Sub-Grid-Scale Description of Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamics
Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could permit this instead of the too rare binary collisions. We investigated the influence of turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a single fluid compressible MHD approach. The goal is to find out, whether unresolved, sub-grid for MHD simulations, turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high Reynolds number astrophysical plasma. We solve, simultaneously with the grid-scale MHD equations, evolution equations for the sub-grid turbulent energy and cross helicity according to Yokoi's model (Yokoi (2013)) where turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. Simulations of Harris and force free sheets confirm the results of Higashimori et al. (2013) and new results are obtained about the dependence on resistivity for large Reynolds number as well as guide field effects. The amount of energy transferred f...
Sub-grid-scale description of turbulent magnetic reconnection in magnetohydrodynamics
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Widmer, F., E-mail: widmer@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Büchner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Yokoi, N. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)
2016-04-15
Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could transport energy from large to small scales where binary particle collisions are rare. We have investigated the influence of small scale magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a compressible MHD approach including sub-grid-scale (SGS) turbulence. For this sake, we considered Harris-type and force-free current sheets with finite guide magnetic fields directed out of the reconnection plane. The goal is to find out whether unresolved by conventional simulations MHD turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high-Reynolds-number astrophysical plasmas. Together with the MHD equations, we solve evolution equations for the SGS energy and cross-helicity due to turbulence according to a Reynolds-averaged turbulence model. The SGS turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. By this way, the feedback of the unresolved turbulence into the MHD reconnection process is taken into account. It is shown that the turbulence controls the regimes of reconnection by its characteristic timescale τ{sub t}. The dependence on resistivity was investigated for large-Reynolds-number plasmas for Harris-type as well as force-free current sheets with guide field. We found that magnetic reconnection depends on the relation between the molecular and apparent effective turbulent resistivity. We found that the turbulence timescale τ{sub t} decides whether fast reconnection takes place or whether the stored energy is just diffused away to small scale turbulence. If the amount of energy transferred from large to small scales is enhanced, fast reconnection can take place. Energy spectra allowed us to characterize the different regimes of reconnection. It was found that reconnection is even faster for larger Reynolds numbers controlled by the molecular
Wang, Qing; Zhao, Xinyu; Ihme, Matthias
2017-11-01
Particle-laden turbulent flows are important in numerous industrial applications, such as spray combustion engines, solar energy collectors etc. It is of interests to study this type of flows numerically, especially using large-eddy simulations (LES). However, capturing the turbulence-particle interaction in LES remains challenging due to the insufficient representation of the effect of sub-grid scale (SGS) dispersion. In the present work, a closure technique for the SGS dispersion using regularized deconvolution method (RDM) is assessed. RDM was proposed as the closure for the SGS dispersion in a counterflow spray that is studied numerically using finite difference method on a structured mesh. A presumed form of LES filter is used in the simulations. In the present study, this technique has been extended to finite volume method with an unstructured mesh, where no presumption on the filter form is required. The method is applied to a series of particle-laden turbulent jets. Parametric analyses of the model performance are conducted for flows with different Stokes numbers and Reynolds numbers. The results from LES will be compared against experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS).
Samtaney, Ravi
2012-01-01
We present a numerical method based on an Eulerian approach to solve the Vlasov-Poisson system for 4D drift kinetic turbulence. Our numerical approach uses a conservative formulation with high-order (fourth and higher) evaluation of the numerical fluxes coupled with a fourth-order accurate Poisson solver. The fluxes are computed using a low-dissipation high-order upwind differencing method or a tuned high-resolution finite difference method with no numerical dissipation. Numerical results are presented for the case of imposed ion temperature and density gradients. Different forms of controlled regularization to achieve a well-posed system are used to obtain convergent resolved simulations. The regularization of the equations is achieved by means of a simple collisional model, by inclusion of an ad-hoc hyperviscosity or artificial viscosity term or by implicit dissipation in upwind schemes. Comparisons between the various methods and regularizations are presented. We apply a filtering formalism to the Vlasov equation and derive sub-grid-scale (SGS) terms analogous to the Reynolds stress terms in hydrodynamic turbulence. We present a priori quantifications of these SGS terms in resolved simulations of drift-kinetic turbulence by applying a sharp filter. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
A new downscaling method for sub-grid turbulence modeling
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L. Rottner
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this study we explore a new way to model sub-grid turbulence using particle systems. The ability of particle systems to model small-scale turbulence is evaluated using high-resolution numerical simulations. These high-resolution data are averaged to produce a coarse-grid velocity field, which is then used to drive a complete particle-system-based downscaling. Wind fluctuations and turbulent kinetic energy are compared between the particle simulations and the high-resolution simulation. Despite the simplicity of the physical model used to drive the particles, the results show that the particle system is able to represent the average field. It is shown that this system is able to reproduce much finer turbulent structures than the numerical high-resolution simulations. In addition, this study provides an estimate of the effective spatial and temporal resolution of the numerical models. This highlights the need for higher-resolution simulations in order to evaluate the very fine turbulent structures predicted by the particle systems. Finally, a study of the influence of the forcing scale on the particle system is presented.
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Greg Yarwood
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Multi-pollutant chemical transport models (CTMs are being routinely used to predict the impacts of emission controls on the concentrations and deposition of primary and secondary pollutants. While these models have a fairly comprehensive treatment of the governing atmospheric processes, they are unable to correctly represent processes that occur at very fine scales, such as the near-source transport and chemistry of emissions from elevated point sources, because of their relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Several different approaches have been used to address this limitation, such as using fine grids, adaptive grids, hybrid modeling, or an embedded sub-grid scale plume model, i.e., plume-in-grid (PinG modeling. In this paper, we first discuss the relative merits of these various approaches used to resolve sub-grid scale effects in grid models, and then focus on PinG modeling which has been very effective in addressing the problems listed above. We start with a history and review of PinG modeling from its initial applications for ozone modeling in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM in the early 1980s using a relatively simple plume model, to more sophisticated and state-of-the-science plume models, that include a full treatment of gas-phase, aerosol, and cloud chemistry, embedded in contemporary models such as CMAQ, CAMx, and WRF-Chem. We present examples of some typical results from PinG modeling for a variety of applications, discuss the implications of PinG on model predictions of source attribution, and discuss possible future developments and applications for PinG modeling.
Evapotranspiration and cloud variability at regional sub-grid scales
Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Sikma, Martin; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Hartogensis, Oscar; Ouwersloot, Huug
2017-04-01
In regional and global models uncertainties arise due to our incomplete understanding of the coupling between biochemical and physical processes. Representing their impact depends on our ability to calculate these processes using physically sound parameterizations, since they are unresolved at scales smaller than the grid size. More specifically over land, the coupling between evapotranspiration, turbulent transport of heat and moisture, and clouds lacks a combined representation to take these sub-grid scales interactions into account. Our approach is based on understanding how radiation, surface exchange, turbulent transport and moist convection are interacting from the leaf- to the cloud scale. We therefore place special emphasis on plant stomatal aperture as the main regulator of CO2-assimilation and water transpiration, a key source of moisture source to the atmosphere. Plant functionality is critically modulated by interactions with atmospheric conditions occurring at very short spatiotemporal scales such as cloud radiation perturbations or water vapour turbulent fluctuations. By explicitly resolving these processes, the LES (large-eddy simulation) technique is enabling us to characterize and better understand the interactions between canopies and the local atmosphere. This includes the adaption time of vegetation to rapid changes in atmospheric conditions driven by turbulence or the presence of cumulus clouds. Our LES experiments are based on explicitly coupling the diurnal atmospheric dynamics to a plant physiology model. Our general hypothesis is that different partitioning of direct and diffuse radiation leads to different responses of the vegetation. As a result there are changes in the water use efficiencies and shifts in the partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes under the presence of clouds. Our presentation is as follows. First, we discuss the ability of LES to reproduce the surface energy balance including photosynthesis and CO2 soil
M. Cassiani; Vinuesa, J.F.; Galmarini, S.; Denby, B
2010-01-01
The stochastic fields method for turbulent reacting flows has been applied to the issue of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity in a mesoscale model. This method is a solution technique for the probability density function (PDF) transport equation and can be seen as a straightforward extension of currently used mesoscale dispersion models. It has been implemented in an existing mesoscale model and the results are compared with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) data devised to test specifically the...
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M. Cassiani
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The stochastic fields method for turbulent reacting flows has been applied to the issue of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity in a mesoscale model. This method is a solution technique for the probability density function (PDF transport equation and can be seen as a straightforward extension of currently used mesoscale dispersion models. It has been implemented in an existing mesoscale model and the results are compared with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES data devised to test specifically the effect of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity on boundary layer concentration fluctuations. The sub-grid scale emission variability is assimilated in the model as a PDF of the emissions. The stochastic fields method shows excellent agreement with the LES data without adjustment of the constants used in the mesoscale model. The stochastic fields method is a stochastic solution of the transport equations for the concentration PDF of dispersing scalars, therefore it possesses the ability to handle chemistry of any complexity without the need to introduce additional closures for the high order statistics of chemical species. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of applying this method to mesoscale chemical transport models.
Chen, Juhui; Yin, Weijie; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Cheng; Li, Jiuru; Qin, Bai; Yu, Guangbin
2016-07-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is used for gas turbulence, and eddy dissipation concept (EDC)-sub-grid scale (SGS) reaction model is employed for reactions in small eddies. The simulated gas molar fractions are in better agreement with experimental data with EDC-SGS reaction model. The effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification is emphatically analyzed with EDC-SGS reaction model. The distributions of the SGS reaction rates which represent the reactions in small eddies with particles concentration and temperature are analyzed. The distributions of SGS reaction rates have the similar trend with those of total reactions rates and the values account for about 15% of the total reactions rates. The heterogeneous reaction rates with EDC-SGS reaction model are also improved during the biomass gasification process in bubbling fluidized bed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Two-fluid sub-grid-scale viscosity in nonlinear simulation of ballooning modes in a heliotron device
Miura, H.; Hamba, F.; Ito, A.
2017-07-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) approach is introduced to enable the study of the nonlinear growth of ballooning modes in a heliotron-type device, by solving fully 3D two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically over a wide range of parameter space, keeping computational costs as low as possible. A model to substitute the influence of scales smaller than the grid size, at sub-grid scale (SGS), and at the scales larger than it—grid scale (GS)—has been developed for LES. The LESs of two-fluid MHD equations with SGS models have successfully reproduced the growth of the ballooning modes in the GS and nonlinear saturation. The numerical results show the importance of SGS effects on the GS components, or the effects of turbulent fluctuation at small scales in low-wavenumber unstable modes, over the course of the nonlinear saturation process. The results also show the usefulness of the LES approach in studying instability in a heliotron device. It is shown through a parameter survey over many SGS model coefficients that turbulent small-scale components in experiments can contribute to keeping the plasma core pressure from totally collapsing.
Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models
Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.
2012-01-01
As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.
