on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2012 (Sector and Industry Level)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW) contains annual time-series data for about 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, and the nation, derived from the Bureau of...

  11. Time-Series Data for Self-Employed Economic Activity Dependent on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonemployer Statistics for Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW NES) contains annual time-series data for over 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, and the...

  12. Time-Series Data on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2012 (Sector Level)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW) contains annual time-series data for over 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, 8 regions, and the nation, derived from the...

  13. Time-Series Data for Self-Employed Economic Activity Dependent on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonemployer Statistics for Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW NES) contains annual time-series data for over 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, and the...

  14. Time-Series Data on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2014 (Sector Level)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW) contains annual time-series data for over 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, 8 regions, and the nation, derived from the...

  15. Time-Series Data on the Ocean and Great Lakes Economy for Counties, States, and the Nation between 2005 and 2014(Sector and Industry Level)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW) contains annual time-series data for about 400 coastal counties, 30 coastal states, and the nation, derived from the Bureau of...

  16. Subduction in an Eddy-Resolving State Estimate of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    Are eddies an important contributor to subduction in the eastern subtropical gyre? Here, an adjoint model is used to combine a regional, eddy-resolving numerical model with observations to produce a state estimate of the ocean circulation. The estimate is a synthesis of a variety of in- situ observations from the Subduction Experiment, TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, and the MTI General Circulation Model. The adjoint method is successful because the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is only weakly nonlinear. The state estimate provides a physically-interpretable, eddy-resolving information source to diagnose subduction. Estimates of eddy subduction for the eastern subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic are larger than previously calculated from parameterizations in coarse-resolution models. Furthermore, eddy subduction rates have typical magnitudes of 15% of the total subduction rate. Eddies contribute as much as 1 Sverdrup to water-mass transformation, and hence subduction, in the North Equatorial Current and the Azores Current. The findings of this thesis imply that the inability to resolve or accurately parameterize eddy subduction in climate models would lead to an accumulation of error in the structure of the main thermocline, even in the relatively-quiescent eastern subtropical gyre.

  17. CryoSat Plus for Oceans - analysis of the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Marc; Gommenginger, Christine; Moreau, Thomas; Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo Dinardo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project is an ESA initiative carried out by a European wide consortium of altimetry experts. It aims to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of data coming from CryoSat-2 over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for seafloor mapping. It also generates and evaluates new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. It therefore also acts as a preparation for the upcoming Sentinel and Jason SAR enabled altimetry missions. In this paper we address the review of the CryoSat state-of-the-art, relevant current initiatives, algorithms, models and Earth Observation based products and datasets that are relevant in the Cryosat+ ocean theme. Compared to conventional (pulse-limited) altimeter missions, Cryosat-2 is not a dedicated platform for ocean research: typically the microwave radiometer (MWR) for wet tropospheric corrections is lacking, as is the direct measurement of the first order ionospheric effect by means of a dual-frequency altimeter. Also the orbit of Cryosat-2 has a rather long repetition period, unsuited for collinear tracks analyses. These three particular features have been studied already in the HERACLES project on the eve of the first CryoSat launch. We revisit the outcome of this study, update to current understanding and perception, and ultimately develop what was, is and will be proposed in these problem areas. Clearly, we question the standard ionosphere corrections, the wet troposphere corrections and the accuracy of the mean sea surface (MSS) underlying the accuracy of derived sea level anomalies. In addition, Cryosat-2 provides the first innovative altimeter with SAR and SARIn modes. This raises the direct problem of "how to process these data", simply because this has not been done before. Compared to pulse-limited altimetry it

  18. The non-steady-state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    The ocean's role has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering over a quarter of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960's (~1 Pg C yr-1) and 2000's (~2 Pg C yr-1), with expectations it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent and unexpected CO2 outgassing signal represents a paradigm-shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady-state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in steady-state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady-state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady-state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C) is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C). However between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady-state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C) has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C), a level which cannot be ignored. The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady-state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a~range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.

  19. The non-steady state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.

    2013-04-01

    The role of the ocean has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering nearly half of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960s (~1 Pg C yr-1) and 2000s (~2 Pg C yr-1), with expectations that it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent CO2 outgassing signal represents a significant shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in a steady state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C) is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C). However, between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C) has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C). The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.

  20. The non-steady state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. McNeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the ocean has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering nearly half of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960s (~1 Pg C yr−1 and 2000s (~2 Pg C yr−1, with expectations that it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent CO2 outgassing signal represents a significant shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in a steady state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C. However, between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C. The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.

  1. Arctic sea ice loss - two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns related to the ocean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid; Eldevik, Tor; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Stroeve, Julienne

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased dramatically in recent decades. Typically focus has been on September when decreasing trends are largest and sea ice extent is at the minimum. However, decreasing sea ice trends are now significant for all months. By examining satellite observations of sea ice concentration since 1979 and an observational-based reconstruction of sea ice extent since 1850, we assess ongoing and past change in regional sea ice variability throughout the year. We find two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability throughout the observational record: summer variability and change inside the Arctic Ocean, and winter variability and change in the seas further south. In regions with largest summer variability, the recent ice loss is typically larger in spring than fall. The enhanced ice retreat in spring appears accelerated by the ice albedo feedback, while rapid fall freeze-up may be due to the strong salinity stratification. The winter variability in the seas further south, being less stratified and more affected by convection, have larger trends in fall than spring, indicating delayed and reduced ice formation in fall. These two patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability thus appear largely affected by the ocean state.

  2. Remote sensing tools to study ocean biogeochemistry: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing of the world ocean presently provides measurements of sea-surface temperature, sea surface height, wind speed and direction, and ocean color, from which chlorophyll concentration and aerosol optical thickness are obtained.

  3. The effects of the overriding plate thermal state on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, Manuel; Spalla, Maria Iole; 10.1016/j.crte.2011.01.005

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of variations in the thermal state of the overriding plate on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system, a 2-D finite element thermo-mechanical model was implemented. The lithosphere base was located at the depth of the 1600 K isotherm. Numerical simulations were performed while taking into account four different initial thicknesses for the oceanic lithosphere (60, 80, 95 and 110 km) and five different thicknesses of the overriding plate, as compared in terms of the continental-oceanic plate thickness ratio (100, 120, 140, 160 and 200% of the oceanic lithosphere thickness). The results of numerical modeling indicate that a high variability of the subducting plate geometry occurs for an oceanic lithosphere thickness ranging from 60 to 80 km, while the variability decreases where the oceanic plates are thicker (95 and 110 km). Furthermore, the slab dip strongly depends on the thermal state of the overriding plate, and, in particular, the slab dip decreases with the increase in...

  4. Ocean state and uncertainty forecasts using HYCOM with Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mozheng; Hogan, Pat; Rowley, Clark; Smedstad, Ole-Martin; Wallcraft, Alan; Penny, Steve

    2017-04-01

    An ensemble forecast system based on the US Navy's operational HYCOM using Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF) technology has been developed for ocean state and uncertainty forecasts. One of the advantages is that the best possible initial analysis states for the HYCOM forecasts are provided by the LETKF which assimilates the operational observations using ensemble method. The background covariance during this assimilation process is supplied with the ensemble, thus it avoids the difficulty of developing tangent linear and adjoint models for 4D-VAR from the complicated hybrid isopycnal vertical coordinate in HYCOM. Another advantage is that the ensemble system provides the valuable uncertainty estimate corresponding to every state forecast from HYCOM. Uncertainty forecasts have been proven to be critical for the downstream users and managers to make more scientifically sound decisions in numerical prediction community. In addition, ensemble mean is generally more accurate and skilful than the single traditional deterministic forecast with the same resolution. We will introduce the ensemble system design and setup, present some results from 30-member ensemble experiment, and discuss scientific, technical and computational issues and challenges, such as covariance localization, inflation, model related uncertainties and sensitivity to the ensemble size.

  5. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  6. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  7. Ocean Polygons, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Oceans for the United States. The Oceans layer contains all oceans within a NAVSTREETS detailed coverage area. An ocean is represented as a polygonal feature....

  8. Climatic, tectonic, and biological factors affecting the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans: Implications for Phanerozoic O2 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, K.; Tajika, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's atmosphere and oceans have seen fundamental changes in its oxidation state in response to the climatic, tectonic and geochemical variations. Over the past decade, several geochemical proxies have led to significant progress in understanding the paleredox states of ancient oceans. However, a quantitative interpretation of these data for atmospheric O2 levels remain unclear because the relationship between atmospheric O2 levels (pO2) and oceanic redox state depends on several environmental factors, such as terrestrial weathering rate, sea-level stands, and sinking rate of particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column and so on. It is widely thought that the redox-dependent P cycling also plays a crucial role in regulating pO2 because it acts as a negative feedback on a geological timescale. It is important that strength of this feedback for a given pO2 is also modulated by environmental factors, affecting not only O2 levels at steady state but also its susceptibility to environmental changes. In this study, a quantitative role of environmental factors in the oxidation state of Earth's surface environment is evaluated with an oceanic biogeochemical cycle model (CANOPS) coupled with global C cycle model, which enables us to understand the ancient CO2 and O2 evolution. Our results demonstrate that atmospheric O2 level at steady state is affected by CO2 input flux from Earth's interior via changes in biogeochemical cycles, but its response is modulated by several internal factors such as shelf area and POM sinking rate. We also found that early Paleozoic atmospheric O2 levels before the advent of land plant would be determined so that oceans may locate at the "edge of anoxia (EoA)" where the redox-dependency of marine P cycle plays a crucial role in regulating O2 cycle, and that POM sinking rate has a great impact on the EoA. Our findings provide insights into the O2 cycle over the Phanerozoic in response to the climatic and tectonic variations and

  9. Ocean acidification state in western Antarctic surface waters: drivers and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsdotter Björk, M.; Fransson, A.; Chierici, M.

    2013-05-01

    Each December during four years from 2006 to 2010, the surface water carbonate system was measured and investigated in the Amundsen Sea and Ross Sea, western Antarctica as part of the Oden Southern Ocean expeditions (OSO). The I/B Oden started in Punta Arenas in Chile and sailed southwest, passing through different regimes such as, the marginal/seasonal ice zone, fronts, coastal shelves, and polynyas. Discrete surface water was sampled underway for analysis of total alkalinity (AT), total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and pH. Two of these parameters were used together with sea-surface temperature (SST), and salinity to obtain a full description of the surface water carbonate system, including pH in situ and calcium carbonate saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa). Multivariate analysis was used to investigate interannual variability and the major controls (sea-ice concentration, SST, salinity and chlorophyll a) on the variability in the carbonate system and Ω. This analysis showed that SST and chlorophyll a were the major drivers of the Ω variability in both the Amundsen and Ross seas. In 2007, the sea-ice edge was located further south and the area of the open polynya was relatively small compared to 2010. We found the lowest pH in situ (7.932) and Ω = 1 values in the sea-ice zone and in the coastal Amundsen Sea, nearby marine out flowing glaciers. In 2010, the sea-ice coverage was the largest and the areas of the open polynyas were the largest for the whole period. This year we found the lowest salinity and AT, coinciding with highest chl a. This implies that the highest ΩAr in 2010 was likely an effect of biological CO2 drawdown, which out-competed the dilution of carbonate ion concentration due to large melt water volumes. We predict and discuss future Ω values, using our data and reported rates of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2, suggesting that the Amundsen Sea will become undersaturated with regard to aragonite about 20 yr sooner

  10. Ulrike Freitag: Indian Ocean, Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut. Reforming the Homeland. Ulrike Freitag & William Clarence-Smith : Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lambert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Freitag Indian Ocean, Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut. Reforming the Homeland Leyde / Boston, Brill, 2003 Ulrike Freitag & William Clarence-Smith (directeurs Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s Leyde / New-York / Cologne, Brill, 1997 Le livre Indian Ocean, Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut nous présente l'histoire moderne du Hadramaout, du début du xixe siècle à la fin de la période britannique (1967, en parallèle avec...

  11. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea......State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...... level change.This study, part of the ESA CryoVal Sea Ice project, focuses on an inter-comparison of various state-of-the-art Arctic MSS models (UCL13/DTU13/ICEn) and commonly-used geoid models (EGM08). We show improved definition of gravity features, such as the Gakkel ridge, in the latest MSS models...

  12. ECCO version 4: an integrated framework for non-linear inverse modeling and global ocean state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework and its baseline solution for the evolving ocean state over the period 1992–2011. Both components are publicly available and subjected to regular, automated regression tests. The modeling framework includes sets of global conformal grids, a global model setup, implementations of data constraints and control parameters, an interface to algorithmic differentiation, as well as a grid-independent, fully capable Matlab toolbox. The baseline ECCO v4 solution is a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate without unidentified sources of heat and buoyancy, which any interested user will be able to reproduce accurately. The solution is an acceptable fit to most data and has been found to be physically plausible in many respects, as documented here and in related publications. Users are being provided with capabilities to assess model–data misfits for themselves. The synergy between modeling and data synthesis is asserted through the joint presentation of the modeling framework and the state estimate. In particular, the inverse estimate of parameterized physics was instrumental in improving the fit to the observed hydrography, and becomes an integral part of the ocean model setup available for general use. More generally, a first assessment of the relative importance of external, parametric and structural model errors is presented. Parametric and external model uncertainties appear to be of comparable importance and dominate over structural model uncertainty. The results generally underline the importance of including turbulent transport parameters in the inverse problem.

  13. Completing the Feedback Loop: The Impact of Chlorophyll Data Assimilation on the Ocean State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Anna; Keppenne, Christian; Kovach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    In anticipation of the integration of a full biochemical model into the next generation GMAO coupled system, an intermediate solution has been implemented to estimate the penetration depth (1Kd_PAR) of ocean radiation based on the chlorophyll concentration. The chlorophyll is modeled as a tracer with sources-sinks coming from the assimilation of MODIS chlorophyll data. Two experiments were conducted with the coupled ocean-atmosphere model. In the first, climatological values of Kpar were used. In the second, retrieved daily chlorophyll concentrations were assimilated and Kd_PAR was derived according to Morel et al (2007). No other data was assimilated to isolate the effects of the time-evolving chlorophyll field. The daily MODIS Kd_PAR product was used to validate the skill of the penetration depth estimation and the MERRA-OCEAN re-analysis was used as a benchmark to study the sensitivity of the upper ocean heat content and vertical temperature distribution to the chlorophyll input. In the experiment with daily chlorophyll data assimilation, the penetration depth was estimated more accurately, especially in the tropics. As a result, the temperature bias of the model was reduced. A notably robust albeit small (2-5 percent) improvement was found across the equatorial Pacific ocean, which is a critical region for seasonal to inter-annual prediction.

  14. Initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth in a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany); Abbot, Dorian S.; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Marotzke, Jochem [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The apparent existence of low-latitude land glaciers at sea level during the Marinoan ({proportional_to}635 Ma) has led to the proposal that these glaciations were accompanied by completely ice-covered oceans. These states have become popular under the term ''Snowball Earth.'' In this contribution, we study the initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth with the most sophisticated model ever used for this purpose, the atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. In particular, we focus on the total solar irradiance and atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide needed to trigger a Marinoan Snowball Earth. We find that Snowball initiation in this model is much easier than found in various previous modelling studies. A zero-dimensional energy balance model is used to predict the Snowball Earth bifurcation point from only the equilibrium global mean ocean potential temperature for present-day TSI. We do not find stable states with sea-ice cover above 55%, and land conditions are such that glaciers could not grow with sea-ice cover of 55%. Therefore, none of our simulations qualifies as a ''slushball'' solution, with the caveat that mountains are not included in our study.

  15. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Oregon State University (OSU) College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) Marine Geology Repository (MGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon State University Marine Geology Repository (OSU-MGR) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS) database, contributing...

  16. Timing of the departure of ocean biogeochemical cycles from the preindustrial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James R

    2014-01-01

    Changes in ocean chemistry and climate induced by anthropogenic CO2 affect a broad range of ocean biological and biogeochemical processes; these changes are already well underway. Direct effects of CO2 (e.g. on pH) are prominent among these, but climate model simulations with historical greenhouse gas forcing suggest that physical and biological processes only indirectly forced by CO2 (via the effect of atmospheric CO2 on climate) begin to show anthropogenically-induced trends as early as the 1920s. Dates of emergence of a number of representative ocean fields from the envelope of natural variability are calculated for global means and for spatial 'fingerprints' over a number of geographic regions. Emergence dates are consistent among these methods and insensitive to the exact choice of regions, but are generally earlier with more spatial information included. Emergence dates calculated for individual sampling stations are more variable and generally later, but means across stations are generally consistent with global emergence dates. The last sign reversal of linear trends calculated for periods of 20 or 30 years also functions as a diagnostic of emergence, and is generally consistent with other measures. The last sign reversal among 20 year trends is found to be a conservative measure (biased towards later emergence), while for 30 year trends it is found to have an early emergence bias, relative to emergence dates calculated by departure from the preindustrial mean. These results are largely independent of emission scenario, but the latest-emerging fields show a response to mitigation. A significant anthropogenic component of ocean variability has been present throughout the modern era of ocean observation.

  17. Ocean acidification state in western Antarctic surface waters: drivers and interannual variability

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsdotter Björk, M.; Fransson, A.; Chierici, M

    2013-01-01

    Each December during four years from 2006 to 2010, the surface water carbonate system was measured and investigated in the Amundsen Sea and Ross Sea, western Antarctica as part of the Oden Southern Ocean expeditions (OSO). The I/B Oden started in Punta Arenas in Chile and sailed southwest, passing through different regimes such as, the marginal/seasonal ice zone, fronts, coastal shelves, and polynyas. Discrete surface water was sampled underway for analysis of total alkalinity (AT), total dis...

  18. Sensitivity of the Regional Arctic System Model surface climate to ice-ocean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Maslowski, W.; Osinski, R.; Cassano, J. J.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J.; Higgins, M.; Hughes, M. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Nijssen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) is a high-resolution Earth System model extending across the Arctic Ocean, its marginal seas, the Arctic drainage basin, and including the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Arctic domain. RASM uses the flux coupler (CPL7) within the Community Earth System Model framework to couple regional configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE), and Variable Infiltration Capacity land hydrology model (VIC). Work is also underway to incorporate the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) as well as glacier, ice cap and dynamic vegetation models. As part of RASM development, coupled simulations are being prepared for the CORDEX Arctic domain, which is unique among CORDEX regions by being centered over the ocean. Up to this point, there has been uncertainty over how much initial and surface conditions in the ice-ocean boundary layer influence the surface climate of the Arctic in RASM, relative to regional atmospheric model constraints, such as spectral nudging and boundary conditions. We present results that suggest there is a significant dependency on the initial sea ice conditions on decadal timescales within RASM. This has important implications for (i) how results from different regional artic models may be combined and compared in CORDEX and (ii) appropriate methods for ensemble generation in regional polar models. We will also present results illustrating the influence of sub-hourly sea ice deformation on decadal climate in RASM, highlighting an important reason why fully coupled and high-resolution regional models are essential for regional Arctic downscaling.

  19. Sea State and Boundary Layer Physics of the Emerging Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    through increased melt rates, acting as an additional positive influence on ice albedo –temperature feedback. Indeed, 4 APL-UW TR1306 Applied Physics...assumption of horizontal homogeneity is not valid. The most striking gradients are in the albedo . However, ice regions and adjacent open ocean areas are also...generated by MODIS , passive microwave, and scatterometer data. Currently no remote sensors will be used to obtain either direct or freeboard-derived sea ice

  20. Effectiveness and Sensitivity of the Arctic Observing Network in a Coupled Ocean-Sea Ice State Estimation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. T.; Heimbach, P.; Garg, V.; Ocana, V.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, various agencies have invested heavily in the development and deployment of Arctic ocean and sea ice observing platforms, especially moorings, profilers, gliders, and satellite-based instruments. These observational assets are heterogeneous in terms of variables sampled and spatio-temporal coverage, which calls for a dynamical synthesis framework of the diverse data streams. Here we introduce an adjoint-based Arctic Subpolar gyre sTate estimate (ASTE), a medium resolution model-data synthesis that leverages all the possible observational assets. Through an established formal state and parameter estimation framework, the ASTE framework produces a 2002-present ocean-sea ice state that can be used to address Arctic System science questions. It is dynamically and kinematically consistent with known equations of motion and consistent with observations. Four key aspects of ASTE will be discussed: (1) How well is ASTE constrained by the existing observations; (2) which data most effectively constrain the system, and what impact on the solution does spatial and temporal coverage have; (3) how much information does one set of observation (e.g. Fram Strait heat transport) carry about a remote, but dynamically linked component (e.g. heat content in the Beaufort Gyre); and (4) how can the framework be used to assess the value of hypothetical observations in constraining poorly observed parts of the Arctic Ocean and the implied mechanisms responsible for the changes occurring in the Arctic. We will discuss the suggested geographic distribution of new observations to maximize the impact on improving our understanding of the general circulation, water mass distribution and hydrographic changes in the Arctic.

  1. Compilation of ocean circulation and other data from ADCP current meters, CTD casts, tidal gauges, and other instruments from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University and other institutions as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other projects from 24 November 1985 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation and other data were collected from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University (OSU) and other institutions as part of...

  2. Persistent Cold States of the Tropical Pacific Ocean in an Intermediate Coupled Model and a General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, N.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.

    2014-12-01

    The tropical Pacific Ocean has persistently cool sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that last several years to a decade, with either no El Niño events or very few weak El Niño events. These have been shown to cause large-scale droughts in the extratropics[i], including the major North American droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, and may also be responsible for modulating the global mean surface temperature[ii]. Here we show that two models with different levels of complexity - the Zebiak-Cane model and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1 - are able to produce such periods in a realistic manner. We then test the predictability of these periods in the Zebiak-Cane model using an ensemble of experiments with perturbed initial states. Our results show that the cool mean state is modestly predictable, while the lack of El Niño events during these cool periods is not. These results have implications for our understanding of the origins of such persistent cool states and the possibility of improving predictions of large-scale droughts. Further, we apply this method of using an ensemble of model simulations with perturbed initial states to make retrospective forecasts and to forecast the mean state of the tropical Pacific Ocean for the upcoming decade. Our results suggest, albeit with low confidence, that the current cool mean state will persist. This could imply the continuation of the drier than normal conditions that have, in general, afflicted southwest North America since the 1997/98 El Niño, as well as the current pause in global warming. [i] C. Herweijer and R. Seager, "The global footprint of persistent extra-tropical drought in the instrumental era," International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, pp. 1761-1774, 2008. [ii] G. A. Meehl, J. M. Arblaster, J. T. Fasullo, A. Hu and K. E. Trenberth, "Model-based evidence of deep-ocean heat uptake during surface-temperature hiatus periods," Nature Climate Change, vol. 1, pp. 360

  3. Aragonite saturation state gridded to 1x1 degree latitude and longitude at depth levels of 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 meters in the global oceans (NCEI Accession 0139360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains gridded data of aragonite saturation state across the global oceans (spatial distributions with a resolution of 1x1 degree latitude...

  4. Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Guilio

    In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

  5. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  6. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean

  7. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Cooley

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the

  8. Stable Chromium Isotopes as tracer of changes in weathering processes and redox state of the ocean during Neoproterozoic glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossing, L. N.; Gaucher, C.; Boggiani, P. C.; Frei, R.