Kim, SeHyun; Kim, Hyun Mee
2017-05-01
The ensemble prediction system (EPS) is widely used in research and at operation center because it can represent the uncertainty of predicted atmospheric state and provide information of probabilities. The high-resolution (so-called "convection-permitting") limited area EPS can represent the convection and turbulence related to precipitation phenomena in more detail, but it is also much sensitive to small-scale or sub-grid scale processes. The convection and turbulence are represented using physical processes in the model and model errors occur due to sub-grid scale processes that were not resolved. This study examined the effect of considering sub-grid scale uncertainties using the high-resolution limited area EPS of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The developed EPS has horizontal resolution of 3 km and 12 ensemble members. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by the global model. The Random Parameters (RP) scheme was used to represent sub-grid scale uncertainties. The EPSs with and without the RP scheme were developed and the results were compared. During the one month period of July, 2013, a significant difference was shown in the spread of 1.5 m temperature and the Root Mean Square Error and spread of 10 m zonal wind due to application of the RP scheme. For precipitation forecast, the precipitation tended to be overestimated relative to the observation when the RP scheme was applied. Moreover, the forecast became more accurate for heavy precipitations and the longer forecast lead times. For two heavy rainfall cases occurred during the research period, the higher Equitable Threat Score was observed for heavy precipitations in the system with the RP scheme compared to the one without, demonstrating consistency with the statistical results for the research period. Therefore, the predictability for heavy precipitation phenomena that affected the Korean Peninsula increases if the RP scheme is used to consider sub-grid scale uncertainties
Niceno, B.; Dhotre, M.T.; Deen, N.G.
2008-01-01
In this work, we have presented a one-equation model for sub-grid scale (SGS) kinetic energy and applied it for an Euler-Euler large eddy simulation (EELES) of a bubble column reactor. The one-equation model for SGS kinetic energy shows improved predictions over the state-of-the-art dynamic
Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.; Livneh, B.
2013-12-01
Knowledge of soil hydraulic properties such as porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is required to accurately model the dynamics of near-surface hydrological processes (e.g. evapotranspiration and root-zone soil moisture dynamics) and provide reliable estimates of regional water and energy budgets. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly derived from pedo-transfer functions using soil textural information recorded during surveys, such as the fractions of sand and clay, bulk density, and organic matter content. Typically large scale land-surface models are parameterized using a relatively coarse soil map with little or no information on parametric sub-grid variability. In this study we analyze the impact of sub-grid soil variability on simulated hydrological fluxes over the Mississippi River Basin (≈3,240,000 km2) at multiple spatio-temporal resolutions. A set of numerical experiments were conducted with the distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) using two soil datasets: (a) the Digital General Soil Map of the United States or STATSGO2 (1:250 000) and (b) the recently collated Harmonized World Soil Database based on the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World (1:5 000 000). mHM was parameterized with the multi-scale regionalization technique that derives distributed soil hydraulic properties via pedo-transfer functions and regional coefficients. Within the experimental framework, the 3-hourly model simulations were conducted at four spatial resolutions ranging from 0.125° to 1°, using meteorological datasets from the NLDAS-2 project for the time period 1980-2012. Preliminary results indicate that the model was able to capture observed streamflow behavior reasonably well with both soil datasets, in the major sub-basins (i.e. the Missouri, the Upper Mississippi, the Ohio, the Red, and the Arkansas). However, the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated water fluxes and states (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration) from both simulations, showed marked
Sub-grid scale models for discontinuous Galerkin methods based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Parish, Eric; Duraisamy, Karthk
2017-11-01
The optimal prediction framework of Chorin et al., which is a reformulation of the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, provides a framework for the development of mathematically-derived closure models. The M-Z formalism provides a methodology to reformulate a high-dimensional Markovian dynamical system as a lower-dimensional, non-Markovian (non-local) system. In this lower-dimensional system, the effects of the unresolved scales on the resolved scales are non-local and appear as a convolution integral. The non-Markovian system is an exact statement of the original dynamics and is used as a starting point for model development. In this work, we investigate the development of M-Z-based closures model within the context of the Variational Multiscale Method (VMS). The method relies on a decomposition of the solution space into two orthogonal subspaces. The impact of the unresolved subspace on the resolved subspace is shown to be non-local in time and is modeled through the M-Z-formalism. The models are applied to hierarchical discontinuous Galerkin discretizations. Commonalities between the M-Z closures and conventional flux schemes are explored. This work was supported in part by AFOSR under the project ''LES Modeling of Non-local effects using Statistical Coarse-graining'' with Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier as the technical monitor.
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J. R. Melton
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2 coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6. In the composite (single-tile approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc. that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959–2005 show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959–2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC effects differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same
Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.
1999-11-01
We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.
Modeling lightning-NOx chemistry on a sub-grid scale in a global chemical transport model
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A. Gressent
2016-05-01
Full Text Available For the first time, a plume-in-grid approach is implemented in a chemical transport model (CTM to parameterize the effects of the nonlinear reactions occurring within high concentrated NOx plumes from lightning NOx emissions (LNOx in the upper troposphere. It is characterized by a set of parameters including the plume lifetime, the effective reaction rate constant related to NOx–O3 chemical interactions, and the fractions of NOx conversion into HNO3 within the plume. Parameter estimates were made using the Dynamical Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC box model, simple plume dispersion simulations, and the 3-D Meso-NH (non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model. In order to assess the impact of the LNOx plume approach on the NOx and O3 distributions on a large scale, simulations for the year 2006 were performed using the GEOS-Chem global model with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5°. The implementation of the LNOx parameterization implies an NOx and O3 decrease on a large scale over the region characterized by a strong lightning activity (up to 25 and 8 %, respectively, over central Africa in July and a relative increase downwind of LNOx emissions (up to 18 and 2 % for NOx and O3, respectively, in July. The calculated variability in NOx and O3 mixing ratios around the mean value according to the known uncertainties in the parameter estimates is at a maximum over continental tropical regions with ΔNOx [−33.1, +29.7] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.56, +2.16] ppb, in January, and ΔNOx [−14.3, +21] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.18, +1.93] ppb, in July, mainly depending on the determination of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere and the initial NO mixing ratio injected by lightning. This approach allows us (i to reproduce a more realistic lightning NOx chemistry leading to better NOx and O3 distributions on the large scale and (ii to focus on other improvements to reduce remaining uncertainties from processes
Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets
Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.
2004-01-01
In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.
Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian
2014-05-01
Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions
Shastry, A. R.; Durand, M. T.; Fernandez, A.; Hamilton, I.; Kari, S.; Labara, B.; Laborde, S.; Mark, B. G.; Moritz, M.; Neal, J. C.; Phang, S. C.
2015-12-01
Modeling Regime Shifts in the Logone floodplain (MORSL) is an ongoing interdisciplinary project at The Ohio State University studying the ecological, social and hydrological system of the region. This floodplain, located in Northern Cameroon, is part of the Lake Chad basin. Between September and October the floodplain is inundated by the overbank flow from the Logone River, which is important for agriculture and fishing. Fishermen build canals to catch fish during the flood's recession to the river by installing fishnets at the intersection of the canals and the river. Fishing canals thus connect the river to natural depressions of the terrain, which act as seasonal ponds during this part of the year. Annual increase in the number of canals affect hydraulics and hence fishing in the region. In this study, the Bara region (1 km2) of the Logone floodplain, through which Lorome Mazra flows, is modeled using LISFLOOD-FP, a raster-based model with sub-grid parameterizations of canals. The aim of the study is to find out how the small-scale, local features like canals and fishnets govern the flow, so that it can be incorporated in a large-scale model of the floodplain at a coarser spatial resolution. We will also study the effect of increasing number of canals on the flooding pattern. We use a simplified version of the hydraulic system at a grid-cell size of 30-m, using synthetic topography, parameterized fishing canals, and representing fishnets as trash screens. The inflow at Bara is obtained from a separate, lower resolution (1-km grid-cell) model run, which is forced by daily discharge records obtained from Katoa, located about 25-km to the south of Bara. The model appropriately captures the rise and recession of the annual flood, supporting use of the LISFLOOD-FP approach. Predicted water levels at specific points in the river, the canals, the depression and the floodplain will be compared to field measured heights of flood recession in Bara, November 2014.
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Toutant, A
2006-12-15
The complex interactions between interfaces and turbulence strongly impact the flow properties. Unfortunately, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have to entail a number of degrees of freedom proportional to the third power of the Reynolds number to correctly describe the flow behaviour. This extremely hard constraint makes it impossible to use DNS for industrial applications. Our strategy consists in using and improving DNS method in order to develop the Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales concept. ISS is a two-phase equivalent to the single-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) concept. The challenge of ISS is to integrate the two-way coupling phenomenon into sub-grid models. Applying a space filter, we have exhibited correlations or sub-grid terms that require closures. We have shown that, in two-phase flows, the presence of a discontinuity leads to specific sub-grid terms. Comparing the maximum of the norm of the sub-grid terms with the maximum of the norm of the advection tensor, we have found that sub-grid terms related to interfacial forces and viscous effect are negligible. Consequently, in the momentum balance, only the sub-grid terms related to inertia have to be closed. Thanks to a priori tests performed on several DNS data, we demonstrate that the scale similarity hypothesis, reinterpreted near discontinuity, provides sub-grid models that take into account the two-way coupling phenomenon. These models correspond to the first step of our work. Indeed, in this step, interfaces are smooth and, interactions between interfaces and turbulence occur in a transition zone where each physical variable varies sharply but continuously. The next challenge has been to determine the jump conditions across the sharp equivalent interface corresponding to the sub-grid models of the transition zone. We have used the matched asymptotic expansion method to obtain the jump conditions. The first tests on the velocity of the sharp equivalent interface are very promising (author)
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-11-01
We present results of large eddy simulation (LES) for a smooth-wall, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. We employ the stretched vortex sub-grid-scale model in the simulations augmented by a wall model. Our wall model is based on the virtual-wall model introduced by Chung & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech 2009). An essential component of their wall model is an ODE governing the local wall-normal velocity gradient obtained using inner-scaling ansatz. We test two variants of the wall model based on different similarity laws: one is based on a log-law and the other on a power-law. The specific form of the power law scaling utilized is that proposed by George & Castillo (Appl. Mech. Rev. 1997), dubbed the ``GC Law''. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated by a recycling method, and applying scaling laws corresponding to the two variants of the wall model, and a uniform way to determine the inlet friction velocity. For Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ , ranging from 104 to 1012 it is found that the velocity profiles generally follow the log law form rather than the power law. For large Reynolds number asymptotic behavior, LES based on different scaling laws the boundary layer thickness and turbulent intensities do not show much difference. Supported by a KAUST funded project on large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. The IBM Blue Gene P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Lagrangian scale of particle dispersion in turbulence.
Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael
2013-01-01
Transport of mass, heat and momentum in turbulent flows by far exceeds that in stable laminar fluid motions. As turbulence is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, it is not clear which of these scales mostly affects particle dispersion. Also, it is not uncommon that turbulence coexists with coherent vortices. Here we report on Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that fluid particle dispersion is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale. These experiments offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales possesses temporal coherency. The results are applicable to oceanographic and atmospheric data, such as those obtained from trajectories of free-drifting instruments in the ocean.
Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A
2016-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulat...
Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2015-06-28
Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices
Multiple-scale turbulence and bifurcation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kawasaki, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto (Japan)
2003-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the turbulence composed of collective modes with different scale lengths. The hierarchical model for multiple-scale turbulence is developed. Nonlinear interactions between different scale length are modeled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. Using this model, a case where two driving mechanisms coexist (one for the micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) is investigated. It is found that a new type of turbulence transition and a cusp-type catastrophe exist in some parameter regime. Numerical simulations are also performed for neighboring multiple-scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) (k{sub y}{rho}{sub i} < 1) and short wavelength ITG (k{sub y}{rho}{sub i} > 1) modes in the shearless slab geometry. The cascade and inverse cascade in multiple-scale turbulence are investigated. The cascade is mainly observed in k sub(parallel) space. On the other hand, the cascade and the inverse cascade are observed in K sub(perpendicular) space. Another interesting result is that the particle flux is negative (inward pinch) due to the short wavelength ITG modes, while the ion and electron heat flux are positive, which indicates nonlinear interaction between different scale length mode might affect transport. (author)
Optimal Length Scale for a Turbulent Dynamo.