    2010-12-01

    The chemistry of surface environments on Earth has essentially evolved from early anoxic conditions to a present day oxic state. How in detail this transition occurred is still a matter of debate but the last 200 million years (My) of the Neoproterozoic Era [(1000 to 542 million years ago (Ma)] show an emerging picture of large scale fluctuations in the redox state of the oceans [1-2]. The reasons for these fluctuations are to be sought in Earth’s atmospheric oxygenation which led to the rapid radiation of oxygen-utilizing macroscopic metazoans, but details regarding the nature of these fluctuations remain unclear. The Late Neoproterozoic is known for a number of widespread glaciations causing the return of ferruginous oceans which were absent for more than a billion years of Earth history. This study elaborates on the idea that Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes in Fe-rich chemical sediments deposited during glacial events are suitable for tracing oxygenation of surface environments through Earth's history [3]. The focus of this study is to apply the Cr isotope system to one of the Marinoan (650-630 Ma) glacio-marine sequences (Jacadigo Group, Brazil) in order to get a detailed spatial and relative temporal resolution of changes in weathering processes and redox states of the respective ocean basin during the depositional period of the sediments. The Jacadigo Group is a glacio-marine succession which is composed of the Urucum Fm. (sandstones) at the base, the Santa Cruz Fm. (BIFs) and the Puga Fm. (Fe-rich glacial diamictites) at the top. Cr stable isotope measurements on various BIF horizons of the Santa Cruz Fm. yielded positive δ53/52Cr values range from +0.4 to+ 0.9‰, while the overlying Fe-rich glaciogenic diamictites of the Puga Fm. show δ53/52Cr values range from to +0.1 to+ 0.4‰. These positively fractionated values correspond to positive δ53/52Cr values measured in other Late Neoproterozoic BIFs and speak for the occurrence of potential oxygenation

  9. Iron speciation and redox state of mantle eclogites: Implications for ancient volatile cycles during mantle melting and oceanic crust subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Woodand, Alan; Vasilyev, Prokopiy; Viljoen, Fanus

    2017-04-01

    Kimberlite-borne mantle eclogite xenoliths of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age are commonly interpreted as representing former oceanic crust. As such, they may retain a memory of the redox state of the ancient convecting mantle sources that gave rise to their magmatic protoliths and which controls the speciation of volatiles in planetary interiors. Mantle eclogite suites commonly include both cumulate and variably evolved extrusive varieties [1], which may be characterised by initial differences in Fe3+/Fetotal. Recent Fe-based oxybarometry shows mantle eclogites to have fO2 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (ΔFMQ) of -3 to 0, whereby low fO2 relative to modern MORB may relate to subduction of more reducing Archaean oceanic crust or loss of ferric Fe during partial melt loss [2]. Indeed, using V/Sc as a redox proxy, it was recently shown that Archaean mantle eclogites are more reduced than modern MORB (ΔFMQ-1.3 vs. ΔFMQ -0.4) [3]. However, in the warmer ancient mantle, they were also subject to modification due to partial melt loss upon recycling and, after capture in the cratonic mantle lithosphere, may be overprinted by interaction with metasomatic melts and fluids. In order to help further constrain the redox state of mantle eclogites and unravel the effect of primary and secondary processes, we measured Fe3+/Fetotal by Mössbauer in garnet from mantle eclogites from the Lace kimberlite (Kaapvaal craton), comprising samples with melt- and cumulate-like oceanic crustal protoliths as well as metasomatised samples. Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet shows a strong negative correlation with jadeite content and bulk-rock Li and Cu abundances, suggesting increased partitioning of Fe3+ into jadeite in the presence of monovalent cations with which it can form coupled substitutions. Broad negative correlation with whole-rock Al2O3/TiO2 and positive correlation with ΣREE are interpreted as incompatible behaviour of Fe3+ during olivine-plagioclase accumulation

  10. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  11. Initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth in a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth (~635 million years before present with the state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. This is the most sophisticated model ever applied to Snowball initiation. A comparison with a pre-industrial control climate shows that the change of surface boundary conditions from present-day to Marinoan, including a shift of continents to low latitudes, induces a global-mean cooling of 4.6 K. Two thirds of this cooling can be attributed to increased planetary albedo, the remaining one third to a weaker greenhouse effect. The Marinoan Snowball Earth bifurcation point for pre-industrial atmospheric carbon dioxide is between 95.5 and 96% of the present-day total solar irradiance (TSI, whereas a previous study with the same model found that it was between 91 and 94% for present-day surface boundary conditions. A Snowball Earth for TSI set to its Marinoan value (94% of the present-day TSI is prevented by doubling carbon dioxide with respect to its pre-industrial level. A zero-dimensional energy balance model is used to predict the Snowball Earth bifurcation point from only the equilibrium global-mean ocean potential temperature for present-day TSI. We do not find stable states with sea-ice cover above 55%, and land conditions are such that glaciers could not grow with sea-ice cover of 55%. Therefore, none of our simulations qualifies as a "slushball" solution. While uncertainties in important processes and parameters such as clouds and sea-ice albedo suggest that the Snowball Earth bifurcation point differs between climate models, our results contradict previous findings that Snowball Earth initiation would require much stronger forcings.

  12. Ocean circulation off the north-west coast of the United States is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    SEPARATION OF A COASTAL UPWELLING JET AT CAPE BLANCO,. OREGON, USA. J. A. BARTH * and R. L. SMITH*. The coastal upwelling region near Cape Blanco (43°N), Oregon, off the west coast of the United States, was studied using a towed conductivity-temperature-depth instrument on SeaSoar, a shipborne ...

  13. An Assessment of State-of-the-Art Mean Sea Surface and Geoid Models of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Sea Ice Freeboard Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinéad Louise; Hendricks, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) models and global geoid models (GGMs) are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, as well as in oceanographic studies such as mapping sea level anomalies and mean dynamic ocean topography. However, errors...... in a given model in the high frequency domain, primarily due to unresolved gravity features, can result in errors in the estimated along-track freeboard. These errors are exacerbated in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice pack conditions. Additionally model errors can impact ocean...... geostrophic currents, derived from satellite altimeter data, while remaining biases in these models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea level change in the Arctic. This study focuses on an assessment of five state-of-the-art Arctic MSS models (UCL13/04, DTU15...

  14. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

  15. Sr/Ca sensitivity to aragonite saturation state in cultured subsamples from a single colony of coral: Mechanism of biomineralization during ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin

    2013-01-01

    Using a new and rapid NanoSIMS-based method, we quantified the sensitivity of skeletal Sr/Ca in coral to the aragonite saturation state of seawater (Ω_(SW)). Skeletal Sr/Ca is a common proxy for temperature while Ω_(SW) is a parameter that varied in the past ocean and is predicted to change with continued ocean acidification. Five adult branches of the surface coral Stylophora pistillata were grown at different Ω_(SW) from 2.7 to 4.9 (pH of 7.9–8.5) but at a constant temperature of 25 °C. Des...

  16. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  17. Menstrual Cycle Changes in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Study from the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Yingqi; Shah, Samir A.; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Salih, Sana; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Flowers, Nicole; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year prior to IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Methods Women aged 18 and above in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All subjects were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. Results 121 subjects were studied. Twenty-five percent of subjects experienced a change in cycle interval in the year prior to IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time.. Quality of life (QOL) was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Conclusions Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year prior to IBD diagnosis; therefore screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time. PMID:24451220

  18. The challenge of estimating the SWOT signal and error spectra over the Ocean and its applications to CalVal and state estimation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelmann, C.; Gerald, D.

    2016-12-01

    The SWOT data validation will be a first challenge after launch, as the nature of the measurement, in particular the two-dimensionality at short spatial scales, is new in altimetry. If the comparison with independent observations may be locally possible, a validation of the full signal and error spectrum will be challenging. However, some recent analyses in simulations have shown the possibility to separate the geophysical signals from the spatially coherent instrumental errors in the spectral space, through cross-spectral analysis. These results suggest that rapidly after launch, the instrument error canl be spectrally separated providing some validations and insights on the Ocean energy spectrum, as well as optimal calibrations. Beyond CalVal, such spectral computations will be also essential for producing high-level Ocean estimates (two and three dimensional Ocean state reconstructions).

  19. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  20. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  1. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. DeJong; R. B. Dunbar; Mucciarone, D.; D. A. Koweek

    2015-01-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high-resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February–March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calci...

  2. Comparison of full field and anomaly initialisation for decadal climate prediction: towards an optimal consistency between the ocean and sea-ice anomaly initialisation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2017-08-01

    Decadal prediction exploits sources of predictability from both the internal variability through the initialisation of the climate model from observational estimates, and the external radiative forcings. When a model is initialised with the observed state at the initial time step (Full Field Initialisation—FFI), the forecast run drifts towards the biased model climate. Distinguishing between the climate signal to be predicted and the model drift is a challenging task, because the application of a-posteriori bias correction has the risk of removing part of the variability signal. The anomaly initialisation (AI) technique aims at addressing the drift issue by answering the following question: if the model is allowed to start close to its own attractor (i.e. its biased world), but the phase of the simulated variability is constrained toward the contemporaneous observed one at the initialisation time, does the prediction skill improve? The relative merits of the FFI and AI techniques applied respectively to the ocean component and the ocean and sea ice components simultaneously in the EC-Earth global coupled model are assessed. For both strategies the initialised hindcasts show better skill than historical simulations for the ocean heat content and AMOC along the first two forecast years, for sea ice and PDO along the first forecast year, while for AMO the improvements are statistically significant for the first two forecast years. The AI in the ocean and sea ice components significantly improves the skill of the Arctic sea surface temperature over the FFI.

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  5. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-12-07

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  6. The extent of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation state along the Washington-Oregon continental shelf margin in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B. R.; Juranek, L.; Greeley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Washington-Oregon continental shelf region is exposed to conditions of low aragonite saturation state during the late spring/early summer upwelling season. However, the extent of its evolution in late summer/early fall has been largely unknown. Along this continental margin, ocean acidification, upwelling, biological productivity, and respiration processes in subsurface waters are major contributors to the variability in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and aragonite saturation state. The persistence of water with aragonite saturation state echinoderms, and pteropods. In the late summer of 2012 we studied the extent of acidification conditions employing shipboard cruises and profiling gliders. We conducted several large-scale chemical and hydrographic surveys of the region in order to better understand the interrelationships between these natural and human-induced processes and their effects on aragonite saturation. We will compare the results of these new surveys with our previous work in 2011 and 2007.

  7. INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AT BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. THE CASE OF SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Corbacho Valencia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Communicating beyond borders, specially in the field of advertising has nowadays become a common practice. This paper aims at addressing major challenges for multinational companies trying to sell their products and services in other countries. For that purpose we have chosen Spanish and US print advertising for a target group with high socio cultural similarities, but that speaks different languages and lives at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The focus of this work lies on explaining communication strategies implemented by multinationals that range from standardization to different types of adaptation required.

  8. Collaborative, Early-undergraduate-focused REU Programs at Savannah State University have been Vital to Growing a Demographically Diverse Ocean Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, M. R.; Cox, T. M.; Hintz, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Formal support for undergraduates to participate in marine/ocean science research at Savannah State University (SSU), a historically-Black unit of the University System of Georgia, began in 1989 with funding from the National Science Foundation for an unsolicited proposal (OCE-8919102, 34,935). Today SSU, which has offered B.S degrees since 1979 and M.S. degrees since 2001 in Marine Sciences, is making major contributions nationally to demographic diversity in ocean sciences. 33% of Master's degrees in marine/ocean sciences earned by African Americans in the U.S. from 2004-2007 were earned at SSU. 10% of African American Master's and Doctoral students in marine/ ocean sciences in 2007 were either enrolled in the Master's program at SSU or were former SSU students enrolled in Doctoral programs elsewhere. Collaborative REU programs that focus on early (freshman and sophomore) undergraduate students have been a consistent and vital part of that success. In the most recent iteration of our summer REU program we used six of the best practices outlined in the literature to increase success and retention of underrepresented minority students in STEM fields: early intervention, strong mentoring, research experience, career counseling, financial support, workshops and seminars. The early intervention with strong mentoring has proven successful in several metrics: retention in STEM majors (96%), progression to graduate school (50%), and continuation to later research experiences (75%). Research mentors include faculty at staff at SSU, the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and Georgia Tech-Savannah. Formal collaborative and cooperative agreements, externally-funded grants, and contracts in support of student research training have proven to be critical in providing resources for growth and improvement marine science curricular options at the University. Since 1981 the program has had four formal partnerships and 36 funded grant awards

  9. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Activities of the Ocean Studies Board fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security.

  10. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Activities of the Ocean Studies Board fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security.

  11. Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wouters, B.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Corti, S.; Palmer, T.; Lloyd Smith, D.; Dunstone, N.; Kroger, J.; Pohlmann, H.; Storch, von J.S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the skill of retrospective multiyear forecasts of North Atlantic ocean characteristics obtained with ocean-atmosphere-sea ice models that are initialized with estimates from the observed ocean state. We show that these multimodel forecasts can skilfully predict surface and subsurface ocean

  12. Global Ocean Currents Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information has released an ocean currents database portal that aims 1) to integrate global ocean currents observations from a variety of instruments with different resolution, accuracy and response to spatial and temporal variability into a uniform network common data form (NetCDF) format and 2) to provide a dedicated online data discovery, access to NCEI-hosted and distributed data sources for ocean currents data. The portal provides a tailored web application that allows users to search for ocean currents data by platform types and spatial/temporal ranges of their interest. The dedicated web application is available at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/gocd/index.html. The NetCDF format supports widely-used data access protocols and catalog services such as OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), which the GOCD users can use data files with their favorite analysis and visualization client software without downloading to their local machine. The potential users of the ocean currents database include, but are not limited to, 1) ocean modelers for their model skills assessments, 2) scientists and researchers for studying the impact of ocean circulations on the climate variability, 3) ocean shipping industry for safety navigation and finding optimal routes for ship fuel efficiency, 4) ocean resources managers while planning for the optimal sites for wastes and sewages dumping and for renewable hydro-kinematic energy, and 5) state and federal governments to provide historical (analyzed) ocean circulations as an aid for search and rescue

  13. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  14. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  16. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...

  17. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank

    2005-01-01

    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  18. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  19. Deep Water Oceanic Wakes: a simple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, E. A.; Boutov, D.

    2009-04-01

    In present study we investigate the formation and evolution of oceanic wakes generated by obstacle of a real island shape (in our case - Madeira island) but without consideration of bathymetry around it. Numerical simulations using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are presented. ROMS is a free-surface, terrain-following, primitive equations ocean model (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005). Numerical models are often used to study the formation and evolution of the leeward, mesoscale and sub-mesoscale flows around of islands (Dietrich et al., 1996; Dong et al., 2007; Heywood et al., 1996). Madeira archipelago is a group of deep-sea islands located at Northeast Atlantic at about 33°N, 17°W. The biggest island of the archipelago is Madeira Island with about 50 km in east-west and 20 km in north-south direction. Its obstruction to the incoming oceanic and atmospheric flows induces leeward wake instabilities. This phenomena is observed using remote sensing and field data (Caldeira et al., 2002). We use the similar methodology to study Madeira island wakes problem as it was presented at Dong et al., 2007. The main difference between their study and ours is that they carried out experiences with an idealized cylindrical obstacle and we are using an island with its real shape at the surface and with vertical sides. The island was centered in a geostrophic channel like configuration with a prescribed surface intensified meridional (southward) inflow at the upstream boundary (i.e., our study is dedicated to the wakes, generated at the eastern and western part of Madeira Island). Eastern and Western channel boundaries were set to slippery-tangential and zero normal conditions, whereas boundaries around the island were set to zero-normal and no-slip flow. A clamped condition with a sponge layer was applied at the southern outflow boundary for outgoing current and density profile. The initial conditions for the entire domain were set equal to the upstream boundary

  20. Interannual variability of human plague occurrence in the Western United States explained by tropical and North Pacific Ocean climate variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ari, Tamara Ben; Gershunov, Alexander; Tristan, Rouyer; Cazelles, Bernard; Gage, Kenneth; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Plague is a vector-borne, highly virulent zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It persists in nature through transmission between its hosts (wild rodents) and vectors (fleas). During epizootics, the disease expands and spills over to other host species such as humans living in or close to affected areas. Here, we investigate the effect of large-scale climate variability on the dynamics of human plague in the western United States using a 56-year ti...

  1. Interpreting operational altimetry signals in near-coastal areas using underwater autonomous vehicles and remotely sensed ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Oddo, Paolo; Russo, Aniello; Coelho, Emanuel

    2017-04-01

    During the LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Mission for Environmental Characterization) sea trial carried out in the eastern Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), two oceanographic gliders rated to a maximum depth of 1000m were operating continuously from 3 May to 27 June 2016. When possible, glider tracks were synchronized with the footprints of contemporaneous altimeters (i.e., Jason 2, Altika and Cryosat 2). Temperature and salinity measured by the gliders along the tracks that were co-localized with the altimeter passages, were used to calculate along-track dynamic heights. The latter were then compared with near-real time absolute sea level CMEMS-TAPAS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service - Tailored Product for Data Assimilation) product. TAPAS provides along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) estimates together with all the terms used in the correction and the associated Mean Dynamic Topography. Where available, the CMEMS near-real time 1km resolution, Aqua-MODIS ocean colour data was also used as a tracer of the main oceanographic features of the region. Comparison between SLA derived from gliders and TAPAS along common transects, indicates that differences increase for larger sampling time lags between platforms and especially when time differences exceed 20 hrs. In fact, contemporaneous ocean color images reveal the presence of several mesoscale/sub-mesoscale structures (i.e., transient meanders and filaments), suggesting that the oceanographic variability of the region is likely the main cause for the differences observed between the glider and altimetry-based SLA. Results from this study provide additional evidence of the advantages on using a networked ocean observing system. In fact, the interpretation of in-situ observations obtained from a continuously operating sampling platform (also during ongoing experiments at sea) can be greatly improved when combined with other operational datasets, as the CMEMS SLA used here.

  2. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  3. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Koweek, D.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (Ω) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on Ω variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ΩAr value of 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.

  4. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  5. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  6. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  7. Interannual Variability of Human Plague Occurrence in the Western United States Explained by Tropical and North Pacific Ocean Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Tamara Ben; Gershunov, Alexander; Tristan, Rouyer; Cazelles, Bernard; Gage, Kenneth; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a vector-borne, highly virulent zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It persists in nature through transmission between its hosts (wild rodents) and vectors (fleas). During epizootics, the disease expands and spills over to other host species such as humans living in or close to affected areas. Here, we investigate the effect of large-scale climate variability on the dynamics of human plague in the western United States using a 56-year time series of plague reports (1950–2005). We found that El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation in combination affect the dynamics of human plague over the western United States. The underlying mechanism could involve changes in precipitation and temperatures that impact both hosts and vectors. It is suggested that snow also may play a key role, possibly through its effects on summer soil moisture, which is known to be instrumental for flea survival and development and sustained growth of vegetation for rodents. PMID:20810830

  8. Earth and ocean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  10. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

  11. Relationship of marine birds to oceanic fronts off the northeastern United States. Technical progress report, April-November 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K. D.; Backus, E. H.

    1981-11-01

    The role of fronts as determinants of pelagic distributions of zooplankton-feeding marine birds off the northeastern United States was investigated. Our analyses suggest that the shelf/slope and Cape Cod fronts are not convergent features, which accumulate biological or probably inorganic materials at the surface. Instead, our data support previous oceanographic studies, which implicate enhanced vertical mixing in the shelf-break region and along northern Georges Bank. This conclusion supports our original hypothesis that frontal regions are major determinants of the pelagic distributions of some species of marine birds (zooplankton-feeders), because these areas are apparently enriched with greater amounts of nutrients that cause enhanced phytoplankton and zooplankton production. Hence, birds select these areas with greater densities of preferred prey because foraging is more efficient.

  12. How well do state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation models reproduce atmospheric teleconnection patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörthe Handorf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to reproduce the low-frequency variability of the mid-tropospheric winter flow of the Northern Hemisphere in terms of atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Therefore, multi-model simulations for present-day conditions, performed for the 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, have been analysed and compared with re-analysis data sets. The spatial patterns of atmospheric teleconnections are reproduced reasonably by most of the models. The comparison of coupled with atmosphere-only runs confirmed that a better representation of the forcing by sea surface temperatures has the potential to slightly improve the representation of only wave train-like patterns. Due to internally generated climate variability, the models are not able to reproduce the observed temporal behaviour. Insights into the dynamical reasons for the limited skill of climate models in reproducing teleconnections have been obtained by studying the relation between major teleconnections and zonal wind variability patterns. About half of the models are able to reproduce the observed relationship. For these cases, the quality of simulated teleconnection patterns is largely determined by the quality of zonal wind variability patterns. Therefore, improvements of simulated eddy-mean flow interaction have the potential to improve the atmospheric teleconnections.

  13. Comparison of biogeochemical dynamics in two time-series sites of a North Atlantic Ocean site (PAP and BATS): a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibello, Valeria; Butenschon, Momme; Salihoglu, Baris; Erkan Kideys, Ahmet

    2013-04-01

    Plankton functional type (PFT) models are highly complex ecosystem models. Indeed, the large number of processes and plankton functional groups represented in these models make the network of interactions extremely complicated. Slight differences in parameterization or formulation of single processes, therefore, may drive these models to respond in a very different way to perturbations of the system. An evaluation of such a different responses can be very useful to understand the processes regulating the functioning of the ecosystem. In this study we analyze the sensitivity of the biological parameters in a PFT model (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, ERSEM) in respect to primary production and detrital export. The tests are done on a subset of key parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of ERSEM coupled with a turbulence model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM). Results are compared with observed data from two time-series sites Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series (BATS, 32.16 N 64.5 W) and Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP, 49 N 16 W). A particular focus on factors determining the timing and intensity of the bloom is also presented on the base of literature review and on 1D(GOTM-ERSEM)-3D(NEMO-ERSEM) model simulations comparison. The different processes evaluated are: i). winter convective mixing, ii) lateral advection: mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies, iii) turbolent mixing iv) decoupling between euphotic zone and mixed layer depth. The study presented here is carried out in the framework of the European project EURO-BASIN (European Basin-scale Analysis, Synthesis and Integration), where long term 3D simulation aimed to evaluate the variability of primary production and carbon export are planned. Parameterization in use by the 3D NEMO-ERSEM is referring to the global ocean, while simulations are planned for the North North Atlantic. This study aims to contribute to fulfill the development of a specific parameterization for the North

  14. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  15. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  16. Modelling ocean circulation in Deep-ocean aquaplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, A.

    2012-04-01

    Léger et al. (2004) and Küchner (2003) hypothesised that Ocean planets, Super-Earth planets with liquid-water oceans covering their whole surfaces may exist. Planets with liquid water surfaces could have ocean depths of 70-100 km with bottom pressures of 1-5 GPa. To date, no general circulation models have been run on such oceans, primarily because of a lack of equation of state for seawater at such depths. In this work a deep-water seawater Equation of State is implemented in the MITgcm ocean model. The EOS depends not only on the salinity and temperature but also on CO2 concentration. Several proposed ocean compositions, in particular magnesium and sodium sulphates salts ,H2O / ammonia mixes are investigated. While geothermal plumes in pure water systems will rise through an the whole ocean depths, saline-enriched plumes do not, due to differential thermal expansions for saline fluids leading to a loss of buoyancy (Melosh et al., 2004). Vance and Brown (2005) have shown that double-diffusive convection is expected to be a significant feature of such high-pressure oceans: depending on ocean composition, a double-diffusive layer will frustrate deep ocean convective processes and hence heat transfer. Convection happens separately in the warm, saline layers below and cooler, more dilute layer above. While this has been seen in isolated areas on Earth, such as the Red Sea, we explore the effects of heat and salin transfer through this layer on global circulation for deep ocean planet.

  17. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  18. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human......Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...

  19. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of mari...

  20. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  1. Ocean energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlier, R.H. (Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)); Justus, J.R. (The Library of Congress, CRS/SPRD, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  2. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology. FY93 and FY 94 Research Program in Navy Ocean Modeling and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    interaction between shallow and deep water eddies, intermediate and deep water formation, and air-sea-wave interaction. CAST used the DieCAST (Dietrich-Center...for Air Sea Technology) ocean model which evolved from the Sandia Ocean Modeling System. DieCAST is a hydrostatic, incompressible, rigid-lid...partially implicit, fully conservative model that uses an Arakawa "c" staggered grid. Recent tests on DieCAST showed remarkably similar results with validated

  3. Ocean bowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

  4. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service. (b) Every registrant who is a cadet, United States Military Academy; or midshipman, United States Naval Academy; or a cadet, United States Air Force Academy; or cadet, United States Coast Guard Academy...

  5. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  6. Validation of an ocean shelf model for the prediction of mixed-layer properties in the Mediterranean Sea west of Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) has been employed to explore the sensitivity of the forecast skill of mixed-layer properties to initial conditions, boundary conditions, and vertical mixing parameterisations. The initial and lateral boundary conditions were provided by the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) or by the MERCATOR global ocean circulation model via one-way nesting; the initial conditions were additionally updated through the assimilation of observations. Nowcasts and forecasts from the weather forecast models COSMO-ME and COSMO-IT, partly melded with observations, served as surface boundary conditions. The vertical mixing was parameterised by the GLS (generic length scale) scheme Umlauf and Burchard (2003) in four different set-ups. All ROMS forecasts were validated against the observations which were taken during the REP14-MED survey to the west of Sardinia. Nesting ROMS in MERCATOR and updating the initial conditions through data assimilation provided the best agreement of the predicted mixed-layer properties with the time series from a moored thermistor chain. Further improvement was obtained by the usage of COSMO-ME atmospheric forcing, which was melded with real observations, and by the application of the k-ω vertical mixing scheme with increased vertical eddy diffusivity. The predicted temporal variability of the mixed-layer temperature was reasonably well correlated with the observed variability, while the modelled variability of the mixed-layer depth exhibited only agreement with the observations near the diurnal frequency peak. For the forecasted horizontal variability, reasonable agreement was found with observations from a ScanFish section, but only for the mesoscale wave number band; the observed sub-mesoscale variability was not reproduced by ROMS.

  7. Learn about Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about ocean dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the Ocean Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.

  8. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  9. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. DeJong; R. B. Dunbar; D. A. Mucciarone; D. A. Koweek

    2015-01-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February–March 2013). We calculate the saturation stat...

  10. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, T.F.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Broecker, W.S.

    1998-05-17

    The authors have completed the studies using the inorganic carbon cycle in the zonally averaged ocean circulation model to calculate anthropogenic uptake of CO{sub 2} and bomb radiocarbon. While the results are in broad agreement with previous studies, the authors have learned that horizontal mixing processes due to gyre circulation are important for transient tracer experiments over a few decades. Using the inorganic carbon cycle model the authors have started to look at the distributions of {delta}{sup 13}C in the ocean. The model is able to reproduce faithfully the air-sea fractionation of {delta}{sup 13}C. The effect of changing sea surface temperature in the middle and low latitudes of the world ocean on {rho}CO{sub 2}{sup atm} is studied in this model and compared to the organic carbon cycle model of the Hamburg group. They find significant differences in sensitivity and are in the process of investigating possible reasons. Incorporation of the organic component is still ongoing. In the present version the surface concentrations of phosphate are still too high indicating strong upwelling.

  11. Ocean, Technology, Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCEANS, *LEGISLATION, USSR, NATURAL RESOURCES, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, PROTECTION, TRANSLATIONS, PRESERVATION, FISHERIES, REGULATIONS, POLLUTION, OCEAN BOTTOM, INTERNATIONAL LAW , WATERWAYS, CANALS, NORTH SEA, STRAITS, BALTIC SEA.

  12. Ocean Reanalyses in the Context of GODAE OceanView

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    analyses that combine observed and modelled fields to reconstruct the ocean state. As our observing systems, data assimilation, and modelling...be seen in a wide range of applications, including those providing scientific information for marine fisheries and protected species management

  13. Evaluation of the new Mercator Global Eddy-Resolving (1/12) Ocean Model: Mean State and Day-to-Day Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Bricaud, C.; Derval, C.; Drillet, Y.; Garric, G.; Le Galloudec, O.

    2010-12-01

    Mercator Ocean has developed for operational oceanography application a global ocean high-resolution model (1/12), coupled with a sea ice model, based on the NEMO3.2 OGCM (OPA9 for the ocean part and LIM2 for the ice one). An inter annual experiment, performed with this configuration and driven by atmospheric ECMWF analyses over the period 1999 to 2007, has already shown promising results in terms of major currents pathways and the levels of their eddy kinetic energy. We have developed a new 1/12 configuration including an updated bathymetry from ETOPO1 and GEBCO08, new parameterizations (light penetration depending on Chlorophyll climatology, tidal mixing in the Indonesian through flow, CORE bulk formulae for air/sea exchanges), and an upgrade of the sea ice model with the EVP rheology. A new experiment with all these changes is then performed over the period 1999-2009 and driven by the ERAinterim reanalysis. Also, in order to better capture high frequency variability, the atmospheric forcing is sampled to 3H conjointly with a diurnal cycle applied to the radiative atmospheric forcing. A new method of correction towards the satellite GEWEX dataset has been applied to reduce the warm bias present in the downwelling ERAinterim radiative fluxes. After a comparison between the previous and the new experiment, a validation with available datasets (in situ temperature and salinity, altimetry, sea surface temperature and sea ice satellite measurements) is presented. A particular focus is made on the impact of the diurnal cycle on the vertical mixing and mesoscale variability resolved by the new 1/12 configuration.

  14. Probabilistic aspects of ocean waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Background material for a special lecture on probabilistic aspects of ocean waves for a seminar in Trondheim. It describes long term statistics and short term statistics. Statistical distributions of waves, directional spectra and frequency spectra. Sea state parameters, response peaks, encounter

  15. Ocean Sciences and Remote Sensing Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: A 52,000 ft 2 state-of-the-art buildig designed to house NRL's Oceanography Division, part of the Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate....

  16. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    the state of art and the need for the establishment of compatible means of high quality data collection, and exchange of marine information related to the Indian Ocean area. Oceanographic data visualisation-cum-analysis based sustainable decision making...

  17. State Climatologist

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quarterly newsletter published by the American Association of State Climatologists. Library includes volumes 1 through 21, for the years 1977-1997.

  18. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  19. An Assessment of State-of-the-Art Mean Sea Surface and Geoid Models of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Sea Ice Freeboard Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinéad Louise; Hendricks, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    in a given model in the high frequency domain, primarily due to unresolved gravity features, can result in errors in the estimated along-track freeboard. These errors are exacerbated in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice pack conditions. Additionally model errors can impact ocean....../13/10) and a commonly used GGM (EGM2008). We describe errors due to unresolved gravity features, inter-satellite biases, and remaining satellite orbit errors, and their impact on the derivation of sea ice freeboard. The latest MSS models, incorporating CryoSat-2 sea surface height measurements, show improved definition...... of gravity features, such as the Gakkel Ridge. The standard deviation between models ranges 0.03-0.25 m. The impact of remaining MSS/GGM errors on freeboard retrieval can reach several decimeters in parts of the Arctic. While the maximum observed freeboard difference found in the central Arctic was 0.59 m...

  20. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  1. Biogeochemical Transformations in the History of the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M; Daines, Stuart J

    2017-01-03

    The ocean has undergone several profound biogeochemical transformations in its 4-billion-year history, and these were an integral part of the coevolution of life and the planet. This review focuses on changes in ocean redox state as controlled by changes in biological activity, nutrient concentrations, and atmospheric O2. Motivated by disparate interpretations of available geochemical data, we aim to show how quantitative modeling-spanning microbial mats, shelf seas, and the open ocean-can help constrain past ocean biogeochemical redox states and show what caused transformations between them. We outline key controls on ocean redox structure and review pertinent proxies and their interpretation. We then apply this quantitative framework to three key questions: How did the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis transform ocean biogeochemistry? How did the Great Oxidation transform ocean biogeochemistry? And how was ocean biogeochemistry transformed in the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic?

  2. O gênero Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta na plataforma continental e águas oceânicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genus Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luise Koening

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as espécies e distribuição do gênero Ceratium no Estado de Pernambuco. As amostras foram coletadas pelo navio de pesquisas Victor Hensen durante a prospecção do JOPS II-5 no período de 25/fevereiro a 3/março/1995. Foram analisados sete perfis perpendiculares à costa, de 50 milhas de distância cada, totalizando 34 estações, distantes 10 milhas umas das outras, sendo 14 estações na região nerítica e 20 na oceânica. As amostras foram coletadas com rede tipo bongo, com abertura de malha de 64 mm e fixadas com formol neutro a 4%. Foram identificadas 27 espécies, 24 variedades, quatro subespécies e três formas, totalizando 58 táxons. As espécies consideradas muito freqüentes foram C. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres e C. euarcuatum (79%, e Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73%, sendo esta última a única subespécie abundante na área. Cerca de 56% dos táxons ocorreu tanto na região nerítica como oceânica, mas a região oceânica apresentou maior riqueza de espécies por amostra analisada, sendo 42% dos táxons encontrados nesta região.This work presents the species and the distribution of the Ceratium Schrank (Pyrrophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State. Sampling were performed aboard the Research Vessel Victor Hensen, during the JOPS II Project, Leg 5, from February 25 to March 3, 1995. Collections were carried out in 34 stations, distributed in 7 profiles perpendicular to the coast, with 14 stations located at the neritic region and 20 at the oceanic one. Samples were collected with a bongo net, 64 mm and fixed with 4% neutralized formaldehyde. Fifty eight specific and underspecific taxa were identified, outranking as the most frequentC. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres, C. euarcuatum (79%, and Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73% the last one being the only abundant subspecies. 56% of the taxa

  3. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  4. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  5. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  6. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  7. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  8. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  9. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  10. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  11. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru29 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-23 to 2016-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0154378)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Third leg of the ru29 Challenger mission from Brazil to South Africa. The Challenger Mission is a re-creation of the first global scientific ocean survey conducted...

  13. Ocean, Spreading Centre

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    the lithospheric plates on either side in order to accommodate newly accreted crust. Many of the oceanic ridges in the world oceans have been abandoned in the geologic past and led to resume the activity elsewhere either in the intra-oceanic or intracontinental...

  14. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  15. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  16. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  17. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002 the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network, funded by the National Science Foundation with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has worked to increase the understanding of the ocean and its relevance to society. The Network is currently comprised of twelve Centers located throughout the United States and a Central Coordinating Office. COSEE focuses on innovative activities that transform and broaden participation in the ocean science education enterprise. A key player in the national ocean literacy movement, COSEE’s objectives are to develop partnerships between ocean scientists and educators and foster communication and coordination among ocean science education programs nationwide. COSEE has grown into the nation's most comprehensive ocean science and education network with over 200 partners, including universities and research institutions, community colleges, school districts, informal science education institutions, and state/federal agencies. Each Center is a consortium of one or more ocean science research institutions, informal science education organizations, and formal education entities. The mission of the National COSEE Network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. Center activities include the development of catalytic partnerships among diverse institutions, the integration of ocean science research into high-quality educational materials, and the establishment of pathways that enable ocean scientists to interact with educators, students, and the public. In addition to the work and projects implemented locally and regionally by the Centers, Network-level efforts occur across Centers, such as the national promotion of Ocean Literacy Principals and encouragement of our nation’s youth to pursue ocean related areers. This presentation will offer several examples of how the National COSEE Network is playing an important and evolving role in

  18. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  19. Inter comparison of Tropical Indian Ocean features in different ocean reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Ananya; Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study makes an inter comparison of ocean state of the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in different ocean reanalyses such as global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS), ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA), ocean reanalysis system 4 (ORAS4) and simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) with reference to the in-situ buoy observations, satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST), EN4 analysis and ocean surface current analysis real time (OSCAR). Analysis of mean state of SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals that ORAS4 is better comparable with satellite observations as well as EN4 analysis, and is followed by SODA, ECDA and GODAS. The surface circulation in ORAS4 is closer to OSCAR compared to the other reanalyses. However mixed layer depth (MLD) is better simulated by SODA, followed by ECDA, ORAS4 and GODAS. Seasonal evolution of error indicates that the highest deviation in SST and MLD over the TIO exists during spring and summer in GODAS. Statistical analysis with concurrent data of EN4 for the period of 1980-2010 supports that the difference and standard deviation (variability strength) ratio for SSS and MLD is mostly greater than one. In general the strength of variability is overestimated by all the reanalyses. Further comparison with in-situ buoy observations supports that MLD errors over the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) and the Bay of Bengal are higher than with EN4 analysis. Overall ORAS4 displays higher correlation and lower error among all reanalyses with respect to both EN4 analysis and buoy observations. Major issues in the reanalyses are the underestimation of upper ocean stability in the TIO, underestimation of surface current in the EIO, overestimation of vertical shear of current and improper variability in different oceanic variables. To improve the skill of reanalyses over the TIO, salinity vertical structure and upper ocean circulation need to be better represented in reanalyses.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report. [OSAP-1 code; OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Arthur

    1978-12-04

    The following appendices are included: highlights of direction and correspondence; user manual for OTEC Steady-State Analysis Program (OSAP-1); sample results of OSAP-1; surface condenser installations; double-clad systems; aluminum alloy seawater piping; references searched for ammonia evaluation; references on stress-corrosion for ammonia; references on anhydrous ammonia storage; references on miscellaneous ammonia items; OTEC materials testing; test reports; OTEC technical specification chlorination system; OTEC technical specification AMERTAP system; OTEC optimization program users guide; concrete hull construction; weight and stability estimates; packing factor data; machinery and equipment list; letter from HPTI on titanium tubes; tables on Wolverine Korodense tubes; evaporator and condenser enhancement tables; code weld titanium tube price, weight tables Alcoa tubing tables; Union Carbide tubing pricing tables; turbotec tubing pricing tables; Wolverine tubing pricing tables; Union Carbide tubing characteristics and pricing; working fluids and turbines for OTEC power system; and hydrodynamic design of prototype OTEC cold and warm seawater pumps. (WHK)

  1. Seasonal variation of CaCO3 saturation state in bottom water of a biological hotspot in the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamamoto-Kawai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω was observed in the Chukchi Sea in autumn 2012 and early summer 2013. Ω in bottom water ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 for aragonite and from 0.5 to 3.2 for calcite in 2012. In 2013, Ω in bottom water was 1.1–2.8 for aragonite and 1.7–4.4 for calcite. Aragonite and calcite undersaturation was found in high productivity regions in autumn 2012 but not in early summer 2013. Comparison with other parameters has indicated that biological processes – respiration and photosynthesis – are major factors controlling the regional and temporal variability of Ω. From these ship-based observations, we have obtained empirical equations to reconstruct Ω from temperature, salinity and apparent oxygen utilization. Using 2-year-round mooring data and these equations, we have reconstructed seasonal variation of Ω in bottom water in Hope Valley, a biological hotspot in the southern Chukchi Sea. Estimated Ω was high in spring and early summer, decreased in later summer, and remained relatively low in winter. Calculations indicated a possibility that bottom water could have been undersaturated for aragonite on an intermittent basis even in the pre-industrial period, and that anthropogenic CO2 has extended the period of aragonite undersaturation to more than 2-fold longer by now.

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  3. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  4. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  5. Slowing Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Currently our ocean's pH is 8.1, a decrease from 8.2 in the past 200 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The ocean absorbs about a third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, which is helpful to us, since reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere shows global warming. However, what is the impact of all that CO2 on the ocean? I evaluated the effect of acidic water on bivalves, and found that the shells were broken down with exposure to increased acidity. I am concerned that continued ocean acidification will impact organisms that are unable to adapt to the changing ocean chemistry. While the US currently invests in alternative forms of energy including solar and wind, approximately 66% of our energy comes from sources that are releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. I want to explore the potential of wave energy as another form of renewable energy. When wind blows over the surface of the ocean, it creates a wave. Could this wave energy be a consistent clean energy source? Could a strategy to slow and reverse ocean acidification be found in the ocean?

  6. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  7. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  8. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  9. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  10. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  11. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  12. Chaos in Ocean Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGilchrist, G. A.; Marshall, D. P.; Johnson, H. L.; Lique, C.; Thomas, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation of the subtropical ocean is important for setting the ocean stratification, the oceanic cycling of biogeochemical elements and the storage of carbon dioxide and heat on inter-annual to decadal timescales. In the textbook view, subtropical ocean ventilation is achieved through advection by the time-mean gyre circulation, with fluid parcels moving along sloping density surfaces into the ocean interior. At the same time, it is well accepted that the ocean circulation is highly nonlinear, with the kinetic energy budget dominated by mesoscale eddies. Consequently, ventilated fluid parcels, rather than remaining coherent as they move into the ocean interior, will be rapidly strained and stirred into surrounding water. To investigate the role of this nonlinear circulation in the ventilation process, we calculate a non-dimensional `filamentation number' - the ratio of the Lagrangian ventilation timescale and the timescale of strain by the nonlinear flow - across two density surfaces in the subtropical North Atlantic in an ocean circulation model. This number predicts the filament width of a ventilated fluid parcel, and is found to be large across both density surfaces (indicating small filament width), particularly on the deeper surface. A Lagrangian mapping from distributions of particles to the year in which they were ventilated is thus shown to be highly chaotic, with particles located side-by-side having been ventilated decades apart, even where the density surface is close to the ocean surface. This novel Lagrangian approach avoids the loss of information through diffusion, and emphasises the importance of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of the subtropical ocean.

  13. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland...

  14. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  15. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1414: VENICE INLET - ICW, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  16. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1406: OLYMPIA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  17. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1421: ST JOHNS RIVER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  18. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project OR1210: CAPE PERPETUA TO CLATSOP SPIT, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  19. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project OR1201; LANE, DOUGLAS AND COOS COUNTIES, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  20. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1405: STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  1. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project NY1405: ERIE CANAL, NY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  2. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  3. Ocean energy resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregman, R.; Knapp, R.H.; Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth`s surface and represent a potentially large source of renewable energy. While many industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy resource systems, with the exception of a French tidal power plant, is less that 100 megawatts. A number of ocean energy conversion technologies are approaching an acceptable stage of development for commercial utilization. Factors important to the design and development of such systems-including wave, tide and thermal gradient sources are discussed.

  4. Environmental toxicology data collected by the NOAA, National Ocean Service, National Centers For Coastal Ocean Science, National Status and Trends Program for monitoring contaminants in coastal United States marine water bodies from 01 Jan 1960 to 05 May 2010 (NODC Accession 0074376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends Program is comprised of three nationwide programs: Benthic Surveillance, Mussel Watch, and Bioeffects. These programs are in place to...

  5. United States Navy Oceanic Armed Reconnaissance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    started to make a name for itself in recent Naval missions. Just recently, during the 2011 Lybian Civil War, a MQ-RB Fire Scout was used in targeting...9, 2011. http://www.imo.org/About/Pages/FAQs.aspx. “Helicopter lost over Libya is new US drone: officials” Derechos , accessed on October 10

  6. Coastal ocean circulation during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Glenn, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Hurricane Sandy (2012) was the second costliest tropical cyclone to impact the United States and resulted in numerous lives lost due to its high winds and catastrophic storm surges. Despite its impacts little research has been performed on the circulation on the continental shelf as Sandy made landfall. In this study, integrated ocean observing assets and regional ocean modeling were used to investigate the coastal ocean response to Sandy's large wind field. Sandy's unique cross-shelf storm track, large size, and slow speed resulted in along-shelf wind stress over the coastal ocean for nearly 48 h before the eye made landfall in southern New Jersey. Over the first inertial period (˜18 h), this along-shelf wind stress drove onshore flow in the surface of the stratified continental shelf and initiated a two-layer downwelling circulation. During the remaining storm forcing period a bottom Ekman layer developed and the bottom Cold Pool was rapidly advected offshore ˜70 km. This offshore advection removed the bottom Cold Pool from the majority of the shallow continental shelf and limited ahead-of-eye-center sea surface temperature (SST) cooling, which has been observed in previous storms on the MAB such as Hurricane Irene (2011). This cross-shelf advective process has not been observed previously on continental shelves during tropical cyclones and highlights the need for combined ocean observing systems and regional modeling in order to further understand the range of coastal ocean responses to tropical cyclones.

  7. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugate, Grover J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In 2010, the University of Rhode Island (URI) secured $2,000,000 from the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) to support research studies for the identification of preferred sites for offshore renewable energy development in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. This research will provide the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) with sound technical information to assist in the siting of wind turbines in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. CRMC is the state agency with jurisdiction over development, preservation and restoration of Rhode Island’s coasts out to the three-mile limit, and is the state’s authority for federal consistency. With technical support from URI, CRMC is currently leading the implementation of the Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP) with the purpose of developing policies and standards to guide the development of offshore renewable energy. The justification behind renewable energy development in Rhode Island includes diversifying the energy sources supplying electricity consumed in the state, stabilizing long-term energy prices, enhancing environmental quality – including the reduction of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions – reducing the state’s reliance on fossil fuels, and creating jobs in Rhode Island in the renewable energy sector.

  8. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 246 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  9. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  10. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  11. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  12. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru24 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-26 to 2015-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0145659)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to take hourly dives to 100m to measure the photo-physiological response of a phytoplankton population over Palmer Deep. The...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru05 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-05 to 2015-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0137962)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Glider deployed to perform cross canyon transects of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This multi-platform field study will...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru05 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Oceans from 2015-02-01 to 2015-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0145657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Glider deployed to perform cross canyon transects of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This multi-platform field study will...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru05 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-15 to 2015-02-01 (NCEI Accession 0137963)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Glider deployed to perform cross canyon transects of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This multi-platform field study will...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru24 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2013-01-22 to 2013-01-30 (NCEI Accession 0137969)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program in Antarctica is a long term study focused on understanding how the marine system regulates the ecology of the West...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru01 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2014-02-17 to 2014-02-25 (NCEI Accession 0138012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program in Antarctica is a long term study focused on understanding how the marine system regulates the ecology of the West...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru24 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-05 to 2015-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0137970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to do act as a drifter, but taking hourly dives to 100m to measure the phyto-physiological response of a phytoplankton...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru01 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2014-01-23 to 2014-01-30 (NCEI Accession 0138011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program in Antarctica is a long term study focused on understanding how the marine system regulates the ecology of the West...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru05 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2016-02-02 to 2016-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0145658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to take cross sections of temperature and salinity in the continental shelf near Palmer Station. The Long Term Ecological...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru01 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2014-01-20 to 2014-01-21 (NCEI Accession 0138010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program in Antarctica is a long term study focused on understanding how the marine system regulates the ecology of the West...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru26d deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2014-12-25 to 2015-01-28 (NCEI Accession 0137971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to take cross sections of temperature and salinity in the continental shelf near Palmer Station. The Long Term Ecological...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru26d deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2016-02-01 to 2016-03-07 (NCEI Accession 0153547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to take cross sections of temperature and salinity in the continental shelf near Palmer Station. The Long Term Ecological...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ru01 deployed by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in the Southern Ocean from 2014-01-04 to 2014-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0138009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program in Antarctica is a long term study focused on understanding how the marine system regulates the ecology of the West...

  6. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  7. CMO Site: Ocean Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    scheduling and planning. A host of scientists need reliable ocean and atmosphere data covering various periods of time. Ocean behavior and conditions...as jellyfish ROV using a custom sediment sam- Senior Systems Engineer and larvacean houses, has been pling system. Although designed for a R. Chris...the same position every mammal, including humans, instinctively adopts in water (no one tries to sit under water but swims head forward, face down, etc

  8. Microplast in the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Jedal, Jonathan Yngve Bech; Lynderup, Martine Pedersen; Nielsen, Lykke Bebbie; Paul, Maj Wilborg

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the complex problems followed by the presence of microplastic in ocean, and its negative effects on the marine environment. This is specified in the following problem: Which problems do the presence of microplast, and the toxins present in the ocean, provide for the marine environment? An increased amount of microplastic from both primary and secondary sources disrupts the marine environment. Due to its amorphous structure, plastic is able to release toxic monomers and a...

  9. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  10. Honolulu, Oceanic Urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Jonathan "TookHNLA"; Labrador, Roderick N.

    2014-01-01

    The city of Honolulu is usually figured as Waikīkī, a global tourist playground often imaged/imagined as a tropical paradise with swaying palm trees and white, sandy beaches. Honolulu is also an urban center, surrounded and constituted by water, thus exhibiting an oceanic urbanism. This photo essay by photojournalist Jonathan Evangelista and anthropologist/Ethnic Studies scholar Roderick Labrador explores what this oceanic urbanism can mean by visually representing contemporary legacies of th...

  11. Coordinate Ocean Models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shailendra Rail, A. P. Mishra1 and A. C. Pandeyl'z'3. 1K. Banerjee Centre afAtrnospheric and Ocean ... Ocean region, and for the region south of 45°S high quality data is still unavailable. Unlike the tropics, .... simulated by POM with spatial resolution of 1" X 10 (arrow length of 0.5 cm represents current speed of 40cm/sec) ...

  12. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  13. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  14. BCube Ocean Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schofield, Oscar; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To address complex Earth system issues such as climate change and water resources, geoscientists must work across disciplinary boundaries; this requires them to access data outside of their fields. Scientists are being called upon to find, access, and use diverse and voluminous data types that are described with semantics. Within the framework of the NSF EarthCube programme, the BCube project (A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience) is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. BCube develops science scenarios as key elements in providing an environment for demonstrating capabilities, benefits, and challenges of the developed e-infrastructure. The initial focus is on hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with the intent to make the technology applicable and available to all the geosciences. This presentation focuses on the BCube ocean scenario. The purpose of this scenario is to increase the understanding of the ocean dynamics through incorporation of a wide range of in-situ and satellite data into ocean models using net primary productivity as the initial variable. The science scenario aims to identify spatial and temporal domains in ocean models, and key ecological variables. Field data sets and remote observations data sets from distributed and heterogeneous systems are accessed through the broker and will be incorporated into the models. In this work we will present the achievements in the development of the BCube ocean scenario.

  15. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  16. Monitoring and assessment of ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean-A scoping paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Feely, Richard; Fabry, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the ocean surface by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats. The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  17. The Role of Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal in Supporting Ocean Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Lathrop

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO was established in 2009 to enhance the vitality of the region's ocean ecosystem and economy. One of MARCO's first action items was the development of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal to serve as an on-line platform to engage stakeholders across the region with the objective of improving their understanding of how ocean resources and places are being used, managed, and conserved. A key component is the Marine Planner, an interactive map-based visualization and decision support tool. These types of on-line tools are becoming increasingly popular means of putting essential data and state-of-the-art visualization technology into the hands of the agencies, industry, community leaders, and stakeholders engaged in ocean planning. However, to be effective, the underlying geospatial data has to be seen as objective, comprehensive, up-to-date and regionally consistent. To meet this challenge, the portal utilizes a distributed network of web map services from credible and authoritative sources. Website analytics and feedback received during the review and comment period of the 2016 release of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Action Plan confirm that the Data Portal is viewed as integral to this ocean planning process by the MidAtlantic Regional Planning Body and key stakeholders. While not all stakeholders may agree with specific planning decisions, there is broad based agreement on the need for better data and making access to that data widely available.

  18. Review and status of sonic boom penetration into the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1970 Sonic Boom Symposium, held at the ASA's 80th meeting in Houston, TX, substantial progress has been made in understanding the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean. The state of the art at that time was documented by J. C. Cook, T. Goforth, and R. K. Cook [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 729-741 (1972)]. Since then, additional experiments have been performed which corroborate Cook's and Sawyers' theory for sonic boom penetration into a flat ocean surface. In addition, computational simulations have validated that theory and extended the work to include arbitrarily shaped waveforms penetrating flat ocean surfaces. Further numerical studies have investigated realistic ocean surfaces including large-scale ocean swell. Research has also been performed on the effects of ocean inhomogeneities due to bubble plumes. This paper provides a brief overview of these developments.

  19. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Slomp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  20. Introduction: The ocean's meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Chiang, John C. H.; Hemming, Sidney R.

    The meridional overturning circulation is a system of surface and deep currents encompassing all ocean basins. It transports large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients and other substances around the globe, and connects the surface ocean and atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea. As such, it is of critical importance to the global climate system. This monograph summarizes the current state of knowledge of this current system, how it has changed in the past and how it may change in the future, its driving mechanisms, and the impacts of its variability on climate, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Advancing the First World Ocean Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpak, Elizabeth; Halpern, David

    2013-04-01

    World Ocean Assessment (WOA) regional workshops enlist expertise for the WOA Pool of Experts, update regional knowledge on the marine environment, and build capacity to conduct assessments and benefit from assessments. WOA was described in Eos (93(50), 521, doi:10.1029/2012EO500001). For the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) Workshop, the United States Mission to the United Nations (UN) invited all UN missions, in accordance with WOA guidelines. The WCR workshop attracted 94 people from 32 countries with a wide range of expertise, including ocean, fishery, and biodiversity sciences; living and nonliving resource management; and capacity building. Attendees represented academia, governments, industry, and nongovernmental organizations.