Sadek, Mira; Alexakis, Alexandros; Fauve, Stephan
2016-02-19
We demonstrate that there is an optimal forcing length scale for low Prandtl number dynamo flows that can significantly reduce the required energy injection rate. The investigation is based on simulations of the induction equation in a periodic box of size 2πL. The flows considered are the laminar and turbulent ABC flows forced at different forcing wave numbers k_{f}, where the turbulent case is simulated using a subgrid turbulence model. At the smallest allowed forcing wave number k_{f}=k_{min}=1/L the laminar critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{lam} is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the turbulent critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{turb} due to the hindering effect of turbulent fluctuations. We show that this hindering effect is almost suppressed when the forcing wave number k_{f} is increased above an optimum wave number k_{f}L≃4 for which Rm_{c}^{turb} is minimum. At this optimal wave number, Rm_{c}^{turb} is smaller by more than a factor of 10 than the case forced in k_{f}=1. This leads to a reduction of the energy injection rate by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to the case where the system is forced at the largest scales and thus provides a new strategy for the design of a fully turbulent experimental dynamo.
Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids.
Wensink, Henricus H; Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E; Löwen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia M
2012-09-04
Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior among the simplest forms of life and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active nonequilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific or which generalizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence.
Method of estimation of turbulence characteristic scales
Kulikov, V A; Koryabin, A V; Shmalhausen, V I
2011-01-01
Here we propose an optical method that use phase data of a laser beam obtained from Shack-Hartmann sensor to estimate both inner and outer scales of turbulence. The method is based on the sequential analysis of normalized correlation functions of Zernike coefficients. It allows excluding the value of refractive index structural constant from the analysis and reduces the solution of a two-parameter problem to sequential solution of two single-parameter problems. The method has been applied to analyze the results of measurements of the laser beam that propagated through a water cell with induced turbulence and yielded estimates for outer and inner scales.
Scaling of turbulence and turbulent mixing using Terascale numerical simulations
Donzis, Diego A.
Fundamental aspects of turbulence and turbulent mixing are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stationary isotropic turbulence, with Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers (Rlambda) ranging from 8 to 650 and Schmidt numbers (Sc) from 1/8 to 1024. The primary emphasis is on important scaling issues that arise in the study of intermittency, mixing and turbulence under solid-body rotation. Simulations up to 20483 in size have been performed using large resource allocations on Terascale computers at leading supercomputing centers. Substantial efforts in algorithmic development have also been undertaken and resulted in a new code based on a two-dimensional domain decomposition which allows the use of very large number of processors. Benchmark tests indicate very good parallel performance for resolutions up to 40963 on up to 32768 processors, which is highly promising for future simulations at higher resolutions and processor counts eventually to approach Petascale levels. Investigation of intermittency through the statistics of dissipation and enstrophy in a series of simulations at the same Reynolds number but different resolution indicate that accurate results in high-order moments require a higher degree of fine-scale resolution than commonly practiced. However, statistics up to fourth order are satisfactory if the grid spacing is not larger than Komogorov scale, without the requirement of a clear analytic range for corresponding structure functions as suggested by recent theories. Results from highly resolved simulations provide support for a modified resolution criterion derived in this work for structure functions of different orders and as a function of Rlambda. At the highest Reynolds number in our simulations (400 and 650) dissipation and enstrophy exhibit extreme fluctuations of O(1000) the mean which have not been studied in the literature before. The far tails of the probability density functions of dissipation and enstrophy appear to coincide
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.
Scale-locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
2009-01-01
We investigate the scale-locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the 'inertial-inductive range' of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross-helicity - or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsaesser energies - are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Corresponding spectral transfers are also scale-local when defined using octave wavenumber bands. Flux and transfer of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term also may be dominated by non-local triads but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion non locally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{sup 3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.
Anisotropy and scaling corrections in turbulence
Lohse, Detlef; Mueller-Groeling, Axel
1996-01-01
We analyze second-order turbulent velocity moments both in r and in p space. Finite size corrections induce dramatic differences between local r- and p-space scaling exponents. As analytically accessible examples we focus on two popular parametrizations: the Batchelor parametrization for the r-space
Universality and scaling in compressible turbulence
Donzis, Diego; Jagannathan, Shriram
2016-11-01
A large database of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of stationary compressible isotropic turbulence at a range of Taylor Reynolds numbers (Rλ 38 - 450) and turbulent Mach numbers (Mt 0 . 1 - 0 . 6) is used to explore universality. While in incompressible turbulence self-similarity analysis leads to a single scaling parameter (Rλ), compressible turbulence expands the parameter space due to the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, and the dependence on the mode of external forcing. While for the former it is common to use Mt as a scaling parameter, the effects of the latter are harder to quantify, and their consequences may have been attributed to a certain lack of universality. For instance, when the dilatational mode is forced, the variance and skewness of pressure shows significant scatter when plotted against Mt. Using a Helmholtz decomposition, we split the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational modes, and propose scaling parameters that include the contribution from both modes. When expressed against these parameters, we observe a universal scaling regime regardless of the mode of excitation of forcing. Other quantities that follow this behavior are also discussed. Support from NSF and AFOSR is gratefully acknowledged.
Anisotropic Intermittency Scaling of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Hnat, B.; Osman, K.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.
2013-12-01
A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when the local magnetic field direction is parallel to the flow, the full statistical signature of both the magnetic and Elsasser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a magnetic field-parallel turbulent energy cascade, as is consistent with several theoretical models. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.
Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. J. Hovde
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.
We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k^{-5/3}. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.
Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2
Onset of meso-scale turbulence in active nematics
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M.
2017-05-01
Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure. Here we show how the motion of active matter along a micro-channel transitions to meso-scale turbulence through the evolution of locally disordered patches (active puffs) from an ordered vortex-lattice flow state. We demonstrate that the stationary critical exponents of this transition to meso-scale turbulence in a channel coincide with the directed percolation universality class. This finding bridges our understanding of the onset of low-Reynolds-number meso-scale turbulence and traditional scale-invariant turbulence in confinement.
Onset of meso-scale turbulence in active nematics.
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M
2017-05-16
Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure. Here we show how the motion of active matter along a micro-channel transitions to meso-scale turbulence through the evolution of locally disordered patches (active puffs) from an ordered vortex-lattice flow state. We demonstrate that the stationary critical exponents of this transition to meso-scale turbulence in a channel coincide with the directed percolation universality class. This finding bridges our understanding of the onset of low-Reynolds-number meso-scale turbulence and traditional scale-invariant turbulence in confinement.
Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.
Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.
2015-12-01
A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate
Turbulence and diffusion scaling versus equations
Bakunin, Oleg G
2008-01-01
This book is an introduction to the multidisciplinary field of anomalous diffusion in complex systems, with emphasis on the scaling approach as opposed to techniques based on the quantitative analysis of underlying transport equations. Typical examples of such systems are turbulent plasmas, convective rolls, zonal flow systems and stochastic magnetic fields. From the more methodological point of view, the approach relies on the general use of correlations estimates, quasilinear equations and continuous time random walk techniques. Yet, the mathematical descriptions are not meant to become a fixed set of recipes but rather develop and strengthen the reader's physical intuition and understanding on the underlying mechanisms involved. Most of the material stems from class-tested lectures, where graduate students where assumed to have a working knowledge of classical physics, fluid dynamics and plasma physics but otherwise no prior knowledge of the subject matter is assumed from the side of the reader.
He, Y; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2008-01-01
A numerical simulation was performed on a turbulent gas-particle multi-phase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser based on a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas phase. The sub-grid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with
Influence of small-scale turbulence on cup anemometer calibrations
Marraccini, M.; Bak-Kristensen, K.; Horn, A.; Fifield, E.; Hansen, S. O.
2017-11-01
The paper presents and discusses the calibration results of cup anemometers under different levels of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence is known to govern the curvature of shear layers around structures and is not related to the traditional under and over speeding of cup anemometers originating from large-scale turbulence components. The paper has shown that the small-scale turbulence has a significant effect on the calibration results obtained for cup anemometers. At 10m/s the rotational speed seems to change by approx. 0.5% due to different simulations of the small-scale turbulence. The work which this paper is based on, is part of the TrueWind research project, aiming to increase accuracy of mast top-mounted cup anemometer measurements.
Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kozioł Adam
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel. Experimental research was undertaken to investigate the changes in spatial turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies (macroeddies in a rectangular channel and the influence of the hydraulic jump on vertical, lateral and streamwise distributions of relative turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies. The results of three tests for different discharges are presented. An intensive turbulent mixing that arises as a result of a hydraulic jump has a significant effect on instantaneous velocity, turbulent intensities and sizes of eddies, as well as their vertical and longitudinal distributions. In the analysed case the most noticeable changes appeared up to 0.5 m downstream the hydraulic jump. In the vertical dimension such an effect was especially seen near the surface. The smallest streamwise sizes of macroeddies were present near the surface, maximum at the depth of z/h = 0.6 and from that point sizes were decreasing towards the bottom. The intensive turbulent mixing within the hydraulic jump generates macroeddies of small sizes.
Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence
Thalabard, Simon; Galtier, Sebastien; Sergey, Medvedev
2015-01-01
Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argu...
Sub-Grid Modeling of Electrokinetic Effects in Micro Flows
Chen, C. P.
2005-01-01
Advances in micro-fabrication processes have generated tremendous interests in miniaturizing chemical and biomedical analyses into integrated microsystems (Lab-on-Chip devices). To successfully design and operate the micro fluidics system, it is essential to understand the fundamental fluid flow phenomena when channel sizes are shrink to micron or even nano dimensions. One important phenomenon is the electro kinetic effect in micro/nano channels due to the existence of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a solid-liquid interface. Not only EDL is responsible for electro-osmosis pumping when an electric field parallel to the surface is imposed, EDL also causes extra flow resistance (the electro-viscous effect) and flow anomaly (such as early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) observed in pressure-driven microchannel flows. Modeling and simulation of electro-kinetic effects on micro flows poses significant numerical challenge due to the fact that the sizes of the double layer (10 nm up to microns) are very thin compared to channel width (can be up to 100 s of m). Since the typical thickness of the double layer is extremely small compared to the channel width, it would be computationally very costly to capture the velocity profile inside the double layer by placing sufficient number of grid cells in the layer to resolve the velocity changes, especially in complex, 3-d geometries. Existing approaches using "slip" wall velocity and augmented double layer are difficult to use when the flow geometry is complicated, e.g. flow in a T-junction, X-junction, etc. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from those two approaches, we have developed a sub-grid integration method to properly account for the physics of the double layer. The integration approach can be used on simple or complicated flow geometries. Resolution of the double layer is not needed in this approach, and the effects of the double layer can be accounted for at the same time. With this
Multiple-scale turbulence model in confined swirling jet predictions
Chen, C. P.
1986-01-01
A recently developed multiple-scale turbulence model which attempts to circumvent the deficiencies of earlier models by taking nonequilibrium spectral energy transfer into account is presented. The model's validity is tested by predicting the confined swirling coaxial jet flow in a sudden expansion. It is noted that, in order to account for anisotropic turbulence, a full Reynolds stress model is required.
Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraichnan, R.H. [Robert H. Kraichnan, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)
1995-12-31
Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.
Procedure for Determining Turbulence Length Scales Using Hotwire Anemometry
El-Gabry, Lamyaa A.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Poinsatte, Philip E.
2014-01-01
Hotwire anemometers are used to measure instantaneous velocity from which the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation can be determined. Using a hotwire system, it is possible to deduce not only the velocity components and their fluctuation but to also analyze the energy spectra and from that the turbulence length scales. In this experiment, hotwire anemometry is used to measure the flow field turbulence for an array of film cooling holes. The objective of this paper is to document the procedure that is used to reduce the instantaneous velocity measurements to determine the turbulence length scales using data from the film-cooling experiments to illustrate the procedure.
Remote visualization and scale analysis of large turbulence datatsets
Livescu, D.; Pulido, J.; Burns, R.; Canada, C.; Ahrens, J.; Hamann, B.
2015-12-01
Accurate simulations of turbulent flows require solving all the dynamically relevant scales of motions. This technique, called Direct Numerical Simulation, has been successfully applied to a variety of simple flows; however, the large-scale flows encountered in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) would require meshes outside the range of the most powerful supercomputers for the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, the current generation of petascale computers has enabled unprecedented simulations of many types of turbulent flows which focus on various GFD aspects, from the idealized configurations extensively studied in the past to more complex flows closer to the practical applications. The pace at which such simulations are performed only continues to increase; however, the simulations themselves are restricted to a small number of groups with access to large computational platforms. Yet the petabytes of turbulence data offer almost limitless information on many different aspects of the flow, from the hierarchy of turbulence moments, spectra and correlations, to structure-functions, geometrical properties, etc. The ability to share such datasets with other groups can significantly reduce the time to analyze the data, help the creative process and increase the pace of discovery. Using the largest DOE supercomputing platforms, we have performed some of the biggest turbulence simulations to date, in various configurations, addressing specific aspects of turbulence production and mixing mechanisms. Until recently, the visualization and analysis of such datasets was restricted by access to large supercomputers. The public Johns Hopkins Turbulence database simplifies the access to multi-Terabyte turbulence datasets and facilitates turbulence analysis through the use of commodity hardware. First, one of our datasets, which is part of the database, will be described and then a framework that adds high-speed visualization and wavelet support for multi-resolution analysis of
Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade
Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul
2014-01-01
Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.
Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence
Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.
2017-11-01
We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kozioł Adam
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The study presents experimental investigations of spatial turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies (macroeddies in a rectangular channel and the impact of the hydraulic jump on their vertical and streamwise distributions over a flat and scoured bed. The results of four tests and two different discharge rates are presented. Intensive mixing caused by the hydraulic jump has an impact on the instantaneous velocity, turbulence intensity and sizes of macroeddies, as well as their vertical and longitudinal distributions along the channel. The largest differences in turbulence characteristics were reported directly after the hydraulic jump, above the eroded bed. The interaction between the stream of the increased turbulence and the bed is a direct cause of formation of scour downstream water structures, which has a great effect on overall flow characteristics. The scour hole that arose downstream the jump moderated, in a small degree, the turbulence intensity at its end. Just next to the hydraulic jump only the small longitudinal relative sizes of macroeddies were present, while at the end of the analyzed reach, downstream of the scour, the relative scale reached around 1.5 depth of the stream.
MULTI-SCALE COHERENT TURBULENCE AT TIDAL ENERGY SITES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Harding, Samuel F.
2014-11-05
Turbulence is known to affect the performance and survivability of tidal turbines, yet characterization of turbulence in the field remains limited. Here, we refine and demonstrate a new approach to turbulence measurements, in which an array of multiple Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) is suspended above the seabed at the hub height of a tidal turbine. These measurements provide information on the intensity, structure, and coherence of turbulence across the scale of a turbine rotor (< 10 m). Deployment of multiple moorings expands the analysis to array scales (> 10 m). Motion correction of the moored ADV data is essential to this approach and is verified using the turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Additional measurements include a bottommounted 5-beam Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, from which scales can be assessed using the velocities a separation distances along a given beam. These methods are demonstrated with data collected at the site of the Snohomish PUD pilot project in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, WA (USA). Coherent motion is found to be largely isotropic, such that coherence is high only at scales less than the advective length scale or the water depth, whichever is less.
Interface-turbulence interactions in large-scale bubbling processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liovic, Petar [Institute of Energy Technology, ETH Zurich, and ASCOMP GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Lakehal, Djamel [Institute of Energy Technology, ETH Zurich, and ASCOMP GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: lakehal@iet.mavt.ethz.ch
2007-02-15
A novel large-eddy simulation (LES) approach for computation of incompressible multi-fluid flows is presented and applied to a turbulent bubbling process driven by the downward injection of air into a water pool at Re {sub pipe} {approx} 17,000. Turbulence is found to assume its highest intensity in the bulk of the gas flow, and to decay as the interface of the growing bubble is approached. Shear flow prevails in the area of jetting from the pipe, buoyancy-driven flow prevails away from the jetting region, and a third region of vigorous bubble break-up lay O(10 )-O(10{sup 1}) pipe diameters above the tip. Cascading of turbulent kinetic energy is accompanied by an instability-induced linear cascading of interface length scales (i.e. azimuthal modes), transferring energy from the most unstable mode to the smallest interface deformation scales. The LES shows the out-scatter of energy from the large-scale gas-side vortices down to interface wrinkling scales, and statistics prove the existence of a strong correlation between turbulence and interface deformations. Surface curvature was found to constitute a source of small-scale vorticity, and therefore of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy.
A glimpse of fluid turbulence from the molecular scale
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.
2014-08-01
Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of freely decaying turbulence in three-dimensional space are reported. Fluid components are defined from the microscopic states by eliminating thermal components from the coarse-grained fields. The energy spectrum of the fluid components is observed to scale reasonably well according to Kolmogorov scaling determined from the energy dissipation rate and the viscosity of the fluid, even though the Kolmogorov length is of the order of the molecular scale. © 2014 The Authors.
Impact of measurement uncertainties on universal scaling of MHD turbulence
Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Dunlop, M. W.
2012-10-01
Quantifying the scaling of fluctuations in the solar wind is central to testing predictions of turbulence theories. We study spectral features of Alfvénic turbulence in fast solar wind. We propose a general, instrument-independent method to estimate the uncertainty in velocity fluctuations obtained by in situ satellite observations in the solar wind. We show that when the measurement uncertainties of the velocity fluctuations are taken into account the less energetic Elsasser spectrum obeys a unique power law scaling throughout the inertial range as prevailing theories of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence predict. Moreover, in the solar wind interval analysed, the two Elsasser spectra are observed to have the same scaling exponent γ = -1.54 throughout the inertial range.
Scale locality and the inertial range in compressible turbulence
Aluie, Hussein
2011-01-01
We use a coarse-graining approach to prove that inter-scale transfer of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence is dominated by local interactions. Locality here means that interactions between disparate scales decay at least as fast as a power-law function of the scale-disparity ratio. In particular, our results preclude transfer of kinetic energy from large-scales directly to dissipation scales, such as into shocks, in the limit of high Reynolds number turbulence as is commonly believed. The results hold in broad generality, at any Mach number, for any equation of state, and without the requirement of homogeneity or isotropy. The assumptions we make in our proofs on the scaling of velocity, pressure, and density structure functions are weak and enjoy compelling empirical support. Under a stronger assumption on pressure dilatation co-spectrum, we show that \\emph{mean} kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional "conversion" range. Our analysis demonstrates the existence...
Multi-scale structures of turbulent magnetic reconnection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, T. K. M., E-mail: takuma.nakamura@oeaw.ac.at; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz 8042 (Austria); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2016-05-15
We have analyzed data from a series of 3D fully kinetic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection with a guide field. A new concept of the guide filed reconnection process has recently been proposed, in which the secondary tearing instability and the resulting formation of oblique, small scale flux ropes largely disturb the structure of the primary reconnection layer and lead to 3D turbulent features [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)]. In this paper, we further investigate the multi-scale physics in this turbulent, guide field reconnection process by introducing a wave number band-pass filter (k-BPF) technique in which modes for the small scale (less than ion scale) fluctuations and the background large scale (more than ion scale) variations are separately reconstructed from the wave number domain to the spatial domain in the inverse Fourier transform process. Combining with the Fourier based analyses in the wave number domain, we successfully identify spatial and temporal development of the multi-scale structures in the turbulent reconnection process. When considering a strong guide field, the small scale tearing mode and the resulting flux ropes develop over a specific range of oblique angles mainly along the edge of the primary ion scale flux ropes and reconnection separatrix. The rapid merging of these small scale modes leads to a smooth energy spectrum connecting ion and electron scales. When the guide field is sufficiently weak, the background current sheet is strongly kinked and oblique angles for the small scale modes are widely scattered at the kinked regions. Similar approaches handling both the wave number and spatial domains will be applicable to the data from multipoint, high-resolution spacecraft observations such as the NASA magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fleurence, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bertrand, P [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Besse, N [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Latu, G [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France); Violard, E [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France)
2006-12-15
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Turbulence Scales Simulations in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena-Carmen Teleman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The simulation of the air flow over models in atmospheric boundary layer tunnels is a research domain based on advanced scientific technologies imposed by the necessity of studying the turbulent fluid movements in the proximity of the Earth’s surface. The experiment presented herein is developed in the wind tunnel from the Laboratory of Structural Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services in Iassy. Measurements necessary for the determination of the turbulence scales of the wind action in urban environment were conducted. The data obtained were processed and analyzed and interpreted with specific software. The results are used for a synthesis regarding the scales of turbulence of the model of flow and the actual accuracy of measurements. The paper presents some of the important elements of this synthesis.
Explicit predictability and dispersion scaling exponents in fully developed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, Francois G. [CNRS, UMR 8013 ELICO, Wimereux Marine Station, University of Lille 1, 28 av. Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France)]. E-mail: francois.schmitt@univ-lille1.fr
2005-07-25
We apply a simple method to provide explicit expressions for different scaling exponents in intermittent fully developed turbulence, that before were only given through a Legendre transform. This includes predictability exponents for infinitesimal and noninfinitesimal perturbations, Lagrangian velocity exponents, and dispersion exponents. We obtain also new results concerning inverse statistics corresponding to exit-time moments.
Two-scale analysis of intermittency in fully developed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badii, R.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
A self-affinity test for turbulent time series is applied to experimental data for the estimation of intermittency exponents. The method employs exact relations satisfied by joint expectations of observables computed across two different length scales. One of these constitutes a verification tool for the existence and the extent of the inertial range. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs.
Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence
Lesne, Annick
2012-01-01
During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...
Facilitating dynamo action via control of large-scale turbulence.
Limone, A; Hatch, D R; Forest, C B; Jenko, F
2012-12-01
The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect is considered to be the major cause of magnetic field generation in geo- and astrophysical systems. Recent experimental and numerical results show that turbulence constitutes an obstacle to dynamos; yet its role in this context is not totally clear. Via numerical simulations, we identify large-scale turbulent vortices with a detrimental effect on the amplification of the magnetic field in a geometry of experimental interest and propose a strategy for facilitating the dynamo instability by manipulating these detrimental "hidden" dynamics.