  2. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  3. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  5. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  6. Near coastal ocean attributes of salmon - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  7. 1984 Ocean Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendees at the 1984 Ocean Sciences Meeting found New Orleans to be a very hospitable, convenient, and delightful city to hold a conference, and the Fairmont Hotel to be an excellent meeting facility. There were 1100 attendees with a little over 700 papers presented. Changes to the program and additional, late, and revised abstracts are printed below.

  8. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  9. What's in the Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, James R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of sea water, including: (1) the properties of sea water, (2) the law of relative proportions, (3) the ocean as a buffer, (4) the oxygen in sea water, and (5) the promise of chemical harvest from sea water. (CS)

  10. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  11. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  12. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  13. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    Society of America 125 (4), 1394-1402 (2008). 2 J.W. Goodman , Introduction to Fourier Optics . (Roberts & Company, 2005). 3 George L Pickard and William...3 1. Introduction ...Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-063015 Technical Progress Report 1. Introduction The goal of this research is to increase our understanding

  14. Chemoautotrophy in the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic matter recycling releases ammonium, and under anoxic conditions, other reduced metabolites that can be used by chemoautotrophs to fix inorganic carbon. Here I present an estimate for the global rate of oceanic carbon fixation by chemoautotrophs (0.77 Pg C y−1). Near-shore and shelf sediments

  15. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  16. Informatics for multi-disciplinary ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Delory, Eric; Pissierssens, Peter; Raymond, Lisa; Simpson, Pauline; Waldmann, Christoph; Williams 3rd, Albert; Yoder, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions at the time and space scales that are relevant to our state of the art research needs. This presentation will address three areas of the informatics of the end-to-end process: sensors and information extraction in the sensing environment; using diverse data for understanding selected ocean processes; and supporting open data initiatives. A National Science Foundation funded Ocean Observations Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing these areas from the perspective of improving interdisciplinary research. The work includes an assessment of Open Data Access with a paper in preparation. Interoperability and sensors is a new activity that couples with European projects, COOPEUS and NeXOS, in looking at sensors and related information systems for a new generation of measurement capability. A working group on synergies of in-situ and satellite remote sensing is analyzing approaches for more effective use of these measurements. This presentation will examine the steps forward for data exchange and for addressing gaps in communication and informatics.

  17. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  18. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  19. State Climatology Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Substation history publications by state. Includes station metadata such as station name and location changes, observer names and changes, alternate station names....

  20. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  1. General Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    General permits are issued by EPA for the ocean dumping of certain materials that will have a minimal adverse environmental impact and are generally disposed of in small quantities. Information includes examples and ocean disposal sites for general permits

  2. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  3. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  4. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  5. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  7. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  8. Ocean Observatories and the Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS: Developing the Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalo, M. G.

    2006-05-01

    The National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations is responsible for the planning, coordination and development of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS, which is both the U.S. contribution to GOOS as well as the ocean component of GEOSS. The IOOS is comprised of global observations as well as regional coastal observations coordinated so as to provide environmental information to optimize societal management decisions including disaster resilience, public health, marine transport, national security, climate and weather impact, and natural resource and ecosystem management. Data comes from distributed sensor systems comprising Federal and state monitoring efforts as well as regional enhancements, which are managed through data management and communications (DMAC) protocols. At present, 11 regional associations oversee the development of the observing System components in their region and are the primary interface with the user community. The ocean observatories are key elements of this National architecture and provide the infrastructure necessary to test new technologies, platforms, methods, models, and practices which, when validated, can transition into the operational components of the IOOS. This allows the IOOS to remain "state of the art" through incorporation of research at all phases. Both the observatories as well as the IOOS will contribute to the enhanced understanding of the ocean and coastal system so as to transform science results into societal solutions.

  9. Interaction of marine geodesy, satellite technology and ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Fubara, D. M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The possible applications of satellite technology in marine geodesy and geodetic related ocean physics were investigated. Four major problems were identified in the areas of geodesy and ocean physics: (1) geodetic positioning and control establishment; (2) sea surface topography and geoid determination; (3) geodetic applications to ocean physics; and (4) ground truth establishment. It was found that satellite technology can play a major role in their solution. For solution of the first problem, the use of satellite geodetic techniques, such as Doppler and C-band radar ranging, is demonstrated to fix the three-dimensional coordinates of marine geodetic control if multi-satellite passes are used. The second problem is shown to require the use of satellite altimetry, along with accurate knowledge of ocean-dynamics parameters such as sea state, ocean tides, and mean sea level. The use of both conventional and advanced satellite techniques appeared to be necessary to solve the third and fourth problems.

  10. Integrating biogeochemistry and ecology into ocean data assimilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasseur, Pierre; Gruber, Nicolas; Barciela, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and predicting the biogeochemical state of the ocean and marine ecosystems is an important application of operational oceanography that needs to be expanded. The accurate depiction of the ocean's physical environment enabled by Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) systems......, in both real-time and reanalysis modes, is already valuable for various for various applications, such as the fishing industry and fisheries management. However, most of these applications require accurate estimates of both physical and biogeochemical ocean conditions over a wide range of spatial...... that are not yet considered essential, such as upper-ocean vertical fluxes that are critically important to biological activity. Further, the observing systems will need to be expanded in terms of in situ platforms (with intensified deployments of sensors for O-2 and chlorophyll, and inclusion of new sensors...

  11. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  12. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  13. World Ocean Database 2013 (NCEI Accession 0117075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the World’s largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  14. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  15. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  16. A Comparison of Several Coastal Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-31

    pers. comm.). David Dietrich of Mississippi State University has developed a free surface version of his DieCAST model (Dietrich and Mehra 1998). The...original version of DieCAST , which uses a rigid lid, is able to form and maintain mesoscale circulation features and fronts with relatively low...Dietrich, D. E., D. S. Ko, and L. A. Yeske, "On the Application and Evaluation of the Relocatable DieCAST Ocean Circulation Model in Coastal and

  17. Postglacial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    uopics and the Vlgorous exchange between rhe Indian and Atlantic oceans at the end of Dasr flvc elacial Deriods. hrature 430. 661-665. continent. summer is characterized high Ruhlemann, C., Guller, P. i, and ichnelder, R. R. (199$). Organic solar... is characterized by tow solar radiation, cold temperature, and northeasterly winds, which flow from the cold Asian continent toward the Arabian Sea. These continental winter monsoon winds carry little moisture and have Rum 1 Atm-ric dilation Wing thg summer...

  18. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 7/1/15 to 12/22/16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deep Water Ocean Acoustics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...shortening of the water column); 2.) Explicitly defined the geo-acoustics so that both models had the same sponge ; 3.) Output the complete computational...chosen because this VLA was spaced at /2 at 250Hz and is therefore beamforming capable, covering the conjugate depth. An ambient noise model was

  19. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    for including this in acoustic models . Experimental analysis is combined with model development to isolate specific physics and improve our...under- ice scattering, bathymetric diffraction and the application of the ocean acoustic Parabolic Equation to infrasound. 2. Tasks a. Task 1: Basin...of Japan received at the CTBTO HA03 station in Juan Fernandez Chile , are a treasure trove of long-range low frequency acoustic propagation. In

  20. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  1. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  2. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  3. Biogeochemical modelling of dissolved oxygen in a changing ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Oliver; Buitenhuis, Erik; Le Quéré, Corinne; Suntharalingam, Parvadha

    2017-09-13

    Secular decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration have been observed within the tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and at mid- to high latitudes over the last approximately 50 years. Earth system model projections indicate that a reduction in the oxygen inventory of the global ocean, termed ocean deoxygenation, is a likely consequence of on-going anthropogenic warming. Current models are, however, unable to consistently reproduce the observed trends and variability of recent decades, particularly within the established tropical OMZs. Here, we conduct a series of targeted hindcast model simulations using a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemistry model in order to explore and review biases in model distributions of oceanic oxygen. We show that the largest magnitude of uncertainty is entrained into ocean oxygen response patterns due to model parametrization of p CO 2 -sensitive C : N ratios in carbon fixation and imposed atmospheric forcing data. Inclusion of a p CO 2 -sensitive C : N ratio drives historical oxygen depletion within the ocean interior due to increased organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization. Atmospheric forcing is shown to influence simulated interannual variability in ocean oxygen, particularly due to differences in imposed variability of wind stress and heat fluxes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Biogeochemical modelling of dissolved oxygen in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Oliver; Buitenhuis, Erik; Le Quéré, Corinne; Suntharalingam, Parvadha

    2017-08-01

    Secular decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration have been observed within the tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and at mid- to high latitudes over the last approximately 50 years. Earth system model projections indicate that a reduction in the oxygen inventory of the global ocean, termed ocean deoxygenation, is a likely consequence of on-going anthropogenic warming. Current models are, however, unable to consistently reproduce the observed trends and variability of recent decades, particularly within the established tropical OMZs. Here, we conduct a series of targeted hindcast model simulations using a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemistry model in order to explore and review biases in model distributions of oceanic oxygen. We show that the largest magnitude of uncertainty is entrained into ocean oxygen response patterns due to model parametrization of pCO2-sensitive C : N ratios in carbon fixation and imposed atmospheric forcing data. Inclusion of a pCO2-sensitive C : N ratio drives historical oxygen depletion within the ocean interior due to increased organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization. Atmospheric forcing is shown to influence simulated interannual variability in ocean oxygen, particularly due to differences in imposed variability of wind stress and heat fluxes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  5. An ensemble of eddy-permitting global ocean reanalyses from the MyOcean project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Ferry, Nicolas; Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Zuo, Hao; Drevillon, Marie; Parent, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    A set of four eddy-permitting global ocean reanalyses produced in the framework of the MyOcean project have been compared over the altimetry period 1993-2011. The main differences among the reanalyses used here come from the data assimilation scheme implemented to control the ocean state by inserting reprocessed observations of sea surface temperature (SST), in situ temperature and salinity profiles, sea level anomaly and sea-ice concentration. A first objective of this work includes assessing the interannual variability and trends for a series of parameters, usually considered in the community as essential ocean variables: SST, sea surface salinity, temperature and salinity averaged over meaningful layers of the water column, sea level, transports across pre-defined sections, and sea ice parameters. The eddy-permitting nature of the global reanalyses allows also to estimate eddy kinetic energy. The results show that in general there is a good consistency between the different reanalyses. An intercomparison against experiments without data assimilation was done during the MyOcean project and we conclude that data assimilation is crucial for correctly simulating some quantities such as regional trends of sea level as well as the eddy kinetic energy. A second objective is to show that the ensemble mean of reanalyses can be evaluated as one single system regarding its reliability in reproducing the climate signals, where both variability and uncertainties are assessed through the ensemble spread and signal-to-noise ratio. The main advantage of having access to several reanalyses differing in the way data assimilation is performed is that it becomes possible to assess part of the total uncertainty. Given the fact that we use very similar ocean models and atmospheric forcing, we can conclude that the spread of the ensemble of reanalyses is mainly representative of our ability to gauge uncertainty in the assimilation methods. This uncertainty changes a lot from one ocean

  6. Ocean Sciences meets Big Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, B. L.; Choi, I.; Hartman, J.

    2016-02-01

    Hundreds of researchers worldwide have joined forces in the Tara Oceans Expedition to create an unprecedented planetary-scale dataset comprised of state-of-the-art next generation sequencing, microscopy, and physical/chemical metadata to explore ocean biodiversity. This summer the complete collection of data from the 2009-2013 Tara voyage was released. Yet, despite herculean efforts by the Tara Oceans Consortium to make raw data and computationally derived assemblies and gene catalogs available, most researchers are stymied by the sheer volume of the data. Specifically, the most tantalizing research questions lie in understanding the unifying principles that guide the distribution of organisms across the sea and affect climate and ecosystem function. To use the data in this capacity researchers must download, integrate, and analyze more than 7.2 trillion bases of metagenomic data and associated metadata from viruses, bacteria, archaea and small eukaryotes at their own data centers ( 9 TB of raw data). Accessing large-scale data sets in this way impedes scientists' from replicating and building on prior work. To this end, we are developing a data platform called the Ocean Cloud Commons (OCC) as part of the iMicrobe project. The OCC is built using an algorithm we developed to pre-compute massive comparative metagenomic analyses in a Hadoop big data framework. By maintaining data in a cloud commons researchers have access to scalable computation and real-time analytics to promote the integrated and broad use of planetary-scale datasets, such as Tara.

  7. Validation of High Resolution IMERG Satellite Precipitation over the Global Oceans using OceanRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Klepp, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter of the essential climate variables in the Earth System that is a key variable in the global water cycle. Observations of precipitation over oceans is relatively sparse. Satellite observations over oceans is the only viable means of measuring the spatially distribution of precipitation. In an effort to improve global precipitation observations, the research community has developed a state of the art precipitation dataset as part of the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) program. The satellite gridded product that has been developed is called Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), which has a maximum spatial resolution of 0.1° x 0.1° and temporal 30 minute. Even with the advancements in retrievals, there is a need to quantify uncertainty of IMERG especially over oceans. To address this need, the OceanRAIN dataset has been used to create a comprehensive database to compare IMERG products. The OceanRAIN dataset was collected using an ODM-470 optical disdrometer that has been deployed on 12 research vessels worldwide with 6 long-term installations operating in all climatic regions, seasons and ocean basins. More than 5.5 million data samples have been collected on the OceanRAIN program. These data were matched to IMERG grids for the study period of 15 March 2014-31 January 2016. This evaluation produced over a 1000 matched pairs with precipitation observed at the surface. These matched pairs were used to evaluate the performance of IMERG for different latitudinal bands and precipitation regimes. The presentation will provide an overview of the study and summary of evaluation results.

  8. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from ...

  9. Bibliography of Research on Ocean Fronts, 1964-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Ocean Research and Development Activity 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL (it applicable) 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 8c. ADDRESS (City, State...OFFICE SYMBOL Code 333 DD FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF 1 JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE // Naval Ocean...interpretation des resultats par un modele mathematique . Soc. R. Sci. Liege Mem. 2: 27-41. 10 Cavanie, A. 1972. On the propagation and the evolution of

  10. Library holdings for Continental Slope Coral Banks of the Southeastern United States: Exploring the Distribution, Ecology, and Biology of Deep Coral Habitats and Associated Fauna on the R/V Seward Johnson in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida between October 16, 2005 and November 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  11. Is Ocean Heat Storage Presently Knowable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    upwelling mainly consists of water riding the "elevator" driven by polar sinking, 2000 meters being mostly below vertical circulations such as coastal upwelling. A complication is that both deep upwelling and downwelling is thought to take place in Antarctica. We may be able to quantify the heat flow through 2000 meters as the combined effect of upward mass transfer of cold water less a smaller, and fairly constant, downward flow of heat due to mixing. If the deep ocean is in a steady state there are 3 components to the heat flow: sinking water near 0 degrees, rising water at 2000 meters near 2 degrees, and the (nearly constant) slow downward, mixing-driven heat flow. If this works (i.e.is not fatally oversimplified), then variation of heat flow into or out of the deep ocean is mainly due the 2 degree difference, between sinking water, and rising water at 2000 meters, times the heat capacity of the rising or sinking mass of water. If the sinking circulation is 30 Sv the heat flow proportional to the circulation amounts to about 1/2 watt over the Earth's surface. If the ocean is warming in the region of 700-2000 meters the proximate cause may be a slackening of the overturning circulation accompanied by a downward drift of the thermocline, not warming of the atmosphere. I will try to work through this puzzle with the hope of adding clarity.

  12. Improved Climate Simulations through a Stochastic Parameterization of Ocean Eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Howe, Nicola; Gregory, Jonathan; Smith, Robin; Joshi, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    In climate simulations, the impacts of the subgrid scales on the resolved scales are conventionally represented using deterministic closure schemes, which assume that the impacts are uniquely determined by the resolved scales. Stochastic parameterization relaxes this assumption, by sampling the subgrid variability in a computationally inexpensive manner. This study shows that the simulated climatological state of the ocean is improved in many respects by implementing a simple stochastic parameterization of ocean eddies into a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Simulations from a high-resolution, eddy-permitting ocean model are used to calculate the eddy statistics needed to inject realistic stochastic noise into a low-resolution, non-eddy-permitting version of the same model. A suite of four stochastic experiments is then run to test the sensitivity of the simulated climate to the noise definition by varying the noise amplitude and decorrelation time within reasonable limits. The addition of zero-mean noise to the ocean temperature tendency is found to have a nonzero effect on the mean climate. Specifically, in terms of the ocean temperature and salinity fields both at the surface and at depth, the noise reduces many of the biases in the low-resolution model and causes it to more closely resemble the high-resolution model. The variability of the strength of the global ocean thermohaline circulation is also improved. It is concluded that stochastic ocean perturbations can yield reductions in climate model error that are comparable to those obtained by refining the resolution, but without the increased computational cost. Therefore, stochastic parameterizations of ocean eddies have the potential to significantly improve climate simulations. Reference Williams PD, Howe NJ, Gregory JM, Smith RS, and Joshi MM (2016) Improved Climate Simulations through a Stochastic Parameterization of Ocean Eddies. Journal of Climate, 29, 8763-8781. http://dx.doi.org/10

  13. New head of ocean service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia K. Tippie has become director of NOAA's National Ocean Service, which is responsible for collecting and distributing information about oceans and coastal areas.As leader of one of NOAA's five major offices, Tippie's title is Assistant Administrator of Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management. She oversees offices that compile ocean maps, predict tides, monitor global climate and pollution, and manage coastal programs like the National Marine Sanctuary and the National Estuarine Research Reserve. Tippie was previously director of the NOAA Estuarine Program Office, which recently was made part of the office of the NOAA Administrator. From 1981-86 she directed the EPA's congressionally mandated Chesapeake Bay Program. Before that she directed the Center for Ocean Management Studies at the University of Rhode Island. Tippie has also been a special assistant to the chairman of the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere.

  14. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  15. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  16. Ocean Predictions with ACCESS-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Alves, O.; Hendon, H.

    2016-02-01

    Several versions of the Bureau of Meteorology's seasonal forecast system POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia) have been developed over the past decade and the Bureau's seasonal climate outlooks have become increasingly skilful and useful. However, POAMA has a relatively low resolution (T47 atmosphere) and is due to be replaced with a higher-resolution system (N216 atmosphere) which will be referred to as ACCESS-S (the seasonal prediction version of the Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator). ACCESS-S, which is currently being developed, will be based on the UK Met Office Global Coupled model 2.0 (GC2) together with locally developed enhancements. ACCESS-S provides forecasts on intra-seasonal to seasonal timescales out to a lead time of 6 months. We will present an analysis of the mean state, variability and skill of the ocean forecasts at different timescales based on a preliminary hindcast set with a limited number of ensemble members for the period 1990-2012. The ocean model component of the GC2 model is the state-of-the-art NEMO model which has a 25 km horizontal resolution and 75 levels in the vertical.

  17. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  18. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  19. Microplastics in the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Won Joon; Thomposon, Richard C

    2015-10-01

    Since their ubiquity in the ocean and marine organisms was first revealed, global concern about microplastics has grown considerably. The North Pacific Ocean and the adjacent marginal seas have high levels of microplastic contamination compared with the global average. This special issue on microplastics was organized by the North Pacific Marine Science Organization to share information on microplastic pollution in the North Pacific region. The special issue highlights high levels of contamination in the North Pacific both on shorelines and at the sea surface. Particularly high levels of contamination were reported on the western and southern coasts of Korea. Sources, including sewage discharge, aquaculture, and shipyards, were implicated. With the direction and energy of surface winds and currents have an important influence on shoreline patterns of distribution. The special issue also demonstrates potential for ingestion of microplastic by small planktonic organisms at the base of the food chain. A wide range of chemicals are associated with plastic debris and concerns are expressed about the potential for these chemicals to transfer to biota upon ingestion. As an introduction to the topic, this paper provides a brief background on microplastic contamination, highlights some key research gaps, and summarizes findings from the articles published in this issue.

  20. Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal variability of upper ocean temperature?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corre, L.; Terray, L.; Weaver, A. [Cerfacs-CNRS, Toulouse (France); Balmaseda, M. [E.C.M.W.F, Reading (United Kingdom); Ribes, A. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo France-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2012-03-15

    A multivariate analysis of the upper ocean thermal structure is used to examine the recent long-term changes and decadal variability in the upper ocean heat content as represented by model-based ocean reanalyses and a model-independent objective analysis. The three variables used are the mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm, its depth and a fixed depth mean temperature (250 m mean temperature). The mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm is a convenient, albeit simple, way to isolate thermodynamical changes by filtering out dynamical changes related to thermocline vertical displacements. The global upper ocean observations and reanalyses exhibit very similar warming trends (0.045 C per decade) over the period 1965-2005, superimposed with marked decadal variability in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial patterns of the regression between indices (representative of anthropogenic changes and known modes of internal decadal variability), and the three variables associated with the ocean heat content are used as fingerprint to separate out the different contributions. The choice of variables provides information about the local heat absorption, vertical distribution and horizontal redistribution of heat, this latter being suggestive of changes in ocean circulation. The discrepancy between the objective analysis and the reanalyses, as well as the spread among the different reanalyses, are used as a simple estimate of ocean state uncertainties. Two robust findings result from this analysis: (1) the signature of anthropogenic changes is qualitatively different from those of the internal decadal variability associated to the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation, and (2) the anthropogenic changes in ocean heat content do not only consist of local heat absorption, but are likely related with changes in the ocean circulation, with a clear shallowing of the tropical thermocline in the Pacific and Indian oceans. (orig.)

  1. Trident Warrior 2013 Ocean Observation Impact on Ocean Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Synthetic Ocean Profiles (ISOP) rather than MODAS . E ISOP nest 1, NCOM 1km Standard operational data streams including satellite SSH, SST, in situ...The covariances relating surface observations to subsurface are provided by the Improved Synthetic Ocean Profiles (ISOP) rather than MODAS . E

  2. The dynamic tidal response of a subsurface ocean on Titan and the associated dissipative heat generated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Robert

    2012-04-01

    The tidal flow response and associated dissipative heat generated in a satellite ocean depends strongly on the ocean configuration parameters as these parameters control the form and frequencies of the ocean's natural modes of oscillation; if there is a near match between the form and frequency of one of these natural modes and that of one of the available tidal forcing constituents, the ocean can be resonantly excited, producing strong tidal flow and appreciable dissipative heat. Of primary interest in this study are the ocean parameters that can be expected to evolve (notably, the ocean depth in an ocean attempting to freeze, and the stratification in an ocean attempting to cool) because this evolution can cause an ocean to be pushed into a resonant configuration where the increased dissipative heat of the resonant response halts further evolution and a liquid ocean can be maintained by ocean tidal heat. In this case the resonant ocean tidal response is not only allowed but may be inevitable. Previous work on this topic is extended to describe the resonant configurations in both unstratified and stratified cases for an assumed global ocean on Titan subject to both obliquity and eccentricity tidal forces. Results indicate first that the assumption of an equilibrium tidal response is not justified and the correct dynamical response must be considered. Second, the ocean tidal dissipation will be appreciable if the ocean configuration is near that producing a resonant state. The parameters values required for this resonance are provided in this study, and examples/movies of calculated ocean tidal flow are also presented.

  3. Simulating radiocarbon in the ocean model of the FAMOUS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentith, Jennifer; Ivanovic, Ruza; Gregoire, Lauren; Tindall, Julia; Robinson, Laura F.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon isotopes are often utilised as proxies for palaeoceanographic circulation. However, discrepancies exist in the interpretation of isotopes in geological archives. A powerful approach for improving our understanding of palaeodata is to directly simulate multiple isotopic tracer fields within complex numerical models, thereby enabling model output to be compared directly to observations rather than the more uncertain climatic interpretations. We added the radioactive isotope 14C to the ocean component of the FAMOUS atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model to examine ocean circulation, the oceanic carbon cycle, and air-sea gas exchange. The abiotic 14C tracer field is calculated based on air-sea gas exchange, advection and radioactive decay. A 10,000 year spin-up simulation was run to allow 14C concentrations in the deep ocean to equilibrate. Here, we compare the modelled 14C distributions in both the pre- and post-bomb era to published 14C compilations. We also discuss methods for overcoming model drifts in the marine hydrological cycle and their impact on deep ocean circulation. The overall aim is to use the isotope-enabled model to investigate the 14C fingerprint of different states of overturning circulation and to reach a better understanding of changes in ocean circulation and the carbon cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years ago) and during the last deglaciation (21,000-11,000 years ago).

  4. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  5. Europa: Perspectives on an Ocean World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Khurana, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Europa possesses an outer icy shell; this much has been clear since Voyager. That Europa’s shell is also floating is now generally accepted as well, thanks to observations by Galileo. The existence of a low density outer “H2O” layer, 80-170 km in thickness, seems well established. Magnetic induction evidence strongly suggests a conducting near-surface layer and/or interior — a saline ocean. Cycloidal ridges, originating as tidally driven cycloidal fractures, apparently formed in a stress regime dominated by diurnal tides, but could not form in a tidally flexing ice shell grounded to the silicate interior — again supporting decoupling by an ocean. These points are not seriously in contention. Beyond this there is less agreement, especially as to the thickness of the shell overlying the ocean, the icy shell’s composition and rheology, and whether the icy shell more-or-less responds passively to tidal strains and heating from Europa’s interior, or whether it plays a more active role by means of solid state convection. Europa poses many important scientific questions, but in short, how have Europa’s icy shell and ocean and rocky interior evolved through geological time, and most fundamentally, what astrobiological potential do the icy shell and ocean below possess? Impact crater counts indicate that Europa’s surface is youthful, with a nominal age of just 40-90 Myr, based on cometary bombardment models. Thus, if geological evidence suggests an ocean at the time Europa’s surface features formed, the ocean is probably still there today. Improvements in modeling of ice rheology, of convection, and of tidal heating now suggest that a convecting ice shell is compatible with an underlying ocean. Thermal models and geological observations (such as pit, uplift and small chaos diameters and depths or heights) both point to an ice shell ~20 km thick, with observational evidence for both a change in tectonic style and a secular decrease in geological activity

  6. Increasing ocean sciences in K and 1st grade classrooms through ocean sciences curriculum aligned to A Framework for K-12 Science Education, and implementation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, S.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean and climate sciences are rarely introduced at the early elementary levels. Reasons for this vary, but include little direct attention at the national and state levels; lack of quality instructional materials; and, lack of teacher content knowledge. Recent recommendations by the National Research Council, "revise the Earth and Space sciences core ideas and grade band endpoints to include more attention to the ocean whenever possible" (NRC, 2012, p. 336) adopted in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), may increase the call for ocean and climate sciences to be addressed. In response to these recommendations' and the recognition that an understanding of some of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) would be incomplete without an understanding of processes or phenomena unique to the ocean and ocean organisms; the ocean Literacy community have created documents that show the alignment of NGSS with the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy, 2013) as well as the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for Grades K-12 (Ocean Literacy, 2010), providing a solid argument for how and to what degree ocean sciences should be part of the curriculum. However, the percentage of science education curricula focused on the ocean remains very low. This session will describe a new project, that draws on the expertise of curriculum developers, ocean literacy advocates, and researchers to meet the challenges of aligning ocean sciences curriculum to NGSS, and supporting its implementation. The desired outcomes of the proposed project are to provide a rigorous standards aligned curricula that addresses all of the Life Sciences, and some Earth and Space Sciences and Engineering Design Core Ideas for Grades K and 1; and provides teachers with the support they need to understand the content and begin implementation. The process and lessons learned will be shared.

  7. Correcting anthropogenic ocean heat uptake estimates for the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of anthropogenic ocean heat uptake typically assume that the ocean was in equilibrium during the pre-industrial era. Recent reconstructions of the Common Era, however, show a multi-century surface cooling trend before the Industrial Revolution. Using a time-evolving state estimation method, we find that the 1750 C.E. ocean must have been out of equilibrium in order to fit the H.M.S. Challenger, WOCE, and Argo hydrographic data. When the disequilibrated ocean conditions are taken into account, the inferred ocean heat uptake from 1750-2014 C.E. is revised due to the deep ocean memory of Little Ice Age surface forcing. These effects of ocean disequilibrium should also be considered when interpreting climate sensitivity estimates.

  8. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  9. Ensemble global ocean forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, G. B.

    2016-02-01

    A novel time-lagged ensemble system based on multiple independent cycles has been performed in operations at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for the past 3 years. Despite the use of only four cycles the ensemble mean provided robustly higher skill and the ensemble variance was a reliable predictor of forecast errors. A spectral analysis comparing the ensemble mean with the members demonstrated the gradual increase in power of random errors with wavenumber up to a saturation length scale imposed by the resolution of the observing system. This system has been upgraded to a near-global 0.1 degree system in a new hybrid six-member ensemble system configuration including a new data assimilation system, cycling pattern and initialisation. The hybrid system consists of two ensemble members per day each with a 3 day cycle. We will outline the performance of both the deterministic and ensemble ocean forecast system.

  10. Skillful prediction of northern climate provided by the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årthun, Marius; Eldevik, Tor; Viste, Ellen; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Johnson, Helen L.; Keenlyside, Noel S.

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly understood that a potential for skillful climate prediction resides in the ocean. It nevertheless remains unresolved to what extent variable ocean heat is imprinted on the atmosphere to realize its predictive potential over land. Here we assess from observations whether anomalous heat in the Gulf Stream's northern extension provides predictability of northwestern European and Arctic climate. We show that variations in ocean temperature in the high latitude North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are reflected in the climate of northwestern Europe and in winter Arctic sea ice extent. Statistical regression models show that a significant part of northern climate variability thus can be skillfully predicted up to a decade in advance based on the state of the ocean. Particularly, we predict that Norwegian air temperature will decrease over the coming years, although staying above the long-term (1981–2010) average. Winter Arctic sea ice extent will remain low but with a general increase towards 2020. PMID:28631732

  11. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  12. Benchmark study of magnetic induction codes forced by ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velímský, Jakub; Einšpigel, David; Grayver, Alexander; Irrgang, Christopher; Kuvshinov, Alexei; Martinec, Zdeněk; Petereit, Johannes; Šachl, Libor; Saynisch, Jan; Tyler, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We present a benchmark of magnetic induction codes driven by the ocean tidal flows. We concentrate on the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide M2, using the state-of-the-art TPXO8-atlas ocean flow model. We assess the effect of the two-dimensional thin-layer approximation, and the effect of self-induction. Large lateral variations of ocean electrical conductivity are assumed. For the underlaying Earth's mantle we consider either a realistic one-dimensional conductivity profile, or use a perfect insulator approximation. Various numerical techniques are compared, including weak formulation in the spherical harmonic domain, contracting integral equations, and finite differences, both in the frequency and time domains. We compare the maps of magnetic field components at the ocean surface, as well as the spherical harmonic power spectra.

  13. Meridional circulation anomalies associated with the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, E.; Cai, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM), which peaks in austral spring, impacts many rimming and remote regions to the Indian Ocean, with devastating floods over east Africa but severe droughts in countries surrounding Indonesia during a positive IOZM. Understanding the dynamics is important for seasonal prediction and climate projections, but the role of meridional circulation anomalies remains unclear. Here, we show that the zonal structure of rainfall anomalies results from two processes: despite a weak westward extension of the oceanic tropical convergence zone, anomalously high rainfall over east Africa is driven locally rather than a westward shift of the atmospheric convection from the east; further, northward contraction of the warm water pool over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean region (EEIO), generating changes in the meridional SST gradient, controls the northward retreat of the atmospheric convection, and hence declining rainfall over the EEIO, with important implications for the mean state change under greenhouse warming.

  14. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1)…

  15. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  16. Impacts and effects of mesoscale ocean eddies on ocean carbon storage and atmospheric pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, D. R.; Johnson, H. L.; Marshall, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    An idealized numerical ocean model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) to changes in surface wind stress when mesoscale eddies are permitted in the flow. When wind stress increases, pCO_2 increases, and vice versa. The introduction of mesoscale eddies reduces the overall sensitivity of pCO2 by changing the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage due to the saturation state of carbon dioxide, the net air-sea disequilibrium, soft tissue carbon, and the carbonate pump. However, a full carbon pump decomposition shows different responses for different ocean carbon storage terms. For example, air-sea disequilibrium is actually more sensitive to increased winds at eddy-permitting resolution, whereas soft tissue carbon is much less sensitive to wind changes in an eddy-permitting ocean. Changes in pycnocline depth and the strength of both upper and lower cells of the meridional overturning circulation affect this sensitivity.

  17. Oceanic nitrogen reservoir regulated by plankton diversity and ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

    2012-09-20

    The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio of marine phytoplankton (16N:1P) is closely matched to the nutrient content of mean ocean waters (14.3N:1P). This condition is thought to arise from biological control over the ocean's nitrogen budget, in which removal of bioavailable nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria ensures widespread selection for diazotrophic phytoplankton that replenish this essential nutrient when it limits the growth of other species. Here we show that in the context of a realistic ocean circulation model, and a uniform N:P ratio of plankton biomass, this feedback mechanism yields an oceanic nitrate deficit more than double its observed value. The critical missing phenomenon is diversity in the metabolic N:P requirement of phytoplankton, which has recently been shown to exhibit large-scale patterns associated with species composition. When we model these variations, such that diazotrophs compete with high N:P communities in subtropical regions, the ocean nitrogen inventory rises and may even exceed the average N:P ratio of plankton. The latter condition, previously considered impossible, is prevented in the modern ocean by shallow circulations that communicate stoichiometric signals from remote biomes dominated by diatoms with low N:P ratios. Large-scale patterns of plankton diversity and the circulation pathways connecting them are thus key factors determining the availability of fixed nitrogen in the ocean.

  18. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Current meter moorings data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation data from a World-Wide distribution from 01 January 1972 to 12 December 1998. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU)...

  19. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the GALLATIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from on 16 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the GALLITIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) on 16 March...

  20. Influence of ambient water intrusion on coral reef acidification in the Chuuk lagoon, located in the coral‐rich western Pacific Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Kitack; Noh, Jae Hoon; Lee, Charity M; Kleypas, Joan A; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2016-01-01

    ...) of the Federated States of Micronesia, located in the western Pacific Ocean, were analyzed. The results showed that, during periods of weak intrusion of ambient seawater from the surrounding open ocean, two internal biological processes...

  1. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  2. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  3. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  4. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  5. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  6. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  7. Ocean Uses: New Hampshire and Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  8. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  9. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. D.; Roberts, C. D.; Balmaseda, M.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chepurin, G.; Ferry, N.; Fujii, Y.; Good, S. A.; Guinehut, S.; Haines, K.; Hernandez, F.; Köhl, A.; Lee, T.; Martin, M. J.; Masina, S.; Masuda, S.; Peterson, K. A.; Storto, A.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, M.; Vernieres, G.; Wang, O.; Xue, Y.

    2017-08-01

    heat uptake of approximately 0.9 ± 0.8 W m-2 (expressed relative to Earth's surface area) between 1995 and 2002, which reduces to about 0.2 ± 0.6 W m-2 between 2004 and 2006, in qualitative agreement with recent analysis of Earth's energy imbalance. There is a marked reduction in the ensemble spread of OHC trends below 300 m as the Argo profiling float observations become available in the early 2000s. In general, we suggest that ORAs should be treated with caution when employed to understand past ocean warming trends—especially when considering the deeper ocean where there is little in the way of observational constraints. The current work emphasizes the need to better observe the deep ocean, both for providing observational constraints for future ocean state estimation efforts and also to develop improved models and data assimilation methods.

  11. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, although seasonal sea-ice cover mitigates atmosphere-ocean gas exchange, the Arctic Ocean takes up carbon dioxide (CO2 on the order of −66 to −199 Tg C year−1 (1012 g C, contributing 5–14% to the global balance of CO2 sinks and sources. Because of this, the Arctic Ocean has an important influence on the global carbon cycle, with the marine carbon cycle and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchanges sensitive to Arctic Ocean and global climate change feedbacks. In the near-term, further sea-ice loss and increases in phytoplankton growth rates are expected to increase the uptake of CO2 by Arctic Ocean surface waters, although mitigated somewhat by surface warming in the Arctic. Thus, the capacity of the Arctic Ocean to uptake CO2 is expected to alter in response to environmental changes driven largely by climate. These changes are likely to continue to modify the physics, biogeochemistry, and ecology of the Arctic Ocean in ways that are not yet fully understood. In surface waters, sea-ice melt, river runoff, cooling and uptake of CO2 through air-sea gas exchange combine to decrease the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 mineral saturation states (Ω of seawater while seasonal phytoplankton primary production (PP mitigates this effect. Biological amplification of ocean acidification effects in subsurface waters, due to the remineralization of organic matter, is likely to reduce the ability of many species to produce CaCO3 shells or tests with profound implications for Arctic marine ecosystems

  12. Tropical teleconnections via the ocean and atmosphere induced by Southern Ocean deep convective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gunn, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    of the current ESMs with frequent deep-sea convection events in the control state predict a permanent shut down of this convection under climate change in the 21st century. We propose that the preindustrial convective state of the Southern Ocean and its evolution under climate warming will have implications for the SO-tropical teleconnections.

  13. Assessing Marine Species Exposure to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, E.; Busch, S.; McElhany, P.; Gledhill, D. K.; Milke, L. M.; Wieczorek, D.

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the vulnerability of society to ocean acidification (OA) demands an understanding of both the sensitivity of economically important species together with an organism's exposure to potentially harmful carbonate chemistry conditions. However, research has revealed that sensitivity to OA is frequently life-stage dependent and the environmental conditions experienced by a marine organism often vary with life-stage. Enhancing the development of a National Ocean Acidification Observing Network (NOA-ON) and establishing appropriate treatment conditions for experimental studies requires careful consideration of where the vulnerable life-stages of an organism reside in space (e.g., estuary versus oceanic), depth (e.g., surface mixed layer versus benthos), and time (e.g., diel vertical migration, seasonality of the chemical environment within the context of an organism life cycle). Few studies have explicitly attempted to document carbonate chemistry dynamics specific to a given organism's life-cycle. Here we estimate carbonate dynamics in terms of aragonite saturation state range and variability within the U.S. Northeast and West Coast through the application of NOAA's NOA-ON assets mapped out with respect to the life stages of economically important species within those regions. Two economically important species will be considered for which the life-cycles are well known along with the sensitivities to OA for early life-stages: Atlantic Surf Clam in the northeast and Dungeness Crab of the northwest coast of the U.S. Other species may also be considered.

  14. Visualization of ocean forecast in BYTHOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Stylianou, S.; Karaolia, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Cyprus Oceanography Center has been constantly searching for new ideas for developing and implementing innovative methods and new developments concerning the use of Information Systems in Oceanography, to suit both the Center's monitoring and forecasting products. Within the frame of this scope two major online managing and visualizing data systems have been developed and utilized, those of CYCOFOS and BYTHOS. The Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System - CYCOFOS provides a variety of operational predictions such as ultra high, high and medium resolution ocean forecasts in the Levantine Basin, offshore and coastal sea state forecasts in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, tide forecasting in the Mediterranean, ocean remote sensing in the Eastern Mediterranean and coastal and offshore monitoring. As a rich internet application, BYTHOS enables scientists to search, visualize and download oceanographic data online and in real time. The recent improving of BYTHOS system is the extension with access and visualization of CYCOFOS data and overlay forecast fields and observing data. The CYCOFOS data are stored at OPENDAP Server in netCDF format. To search, process and visualize it the php and python scripts were developed. Data visualization is achieved through Mapserver. The BYTHOS forecast access interface allows to search necessary forecasting field by recognizing type, parameter, region, level and time. Also it provides opportunity to overlay different forecast and observing data that can be used for complex analyze of sea basin aspects.

  15. Ocean Acidification from space: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Shutler, Jamie; Land, Peter; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig; Reul, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon referred to as Ocean Acidification (OA) is gathering increasing attention as one of the major foci of climate-related research, for its profound impact at scientific and socio-economic level. To date, the majority of the scientific studies into the potential impacts of OA have focused on in-situ measurements, laboratory-controlled experiments and models simulations. Satellite remote sensing technology have yet to be fully exploited, despite it has been stressed it could play a significant role by providing synoptic and frequent measurements for investigating globally OA processes, also extending in-situ carbonate chemistry measurements on different spatial/temporal scales [1,2]. Within this context, the purpose of the recently completed ESA "Pathfinders - Ocean Acidification" project was to quantitatively and routinely estimate OA-related parameters by means of a blending of satellite observations and model outputs in five case-study regions (global ocean, Amazon plume, Barents sea, Greater Caribbean and Bay of Bengal). Satellite Ocean Colour, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) have been exploited, with an emphasis on the latter being the latest addition to the portfolio of satellite measured parameters. A proper merging of these different satellites products allows computing at least two independent proxies among the seawater carbonate system parameters: the partial pressure of CO2 in surface seawater (pCO2); the total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), the total alkalinity (TA) and the surface ocean pH. In the project, efforts have been devoted to a systematic characterization of TA and DIC from space in the mentioned case-study regions; in this paper, also through the knowledge of these parameters, the objective is to come up with the currently best educated guess of the surface ocean pH [3] and Aragonite saturation state. This will also include an estimation of the achievable accuracy by propagating the errors in the

  16. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  17. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-11-11

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  18. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...... vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits....

  19. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  20. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  1. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  2. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  3. Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2014-01-08

    Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems.

  4. Toward Submesocale Ocean Modelling and Observations for Global Ocean Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is the French oceanographic operational center involved in the development an operation of global high resolution ocean forecasting systems; it is part of the European Copernicus Marine service initiated during MyOcean project. Mercator Ocean currently delivers daily 1/12° global ocean forecast based on the NEMO model which allows for a good representation of mesoscale structures in main areas of the global ocean. Data assimilation of altimetry provides a precise initialization of the mesoscale structures while in situ observations, mainly based on the ARGO network, and satellite Sea Surface Temperature constrain water mass properties from the surface to intermediate depths. One of the main improvements scheduled in the coming years is the transitioning towards submesoscale permitting horizontal resolution (1/36°). On the basis of numerical simulations in selected areas and standard diagnostics developed to validate operational systems, we will discuss : i) The impact of the resolution increase at the basin scale. ii) Adequacy of numerical schemes, vertical resolution and physical parameterization. iii) Adequacy of currently implemented data assimilation procedures in particular with respect to new high resolution data set such as SWOT.

  5. Slow science: the value of long ocean biogeochemistry records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations (SOs) have provided invaluable information on the ocean's biology and biogeochemistry for over 50 years. They continue to play a vital role in elucidating the functioning of the marine ecosystem, particularly in the light of ongoing climate change. Repeated, consistent observations have provided the opportunity to resolve temporal and/or spatial variability in ocean biogeochemistry, which has driven exploration of the factors controlling biological parameters and processes. Here, I highlight some of the key breakthroughs in biological oceanography that have been enabled by SOs, which include areas such as trophic dynamics, understanding variability, improved biogeochemical models and the role of ocean biology in the global carbon cycle. In the near future, SOs are poised to make progress on several fronts, including detecting climate change effects on ocean biogeochemistry, high-resolution observations of physical–biological interactions and greater observational capability in both the mesopelagic zone and harsh environments, such as the Arctic. We are now entering a new era for biological SOs, one in which our motivations have evolved from the need to acquire basic understanding of the ocean's state and variability, to a need to understand ocean biogeochemistry in the context of increasing pressure in the form of climate change, overfishing and eutrophication. PMID:25157192

  6. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-09

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.

  7. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  8. Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication - YIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    State University) to quantify ambient sound across the Atlantic from pole to pole. Data from the Arctic was collected by H. Klinck under Marine...pattern into biomes and provinces for the pelagic ocean. Remote Sensing of Environment 112: 3341-3352. IOCCG. 2009. Partition of the Ocean into

  9. Competition and Cooperation in the Southwestern Indian Ocean: The View From the Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Prospects in the Western Indian Ocean Island Bunge , F.M., ed. Indian Ocean: Five Island Countries. States. New York: UN Industrial Development...Programmes of France France: An Overview." Military Technology (May 1990): 34-37. Accasto, Mario . "The Marine Nationale.’ Defence Today Preston, Antony. "The

  10. JPL Ecco Ocean Data Assimilation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ECCO was established in 1998 as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) with the goal of combining a general circulation model (GCM) with diverse...

  11. Ocean foam generation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the physical and microwave properties of ocean foam. Special foam generators were designed and fabricated, using porous glass sheets, known as glass frits, as the principal element. The glass frit was sealed into a water-tight vertical box, a few centimeters from the bottom. Compressed air, applied to the lower chamber, created ocean foam from sea water lying on the frit. Foam heights of 30 cm were readily achieved, with relatively low air pressures. Special photographic techniques and analytical procedures were employed to determine foam bubble size distributions. In addition, the percentage water content of ocean foam was determined with the aid of a particulate sampling procedure. A glass frit foam generator, with pore diameters in the range 70 - 100 micrometers, produced foam with bubble distributions very similar to those found on the surface of natural ocean foam patches.

  12. Topographic stress in the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Greg; Müller, Peter

    The influence of seafloor topography on ocean circulation has long been a subject of research and speculation. Recent attention to this topic has shown that the interaction with currents is both more complicated and (possibly) more influential than may have been supposed.An important question is whether inadequate representation of topographic effects in numerical ocean models may be a significant source of model infidelity. On the other side, direct observation of momentum exchange between the ocean and variations of seafloor elevation remains a daunting challenge. To focus on these and related issues and to consider possible avenues for future research, the workshop Topographic Stress was held January 23-25, 1989, at Keahou Bay, Kona, Hawaii, drawing on numerical modelers, oceanic observers, theorists, atmospheric scientists and laboratory modelers.

  13. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  14. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  15. Archaeal Nitrification in the Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cornelia Wuchter; Ben Abbas; Marco J. L. Coolen; Lydie Herfort; Judith van Bleijswijk; Peer Timmers; Marc Strous; Eva Teira; Gerhard J. Herndl; Jack J. Middelburg; Stefan Schouten; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2006-01-01

    .... Recently, a member of this clade was isolated from a sea aquarium and shown to be capable of nitrification, tentatively suggesting that Crenarchaeota may play a role in the oceanic nitrogen cycle...

  16. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  17. State of the Climate - Global Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  18. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Drought

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  19. State of the Climate - Global Hazards

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  20. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  1. Ocean gliders as key component within the AORAC-SA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Hernandez Brito, J.; Castro, A.; Rueda, M. J.; Llinas, O.

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance Coordination and Support Action (AORAC-SA) is designed to provide scientific, technical and logistical support to the EU in developing and implementing transAtlantic Marine Research Cooperation between the European Union, the United States of America and Canada. The Coordination and Support Action (CSA) is carried out within the framework of the Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance (AORA) as outlined in the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation (May 2013). The CSA will be responsible for the organization of expert and stakeholder meetings, workshops and conferences required by the AORA and related to identified research priorities support actions and other initiatives as they arise, taking into account related Horizon 2020 supported transAtlantic projects and on-going national and EU collaborative projects. The AORAC-SA support and governance structure comprises a Secretariat and Management Team, guided by a high-level Operational Board, representative of the major European Marine Research Programming and Funding Organizations as well as those of the USA and Canada. As example of this research cooperative framework, ocean gliders have become nowadays a common, innovative and sustainable ocean-observations tool for the Atlantic basin, linking research groups, govermental institutions and private companies from both sides in terms of technical developments, transatlantic missions in partnership, training forums, etc. aiming to develop common practices and protocols for a better ocean resources management and understanding. Within this context, the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN), as AORAC-SA partner, is working on specific actions like ocean glider observations programs (endurance line) by AtlantOS project (www.atlantos-h2020.eu), related new technical developments by NeXOS FP-7 project (www.nexosproject.eu) and a yearly International Glider School forum hosting (www.gliderschool.eu).

  2. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  3. Adakites along oceanic transforms ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Quaternary dacites and trachytes from the Aird Hills and Lusancay Islands in Papua New Guinea show some of the clearest slab melt geochemical signatures (Mg# 73-93, Sr = 1520-2650 ppm, Sr/Y = 140-445, La/Yb = 135-238), yet there is no slab currently subducting beneath Papua New Guinea. Alternatively, they may be melts from orogenic mafic crustal underplate, yet they do not occur above an arc crustal keel, nor are they part of an active convergent tectonic setting. Instead, they occur at the tip of a propagating rift-tectonic system within rift-related mafic to silicic alkaline magmatic suites. Although some adakites lie up to 100 km off the present rift-front, they connect to a curved line after their relative positions are adjusted for 16° of late Cenozoic rotation that accounts for active oceanic spreading in the Woodlark Rift. The timing of rift-propagation is consistent with the Quaternary age of Papua New Guinea adakites. The geochemical signature of these rocks is similar to other modern adakites (Western Aleutians, Cerro Pampa, Cook Island). Their Mg#, Sr contents, Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios are significantly higher than those of adakitic melts from orogenic mafic underplate. Trace element modeling indicates that their high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios requires both small partial melting degrees (testing the adakite = slab melts story, because it not only simulates the geochemical, but also the geodynamic context which presumably led to widespread continental crustal growth in the Archean. This challenges existing adakite and Archean crustal growth models which suggest that the generation of adakitic melts are restricted to convergent plate margins.

  4. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  5. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  6. Accreted oceanic materials in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Furuoka, F.