Critical Scales, Fundamental Structures and Inherent Instabilities of Turbulent Flames
2015-06-01
turbulence scales were both analyzed. It was shown that in both limits interactions of detonations with non-uniform fluid density fields had greater...effects than interactions with non-uniform fluid velocity fields. High-speed turbulent-combustion dynamics thereby was shown to behave very...Williams, “Ignition Time of Hydrogen-‐Air Diffusion Flames,” Comptes Rendus Mecanique 340, 882-‐893 (2012
Radiative diagnostics for sub-Larmor scale magnetic turbulence
Reynolds, Sarah J
2011-01-01
Radiative diagnostics of high-energy density plasmas is addressed in this paper. We propose that the radiation produced by energetic particles in small-scale magnetic field turbulence, which can occur in laser-plasma experiments, collisionless shocks, and during magnetic reconnection, can be used to deduce some properties of the turbulent magnetic field. Particles propagating through such turbulence encounter locally strong magnetic fields, but over lengths much shorter than a particle gyroradius. Consequently, the particle is accelerated but not deviated substantially from a straight line path. We develop the general jitter radiation solutions for this case and show that the resulting radiation is directly dependent upon the spectral distribution of the magnetic field through which the particle propagates. We demonstrate the power of this approach in considering the radiation produced by particles moving through a region in which a (Weibel-like) filamentation instability grows magnetic fields randomly orient...
Reynolds number effects on scale energy balance in wall turbulence
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan; Casciola, Carlo M.; Piva, Renzo
2012-01-01
The scale energy budget utilizes a modified version of the classical Kolmogorov equation of wall turbulence to develop an evolution equation for the second order structure function [R. J. Hill, "Exact second-order structure-function relationships," J. Fluid Mech. 468, 317 (2002)]. This methodology allows for the simultaneous characterization of the energy cascade and spatial fluxes in turbulent shear flows across the entire physical domain as well as the range of scales. The present study utilizes this methodology to characterize the effects of Reynolds number on the balance of energy fluxes in turbulent channel flows. Direct numerical simulation data in the range Reτ = 300-934 are compared to previously published results at Reτ = 180 [N. Marati, C. M. Casciola, and R. Piva, "Energy cascade and spatial fluxes in wall turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 521, 191 (2004)]. The present results show no Reynolds number effects in the terms of the scale energy budget in either the viscous sublayer or buffer regions of the channel. In the logarithmic layer, the transfer of energy across scales clearly varies with Reynolds number, while the production of turbulent kinetic energy is not dependent on Reynolds number. An envelope of inverse energy cascade is quantified in the buffer region within which energy is transferred from small to larger scales. This envelope is observed in the range 6 < y+ < 37, where all scales except the smallest scales display characteristics of an inverse energy cascade. The cross-over scale lc+, which indicates the transition between production dominated and scale transfer dominated regimes, increases with Reynolds number, implying a larger range of transfer dominated scales, before the dominant mechanism switches to production. At higher Reynolds numbers, two distinct regimes of lc+ as a function of wall-normal location are observed, which was not captured at Reτ = 180. The variations of lc+ match the trends of the shear scale, which is a
Loftis, Jon Derek; Hamilton, Stuart E; Forrest, David R
2014-01-01
We present the geospatial methods in conjunction with results of a newly developed storm surge and sub-grid inundation model which was applied in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Sub-grid modeling takes a novel approach for partial wetting and drying within grid cells, eschewing the conventional hydrodynamic modeling method by nesting a sub-grid containing high-resolution lidar topography and fine scale bathymetry within each computational grid cell. In doing so, the sub-grid modeling method is heavily dependent on building and street configuration provided by the DEM. The results of spatial comparisons between the sub-grid model and FEMA's maximum inundation extents in New York City yielded an unparalleled absolute mean distance difference of 38m and an average of 75% areal spatial match. An in-depth error analysis reveals that the modeled extent contour is well correlated with the FEMA extent contour in most areas, except in several distinct areas where differences in special features cause sig...
Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2012-09-15
The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.
Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.
2012-09-01
The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.
Renormalization Group Theory of Bolgiano Scaling in Boussinesq Turbulence
Rubinstein, Robert
1994-01-01
Bolgiano scaling in Boussinesq turbulence is analyzed using the Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group. For this purpose, an isotropic model is introduced. Scaling exponents are calculated by forcing the temperature equation so that the temperature variance flux is constant in the inertial range. Universal amplitudes associated with the scaling laws are computed by expanding about a logarithmic theory. Connections between this formalism and the direct interaction approximation are discussed. It is suggested that the Yakhot-Orszag theory yields a lowest order approximate solution of a regularized direct interaction approximation which can be corrected by a simple iterative procedure.
Dogan, Eda; Hearst, R Jason; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-03-13
A turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence is investigated in order to ascertain the scale interactions that dominate the near-wall region. The results are discussed in relation to a canonical high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer because previous studies have reported considerable similarities between these two flows. Measurements were acquired simultaneously from four hot wires mounted to a rake which was traversed through the boundary layer. Particular focus is given to two main features of both canonical high Reynolds number boundary layers and boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence: (i) the footprint of the large scales in the logarithmic region on the near-wall small scales, specifically the modulating interaction between these scales, and (ii) the phase difference in amplitude modulation. The potential for a turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence to 'simulate' high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions is discussed. The results of this study have encouraging implications for future investigations of the fundamental scale interactions that take place in high Reynolds number flows as it demonstrates that these can be achieved at typical laboratory scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Enhancement of Small-scale Turbulent Dynamo by Large-scale Shear
Singh, Nishant K.; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel
2017-11-01
Small-scale dynamos (SSDs) are ubiquitous in a broad range of turbulent flows with large-scale shear, ranging from solar and galactic magnetism to accretion disks, cosmology, and structure formation. Using high-resolution direct numerical simulations, we show that in non-helically forced turbulence with zero mean magnetic field, large-scale shear supports SSD action, I.e., the dynamo growth rate increases with shear and shear enhances or even produces turbulence, which, in turn, further increases the growth rate. When the production rates of turbulent kinetic energy due to shear and forcing are comparable, we find scalings for the growth rate γ of the SSD and the turbulent rms velocity {u}{rms} with shear rate S that are independent of the magnetic Prandtl number: γ \\propto | S| and {u}{rms}\\propto | S{| }2/3. For large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, γ, normalized by its shear-free value, depends only on shear. Having compensated for shear-induced effects on turbulent velocity, we find that the normalized growth rate of the SSD exhibits the scaling, \\widetilde{γ }\\propto | S{| }2/3, arising solely from the induction equation for a given velocity field.
ION-SCALE TURBULENCE IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE: RADIAL DEPENDENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Comisel, H.; Motschmann, U.; Büchner, J.; Narita, Y.; Nariyuki, Y. [University of Toyama, Faculty of Human Development, 3190, Gofuku, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan)
2015-10-20
The evolution of the ion-scale plasma turbulence in the inner heliosphere is studied by associating the plasma parameters for hybrid-code turbulence simulations to the radial distance from the Sun via a Solar wind model based mapping procedure. Using a mapping based on a one-dimensional solar wind expansion model, the resulting ion-kinetic scale turbulence is related to the solar wind distance from the Sun. For this purpose the mapping is carried out for various values of ion beta that correspond to the heliocentric distance. It is shown that the relevant normal modes such as ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein modes will occur first at radial distances of about 0.2–0.3 AU, i.e., near the Mercury orbit. This finding can be used as a reference, a prediction to guide the in situ measurements to be performed by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions. Furthermore, a radial dependence of the wave-vector anisotropy was obtained. For astrophysical objects this means that the spatial scales of filamentary structures in interstellar media or astrophysical jets can be predicted for photometric observations.
Alhamdi, Sabah F. H.; Bailey, Sean C. C.
2017-11-01
Measurements of the small-scale dissipation statistics of turbulent boundary layer flows with and without free-stream turbulence are reported for Reτ ≈ 1000 (Reθ ≈ 2000). The scaling of the dissipation scale distribution is examined in these two boundary conditions. Results demonstrated that the local large-scale Reynolds number based on the measured longitudinal integral length scale fails to properly normalize the dissipation scale distribution near the wall in these two free-stream conditions due to the imperfect characterization of the upper bound of the inertial cascade by the integral length scale. A surrogate found from turbulent kinetic energy and mean dissipation rate only moderately improved the scaling of the dissipation scales, relative to the measured integral length scale. When a length scale based on the distance from the wall [as suggested by Bailey and Witte, "On the universality of local dissipation scales in turbulent channel flow," J. Fluid Mech. 786, 234-252 (2015)] was utilized to scale the dissipation scale distribution, in the region near the wall, there was a noticeable improvement in the collapse of the normalized distribution of dissipation scales. In addition, unlike in channel flows, in the outer layer of the turbulent boundary layer, the normalized distributions of the local dissipation scales were observed to be dependent on the wall-normal position. This was found to be attributable to the presence of external intermittency in the outer layer as the presence of free-stream turbulence was found to restore the scaling behavior by replacing the intermittent laminar flow with turbulent flow.
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1989-01-01
A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.
Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms.
Andersen, Søren J; Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F
2017-04-13
A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms
Andersen, Søren J.; Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.
2017-03-01
A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-12-31
Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.
Heat Release Effects on Scaling Laws for Turbulent Shear Flows
Tacina, Kathleen M.; Dahm, Werner J. A.
1996-11-01
Experiments have long suggested apparent differences in the fundamental scaling laws for turbulent shear flows between reacting and nonreacting flows. These differences result from the density changes produced by exothermic reaction, and are here shown to be similar to the changes produced by free-stream density differences in nonreacting flows. Motivated by this, we show that the fundamental scaling laws can be generalized to predict the changes due to heat release. The bilinear dependence of temperature T(ζ) on an appropriately defined conserved scalar ζ allows the density changes to be related to an equivalent nonreacting flow, in which one of the free-stream fluid temperatures is set to a value determined by the adiabatic flame temperature and the overall stoichiometry. This scaling principle is applied to turbulent jet diffusion flames, and leads to a generalized scaling variable d^+ for both reacting and nonreacting flows; it effectively extends the momentum diameter d^* of Thring & Newby (1952) and Ricou & Spalding (1961) to reacting flows. The resulting predicted effects of heat release show good agreement with all available data from momentum-dominated jet flames. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)
Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence
Burgess, Helen; Scott, Richard; Dritschel, David
2017-11-01
We introduce a scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade of 2D turbulence. Far-from-equilibrium systems generically exhibit multiple scaling regimes associated with transport of conserved quantities. Motivated by this observation, we model a three-part time-evolving vortex number density distribution, n (A) tαiA-ri , i ∈ 1 , 2 , 3 , conserving the first three moments of ωv2n (A) in three distinct scaling ranges. Here ωv2 is the `vortex intensity', or mean square vorticity evaluated over vortices, and areas A are intense regions of vorticity bounded by vorticity isolines. We predict αi and ri by enforcing conservation in `comoving intervals', whose endpoints evolve at the vortex growth rate; this amounts to assuming invariance under the dilatation of flow features associated with the inverse cascade, and that vortex area growth is the appropriate measure of dilatation in all scaling ranges. High resolution numerical simulations verify the predictions, which are insensitive to the vorticity threshold used to isolate the areas. Similar concepts can be applied to model vortices in decaying 2D turbulence, pointing toward a unified description of vortices in both systems.