    1990-09-01

    The Phanerozoic circum-Pacific orogenic belts contain numerous ocean-derived materials accreted through plate converging processes. Japanese Islands, in particular, display various kinds of oceanic materials of different origins including fragments of seamounts, oceanic reef limestone, MORB-like rocks and oceanic mantle, and pelagic sediments. The compilation of these rocks in many subduction complexes of Late Permian to the present, led to following conclusions. Accretion processes work effectively only for materials primarily composing the upper portion of subducting oceanic crust, i.e. Layer 1 and Layer 2. Many fragments of seamount with alkali basalt (600), hot-spot seamount (26), oceanic reef limestone (291), MORB-like basalt (200), and numerous cherts (more than 1000) are recognized as ancient oceanic materials accreted to the Japanese Islands. However, gabbros and mantle materials of Layer 3 and lower parts of the oceanic lithosphere, scarcely occur in subduction-accretion complexes except for a few examples of back-arc basin or fore-arc origin. Accretion occurs episodically. In Southwest Japan, oceanic materials were accreted intermittently in (a) end-Permian, (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous times, (d) at ca. 50 Ma, and (e) in Miocene times, while in Northeast Japan and Hokkaido this occurred in (b) Middle-Late Jurassic, (c) Late Cretaceous, and (f) Early Cretaceous times. In contrast to the general belief on accretion of younger oceanic plates, the majority of Japanese subduction-accretion complexes were formed during the subduction of plates, up to 160 Ma old. The accretionary events in end-Permian and Middle-Late Jurassic times coincide with northward collision of ancient island arcs, oceanic rises or seamount chains (of hot-spot origin) with the Asian continent. Accretion relevant to subduction of older plates may be controlled by the collision-subduction process of these topographic reliefs on an oceanic plate. In addition, the

  7. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Lianke Alinda te

    2003-01-01

    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is

  8. Collaborative Oceanographic Research Opportunities with Schmidt Ocean Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Schmidt Ocean Institute (http://www.schmidtocean.org/) was founded by Dr. Eric Schmidt and Wendy Schmidt in 2009 to support frontier oceanographic research and exploration to expand the understanding of the world's oceans through technological advancement, intelligent, data-rich observation and analysis, and open sharing of information. Schmidt Ocean Institute operates a state-of-the-art globally capable research vessel Falkor (http://www.schmidtocean.org/story/show/47). After two years of scientific operations in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Eastern and Central Pacific, R/V Falkor is now preparing to support research in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans in 2015 and 2016. As part of the long term research program development for Schmidt Ocean Institute, we aim to identify initiatives and projects that demonstrate strong alignment with our strategic interests. We focus on scientific opportunities that highlight effective use of innovative technologies to better understand the oceans, such as, for example, research enabled with remotely operated and autonomous vehicles, acoustics, in-situ sensing, telepresence, etc. Our technology-first approach to ocean science gave rise to infrastructure development initiatives, such as the development of a new full ocean depth Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle, new 6000m scientific Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, live HD video streaming from the ship to YouTube, shipboard high performance supercomputing, etc. We also support projects focusing on oceanographic technology research and development onboard R/V Falkor. We provide our collaborators with access to all of R/V Falkor's facilities and instrumentation in exchange for a commitment to make the resulting scientific data openly available to the international oceanographic community. This presentation aims to expand awareness about the interests and capabilities of Schmidt Ocean Institute and R/V Falkor among our scientific audiences and further

  9. Correlations of surface ocean pCO2 to satellite chlorophyll on monthly to interannual timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Amanda R.; McKinley, Galen A.

    2017-03-01

    On the mean, ocean carbon uptake is linked to biological productivity, but how biological variability impacts carbon uptake is poorly quantified. Our ability to diagnose past change, understand present variability, and predict the future state of the global carbon cycle requires improving mechanistic understanding in this area. Here we make use of colocated pCO2 and temperature data, a merged surface ocean color product, and physical fields from an ocean state estimate to assess relationships between surface ocean biology and the carbon cycle on seasonal, monthly anomaly, and interannual timescales over the period 1998-2014. Using a correlation analysis on spatial scales from local to basin-scale biomes, we identify the timescales on which ocean productivity could be directly modifying ocean carbon uptake. On seasonal timescales outside of the equatorial Pacific, biome-scale correlations are negative between chlorophyll and pCO2. Though this relationship is pervasive, the underlying mechanisms vary across timescales and biomes. Consistent with previous findings, biological activity is a significant driver of pCO2 seasonality only in the subpolar biomes. For monthly anomalies acting on top of the mean seasonality, productivity and pCO2 changes are significantly correlated in the subpolar North Pacific and Southern Ocean. Only in the Southern Ocean are correlations consistent with a dominant role for biology in the surface ocean carbon cycle on all timescales.

  10. Evaluation of Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment Products on South Florida Nested Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing simula- tions and prediction with GODAE global and basin-scale models have fulfilled the main GODAE objectives of developing state-of-the- art ...discussions and Viva Benzon (UM/RSMAS Satellite Group) for preparing the composite ocean color image. References Beardsley RC, Butman B (1974

  11. Ocean N2O Emissions : Recent Global Estimates and Anthropogenically Influenced Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, P.; Buithenuis, E.; Andrews, O.; Le Quere, C.

    2016-12-01

    Oceanic N2O is produced by microbial activity during organic matter cycling in the subsurface ocean; its production mechanisms display sensitivity to ambient oxygen level. In the oxic ocean, N2O is produced as a byproduct during the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, mediated by ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archea. N2O is also produced and consumed in sub-oxic and anoxic waters through the action of marine denitrifiers during the multi-step reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. The oceanic N2O distribution therefore displays significant heterogeneity with background levels of 10-20 nmol/l in the well-oxygenated ocean basins, high concentrations (> 40 nmol/l) in hypoxic waters, and N2O depletion in the core of ocean oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Oceanic N2O emissions are estimated to account for up to a third of the pre-industrial N2O fluxes to the atmosphere, however the natural cycle of ocean N2O has been perturbed in recent decades by inputs of anthropogenically derived nutrient, and by the impacts of climate change. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (e.g., NOx and NHy from fossil fuel combustion and agricultural fertilizer) enter the ocean via atmospheric deposition and riverine fluxes, influencing oceanic N2O production via their impact on the marine organic matter cycle. In addition, climate variations associated with surface ocean warming affect oceanic circulation and nutrient transport pathways, influencing marine productivity and the ventilation of oxygen minimum zones. Recent studies have suggested that possible expansion of oceanic OMZs in a warming climate could lead to significant changes in N2O production and fluxes from these regions. We will summarise the current state of knowledge on the ocean N2O budget and net flux to the atmosphere. Recently reported estimates have been based on (i) empirical relationships derived from ocean tracer data (e.g., involving excess N2O and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) correlations), (ii) ocean biogeochemical

  12. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  13. Preconditioning of Antarctic maximum sea ice extent by upper ocean stratification on a seasonal timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan

    2017-06-01

    This study uses an observationally constrained and dynamically consistent ocean and sea ice state estimate. The author presents a remarkable agreement between the location of the edge of Antarctic maximum sea ice extent, reached in September, and the narrow transition band for the upper ocean (0-100 m depths) stratification, as early as April to June. To the south of this edge, the upper ocean has high stratification, which forbids convective fluxes to cross through; consequently, the ocean heat loss to the atmosphere is an efficient way to cool the surface ocean to the freezing point during April to September. To the north, the upper ocean has low stratification such that the ocean heat loss to the atmosphere is not efficient to cool the upper ocean. The upper ocean is instead cooled mainly through mixing with the colder inflow carried by northward Ekman transport but cannot reach the freezing point due to the nature of mixing. Therefore, upper ocean stratification, dominated by salinity here, provides an important constraint on the northward expansion of Antarctic sea ice to its maximum.

  14. Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, R.; Kochevar, R. E.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Louie, J.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.; Busey, A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of scientific data sets online opens up exciting new opportunities to raise students' understanding of the worlds' oceans and the potential impacts of climate change. The Oceans of Data Institute at EDC; Stanford University; and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have been collaborating, with the support of three National Science Foundation grants over the past 5 years, to bring marine science data sets into high school and undergraduate classrooms. These efforts have culminated in the development of a web-based student interface to data from the Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and NASA Earth-orbiting satellites through a student-friendly Web interface, customized data analysis tools, multimedia supports, and course modules. Ocean Tracks (http://oceantracks.org), which incorporates design principles based on a broad range of research findings in fields such as cognitive science, visual design, mathematics education and learning science, focuses on optimizing students' opportunities to focus their cognitive resources on viewing and comparing data to test hypotheses, while minimizing the time spent on downloading, filtering and creating displays. Ocean Tracks allows students to display the tracks of elephant seals, white sharks, Bluefin tuna, albatross, and drifting buoys along with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-A, bathymetry, ocean currents, and human impacts overlays. A graphing tool allows students to dynamically display parameters associated with the track such as speed, deepest daily dive and track tortuosity (curviness). These interface features allow students to engage in investigations that mirror those currently being conducted by scientists to understand the broad-scale effects of changes in climate and other human activities on ocean ecosystems. In addition to supporting the teaching of the Ocean and Climate Literacy principles, high school curriculum modules facilitate the teaching

  15. Nonuniform ocean acidification and attenuation of the ocean carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Palevsky, Hilary I.

    2017-08-01

    Surface ocean carbon chemistry is changing rapidly. Partial pressures of carbon dioxide gas (pCO2) are rising, pH levels are declining, and the ocean's buffer capacity is eroding. Regional differences in short-term pH trends primarily have been attributed to physical and biological processes; however, heterogeneous seawater carbonate chemistry may also be playing an important role. Here we use Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Version 4 data to develop 12 month gridded climatologies of carbonate system variables and explore the coherent spatial patterns of ocean acidification and attenuation in the ocean carbon sink caused by rising atmospheric pCO2. High-latitude regions exhibit the highest pH and buffer capacity sensitivities to pCO2 increases, while the equatorial Pacific is uniquely insensitive due to a newly defined aqueous CO2 concentration effect. Importantly, dissimilar regional pH trends do not necessarily equate to dissimilar acidity ([H+]) trends, indicating that [H+] is a more useful metric of acidification.

  16. Mapping of the ocean surface wind by ocean acoustic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovich, Alexander G; Penland, Cécile

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of marine surface winds are crucial to understanding mechanical and thermodynamic forces on the ocean. Satellite measurements of surface winds provide global coverage but are problematic at high wind speeds. Acoustic techniques of wind speed retrieval, and even for tracking hurricanes, have been suggested as an alternative since wind is a strong source of ambient noise in the ocean. Such approaches involve near-local measurements with bottom-mounted hydrophones located close to the area of interest. This paper suggests a complementary approach: measuring directivity of low-frequency ambient noise in the horizontal plane. These measurements would employ long vertical line arrays (VLAs) spanning a significant portion of the ocean waveguide. Two VLAs separated by a distance of some tens of kilometers and coherently measuring acoustic pressure form a single ocean interferometer. By sampling the area of interest from different perspectives with at least two interferometers, marine surface winds might be mapped over horizontal scales of the order of 1000 km with about 10 km resolution (more specifically, the 10 km resolution here means that contribution from the basis functions representing surface wind field with the scale of spatial variations of the order of 10 km can be resolved; independent retrieval of the wind within 10(4) cells of a corresponding grid is hardly possible). An averaging time required to overcome statistical variability in the noise field is estimated to be about 3 h. Numerical simulations of propagation conditions typical for the North Atlantic Ocean are presented.

  17. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation...) Atchafalaya-West Ocean Disposal Site (ODMDS-West) as a permanent MPRSA Section 102(c) ocean dredged material... Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria --General Selection Criteria...

  18. Weak oceanic heat transport as a cause of the instability of glacial climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin de Verdiere, Alain [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Alain Colin de Verdiere, Brest 3 (France); Te Raa, L. [Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    The stability of the thermohaline circulation of modern and glacial climates is compared with the help of a two dimensional ocean - atmosphere - sea ice coupled model. It turns out to be more unstable as less freshwater forcing is required to induce a polar halocline catastrophy in glacial climates. The large insulation of the ocean by the extensive sea ice cover changes the temperature boundary condition and the deepwater formation regions moves much further South. The nature of the instability is of oceanic origin, identical to that found in ocean models under mixed boundary conditions. With similar strengths of the oceanic circulation and rates of deep water formation for warm and cold climates, the loss of stability of the cold climate is due to the weak thermal stratification caused by the cooling of surface waters, the deep water temperatures being regulated by the temperature of freezing. Weaker stratification with similar overturning leads to a weakening of the meridional oceanic heat transport which is the major negative feedback stabilizing the oceanic circulation. Within the unstable regime periodic millennial oscillations occur spontaneously. The climate oscillates between a strong convective thermally driven oceanic state and a weak one driven by large salinity gradients. Both states are unstable. The atmosphere of low thermal inertia is carried along by the oceanic overturning while the variation of sea ice is out of phase with the oceanic heat content. During the abrupt warming events that punctuate the course of a millennial oscillation, sea ice variations are shown respectively to damp (amplify) the amplitude of the oceanic (atmospheric) response. This sensitivity of the oceanic circulation to a reduced concentration of greenhouse gases and to freshwater forcing adds support to the hypothesis that the millennial oscillations of the last glacial period, the so called Dansgaard - Oeschger events, may be internal instabilities of the climate system

  19. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  20. EPA Issues November 15, 2010 Memorandum: Integrated Reporting and Listing Decisions Related to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The memorandum provides information to assist regions and states in preparing and reviewing Integrated Reports related to ocean acidification (OA) impacts under Sections 303(d), 305(b) and 314 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  1. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  2. Determination of vertical velocities in the equatorial part of the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Using steady state two-dimensional turbulent diffusion equations of salt and heat some important characteristics of vertical circulation in the equatorial part of the Indian Ocean have been evaluated and discussed. Upwelling and sinking velocities...

  3. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Molybdenum evidence for expansive sulfidic water masses in ~ 750 Ma oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    2011-01-01

    composition of ancient seawater. Further, we investigate the ~ 750 Ma Walcott Member of the Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, which accumulated in a rift basin with open connection to the ocean. Iron speciation data from upper Walcott shales indicate that local bottom waters were anoxic and sulfidic, consistent...... in the rock record that reflect conditions in local basins, but this approach is both biased to constrain only shallower basins and statistically limited when we seek to follow the evolution of mean ocean chemical state through time. Because the abundance and isotopic composition of molybdenum (Mo) in organic......-Neoproterozoic oceans, bridging a nearly 700 million-year gap in previous Mo data. We propose that anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) conditions governed Mo cycling in the oceans even as ferruginous subsurface waters re-appeared 800–750 Ma, and we interpret this anoxic ocean state to reflect a markedly lower atmospheric...

  5. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population

  6. Upper ocean variability of the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relation to chlorophyll pigment concentration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Hydrographic data from the upper ocean together with atmospheric data and satellite data are used to understand the variability of upper ocean and its relation to surface chlorophyll in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. The sea surface temperature showed...

  7. Deep ocean fluxes and their link to surface ocean processes and the biological pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    Intense studies of upper and deep ocean processes were carried out in the Northwestern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea) within the framework of JGOFS and related projects in order to improve our understanding of the marine carbon cycle and the ocean...

  8. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  9. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes.

  10. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  11. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

    2015-01-01

    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  12. Resolving the ocean's euphotic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John F.; Lance, Veronica P.; Vaillancourt, Robert D.; Hargreaves, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of net primary production (P) combined with calculated estimates of phytoplankton respiration (Rp) and gross primary production (G) are used to determine the depth of the ocean's euphotic zone, the autotrophic productive layer. The base of the euphotic zone, the compensation depth (where P=0 and G=Rp), is found to be consistently deeper than the traditionally assumed ‘1% light depth'. It is found to occur, however, at a depth that encompasses the depth range of all, or nearly all, autotrophic biomass. The estimated compensation depth also occurs near the depth of 1% of surface blue light (490 nm), supporting the determination of the ocean's productive layer from satellite ocean color sensors.

  13. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  14. Demonstrating the Alaska Ocean Observing System in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; McCammon, Molly

    2013-07-01

    The Alaska Ocean Observing System and the Oil Spill Recovery Institute developed a demonstration project over a 5 year period in Prince William Sound. The primary goal was to develop a quasi-operational system that delivers weather and ocean information in near real time to diverse user communities. This observing system now consists of atmospheric and oceanic sensors, and a new generation of computer models to numerically simulate and forecast weather, waves, and ocean circulation. A state of the art data management system provides access to these products from one internet portal at http://www.aoos.org. The project culminated in a 2009 field experiment that evaluated the observing system and performance of the model forecasts. Observations from terrestrial weather stations and weather buoys validated atmospheric circulation forecasts. Observations from wave gages on weather buoys validated forecasts of significant wave heights and periods. There was an emphasis on validation of surface currents forecasted by the ocean circulation model for oil spill response and search and rescue applications. During the 18 day field experiment a radar array mapped surface currents and drifting buoys were deployed. Hydrographic profiles at fixed stations, and by autonomous vehicles along transects, were made to acquire measurements through the water column. Terrestrial weather stations were the most reliable and least costly to operate, and in situ ocean sensors were more costly and considerably less reliable. The radar surface current mappers were the least reliable and most costly but provided the assimilation and validation data that most improved ocean circulation forecasts. We describe the setting of Prince William Sound and the various observational platforms and forecast models of the observing system, and discuss recommendations for future development.

  15. Ocean Surface Circulation with Implication for Marine Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jan; Maximenko, Nikolai; Niiler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Modern, multi-instrumental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) includes satellites and in situ observations, monitoring the ocean state at the highest accuracy and resolution ever. By combining data of satellite altimetry, surface drifters, wind and gravity, ocean currents can be assessed globally and at research quality. The map of the mean surface currents shows a complex pattern of oceanic fronts and gyres. Distinct are the convergences of Ekman currents in subtropical gyres that, through the Sverdrup mechanism, are feeding anticyclonic circulation in the gyres. Drifter trajectories can also be utilized to simulate the evolution of the marine debris. Main problem is the inhomogeneous drifter data density, both due to convergence/divergence of the ocean currents and due to the drifter deployment scheme. A model constructed from statistics of the drifters exchange between small bins corrects this bias and was run from the uniform initial condition to study the fate of debris in the ocean. In addition to such actively studied debris accumulation areas as the Great Garbage Patch in the North Pacific, a new so far unrecognized, the world-strongest convergence is discovered in the South Pacific from the model solution. The same model reveals a complex pattern of convergence/divergence on the cold/warm flanks of major oceanic fronts. This pattern is studied in the framework of nonlinear interaction between Ekman drift and geostrophic baroclinic fronts outcropping at the sea surface. Results are generalized to assess the dynamics of internal Ekman layer distributed along the thermocline and controlling the secondary circulation at the fronts.

  16. Atmospheric and oceanic drag on sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Feltham, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure ridges, keels, floe edges and melt pond edges all introduce discrete obstructions to the flow of the air or ocean over the ice, and are a source of form drag. For typical ice covers the form drag contribution to the total drag is of comparable or greater magnitude to the surface or skin drag. In current climate models form drag is only accounted for by tuning of the air-ice and air-ocean drag coefficients, i.e. by altering the roughness length in a surface drag parameterization. The existing approach of skin drag parameter tuning, while numerically convenient, is poorly constrained by observations and fails to describe correctly the physics associated with the air-ice and ocean-ice drag. Here we combine recent theoretical developments to deduce the total neutral form drag coefficients from the key parameters of the ice cover such as ice concentration, size and area of the ridges and keels, freeboard and floe draft and size of melt ponds. We validate the assumptions of this parameterisation against remote sensing observations from airborne missions (IceBridge) and high resolution satellites. We incorporate the drag coefficients into the sea ice component of a climate model (the CICE model). This stage necessitates that the sea ice characteristics obtained locally from observations are mapped to the averaged sea ice quantities provided by the sea ice model at the larger grid cell length scale. We present results over the Arctic of a stand-alone version of the model and show the influence of the new drag parameterisation on the motion and mass of the ice cover. The new parameterisation allows the drag coefficients to be coupled to the sea ice state and therefore to evolve spatially and temporally. We test the predictions of the model against measured drag coefficients in several regions of the Arctic and find good agreement between model and observations.

  17. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  18. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  19. NOAA Ocean Exploration: Science, Education and Ocean Literacy Online and in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2012-12-01

    "Engagement" in ocean science initially might seem like a simple concept, however within an agency like NOAA, with a broad mission and a wide variety of stakeholders, the concept of engagement becomes quite complex. Several years ago, a Kellogg Commission Report was submitted to NOAA's Science Advisory Board to assist the Agency with more closely defining-and refining-how it could more effectively engage with the multiple audiences with which it works. For NOAA, engagement is a two-way relationship that unfolds in a commitment of service to society. It is an Enterprise-wide capability represented in NOAA's Next Generation Strategic Plan and carries the same weight across the Agency as science and technology. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) engages scientists, educators and the public through a variety of online and social media offerings explicitly tied to the exploration science of its expeditions. The principle platform for this engagement is the Ocean Explorer website (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov). It is the single point of entry for formal and informal educators and the public to chronicled OER expeditions to little known regions of the world ocean. The site also enables access to live streaming video and audio from the United States' first ship solely dedicated to ocean exploration, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the Institute for Exploration's E/V Nautilus. Video includes footage from the remotely operated vehicles, sonar displays, navigation displays, and mapping data displays. Through telepresence technologies and other online communication tools, scientists at remote locations around the world, including Exploration Command Centers, collaborate in deep-sea exploration conducted by the Okeanos Explorer. Those wanting access to the ship's track, oceanographic data, daily updates, web logs, and imagery during an expedition can access the online Okeanos Explorer Digital Atlas. Information on archived expeditions can be accessed

  20. CABARET in the ocean gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S. A.; Berloff, P. S.; Goloviznin, V. M.

    A new high-resolution Eulerian numerical method is proposed for modelling quasigeostrophic ocean dynamics in eddying regimes. The method is based on a novel, second-order non-dissipative and low-dispersive conservative advection scheme called CABARET. The properties of the new method are compared with those of several high-resolution Eulerian methods for linear advection and gas dynamics. Then, the CABARET method is applied to the classical model of the double-gyre ocean circulation and its performance is contrasted against that of the common vorticity-preserving Arakawa method. In turbulent regimes, the new method permits credible numerical simulations on much coarser computational grids.

  1. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  2. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank

    2017-04-01

    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the oceanic heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger oceanic heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in zonal mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.

  3. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  4. Modeling ocean biogeochemistry in the Cretaceous: what triggers ocean anoxia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvalcaba Baroni, I.; Slomp, C.P.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from sediment core records and model studies of global biogeochemical cycling suggest that changes in the marine phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) cycles may have been of specific importance for the initiation of oceanic anoxia in the Cretaceous. For example, a moderate increase

  5. Krakatau's long goodbye in the Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, P; Wigley, T; Santer, B; Gregory, J; AchutaRao, K; Taylor, K

    2005-12-15

    State-of-the-art climate models suggest that 20th Century ocean warming and sea-level rise were substantially reduced by the 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Volcanically induced cooling of the ocean surface penetrated into deeper layers where it persisted for decades. We find that volcanic eruptions have longer lasting effects than previously suspected, sufficient to offset a large fraction of ocean warming and sea-level rise caused by anthropogenic influences over the 20th Century. We examine the latest suite of coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments that include time-varying external forcings (e.g., changes in greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, sulfate aerosols and volcanic aerosols) for the period 1880-2000 (see Methods). These models have differences in physics, resolution, initial conditions, 'spin-up' and ocean-atmosphere coupling procedures, as well as different combinations of external forcings. Uncertainties in both the applied forcings and in the model responses to them are therefore inherent in our investigation.

  6. Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Maxime M.; Measures, Christopher I.; Hatta, Mariko; Hiscock, William T.; Buck, Clifton S.; Landing, William M.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important but still poorly constrained source of trace micronutrients to the open ocean because of the dearth of in situ measurements of total deposition (i.e., wet + dry deposition) in remote regions. In this work, we discuss the upper ocean distribution of dissolved Fe and Al in the eastern Indian Ocean along a 95°E meridional transect spanning the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal. We use the mixed layer concentration of dissolved Al in conjunction with empirical data in a simple steady state model to produce 75 estimates of total dust deposition that we compare with historical observations and atmospheric model estimates. Except in the northern Bay of Bengal where the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume contributes to the inventory of dissolved Al, the surface distribution of dissolved Al along 95°E is remarkably consistent with the large-scale gradients in mineral dust deposition and multiple-source regions impacting the eastern Indian Ocean. The lowest total dust deposition fluxes are calculated for the Southern Ocean (66 ± 60 mg m-2 yr-1) and the highest for the northern end of the south Indian subtropical gyre (up to 940 mg m-2 yr-1 at 18°S) and in the southern Bay of Bengal (2500 ± 570 mg m-2 yr-1). Our total deposition fluxes, which have an uncertainty on the order of a factor of 3.5, are comparable with the composite atmospheric model data of Mahowald et al. (2005), except in the south Indian subtropical gyre where models may underestimate total deposition. Using available measurements of the solubility of Fe in aerosols, we confirm that dust deposition is a minor source of dissolved Fe to the Southern Ocean and show that aeolian deposition of dissolved Fe in the southern Bay of Bengal may be comparable to that observed underneath the Saharan dust plume in the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Ocean surface currents from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere drives entire ocean motions, and yet the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean occurs in the thin layer where they meet, involving the smallest scales of turbulence. The Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) project attempts to better understand this exchange using satellite observations with simplified physics to calculate global ocean currents. The goal is to continually improve the physics in OSCAR and more accurately model the currents. The theoretical study will help coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling efforts whereas the societal benefits of measuring ocean currents are broad, e.g., fish larval dispersion, heat transport, commercial shipping, and search and rescue.

  8. Oceans on Titan: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.

    2001-12-01

    Titan is Saturn's largest moon, and the second largest natural satellite in the solar system. Composed of half rock by mass, the satellite probably contains enough radiogenic material so that, when combined with accretional heating, differentiation into a rocky deep mantle and icy upper mantle is likely. Unlike its near twins in size and density, Jupiter's Ganymede and Callisto, Titan is endowed with a dense atmosphere, mostly nitrogen but with an admixture of methane. The methane is photolyzed in the upper atmosphere to make, with the participation of nitrogen, a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and nitriles. This in turn forms aerosols which descend to the surface, and have accumulated over time as solids and liquids. If photochemistry has occurred in a steady state fashion over Titan's history, perhaps hundreds of meters of liquid hydrocarbons (expressed as equivalent depth of the layer) reside in the upper crust and on the surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission will search for such liquids and assess the extent of photochemistry through time. Titan's overall history with respect to surface liquids may be complex. In the distant past accretional heating could have sustained a deep layer of mixed water-ammonia liquid as a kind of cryogenic magma ocean. Liquid hydrocarbons have come and gone on the surface through time to the present. In the distant future, when the Sun becomes a red giant star, Titan could once again possess a water-ammonia surface ocean.

  9. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  10. Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heinze

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between the atmospheric CO2 level and the ventilation state of the deep ocean is an important building block of the key hypotheses put forth to explain glacial-interglacial CO2 fluctuations. In this study, we systematically examine the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and its carbon isotope composition to changes in deep ocean ventilation, the ocean carbon pumps, and sediment formation in a global 3-D ocean-sediment carbon cycle model. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that a break up of Southern Ocean stratification and invigorated deep ocean ventilation were the dominant drivers for the early deglacial CO2 rise of ~35 ppm between the Last Glacial Maximum and 14.6 ka BP. Another rise of 10 ppm until the end of the Holocene is attributed to carbonate compensation responding to the early deglacial change in ocean circulation. Our reasoning is based on a multi-proxy analysis which indicates that an acceleration of deep ocean ventilation during early deglaciation is not only consistent with recorded atmospheric CO2 but also with the reconstructed opal sedimentation peak in the Southern Ocean at around 16 ka BP, the record of atmospheric δ13CCO2, and the reconstructed changes in the Pacific CaCO3 saturation horizon.

  11. Global patterns of changes in underwater sound transmission caused by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Brewer, P. G.

    2009-04-01

    Oceanic uptake of man-made CO2 leads to a decrease in the ocean pH and carbonate saturation state. This processes, known as ocean acidification is expected to have adverse effects on a variety of marine organisms. A surprising consequence of ocean acidification, which has gone widely unrecognized, is its effect on underwater sound transmission. Low-frequency sound absorption in the ocean occurs due to chemical relaxation of the pH-dependent boric acid-borate ion reaction. As ocean pH drops, sound absorption in the audible range decreases. The decreased sound absorption will amplify ambient noise levels, and enhance long distance sound transmission, although its exact environmental impact is uncertain. Changes in the underwater sound absorption will affect the operation of scientific, commercial, and naval applications that are based on ocean acoustics, with yet unknown consequences for marine life. We project these changes using a global biogeochemical model (HAMOCC), which is forced by the anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the years 1800-2300. Based on model projections, we quantify when and where in the ocean these ocean chemistry induced perturbations in sound absorption will occur.

  12. The global land and ocean mean energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The energy balance over land and oceans governs a diversity of terrestrial and maritime processes and is the key determinant of climatic conditions in these areas. Despite its crucial role, climate models show significant differences in the individual components of the energy balance over both land and oceans, particularly at the surface. Here we combine a comprehensive set of radiation observations from GEBA and BSRN with 43 state-of-the-art climate models to infer best estimates for present day annual mean downward solar and thermal radiation averaged over land and ocean surfaces, together with their uncertainty ranges. Over land (including the polar ice sheets), where most direct observations are available to constrain the surface fluxes, we obtain 184 and 306 Wm-2 for solar and thermal downward radiation, respectively. Over oceans, with weaker observational constraints, corresponding estimates are around 185 and 356 Wm-2. These values closely agree, mostly within 3 Wm-2, with the respective quantities independently derived by a state-of-the-art reanalysis (ERA-Interim) and satellite-derived product (surface CERES EBAF). This remarkable consistency enhances confidence in the determined flux magnitudes, which so far stated large uncertainty sources in the energy budgets. The estimated downward solar radiation averaged over land and ocean surfaces is almost identical despite differences in the incoming solar flux at the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) around 20 Wm-2, indicative of an overall less transparent atmosphere over oceans than land. Considering additionally surface albedo and emissivity, we infer a surface absorbed solar and net thermal radiation of 136 and -66 Wm-2 over land, and 170 and -53 Wm-2 over oceans, respectively. The surface net radiation is thus estimated at 70 Wm-2 over land and 117 Wm-2 over oceans, which may impose additional constraints on the poorly known sensible and latent heat flux magnitudes. These are estimated here near 32 and 38 Wm-2 over

  13. Sensitivity of pelagic calcification to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gangstø

    2011-02-01

    impacts on the marine carbonate cycle. The changes in saturation state confirm previous studies indicating that future anthropogenic CO2 emissions may lead to irreversible changes in ΩA for several centuries. Furthermore, due to the long-term changes in the deep ocean, the ratio of open water CaCO3 dissolution to production stabilizes by the year 2500 at a value that is 30–50% higher than at pre-industrial times when carbon emissions are set to zero after 2100.

  14. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  15. Oceanic thermohaline intrusions: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Barry; Kerr, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    This is a review of theories governing growth and evolution of thermohaline intrusive motions. We discuss theories based on eddy coefficients and salt finger flux ratios and also on molecular Fickian diffusion, drawing relationships and parallels where possible. We discuss linear theories of various physical configurations, effects of rotation and shear, and nonlinear theories. A key requirement for such theories to become quantitatively correct is the development and field testing of relationships between double-diffusive fluxes and average vertical gradients of temperature and salinity. While we have some ideas about the functional dependencies and rough observational constraints on the magnitudes of such flux/gradient relationships, many questions will not be answered until usable ‘flux laws’ exist. Furthermore, numerical experiments on double-diffusive intrusions are currently feasible, but will have more quantitative meaning when fluxes are parameterised with such laws. We conclude that more work needs to be done in at least two areas. Firstly, tests of linear theory against observations should continue, particularly to discover the extent to which linear theories actually explain the genesis of intrusions. Secondly, theoretical studies are needed on the nonlinear effects that control the evolution and finite amplitude state of intrusions, since these determine the lateral fluxes of salt, heat, and momentum.

  16. Search for cytotoxic agents in multiple Laurencia complex seaweed species (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta harvested from the Atlantic Ocean with emphasis on the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new anti-cancer drugs of algal origin represents one of the least explored frontiers in medicinal chemistry. In this regard, the diversity of micro- and macroalgae found in Brazilian coastal waters can be viewed as a largely untapped natural resource. In this report, we describe a comparative study on the cytotoxic properties of extracts obtained from the Laurencia complex: Laurencia aldingensis, L. catarinensis, L. dendroidea, L. intricata, L. translucida, L. sp, and Palisada flagellifera. All of these species were collected in the coastal waters of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Four out of the twelve samples initially investigated were found to show significant levels of toxicity towards a model tumor cell line (human uterine sarcoma, MES-SA. The highest levels of cytotoxicity were typically associated with non-polar (hexane algal extracts, while the lowest levels of cytotoxicity were found with the corresponding polar (methanol extracts. In this report, we also describe a biological model currently in development that will not only facilitate the search for new anti-cancer drug candidates of algal origin, but also permit the identification of compounds capable of inducing the destruction of multi-drug resistant tumors with greater efficiency than the pharmaceuticals currently in clinical use.

  17. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  18. Both respiration and photosynthesis determine the scaling of plankton metabolism in the oligotrophic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serret, Pablo; Robinson, Carol; Aranguren-Gassis, María; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Gist, Niki; Kitidis, Vassilis; Lozano, José; Stephens, John; Harris, Carolyn; Thomas, Rob

    2015-04-24

    Despite its importance to ocean-climate interactions, the metabolic state of the oligotrophic ocean has remained controversial for >15 years. Positions in the debate are that it is either hetero- or autotrophic, which suggests either substantial unaccounted for organic matter inputs, or that all available photosynthesis (P) estimations (including (14)C) are biased. Here we show the existence of systematic differences in the metabolic state of the North (heterotrophic) and South (autotrophic) Atlantic oligotrophic gyres, resulting from differences in both P and respiration (R). The oligotrophic ocean is neither auto- nor heterotrophic, but functionally diverse. Our results show that the scaling of plankton metabolism by generalized P:R relationships that has sustained the debate is biased, and indicate that the variability of R, and not only of P, needs to be considered in regional estimations of the ocean's metabolic state.

  19. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  20. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  1. Life in the oceanic realms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    The marine environment includes the nutrient-rich coastal waters, relatively nutrient-poor open oceanic waters, coral reef atolls, metal-rich hydrothermal vent fluids with temperatures of 200-350°C, cold-seeps, estuaries, mangrove swamps, intertidal...

  2. Archaeal nitrification in the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Herfort, L.; Bleijswijk, J. van; Timmers, P.; Strous, M.; Teira, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Marine Crenarchaeota are the most abundant single group of prokaryotes in the ocean, but their physiology and role in marine biogeochemical cycles are unknown. Recently, a member of this clade was isolated from a sea aquarium and shown to be capable of nitrification, tentatively suggesting that

  3. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales

  4. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  5. Temperature, salinity, and water chemistry data from quarterly surface transects of the Comprehensive Environmental Monitoring Program at the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant in Keahole, Island of Hawaii 1993-2016 (NCEI Accession 0156452)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NATURAL ENERGY LABORATORY OF HAWAII AUTHORITY (NELHA) is a state agency that operates a unique and innovative ocean science and Technology park in Kailua-Kona on...

  6. Temperature, salinity, and water chemistry data from quarterly bottom transects of the Comprehensive Environmental Monitoring Program at the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant in Keahole, Island of Hawaii 1993-2007 (NCEI Accession 0156980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NATURAL ENERGY LABORATORY OF HAWAII AUTHORITY (NELHA) is a state agency that operates a unique and innovative ocean science and technology park in Kailua-Kona on...

  7. Temperature, Salinity, and Water Chemistry Data from the Comprehensive Environmental Monitoring Program of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant at Keahole, Island of Hawaii, from Shallow and Deep Intake Pipes during 1982-2004 (NODC Accession 0001623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NATURAL ENERGY LABORATORY OF HAWAII AUTHORITY (NELHA) is a state agency that operates a unique and innovative ocean science and technology park in Kailua-Kona on...

  8. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1992-02-26 to 1993-04-14 (NODC Accession 9700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU) as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  9. Temperature, salinity, and water chemistry data from the Comprehensive Environmental Monitoring Program of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant at Keahole, Island of Hawaii, from shallow and deep intake pipes during 1982-2016 (NCEI Accession 0001623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NATURAL ENERGY LABORATORY OF HAWAII AUTHORITY (NELHA) is a state agency that operates a unique and innovative ocean science and technology park in Kailua-Kona on...

  10. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  11. A Southern Ocean variability study using the Argo-based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The era of satellite observations of the ocean surface that started at the end of the 20th century and the development of the Argo project in the first years of the 21st century, designed to collect information of the upper 2000 m of the ocean using satellites, provides unique opportunities for continuous monitoring of the Global Ocean state. Starting from 2005, measurements with the Argo floats have been performed over the majority of the World Ocean. In November 2007, the Argo program reached coverage of 3000 simultaneously operating floats (one float in a three-degree square) planned during the development of the program. Currently, 4000 Argo floats autonomously profile the upper 2000-m water column of the ocean from Antarctica to Spitsbergen increasing World Ocean temperature and salinity databases by 12000 profiles per month. This makes it possible to solve problems on reconstructing and monitoring the ocean state on an almost real-time basis, study the ocean dynamics, obtain reasonable estimates of the climatic state of the ocean in the last decade and estimate existing intraclimatic trends. We present the newly developed Argo-Based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO), which consists of a block for variational interpolation of the profiles of drifting Argo floats to a regular grid and a block for model hydrodynamic adjustment of variationally interpolated fields. Such a method makes it possible to obtain a full set of oceanographic characteristics - temperature, salinity, density, and current velocity - using irregularly located Argo measurements (the principle of the variational interpolation technique entails minimization of the misfit between the interpolated fields defined on the regular grid and irregularly distributed data; hence the optimal solution passes as close to the data as possible). The simulations were performed for the entire globe limited in the north by 85.5° N using 1° grid spacing in both longitude and latitude. At the

  12. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  13. Hidden depths: atlas of the oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theberge, Albert E; Lautenbacher, Conrad Charles

    2007-01-01

    Atlas developed by NOAA and the Smithsonian Institution devoted to ocean education and literacy, a product of a partnership to develop the Ocean Hall in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History...

  14. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NODC Accession 0114815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  15. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  16. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  17. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  18. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  19. Special and Research Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special permits and research permits under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act may be issued by EPA for ocean dumping. Examples and ocean disposal sites for special and research permits are provided.

  20. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  1. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  2. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  3. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  5. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  6. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  7. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  8. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  9. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  10. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  11. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  12. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  13. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  14. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  15. Targeted ocean sampling guidance for tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue; Cummings, James A.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sanabia, Elizabeth R.; Jayne, Steven R.

    2017-05-01

    A 3-D variational ocean data assimilation adjoint approach is used to examine the impact of ocean observations on coupled tropical cyclone (TC) model forecast error for three recent hurricanes: Isaac (2012), Hilda (2015), and Matthew (2016). In addition, this methodology is applied to develop an innovative ocean observation targeting tool validated using TC model simulations that assimilate ocean temperature observed by Airborne eXpendable Bathy Thermographs and Air-Launched Autonomous Micro-Observer floats. Comparison between the simulated targeted and real observation data assimilation impacts reveals a positive maximum mean linear correlation of 0.53 at 400-500 m, which implies some skill in the targeting application. Targeted ocean observation regions from these three hurricanes, however, show that the largest positive impacts in reducing the TC model forecast errors are sensitive to the initial prestorm ocean conditions such as the location and magnitude of preexisting ocean eddies, storm-induced ocean cold wake, and model track errors.

  16. The Arctic Ocean: opportunities of a new maritime boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valle Machado da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to global warming will not only have negative effects. In the case of maritime trade, the risk arising from the increase in the average temperature of the planet has some opportunities already being analyzed by various states. One such opportunity relates to the potential use of sea routes through the Arctic, linking the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The purpose of this article is to analyze the implications for maritime trade, resulting from the reduction of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean and to show which states are shaping the institutions and rules for use of this new opportunity. To achieve this goal, the text was divided into three sections. The first introduces the reader to the projections accessibility to navigation in the Arctic Ocean and the potential shipping routes that are revealed for the maritime trade. The second section of the paper examines how states with territory in the Arctic, as well as those with direct interests in the region, are articulating institutions for this purpose, notably the Arctic Council. The third and final section examines "how" and "why" China, a State exogenous to the Arctic, has managed to implement successful strategies in defense of their interests in the region.

  17. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  18. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Unnikrishnan, A

    The coastal ocean accounts for only 7% of the total oceanic area, but it plays a very important role in biogeochemical cycles. It not only exchanges energy and matter with the open ocean, but terrestrial inputs of materials such as freshwater...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  20. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  1. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  2. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  3. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  4. A Southern Ocean mode of multidecadal variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Bars, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326165150; Viebahn, J. P.; Dijkstra, H. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2016-01-01

    A 250 year simulation of a strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model reveals a new mode of intrinsic multidecadal variability, the Southern Ocean Mode (SOM), with a period of 40-50 year. The peak-to-peak difference in the global ocean heat content within a

  5. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with

  6. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  7. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  8. Ocean Prospects: A High School Teacher's Guide to Ocean-Related Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, C. M.

    Provided in this guide are resources for these 11 topics: the physical/geological ocean; the chemical/biological ocean; the ocean's coasts; fishing and aquaculture; tourism, recreation, and development; mining and drilling; research and exploration; maritime and military; ocean technology; pollution; and resource management. These resources…

  9. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  10. Decadal climate predictions improved by ocean ensemble dispersion filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Illing, S.; Kröner, I.; Ulbrich, U.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-06-01

    Decadal predictions by Earth system models aim to capture the state and phase of the climate several years in advance. Atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role for such climate forecasts. While short-term weather forecasts represent an initial value problem and long-term climate projections represent a boundary condition problem, the decadal climate prediction falls in-between these two time scales. In recent years, more precise initialization techniques of coupled Earth system models and increased ensemble sizes have improved decadal predictions. However, climate models in general start losing the initialized signal and its predictive skill from one forecast year to the next. Here we show that the climate prediction skill of an Earth system model can be improved by a shift of the ocean state toward the ensemble mean of its individual members at seasonal intervals. We found that this procedure, called ensemble dispersion filter, results in more accurate results than the standard decadal prediction. Global mean and regional temperature, precipitation, and winter cyclone predictions show an increased skill up to 5 years ahead. Furthermore, the novel technique outperforms predictions with larger ensembles and higher resolution. Our results demonstrate how decadal climate predictions benefit from ocean ensemble dispersion filtering toward the ensemble mean.Plain Language SummaryDecadal predictions aim to predict the climate several years in advance. Atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role for such climate forecasts. The ocean memory due to its heat capacity holds big potential skill. In recent years, more precise initialization techniques of coupled Earth system models (incl. atmosphere and ocean) have improved decadal predictions. Ensembles are another important aspect. Applying slightly perturbed predictions to trigger the famous butterfly effect results in an ensemble. Instead of evaluating one prediction, but the whole ensemble with its

  11. Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulten, Marco; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from ocean waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17 500 km length) full-depth ocean section of dissolved Mn in the west Atlantic Ocean, comprising 1320 data values of high accuracy. This is the GA02 transect that is part of the GEOTRACES programme, which aims to understand trace element distributions. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with new, state-of-the-art, modelling to give a first assessment of the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the ocean. Oxidation and (photo)reduction, aggregation and settling, as well as biological uptake and remineralisation by plankton are included in the model. Our model provides, together with the observations, the following insights: - The high surface concentrations of manganese are caused by the combination of photoreduction and sources contributing to the upper ocean. The most important sources are sediments, dust, and, more locally, rivers. - Observations and model simulations suggest that surface Mn in the Atlantic Ocean moves downwards into the southward-flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), but because of strong removal rates there is no elevated concentration of Mn visible any more in the NADW south of 40° N. - The model predicts lower dissolved Mn in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean than the observed concentrations. The intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in subsurface waters is deemed to be a major source of dissolved Mn also mixing upwards into surface waters, but the OMZ is not well represented by the model. Improved high-resolution simulation of the OMZ may solve this problem. - There is a mainly

  12. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume II."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami". The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including five papers devoted to new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Two papers compile results from global observations and eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in this volume describe studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and tsunami source studies. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  13. NAO-ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, S.; Navarra, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Scoccimarro, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The interplay between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the large scale ocean circulation is inspected in a twentieth century simulation conducted with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model. Significant lead-lag covariance between oceanic and tropospheric variables suggests that the system supports a damped oscillatory mode involving an active ocean-atmosphere coupling, with a typical NAO-like space structure and a 5 years timescale, qualitatively consistent with a mid-latitude delayed oscillator paradigm. The two essential processes governing the oscillation are (1) a negative feedback between ocean gyre circulation and the high latitude SST meridional gradient and (2) a positive feedback between SST and the NAO. The atmospheric NAO pattern appears to have a weaker projection on the ocean meridional overturning, compared to the gyre circulation, which leads to a secondary role for the thermohaline circulation in driving the meridional heat transport, and thus the oscillatory mode. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical Solution and Applications of Ocean Bottom Pressure Induced by Seismic Seafloor Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao; Cai, Chen; Zheng, Yong; Meng, Lingsen; Liu, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Seismic signals captured by ocean bottom pressure sensors, which are designed to record tsunami waves, are largely ignored. In this paper, we derive a simple theoretical solution of the ocean bottom pressure as a function of prescribed seafloor motion. All the assumptions are clearly stated and analyzed. The solution is checked by comparing the seafloor displacement and pressure from three M7+ earthquakes, recorded by ocean bottom seismometers and pressure gauges located off the Japanese coast. We then show two applications. First, using the seafloor displacement data recorded by an ocean bottom seismometer, the pressure amplitude recorded by the associated pressure gauge is corrected, and vice versa. Second, pressure recordings from Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake are converted to seafloor displacements, which are then utilized to estimate the earthquake focal mechanism. Thus, we demonstrate that seismic signals recorded by pressure sensors have great potential for fast estimate of earthquake source parameters.

  15. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  16. Spice: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Melet, A.; Maes, C.

    2010-12-01

    South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The south branch is associated with comparable impacts in the Tasman Sea area. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex circulation, with the SEC splitting in strong zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) position and intensity. The circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and Pacific Island countries initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. SPICE is a regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation and the SPCZ, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems. This ongoing project reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, coordinated with broader South Pacific projects.

  17. Ecology and physics of bacterial chemotaxis in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Roman; Seymour, Justin R

    2012-12-01

    Intuitively, it may seem that from the perspective of an individual bacterium the ocean is a vast, dilute, and largely homogeneous environment. Microbial oceanographers have typically considered the ocean from this point of view. In reality, marine bacteria inhabit a chemical seascape that is highly heterogeneous down to the microscale, owing to ubiquitous nutrient patches, plumes, and gradients. Exudation and excretion of dissolved matter by larger organisms, lysis events, particles, animal surfaces, and fluxes from the sediment-water interface all contribute to create strong and pervasive heterogeneity, where chemotaxis may provide a significant fitness advantage to bacteria. The dynamic nature of the ocean imposes strong selective pressures on bacterial foraging strategies, and many marine bacteria indeed display adaptations that characterize their chemotactic motility as "high performance" compared to that of enteric model organisms. Fast swimming speeds, strongly directional responses, and effective turning and steering strategies ensure that marine bacteria can successfully use chemotaxis to very rapidly respond to chemical gradients in the ocean. These fast responses are advantageous in a broad range of ecological processes, including attaching to particles, exploiting particle plumes, retaining position close to phytoplankton cells, colonizing host animals, and hovering at a preferred height above the sediment-water interface. At larger scales, these responses can impact ocean biogeochemistry by increasing the rates of chemical transformation, influencing the flux of sinking material, and potentially altering the balance of biomass incorporation versus respiration. This review highlights the physical and ecological processes underpinning bacterial motility and chemotaxis in the ocean, describes the current state of knowledge of chemotaxis in marine bacteria, and summarizes our understanding of how these microscale dynamics scale up to affect ecosystem

  18. Ecology and Physics of Bacterial Chemotaxis in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Intuitively, it may seem that from the perspective of an individual bacterium the ocean is a vast, dilute, and largely homogeneous environment. Microbial oceanographers have typically considered the ocean from this point of view. In reality, marine bacteria inhabit a chemical seascape that is highly heterogeneous down to the microscale, owing to ubiquitous nutrient patches, plumes, and gradients. Exudation and excretion of dissolved matter by larger organisms, lysis events, particles, animal surfaces, and fluxes from the sediment-water interface all contribute to create strong and pervasive heterogeneity, where chemotaxis may provide a significant fitness advantage to bacteria. The dynamic nature of the ocean imposes strong selective pressures on bacterial foraging strategies, and many marine bacteria indeed display adaptations that characterize their chemotactic motility as “high performance” compared to that of enteric model organisms. Fast swimming speeds, strongly directional responses, and effective turning and steering strategies ensure that marine bacteria can successfully use chemotaxis to very rapidly respond to chemical gradients in the ocean. These fast responses are advantageous in a broad range of ecological processes, including attaching to particles, exploiting particle plumes, retaining position close to phytoplankton cells, colonizing host animals, and hovering at a preferred height above the sediment-water interface. At larger scales, these responses can impact ocean biogeochemistry by increasing the rates of chemical transformation, influencing the flux of sinking material, and potentially altering the balance of biomass incorporation versus respiration. This review highlights the physical and ecological processes underpinning bacterial motility and chemotaxis in the ocean, describes the current state of knowledge of chemotaxis in marine bacteria, and summarizes our understanding of how these microscale dynamics scale up to affect

  19. Towards accounting for dissolved iron speciation in global ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tagliabue

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace metal iron (Fe is now routinely included in state-of-the-art ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry models (OGCBMs because of its key role as a limiting nutrient in regions of the world ocean important for carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange. However, the complexities of the seawater Fe cycle, which impact its speciation and bioavailability, are simplified in such OGCBMs due to gaps in understanding and to avoid high computational costs. In a similar fashion to inorganic carbon speciation, we outline a means by which the complex speciation of Fe can be included in global OGCBMs in a reasonably cost-effective manner. We construct an Fe speciation model based on hypothesised relationships between rate constants and environmental variables (temperature, light, oxygen, pH, salinity and assumptions regarding the binding strengths of Fe complexing organic ligands and test hypotheses regarding their distributions. As a result, we find that the global distribution of different Fe species is tightly controlled by spatio-temporal environmental variability and the distribution of Fe binding ligands. Impacts on bioavailable Fe are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding which Fe species are bioavailable and how those species vary in space and time. When forced by representations of future ocean circulation and climate we find large changes to the speciation of Fe governed by pH mediated changes to redox kinetics. We speculate that these changes may exert selective pressure on phytoplankton Fe uptake strategies in the future ocean. In future work, more information on the sources and sinks of ocean Fe ligands, their bioavailability, the cycling of colloidal Fe species and kinetics of Fe-surface coordination reactions would be invaluable. We hope our modeling approach can provide a means by which new observations of Fe speciation can be tested against hypotheses of the processes present in governing the ocean Fe cycle in an

  20. Potential Increasing Dominance of Heterotrophy in the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, K.; Meissner, K. J.; Keller, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Autotrophs are largely limited by resources in the modern ocean. However, standard metabolic theory suggests continued ocean warming could globally benefit heterotrophs, thereby reducing autotrophic nutrient limitation. The paleo record as well as modern observations offer evidence this has happened in the past and could happen again. Increasing dominance of heterotrophs would result in strong nutrient recycling in the upper ocean and high rates of net primary production (NPP), yet low carbon export to the deep ocean and sediments. We describe the transition towards such a state in the early 22nd century as a response to business-as-usual Representative Concentration Pathway forcing (RCP8.5) in an intermediate complexity Earth system model in three configurations: with and without an explicit calcifier phytoplankton class and calcite ballast model. In all models nutrient regeneration in the near surface becomes an increasingly important driver of primary production. The near-linear relationship between changes in NPP and global sea surface temperature (SST) found over the 21st century becomes exponential above a 2-4 °C global mean SST change. This transition to a more heterotrophic ocean agrees roughly with metabolic theory. Inclusion of small phytoplankton and calcifiers increase the model NPP:SST sensitivity because of their relatively higher nutrient affinity than general phytoplankton. Accounting for organic carbon "protected" from remineralization by carbonate ballast mitigates the exponential increase in NPP and provides an increasingly important pathway for deep carbon export with higher SST changes, despite simultaneous increasing carbonate dissolution rates due to ocean acidification.