Hilbert Statistics of Vorticity Scaling in Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Tan, H S; Meng, Jianping
2014-01-01
In this paper, the scaling property of the inverse energy cascade and forward enstrophy cascade of the vorticity filed $\\omega(x,y)$ in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is analyzed. This is accomplished by applying a Hilbert-based technique, namely Hilbert-Huang Transform, to a vorticity field obtained from a $8192^2$ grid-points direct numerical simulation of the 2D turbulence with a forcing scale $k_f=100$ and an Ekman friction. The measured joint probability density function $p(C,k)$ of mode $C_i(x)$ of the vorticity $\\omega$ and instantaneous wavenumber $k(x)$ is separated by the forcing scale $k_f$ into two parts, which corresponding to the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. It is found that all conditional pdf $p(C\\vert k)$ at given wavenumber $k$ has an exponential tail. In the inverse energy cascade, the shape of $p(C\\vert k)$ does collapse with each other, indicating a nonintermittent cascade. The measured scaling exponent $\\zeta_{\\omega}^I(q)$ is linear with the statistical ord...
Dynamic scaling and large scale effects in turbulence in compressible stratified fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pharasi, Hirdesh K., E-mail: hirdeshpharasi@gmail.com; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
2016-01-08
We consider the propagation of sound in a turbulent fluid which is confined between two horizontal parallel plates, maintained at different temperatures. In the homogeneous fluid, Staroselsky et al. had predicted a divergent sound speed at large length scales. Here we find a divergent sound speed and a vanishing expansion coefficient at large length scales. Dispersion relation and the question of scale invariance at large distance scales lead to these results. - Highlights: • Turbulence in a stratified fluid has been studied in the Boussinesq approximation. • We extend this study to include density fluctuations due to pressure fluctuations. • For a homogeneous weakly compressible fluid the sound speed is known to become scale dependent. • For the stratified fluid we show that the expansion coefficient is also scale dependent. • Our results are based on general dynamic scaling arguments rather than detailed calculation.
Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows
Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad
2015-04-01
Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.
Sub-grid combustion modeling for compressible two-phase reacting flows
Sankaran, Vaidyanathan
2003-06-01
A generic formulation for modeling the turbulent combustion in compressible, high Reynolds number, two-phase; reacting flows has been developed and validated. A sub-grid mixing/combustion model called Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) model has been extended to compressible flows and used inside the framework of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in this LES-LEM approach. The LES-LEM approach is based on the proposition that the basic mechanistic distinction between the convective and the molecular effects should be preserved for accurate prediction of complex flow-fields such as those encountered in many combustion systems. Liquid droplets (represented by computational parcels) are tracked using the Lagrangian approach wherein the Newton's equation of motion for the discrete particles are integrated explicitly in the Eulerian gas field. The gas phase LES velocity fields are used to estimate the instantaneous gas velocity at the droplet location. Drag effects due to the droplets on the gas phase and the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid phase are explicitly included. Thus, full coupling is achieved between the two phases in the simulation. Validation of the compressible LES-LEM approach is conducted by simulating the flow-field in an operational General Electric Aircraft Engines combustor (LM6000). The results predicted using the proposed approach compares well with the experiments and a conventional (G-equation) thin-flame model. Particle tracking algorithms used in the present study are validated by simulating droplet laden temporal mixing layers. Quantitative and qualitative comparison with the results of spectral DNS exhibits good agreement. Simulations using the current LES-LEM for freely propagating partially premixed flame in a droplet-laden isotropic turbulent field correctly captures the flame structure in the partially premixed flames. Due to the strong spatial variation of equivalence ratio a broad flame similar to a premixed flame is realized. The current
Comparing turbulent mixing of biogenic VOC across model scale
Li, Y.; Barth, M. C.; Steiner, A. L.
2016-12-01
Vertical mixing of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is very important in simulating the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and climate feedbacks. To assess the representation of vertical mixing in the atmosphere for the Baltimore-Washington DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign, we use two models of different scale and turbulence representation: (1) the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and (2) the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to simulate regional meteorology and chemistry. For WRF-Chem, we evaluate the boundary layer schemes in the model at convection-permitting scales (4km). WRF-Chem simulated vertical profiles are compared with the results from turbulence-resolving LES model under similar meteorological and chemical environment. The influence of clouds on gas and aqueous species and the impact of cloud processing at both scales are evaluated. Temporal evolutions of a surface-to-cloud concentration ratio are calculated to determine the capability of BVOC vertical mixing in WRF-Chem.
Phenomenological Nusselt-Rayleigh Scaling of Turbulent Thermal Convection
Liu, Chien-Chia
2017-12-01
Natural convection between the hot floor and the cool ceiling, so called Rayleigh-Bénard convection, is pervasive and of both fundamental and industrial interests. One key issue is how heat transfer varies with increasing thermal potential, or equivalently how the Nusselt number (Nu) scales with the Rayleigh number (Ra). The overview of experimental findings remains to show the need of extra explanation complemental to the current theories. Here we present a model based on the phenomenological theory of turbulence, where the power-law spectral exponent of the energy spectrum is the only input parameter required. The goal aims to elucidate the unexplained aspect in the Nu-Ra scaling. We find that Kolmogorov turbulence in the current model leads to Nu ˜ Ra0.3, in good agreement with the modern experimental results. We hope that this model could stimulate the discussion as to the effects of the spectral phenomena on the Nu-Ra scaling, and thus augment our understanding of buoyancy-driven thermal convection.
Goldstein, M. L.; Wicks, R. T.; Perri, S.; Sahraoui, F.
2015-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in the solar wind. Turbulence causes kinetic and magnetic energy to cascade to small scales where they are eventually dissipated, adding heat to the plasma. The details of how this occurs are not well understood. This article reviews the evidence for turbulent dissipation and examines various diagnostics for identifying solar wind regions where dissipation is occurring. We also discuss how future missions will further enhance our understanding of the importance of turbulence to solar wind dynamics. PMID:25848084
Kolmogorov and Irosnikov-Kraichnan scaling in the anisotropic turbulent solar wind
Chapman, S.C.; Hnat, B.
2006-01-01
Solar wind turbulence is dominated by Alfv\\'{e}nic fluctuations but the power spectral exponents somewhat surprisingly evolve toward the Kolmogorov value of -5/3, that of hydrodynamic turbulence. We show that at 1AU the turbulence decomposes linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field. The first of these is consistent with propagating Alfv\\'{e}n wavepackets and shows the scaling expected of Alfv\\'{e}nic turbulence, namely Irosnikov- K...
A Virtual Study of Grid Resolution on Experiments of a Highly-Resolved Turbulent Plume
Maisto, Pietro M. F.; Marshall, Andre W.; Gollner, Michael J.; Fire Protection Engineering Department Collaboration
2017-11-01
An accurate representation of sub-grid scale turbulent mixing is critical for modeling fire plumes and smoke transport. In this study, PLIF and PIV diagnostics are used with the saltwater modeling technique to provide highly-resolved instantaneous field measurements in unconfined turbulent plumes useful for statistical analysis, physical insight, and model validation. The effect of resolution was investigated employing a virtual interrogation window (of varying size) applied to the high-resolution field measurements. Motivated by LES low-pass filtering concepts, the high-resolution experimental data in this study can be analyzed within the interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the sub-grid scale) and on interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the resolved scale). A dimensionless resolution threshold (L/D*) criterion was determined to achieve converged statistics on the filtered measurements. Such a criterion was then used to establish the relative importance between large and small-scale turbulence phenomena while investigating specific scales for the turbulent flow. First order data sets start to collapse at a resolution of 0.3D*, while for second and higher order statistical moments the interrogation window size drops down to 0.2D*.
A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Turbulent Couette Minimal Flow Unit
Smith, Edward
2016-11-01
What happens to turbulent motions below the Kolmogorov length scale? In order to explore this question, a 300 million molecule Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is presented for the minimal Couette channel in which turbulence can be sustained. The regeneration cycle and turbulent statistics show excellent agreement to continuum based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at Re=400. As MD requires only Newton's laws and a form of inter-molecular potential, it captures a much greater range of phenomena without requiring the assumptions of Newton's law of viscosity, thermodynamic equilibrium, fluid isotropy or the limitation of grid resolution. The fundamental nature of MD means it is uniquely placed to explore the nature of turbulent transport. A number of unique insights from MD are presented, including energy budgets, sub-grid turbulent energy spectra, probability density functions, Lagrangian statistics and fluid wall interactions. EPSRC Post Doctoral Prize Fellowship.
Zhang, Wei; He, Zhiguo; Jiang, Houshuo
2017-11-01
Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to measure instantaneous two-dimensional velocity vector fields of laboratory-generated turbulent buoyant plumes in linearly stratified saltwater over extended periods of time. From PIV-measured time-series flow data, characteristics of plume mean flow and turbulence have been quantified. To be specific, maximum plume penetration scaling and entrainment coefficient determined from the mean flow agree well with the theory based on the entrainment hypothesis for buoyant plumes in stratified fluids. Besides the well-known persistent entrainment along the plume stem (i.e., the 'plume-stem' entrainment), the mean plume velocity field shows persistent entrainment along the outer edge of the plume cap (i.e., the 'plume-cap' entrainment), thereby confirming predictions from previous numerical simulation studies. To our knowledge, the present PIV investigation provides the first measured flow field data in the plume cap region. As to measured plume turbulence, both the turbulent kinetic energy field and the turbulence dissipation rate field attain their maximum close to the source, while the turbulent viscosity field reaches its maximum within the plume cap region; the results also show that maximum turbulent viscosity scales as νt,max = 0.030(B/N)1/2, where B is source buoyancy flux and N is ambient buoyancy frequency. These PIV data combined with previously published numerical simulation results have implications for understanding the roles of hydrothermal plume turbulence, i.e. plume turbulence within the cap region causes the 'plume-cap' entrainment that plays an equally important role as the 'plume-stem' entrainment in supplying the final volume flux at the plume spreading level.
Small Scale Turbulence Measurements in Shallow Florida Waters.
Dhanak, Manhar R.; Holappa, Ken
1997-11-01
Small scale oceanic turbulence measurements, made during winter in 18m deep waters off the east coast of Florida using two shear probes mounted on board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), are described. The measurements were made over a substantial region as the AUV dived to a depth of 9m while moving forward at 1m/s. The velocity spectra from the probes, which were mounted in close proximity of each other and which measured the two cross-stream velocity components, agree well with each other and with the Nasmyth spectrum. Dissipation rates in the range ɛ = O (10-8 - 10-9) W/kg were measured. Analysis shows that the gathered data are of high quality and suggests that the use of a small AUV, whose self noise is well isolated from the measurement platform, promises to be an inexpensive, practical way of making a four-dimensional survey of significant regions of the ocean. The statistics of homogeneous turbulence, based on current measurements, will be discussed.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Scaling of turbulent flame speed for expanding flames with Markstein diffusion considerations
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung K.
2013-09-01
In this paper we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity, which is the product of the planar laminar flame speed and the Markstein length, on the turbulent flame speed and its scaling, based on experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames. Turbulent flame propagation data are presented for premixed flames of mixtures of hydrogen, methane, ethylene, n-butane, and dimethyl ether with air, in near-isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. For each individual fuel-air mixture presented in this work and the recently published iso-octane data from Leeds, normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual fuel-air mixtures approximately follow a ReT,f0.5 scaling, for which the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property of the turbulence Reynolds number. At a given ReT,f, it is experimentally observed that the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Markstein number, which could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the leading dissipation mechanism for the large wave number flame surface fluctuations. Consequently, by replacing thermal diffusivity with the Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, it is found that normalized turbulent flame speeds could be scaled by ReT,M0.5 irrespective of the fuel, equivalence ratio, pressure, and turbulence intensity for positive Markstein number flames.