  1. 77 FR 15358 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and..., National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. BILLING CODE 3510-NK-M ...

  2. Indian Ocean Networks and the Transmutations of Servitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2016-01-01

    the colonial state. The institution of the Protector of Indian Immigrants is highlighted as a central ingredient in state building, which served to give legitimacy in regulating the supply of labour. The early history of the Protector’s work in the 1870s is given special attention as regards the introduction......Focusing on Durban and its harbour, the article discusses the importation of different kinds of transnational bonded labour into Natal in the last half of the 19th century, and examines the ways in which Southern African and Indian Ocean histories were intertwined in the processes that built...... into Natal of freed slaves from the Indian Ocean coast, of indentured labourers from India, and of ‘Amatonga’ migrant workers from Mozambique. An 1877 murder case is discussed, which led to the forced resignation of a Protector, as it threatened to undermine the respectability of the institution. The article...

  3. Motionally-induced electromagnetic fields generated by idealized ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. H.; Mysak, L. A.

    . How can we know that measured magnetic variations are due to variations in the ocean induction and not due to sources in the ionosphere or earth's core? This is a difficult problem, but there may be some ways to resolve it. Variations in ocean circulation or conductivity are rather slow compared to the rapid magnetic storms and most other variations due to external sources. Also the external effects at the earth's surface tend to have large spatial scales which allows removal using techniques such as 'remote referencing' as done by Lilley et al. (1993). With regard to sources in the earth's core, the geometric and electromagnetic filtering by the mantle are thought to prevent all but the lowest frequencies from reaching the earth's surface. Hence, it is conceivable that at the earth's surface, magnetic fields due to the earth's core can only appear as relatively smooth, slowly-varying fields with periods of decadal scale and longer. Hence, there is probably a fortuitous 'spectral window' through which we can view interannual variations in the ocean-induced fields. It is also important that the accuracy in measuring the time rate of change of the magnetic field on these time scales is greater than the accuracy of the field values (at least at the land observatories). This is because when differencing the magnetic series, errors in the baseline drift are reduced. Hence, it is probable that fluctuations in the ocean-induced magnetic fields would be easier to detect than the steady-state fields. The results presented here should also be helpful in designing future strategies for numerically modelling the ocean-induced electromagnetic fields. As we mentioned, (73) is similar in principle to the two-dimensional equation solved by Stephenson and Bryan (1992) but is more general, allowing for a more realistic description of conductivity and allowing for horizontal divergence in the conductivity transport. Other results in this paper may be helpful in finding new approaches to

  4. Ocean Networks Canada: Live Sensing of a Dynamic Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Juniper, Kim; Hoeberechts, Maia; Matabos, Marjolaine; Mihaly, Steven; Scherwath, Martin; Dewey, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two advanced cabled networks on the west coast of British Columbia. VENUS, the coastal network consisting of two cabled arrays with four Nodes reaching an isolated fjord (Saanich Inlet) and a busy shipping corridor near Vancouver (the Strait of Georgia) went into operation in February 2006. NEPTUNE Canada is the first operational deep-sea regional cabled ocean observatory worldwide. Since the first data began streaming to the public in 2009, instruments on the five active nodes along the 800 km cable loop have gathered a time-series documenting three years in the northeastern Pacific. Observations cover the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from ridge to trench and the continental shelf and slope off Vancouver Island. The cabled systems provide power and high bandwidth communications to a wide range of oceanographic instrument systems which measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological conditions of the dynamic earth-ocean system. Over the years significant challenges have been overcome and currently we have more than 100 instruments with hundreds of sensors reporting data in real-time. Salient successes are the first open-ocean seafloor to sea-surface vertical profiling system, three years of operation of Wally—a seafloor crawler that explores a hydrate mound, and a proven resilient cable design that can recover from trawler hits and major equipment meltdown with minimal loss of data. A network wide array of bottom mounted pressure recorders and seismometers recorded the passage of three major tsunamis, numerous earthquakes and frequent whale calls. At the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge high temperature and diffuse vent fluids were monitored and sampled using novel equipment, including high resolution active acoustics instrumentation to study plume dynamics at a massive sulfide hydrothermal vent. Also, four deep sea cabled moorings (300 m high) were placed in the precipitous bathymetry of the 2200 m

  5. Eventos extremos de precipitação no estado do Ceará e suas relações com a temperatura dos oceanos tropicais Extreme rainfall events in Ceará state and its relationship with tropical oceans temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho é prover informações sobre as tendências recentes dos eventos extremos de precipitação sobre o Estado do Ceará, associando esses eventos extremos às anomalias de Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM nos Oceanos Pacífico e Atlântico. Foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de 18 postos de 1971 a 2006 e o método de Mann-Kendall foi utilizado na obtenção das tendências. Os resultados mostram que existem características de aumento nas intensidades das secas e diminuição dos eventos de precipitação forte, e que o aumento nas anomalias de TSM no Pacífico e ao norte do equador, no Oceano Atlântico, acarreta em um aumento do número de dias consecutivos secos no norte do Ceará. Os índices extremos de precipitação mostraram correlações negativas com as anomalias de TSM nas regiões do Pacífico do Atlântico Tropical Norte e positivas com a região do Atlântico Tropical Sul. Entretanto, para a região sul do Ceará, o comportamento dos dias consecutivos chuvosos indica que o período chuvoso é governado por outros sistemas atmosféricos, necessitando assim, ser melhor estudado para o entendimento desse comportamento.The main objective of this study is to provide information about recent trends of extreme rainfall over Ceará State, associating these extreme events with Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Mann-Kendall method is applied to rainfall data of 18 rain gauges from 1971 to 2006 to obtain the trends. The results show that the drought intensity is increasing and the heavy precipitation events are decreasing and that the increase in the Pacific and north of equator Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies lead to an increase in the number of consecutive dry days in northern Ceará. Rainfall extreme indices have shown negative correlations with SST anomalies on Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic regions and positive with Tropical South Atlantic region

  6. A data assimilating model for estimating Southern Ocean biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdy, A.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    A Biogeochemical Southern Ocean State Estimate (B-SOSE) is introduced that includes carbon and oxygen fields as well as nutrient cycles. The state estimate is constrained with observations while maintaining closed budgets and obeying dynamical and thermodynamic balances. Observations from profiling floats, shipboard data, underway measurements, and satellites are used for assimilation. The years 2008-2012 are chosen due to the relative abundance of oxygen observations from Argo floats during this time. The skill of the state estimate at fitting the data is assessed. The agreement is best for fields that are constrained with the most observations, such as surface pCO2 in Drake Passage (44% of the variance captured) and oxygen profiles (over 60% of the variance captured at 200 and 1000 m). The validity of adjoint method optimization for coupled physical-biogeochemical state estimation is demonstrated with a series of gradient check experiments. The method is shown to be mature and ready to synthesize in situ biogeochemical observations as they become more available. Documenting the B-SOSE configuration and diagnosing the strengths and weaknesses of the solution informs usage of this product as both a climate baseline and as a way to test hypotheses. Transport of Intermediate Waters across 32°S supplies significant amounts of nitrate to the Atlantic Ocean (5.57 ± 2.94 Tmol yr-1) and Indian Ocean (5.09 ± 3.06 Tmol yr-1), but much less nitrate reaches the Pacific Ocean (1.78 ± 1.91 Tmol yr-1). Estimates of air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes south of 50°S suggest a mean uptake of 0.18 Pg C/yr for the time period analyzed.

  7. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  8. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...

  9. Biological Activity at Oceanic Fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    intrusions from the Gulf Stream are characterized by relatively low temperatures, high chlorophyll a, and high particle concentrations ( Paffenhofer et al...Pacific Ocean. Laurs and Lynn (1977) 32 . ... .. References 𔄁’ Atkinson, L.P., G.-A• Paffenhofer , and W•P1. Dunstan. 197S. The chemica .:: and biological...conditions in the northease Pacific and their relation to the albacore fishery. Fish. Bull. U.S. 66: 503-526. Paffenhofer , G. 1980. Zooplankton

  10. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  11. Upgraded Worldwide Ocean Optics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    400,000 profiles of CHLa, nutrients (O2, NO3, SiO4, PO4 ), temperature, and salinity Rutgers “RU6” NW Atlantic glider dataset 2,290 profiles of...and Atmospheric Admin. National Wetlands Research Center, USGS Naval Cmd Control & Ocean Surveil. Center Naval Postgraduate School Naval...Laboratory National Wetlands Research Center, USGS Naval Postgraduate School Naval Research Laboratory Naval Surface Warfare Center Naval Undersea

  12. Microorganisms and ocean global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, David A; Fu, Feixue

    2017-05-25

    The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that drive the pelagic ocean's biogeochemical cycles are currently facing an unprecedented set of comprehensive anthropogenic changes. Nearly every important control on marine microbial physiology is currently in flux, including seawater pH, pCO2, temperature, redox chemistry, irradiance and nutrient availability. Here, we examine how microorganisms with key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to these changes in the Earth's largest ecosystem. Some functional groups such as nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and denitrifiers may be net beneficiaries of these changes, while others such as calcifiers and nitrifiers may be negatively impacted. Other groups, such as heterotrophic bacteria, may be relatively resilient to changing conditions. The challenge for marine microbiologists will be to predict how these divergent future responses of marine microorganisms to complex multiple variable interactions will be expressed through changing biogeography, community structure and adaptive evolution, and ultimately through large-scale alterations of the ocean's carbon and nutrient cycles.

  13. Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raxworthy, C J; Forstner, M R J; Nussbaum, R A

    2002-02-14

    Historical biogeography is dominated by vicariance methods that search for a congruent pattern of fragmentation of ancestral distributions produced by shared Earth history. A focus of vicariant studies has been austral area relationships and the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. Chameleons are one of the few extant terrestrial vertebrates thought to have biogeographic patterns that are congruent with the Gondwanan break-up of Madagascar and Africa. Here we show, using molecular and morphological evidence for 52 chameleon taxa, support for a phylogeny and area cladogram that does not fit a simple vicariant history. Oceanic dispersal--not Gondwanan break-up--facilitated species radiation, and the most parsimonious biogeographic hypothesis supports a Madagascan origin for chameleons, with multiple 'out-of-Madagascar' dispersal events to Africa, the Seychelles, the Comoros archipelago, and possibly Reunion Island. Although dispersal is evident in other Indian Ocean terrestrial animal groups, our study finds substantial out-of-Madagascar species radiation, and further highlights the importance of oceanic dispersal as a potential precursor for speciation.

  14. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  15. Effective resolution in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves; Capet, Xavier; Jouanno, Julien; Lemarie, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. Also, the ubiquity of upper ocean frontal dynamics driving a direct energy cascade is now acknowledged. In the forward cascade framework, numerical and physical closures are more consistent in principle, but dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Therefore, effective resolution can be defined by its numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). The COMODO project gathers the whole French ocean modeling community in order to assess current numerical methods and guide the development of future models. Within this framework, we present an idealized ACC-type Jet case, which provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare analyses performed on simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 1 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of turbulent cascade, numerical dissipation, and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms.

  16. Archaeal nitrification in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Abbas, Ben; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Herfort, Lydie; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Timmers, Peer; Strous, Marc; Teira, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2006-01-01

    Marine Crenarchaeota are the most abundant single group of prokaryotes in the ocean, but their physiology and role in marine biogeochemical cycles are unknown. Recently, a member of this clade was isolated from a sea aquarium and shown to be capable of nitrification, tentatively suggesting that Crenarchaeota may play a role in the oceanic nitrogen cycle. We enriched a crenarchaeote from North Sea water and showed that its abundance, and not that of bacteria, correlates with ammonium oxidation to nitrite. A time series study in the North Sea revealed that the abundance of the gene encoding for the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase alfa subunit (amoA) is correlated with a decline in ammonium concentrations and with the abundance of Crenarchaeota. Remarkably, the archaeal amoA abundance was 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those of bacterial nitrifiers, which are commonly thought to mediate the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite in marine environments. Analysis of Atlantic waters of the upper 1,000 m, where most of the ammonium regeneration and oxidation takes place, showed that crenarchaeotal amoA copy numbers are also 1–3 orders of magnitude higher than those of bacterial amoA. Our data thus suggest a major role for Archaea in oceanic nitrification. PMID:16894176

  17. Plankton distribution and ocean dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Margaret Anne; Woodson, C Brock

    2012-03-15

    Plankton are small organisms that dwell in oceans, seas and bodies of fresh water. In this review, we discuss life in the plankton, which involves a balance between the behavioral capabilities of the organism and the characteristics and movement of the water that surrounds it. In order to consider this balance, we discuss how plankton interact with their environment across a range of scales - from the smallest viruses and bacteria to larger phytoplankton and zooplankton. We find that the larger scale distributions of plankton, observed in coastal waters, along continental shelves and in ocean basins, are highly dependent upon the smaller scale interactions between the individual organism and its environment. Further, we discuss how larger scale organism distributions may affect the transport and/or retention of plankton in the ocean environment. The research reviewed here provides a mechanistic understanding of how organism behavior in response to the physical environment produces planktonic aggregations, which has a direct impact on the way marine ecosystems function.

  18. The nonlinear North Atlantic-Arctic ocean response to CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2017-04-01

    Most climate models project an increase in oceanic energy transport towards high northern latitudes in future climate projections, but the physical mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To obtain a more fundamental understanding of the processes that cause the ocean heat transport to increase, we carried out a set of sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Within these experiments, atmospheric CO2 levels are instantaneously set to one-fourth to four times current values. These model integrations, each with a length of 550 years, result in five considerably different quasi-equilibrium climate states. Our simulations show that poleward ocean heat transport in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic at 70°N increases from 0.03 PW in the coldest climate state to 0.2 PW in the warmest climate state. This increase is caused primarily by changes in sea ice cover, in horizontal ocean currents owing to anomalous winds in response to sea ice changes, and in ocean advection of thermal anomalies. Surprisingly, at subpolar latitudes, the subpolar gyre is found to weaken toward both the warmer and colder climates, relative to the current climate. This nonlinear response is caused by a complex interplay between seasonal sea ice melt, the near-surface wind response to sea ice changes, and changes in the density-driven circulation. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its associated heat transport even oppose the total ocean heat transport towards the Arctic in the warmest climate. Going from warm to cold climates, or from high to low CO2 concentrations, the strength of the AMOC initially increases, but then declines towards the coldest climate, implying a nonlinear AMOC-response to CO2-induced climate change. Evidently, the North Atlantic-Arctic ocean heat transport depends on an interplay between various (remote) coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice mechanisms that respond in a nonlinear way to climate change.

  19. Exploring Freud's Resistance to The Oceanic Feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This paper takes up Romain Rolland's description of a nearly universal "oceanic feeling" and considers Freud's avowed disinterest in this concept. Herman Melville elaborates and expands the concept of the oceanic in the text of Moby Dick, juxtaposing Ishmael's oceanic reverie while up high on the masthead with Ahab's focused determination to destroy Moby Dick. Melville's extension of the concept recasts the oceanic as an aspect of Freud's recommendations about the necessary conditions for psychoanalytic process, inviting a comparison of going to sea with going into analysis. Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents allows for further thoughts about the danger Freud recognizes in this feeling, a way that the oceanic feeling may be an expression of the death instinct. Together, these explorations point in the direction both of a centrality of an oceanic experience in psychoanalysis and a recognition of the risks that the oceanic entails, deepening our understanding of the many reasons Freud might have wished to avoid it.

  20. The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Codispoti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available New data force us to raise previous estimates of oceanic denitrification. Our revised estimate of ~ 450 Tg N yr-1 (Tg = 1012 g produces an oceanic fixed N budget with a large deficit (~ 200 Tg N yr-1 that can be explained only by positing an ocean that has deviated far from a steady-state, the need for a major upwards revision of fixed N inputs, particularly nitrogen fixation, or both. Oceanic denitrification can be significantly altered by small re-distributions of carbon and dissolved oxygen. Since fixed N is a limiting nutrient, uncompensated changes in denitrification affect the ocean´s ability to sequester atmospheric CO2 via the "biological pump". We have also had to modify our concepts of the oceanic N2O regime to take better account of the extremely high N2O saturations that can arise in productive, low oxygen waters. Recent results from the western Indian Shelf during a period when hypoxic, suboxic and anoxic waters were present produced a maximum surface N2O saturation of > 8000%, a likely consequence of "stop and go" denitrification. The sensitivity of N2O production and consumption to small changes in the oceanic dissolved oxygen distribution and to the "spin-up" phase of denitrification suggests that the oceanic source term for N2O could change rapidly.

  1. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P model (Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250-800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within 0.074 mW/sq cm/micron/sr of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of 10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P model and resulting radiances. The reported error characterization suggests that the global dynamical simulation can support some aspects of mission design and analysis. For example, the high spectral resolution of the simulation supports investigations of band selection. The global nature of the radiance representations supports investigations of satellite observing scenarios

  2. FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Brewer; Dr. James Barry

    2002-09-30

    papers submitted for the Greenhouse Gas Technology--6 Conference (Kyoto) accepted. (10) Been nominated by the U.S. Dept. of State to attend the Nov. 2002 IPCC Workshop on Carbon Capture and Storage. (11) Given presentations at national meetings, including the AGU Ocean Sciences Meeting, the American Chemical Society, the Minerals, Materials, and Metals Society, the National Academy of Engineering, and given numerous invited lectures.

  3. Modelling the volatile and organic content of Enceladus' ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Lunine, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    A variety of Cassini data on Enceladus suggest that the jets of material spraying out of the south polar region of this Saturnian moon are connected to a regional or global ocean below an icy crust -- an ocean in contact with a rocky core [1, 2, 3]. In this study we construct models of the mineralogical and elemental composition of Enceladus' rocky core so as to predict the abundance of species that may provide more detail on the extent of hydrothermal evolution of the ocean and its interaction with the rocky core. Using equations of state of the relevant material, the models are made consistent with the values of the gravity coefficients [1]. We investigate the amount of organic molecules (amino acids and fatty acids) as well as the amount of 40Ar that could be present in Enceladus' deep ocean and, therefore, in the icy grains expelled into space. Some models show that the conditions in Enceladus rocky core can be very similar to those existing in the Earth's oceanic crust, suggesting that all of Enceladus rocky core would have been leached over the age of the solar system. The amount of 40Ar dissolved in the ocean provides constraints on the amount of K in the building blocks of Enceladus, the amount of leaching of the silicate fraction, and the extent of the ocean. Based on chondritic abundances for K, we have calculated that the total potential of 40Ar is about 5.6x1012 kg. We also investigate the amount of organic material that would have been concentrated in the ocean. The Murchison meteorite contains about 60 ppm of amino acids, mainly glycine [4]. Assuming that all the rocky core has been leached by water, the modelled concentration of amino acids exceeds 150 ppm. Carboxylic acids were detected in the Asuka carbonaceous chondrites in Antarctica with values, for example, of 90 nmol/g of benzoic acid. Assuming this value, about 35 ppm of benzoic acid would be present in Enceladus' ocean. The concentrations are larger if the ocean is not global, but rather

  4. Offshore remote sensing of the ocean by stereo vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Guillermo; Shih, Ping-Chang; Benetazzo, Alvise; Yezzi, Anthony; Fedele, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, remote sensing imaging systems for the measurement of oceanic sea states have attracted renovated attention. Imaging technology is economical, non-invasive and enables a better understanding of the space-time dynamics of ocean waves over an area rather than at selected point locations of previous monitoring methods (buoys, wave gauges, etc.). We present recent progress in space-time measurement of ocean waves using stereo vision systems on offshore platforms, which focus on sea states with wavelengths in the range of 0.01 m to 1 m. Both traditional disparity-based systems and modern elevation-based ones are presented in a variational optimization framework: the main idea is to pose the stereoscopic reconstruction problem of the surface of the ocean in a variational setting and design an energy functional whose minimizer is the desired temporal sequence of wave heights. The functional combines photometric observations as well as spatial and temporal smoothness priors. Disparity methods estimate the disparity between images as an intermediate step toward retrieving the depth of the waves with respect to the cameras, whereas elevation methods estimate the ocean surface displacements directly in 3-D space. Both techniques are used to measure ocean waves from real data collected at offshore platforms in the Black Sea (Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine) and the Northern Adriatic Sea (Venice coast, Italy). Then, the statistical and spectral properties of the resulting oberved waves are analyzed. We show the advantages and disadvantages of the presented stereo vision systems and discuss furure lines of research to improve their performance in critical issues such as the robustness of the camera calibration in spite of undesired variations of the camera parameters or the processing time that it takes to retrieve ocean wave measurements from the stereo videos, which are very large datasets that need to be processed efficiently to be of practical usage

  5. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  6. Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Honecker, Johanna

    The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved...... gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from...... as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models....

  7. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  8. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. Gravity Data for the State of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are presented. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily...

  12. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  14. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pfeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC. Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

  15. Ocean barrier layers' effect on tropical cyclone intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Leung, L Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are "quasi-permanent" features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  16. Enhanced Weathering Strategies for Stabilizing Climate and Averting Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Quirk, Joe; Thorley, Rachel M. S.; Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James; Ridgwell, Andy; Lomas, Mark R.; Banwart, Steve A.; Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical breakdown of rocks, weathering, is an important but very slow part of the carbon cycle that ultimately leads to CO2 being locked up in carbonates on the ocean floor. Artificial acceleration of this carbon sink via distribution of pulverized silicate rocks across terrestrial landscapes may help offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We show that idealized enhanced weathering scenarios over less than a third of tropical land could cause significant drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and ameliorate ocean acidification by 2100. Global carbon cycle modelling driven by ensemble Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) projections of twenty-first-century climate change (RCP8.5, business-as-usual; RCP4.5, medium-level mitigation) indicates that enhanced weathering could lower atmospheric CO2 by 30-300 ppm by 2100, depending mainly on silicate rock application rate (1 kg or 5 kg m(exp -2) yr (exp -1)) and composition. At the higher application rate, end-of-century ocean acidification is reversed under RCP4.5 and reduced by about two-thirds under RCP8.5. Additionally, surface ocean aragonite saturation state, a key control on coral calcification rates, is maintained above 3.5 throughout the low latitudes, thereby helping maintain the viability of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, we highlight major issues of cost, social acceptability, and potential unanticipated consequences that will limit utilization and emphasize the need for urgent efforts to phase down fossil fuel emissions.

  17. Manganese in the world ocean: a first global model

    CERN Document Server

    van Hulten, M M P; Middag, R; de Baar, H J W; Roy-Barman, M; Gehlen, M; Tagliabue, A; Sterl, A

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element, and its oxidised form is involved in the removal of trace elements from ocean waters. Recently, a large number of highly accurate Mn measurements have been obtained in the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans as part of the GEOTRACES programme. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with state-of-the-art modelling to give new insights into the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account, realistically, for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the ocean. Whereas oxidation and (photo)reduction, as well as aggregation and settling are parameterised in the model, biological uptake is not yet taken into account by the model. Our model reproduces observations accurately and provides the following insights: - The high surface concentrations of manganese are c...

  18. Seagrass ecophysiological performance under ocean warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Duarte, Bernardo; Dionísio, Gisela; Paula, José Ricardo; Lopes, Ana R; Rosa, Inês C; Grilo, Tiago F; Caçador, Isabel; Calado, Ricardo; Rosa, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Seagrasses play an essential ecological role within coastal habitats and their worldwide population decline has been linked to different types of anthropogenic forces. We investigated, for the first time, the combined effects of future ocean warming and acidification on fundamental biological processes of Zostera noltii, including shoot density, leaf coloration, photophysiology (electron transport rate, ETR; maximum PSII quantum yield, Fv/Fm) and photosynthetic pigments. Shoot density was severely affected under warming conditions, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of brownish colored leaves (seagrass die-off). Warming was responsible for a significant decrease in ETR and Fv/Fm (particularly under control pH conditions), while promoting the highest ETR variability (among experimental treatments). Warming also elicited a significant increase in pheophytin and carotenoid levels, alongside an increase in carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio and De-Epoxidation State (DES). Acidification significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin), with a significant decrease being recorded under the warming scenario. No significant interaction between ocean acidification and warming was observed. Our findings suggest that future ocean warming will be a foremost determinant stressor influencing Z. noltii survival and physiological performance. Additionally, acidification conditions to occur in the future will be unable to counteract deleterious effects posed by ocean warming.

  19. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  20. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.