Influence of Turbulent Fluctuations on Detonation Propagation
Maxwell, Brian McN; Lau-Chapdelaine, Sebastien S M; Falle, Sam A E G; Sharpe, Gary J; Radulescu, Matei I
2016-01-01
The present study addresses the reaction zone structure and burning mechanism of unstable detonations. Experiments investigated mainly two-dimensional methane-oxygen cellular detonations in a thin channel geometry. The sufficiently high temporal resolution permitted to determine the PDF of the shock distribution, a power-law with an exponent of -3, and the burning rate of unreacted pockets from their edges - through surface turbulent flames with a speed approximately 3-7 times larger than the laminar one at the local conditions. Numerical simulations were performed using a novel Large Eddy Simulation method where the reactions due to both auto-ignition and turbulent transport and treated exactly at the sub-grid scale in a reaction-diffusion formulation. The model is an extension of Kerstein & Menon's Linear Eddy Model for Large Eddy Simulation to treat flows with shock waves and rapid gasdynamic transients. The two-dimensional simulations recovered well the amplification of the laminar flame speed owing t...
Advances in universal scaling for broadband turbulent noise in internal flow devices
Violato, D.; Jong, A.T. de; Golliard, J.
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the scalability of broadband turbulent noise in internal pipe flows. It discusses a universal scaling approach for broadband turbulent noise that is based on surface acoustic power modeled by ANSYS Fluent. This investigation proposes a strategy for amplitude scaling at
Intermittent structures at ion scales in the turbulent solar wind
Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny; Roberts, Owen W.; Maksimovic, Milan; Escoubet, Philippe C.; Zouganelis, Yannis
2017-04-01
Understanding the physical mechanisms of dissipation, and the related heating, in turbulent collisionless plasmas (such as the solar wind) represents nowadays one of the key issues of plasma physics. Although the complex behavior of the solar wind has been matter of investigation of many years, some of the primary problems still remain a puzzle for the scientific community. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to current sheets and Alfvén vortex-like structures. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field and typical scales around ion characteristic scales. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame. Moreover, a further analysis on the ion velocity distribution shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the proton distribution function appears strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss possible interpretation of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma.
Sustaining mechanism of small-scale turbulent eddies in a precessing sphere
Horimoto, Yasufumi; Goto, Susumu
2017-11-01
It has been known for a long time that fully developed turbulence is sustained in a precessing container. The aim of the present study is to reveal the sustaining mechanism of turbulence in a precessing sphere by means of laboratory experiments. We conduct experiments using a Newtonian fluid (water) and viscoelastic fluids (dilute solutions of surfactant, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, and polymers, polyethylene oxide) to understand the sustaining mechanism of turbulence of Newtonian fluids by examining turbulence modifications due to the surfactant and polymer additives. When the Reynolds number based on the spin angular velocity and radius of the sphere is fixed, the most developed turbulence is sustained with the Poincaré number (the precession rate) being about 0.1. The key ingredient of the developed turbulence is a pair of large-scale vortex tubes which robustly exists in the flow. Assuming that these vortex tubes sustain small-scale turbulent eddies through an energy cascading process, we can explain all our experimental observations. Concerning the turbulence modification by the additives, the time-scale criteria by Lumley [J. Polymer Sci.: Macromol. Rev. 7, 263 (1973), 10.1002/pol.1973.230070104] and the refined theory by Tabor and de Gennes [Europhys. Lett. 2, 519 (1986), 10.1209/0295-5075/2/7/005] explain the experimental result that the pair of large-scale vortex tubes survives even when small-scale turbulent eddies are drastically suppressed by the surfactant additive.
Dynamic and Thermal Turbulent Time Scale Modelling for Homogeneous Shear Flows
Schwab, John R.; Lakshminarayana, Budugur
1994-01-01
A new turbulence model, based upon dynamic and thermal turbulent time scale transport equations, is developed and applied to homogeneous shear flows with constant velocity and temperature gradients. The new model comprises transport equations for k, the turbulent kinetic energy; tau, the dynamic time scale; k(sub theta), the fluctuating temperature variance; and tau(sub theta), the thermal time scale. It offers conceptually parallel modeling of the dynamic and thermal turbulence at the two equation level, and eliminates the customary prescription of an empirical turbulent Prandtl number, Pr(sub t), thus permitting a more generalized prediction capability for turbulent heat transfer in complex flows and geometries. The new model also incorporates constitutive relations, based upon invariant theory, that allow the effects of nonequilibrium to modify the primary coefficients for the turbulent shear stress and heat flux. Predictions of the new model, along with those from two other similar models, are compared with experimental data for decaying homogeneous dynamic and thermal turbulence, homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient, and homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient and constant velocity gradient. The new model offers improvement in agreement with the data for most cases considered in this work, although it was no better than the other models for several cases where all the models performed poorly.
Quantifying scaling in the velocity field of the anisotropic turbulent solar wind
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2007-09-01
Solar wind turbulence is dominated by Alfvénic fluctuations with power spectral exponents that somewhat surprisingly evolve toward the Kolmogorov value of -5/3, that of hydrodynamic turbulence. We analyze in situ satellite observations at 1AU and show that the turbulence decomposes linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field and determine their distinct intermittency independent scaling exponents. The first of these is consistent with recent predictions for anisotropic MHD turbulence and the second is closer to Kolmogorov-like scaling.
Scale-by-scale energy fluxes in anisotropic non-homogeneous turbulence behind a square cylinder
Alves Portela, Felipe; Papadakis, George; Vassilicos, John Christos
2015-11-01
The turbulent wake behind a square section cylinder is studied by means of high resolution direct numerical simulations using an in-house finite volume code. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder side is 3900. Single- and two-point statistics are collected in the lee of the cylinder for over 30 shedding periods, allowing for an extensive description of the development of the turbulence. The power spectrum in the frequency domain of velocity fluctuations displays a near -5/3 power law in the near wake, where the turbulence is neither isotropic nor homogeneous. In the same region of the flow, two-point statistics reveal a direct cascade of fluctuating kinetic energy down the scales as a result of the combined effect of linear and non-linear interactions. For scales aligned with the mean flow the non-linear interactions dominate the cascade. Conversely, for scales normal to the mean flow the cascade is dominated by the linear interactions while the non-linear term is mostly responsible for redistributing energy to different orientations. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).
Turbulence and magnetic fields in the large-scale structure of the universe.
Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Cho, Jungyeon; Das, Santabrata
2008-05-16
The nature and origin of turbulence and magnetic fields in the intergalactic space are important problems that are yet to be understood. We propose a scenario in which turbulent-flow motions are induced via the cascade of the vorticity generated at cosmological shocks during the formation of the large-scale structure. The turbulence in turn amplifies weak seed magnetic fields of any origin. Supercomputer simulations show that the turbulence is subsonic inside clusters and groups of galaxies, whereas it is transonic or mildly supersonic in filaments. Based on a turbulence dynamo model, we then estimated that the average magnetic field strength would be a few microgauss (microG) inside clusters and groups, approximately 0.1 muG around clusters and groups, and approximately 10 nanogauss in filaments. Our model presents a physical mechanism that transfers the gravitational energy to the turbulence and magnetic field energies in the large-scale structure of the universe.
Confined swirling jet predictions using a multiple-scale turbulence model
Chen, C. P.
1985-01-01
A recently developed multiple scale turbulence model is used for the numerical prediction of isothermal, confined turbulent swirling flows. Because of the streamline curvature and nonequilibrium spectral energy transfer nature of the swirling flow, the utilized multiple scale turbulence model includes a different set of response equations for each of the large scale energetic eddies and the small scale transfer eddies. Predictions are made of a confined coaxial swirling jet in a sudden expansion and comparisons are made with experimental data and with the conventional single scale two equation model. The multiple scale model shows significant improvement of predictions of swirling flows over the single scale k epsilon model. The sensitivity study of the effect of prescribed inlet turbulence levels on the flow fields is also included.
Quantifying scaling in the velocity field of the anisotropic\\ud turbulent solar wind
Chapman, Sandra C.; Hnat, B.
2007-01-01
Solar wind turbulence is dominated by Alfvénic fluctuations with power spectral exponents that somewhat surprisingly evolve toward the Kolmogorov value of −5/3, that of hydrodynamic turbulence. We analyze in situ satellite observations at 1AU and show that the turbulence decomposes linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field and determine their distinct intermittency independent scaling exponents. The first of these is consistent with...
Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence
Salhi, A.; Baklouti, F. S.; Godeferd, F.; Lehner, T.; Cambon, C.
2017-02-01
Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k-1, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, VAk ,N , and f . By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f -plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001), 10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, Sκ(k ,t ) , magnetic, Sm(k ,t ) , and potential, Sp(k ,t ) , energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that VAk /f ≪1 , the Alfvén ratio Sκ(k ,t ) /Sm(k ,t ) behaves like k-2 if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k-1 if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that VAk /f ≫1 , there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (VAk /N ≪1 ), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components, while at small scales (VAk /N ≫1
Statistics and scaling of turbulence in a spatially developing mixing layer at Reλ = 250
Attili, Antonio
2012-03-21
The turbulent flow originating from the interaction between two parallel streams with different velocities is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. Rather than the more common temporal evolving layer, a spatially evolving configuration, with perturbed laminar inlet conditions is considered. The streamwise evolution and the self-similar state of turbulence statistics are reported and compared to results available in the literature. The characteristics of the transitional region agree with those observed in other simulations and experiments of mixing layers originating from laminar inlets. The present results indicate that the transitional region depends strongly on the inlet flow. Conversely, the self-similar state of turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation agrees quantitatively with those in a temporal mixing layer developing from turbulent initial conditions [M. M. Rogers and R. D. Moser, “Direct simulation of a self-similar turbulent mixing layer,” Phys. Fluids6, 903 (1994)]. The statistical features of turbulence in the self-similar region have been analysed in terms of longitudinal velocity structure functions, and scaling exponents are estimated by applying the extended self-similarity concept. In the small scale range (60 < r/η < 250), the scaling exponents display the universal anomalous scaling observed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The hypothesis of isotropy recovery holds in the turbulent mixing layer despite the presence of strong shear and large-scale structures, independently of the means of turbulence generation. At larger scales (r/η > 400), the mean shear and large coherent structures result in a significant deviation from predictions based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence theory. In this second scaling range, the numerical values of the exponents agree quantitatively with those reported for a variety of other flows characterized by strong shear, such as boundary layers, as well as channel and wake flows.
Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2011-12-22
A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.
Turbulence and other processes for the scale-free texture of the fast solar wind
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2012-04-01
The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 hours. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind which co-exists with the signature of MHD turbulence but extends to lower frequencies. Importantly, scaling and non- Gaussian statistics of fluctuations are not unique to turbulence and can imply other physical mechanisms- our results thus place a strong constraint on theories of the dynamics of the solar corona and solar wind. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components also show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range of MHD turbulence.
Modeling of short scale turbulence in the solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Krishan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The solar wind serves as a laboratory for investigating magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under conditions irreproducible on the terra firma. Here we show that the frame work of Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD, which can support three quadratic invariants and allows nonlinear states to depart fundamentally from the Alfvénic, is capable of reproducing in the inertial range the three branches of the observed solar wind magnetic fluctuation spectrum - the Kolmogorov branch f -5/3 steepening to f -α1 with on the high frequency side and flattening to f -1 on the low frequency side. These fluctuations are found to be associated with the nonlinear Hall-MHD Shear Alfvén waves. The spectrum of the concomitant whistler type fluctuations is very different from the observed one. Perhaps the relatively stronger damping of the whistler fluctuations may cause their unobservability. The issue of equipartition of energy through the so called Alfvén ratio acquires a new status through its dependence, now, on the spatial scale.
Universal scaling laws for dense particle suspensions in turbulent wall-bounded flows
Simões Costa, P.; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, W.P.
2016-01-01
The macroscopic behavior of dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in turbulent plane channel flow is examined. We show that particles larger than the smallest turbulence scales cause the suspension to deviate from the continuum limit in which its dynamics is well described by an
Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.
Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R
2009-08-07
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.
Scaling Laws of Turbulence and Heating of Fast SolarWind: The Role of Density Fluctuations
Carbone, V; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R
2010-01-01
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasms can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfv\\'enic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same dataset. Large scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, play thus a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can moreover supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the non-adiabatic solar wind.
The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry V. Wang
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.
Scaling of velocity and scalar structure functions in ac electrokinetic turbulence
Zhao, Wei; Wang, Guiren
2017-02-01
Electrokinetic (EK) turbulence or electrohydrodynamic (EHD) turbulence has been recently achieved in different fluids under both ac [G. Wang et al., Lab Chip 14, 1452 (2014), 10.1039/C3LC51403J; Phys. Rev. E 93, 013106 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.013106] and dc electric fields [A. Varshney et al., Soft Matter 12, 1759 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02316E]. Here, through dimensional analysis, scaling laws of both velocity and electric conductivity structure functions in the forced cascade region of ac EK turbulence can be predicated (similar to Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling law in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection), in either macroscale or microscale flows. In the forced cascade region, EK force, which relies on the direct cascade of conductivity structures, injects energy directly into a wide spectral region to sustain the flow disturbance. The scaling exponents of the second-order velocity and conductivity structures are 2/5 and 4/5, respectively. In addition to the scaling regions, two characteristic small length scales are derived for both weak and strong electric body forces, respectively. This theoretical investigation can significantly enhance our understanding of EK or EHD turbulence while forced by an ac electric field. It can further broaden our understanding of the forced cascade region of forced turbulence and make the manipulation of the turbulent cascade process more flexible and controllable.
Scaling laws and turbulence closures for stable boundary layers
Zilitinkevich, S.; Esau, I.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.
2003-04-01
This paper presents a recently developed theory of non-local turbulence in the stably stratified planetary boundary layers (PBLs): basic theoretical results, new LES code specifically designed for LES of stably stratified flows, and comparison of theoretical predictions with LES and experimental data. The paper includes improved formulations for the PBL depth and resistance laws and outlines an advanced turbulence closure accounting for the transport properties of internal gravity waves.
Turbulence Scales Simulations in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels
Teleman, Elena-Carmen; Silion, Radu; Axinte, Elena; Pescaru, Radu
2008-01-01
The simulation of the air flow over models in atmospheric boundary layer tunnels is a research domain based on advanced scientific technologies imposed by the necessity of studying the turbulent fluid movements in the proximity of the Earth’s surface. The experiment presented herein is developed in the wind tunnel from the Laboratory of Structural Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services in Iassy. Measurements necessary for the determination of the turbulence sca...
Scaling properties of intermittent solar wind turbulence and their solar cycle dependence.
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.
Quantifying the properties of solar wind turbulence is important for our understanding of the fundamentals of MHD turbulence the evolution of the solar wind and for the propagation of energetic particles A hallmark of turbulence is scaling in statistical measures of fluctuations in the flow In data this is quantified by testing for scaling in the Probability Density Functions PDF of fluctuations either directly or via structure function analysis Comparisons can then be made at least in principle with turbulence phenomenologies Having determined the scaling exponents from the data we can also derive a Fokker-Planck model along with the associated Langevin equation- this provides a stochastic dynamical equation for the fluctuations in the time series of in- situ plasma parameters Differences in the scaling exponents found for different plasma parameters constructed to more closely track distinct phenomenologies Alvenic or compressive may reflect both local and nonlocal processes with implications for our understanding of the evolving solar wind
Hnat, B.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Dunlop, M.
2012-12-01
Quantifying the scaling exponents of fluctuations in the solar wind is central to testing predictions of turbulence theories. We study spectral features of Alfvenic turbulence in fast solar wind. We propose a general, instrument independent method (Gogoberidze et al, MNRAS, 2012) to estimate the uncertainty in velocity fluctuations obtained by in-situ satellite observations in the solar wind. We show that when the measurement uncertainties of the velocity fluctuations are taken into account the less energetic Elsasser spectrum obeys a unique power law scaling throughout the inertial range as prevailing theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence predict. Moreover, in the solar wind interval analyzed, the two Elsasser spectra are observed to have the same scaling exponent ~1:54 throughout the inertial range. This highlights the importance of understanding uncertainty estimates and how they affect observed scaling in the PSD when using the solar wind as a laboratory to test predictions of theories of turbulence.
Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Zink, Matthias
2013-04-01
Simulated soil moisture from land surface or water balance models is increasingly used to characterize and/or monitor the development of agricultural droughts at regional and global scales (e.g. NLADS, EDO, GLDAS). The skill of these models to accurately replicate hydrologic fluxes and state variables is strongly dependent on the quality meteorological forcings, the conceptualization of dominant processes, and the parameterization scheme used to incorporate the variability of land surface properties (e.g. soil, topography, and vegetation) at a coarser spatial resolutions (e.g. at least 4 km). The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of the sub-grid variability of soil texture and land cover properties on agricultural drought statistics such as duration, severity, and areal extent. For this purpose, a process based mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to create two sets of daily soil moisture fields over Germany at the spatial resolution of (4 × 4) km2 from 1950 to 2011. These simulations differ from each other only on the manner in which the land surface properties are accounted within the model. In the first set, soil moisture fields are obtained with the multiscale parameter regionalization (MPR) scheme (Samaniego, et. al. 2010, Kumar et. al. 2012), which explicitly takes the sub-grid variability of soil texture and land cover properties into account. In the second set, on the contrary, a single dominant soil and land cover class is used for ever grid cell at 4 km. Within each set, the propagation of the parameter uncertainty into the soil moisture simulations is also evaluated using an ensemble of 100 best global parameter sets of mHM (Samaniego, et. al. 2012). To ensure comparability, both sets of this ensemble simulations are forced with the same fields of meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration). Results indicate that both sets of model simulations, with and without the sub-grid variability of
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kysela Bohuš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity.
Fine Scale Modeling and Forecasts of Upper Atmospheric Turbulence for Operational Use
2014-11-30
nonequilibrium layer dynamics at fine scales, Phys. Scr. 89 (22pp) 098001 (2014). Observation and simulation of wave breaking in the southern hemispheric ...Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) Solver The Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) Solver performs processing of input HRMM meteorological data using parameters...wavenumber pair (or wavevector), as well as each meteorological profile. This means that the solver can be scaled to run on a high performance
Large scale finite element solvers for the large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent flows
Colomés Gené, Oriol
2016-01-01
In this thesis we have developed a path towards large scale Finite Element simulations of turbulent incompressible flows. We have assessed the performance of residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) methods for the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent incompressible flows. We consider VMS models obtained by different subgrid scale approximations which include either static or dynamic subscales, linear or nonlinear multiscale splitting, and different choices of the subscale space. W...
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Fugen
2014-04-01
Based on the generalized von Kármán spectrum and the extended Rytov theory, new analytic expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence with horizontal path. They consider finite turbulence outer scale and general spectral power law value, and cover a wide range of non-Kolmogorov turbulence strength. When the turbulence outer scale is set to infinite, the new expressions can reduce correctly to previously published analytic expressions [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 302188 (2013]. The final results show that the increased turbulence outer scale value enlarges the variance of AOA fluctuations greatly under moderate-to-strong (or strong) non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Field, A. R.; Roach, C. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Dorland, W.
2017-11-01
We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i.e., the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but transitions to a turbulent state given a large enough initial perturbation. We propose that the transition to subcritical turbulence occurs via an intermediate state dominated by low number of coherent long-lived structures, close to threshold, which increase in number as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more strongly turbulent regime, until they fill the domain and a more conventional turbulence emerges. We show that the properties of turbulence are effectively functions of the distance to threshold, as quantified by the ion heat flux. We make quantitative comparisons of correlation lengths, times, and amplitudes between our simulations and experimental measurements using the MAST BES diagnostic. We find reasonable agreement of the correlation properties, most notably of the correlation time, for which significant discrepancies were found in previous numerical studies of MAST turbulence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, Francois G., E-mail: francois.schmitt@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Oceanologie et de Geosciences, CNRS UMR LOG 8187, Universite des sciences et technologies de Lille, Lille 1, Wimereux (France); Vinkovic, Ivana, E-mail: ivana.vinkovic@univ-lyon1.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS UMR 5509, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Buffat, Marc, E-mail: marc.buffat@univ-lyon1.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS UMR 5509, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)
2010-07-19
Turbulence models often involve Reynolds averaging, with a closure providing the Reynolds stress tensor as function of mean velocity gradients, through a turbulence constitutive equation. The main limitation of this linear closure is that it rests on an analogy with kinetic theory. For this analogy to be valid there has to be a scale separation between the mean velocity variations and the turbulent Lagrangian free path whose mean value is the turbulent mixing length. The aim of this work is to better understand this hypothesis from a microscopic point of view. Therefore, fluid elements are tracked in a turbulent channel flow. The flow is resolved by direct numerical simulation (DNS). Statistics on particle trajectories ending on a certain distance y{sub 0} from the wall are computed, leading to estimations of the turbulent mixing length scale and the Knudsen number. Comparing the computed values to the Knudsen number in the case of scale separation, we may know in which region of the flow and to what extent the turbulence constitutive equation is not verified. Finally, a new non-local formulation for predicting the Reynolds stress is proposed.
Large eddy simulations of turbulent reacting jets
Garrick, Sean Clifford
The "filtered density function" methodology is implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of three-dimensional planar and round jet flows, under both non-reaction and chemically reacting conditions. In this methodology, the effects of the unresolved scalar fluctuations are taken into account by considering the probability density function (PDF) of the sub-grid scale (SGS) scalar quantities in a stochastic manner. The influences of scalar mixing and convention within the sub-grid are taken into account via conventional methods. The FDF transport equation is solved numerically via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme in which the solutions of equivalent stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are obtained. The consistency of the approach, the convergence of the FDF solution, and the performance of the closures employed in the FDF transport equation are assessed by comparisons with results obtained by conventional LES via a finite difference method (LES-FD). In non-reacting flows, the FDF solution yields results similar to those via LES-FD for the first two SGS moments. The advantage of the FDF methodology is demonstrated by its use in LES of reacting flows. In the absence of a closure for the SGS scalar fluctuations, the LES-FD results are significantly different from those obtained by the FDF. The FDF is also appraised by comparative assessments against experimental data for a non-heat releasing turbulent round jet involving the ozone-nitric oxide chemical reaction.
Small-scale turbulence, marine snow formation, and planktivorous feeding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiørboe, Thomas
1997-01-01
to demonstrate how phytoplankton cells may coagulate, how their stickiness may be measured, how coagulation determines the sedimentation of particulate matter in the ocean, and how it may control the population dynamics of phytoplankton. Subsequently the collision equations are used to describe how planktivorous...... predators encounter prey in turbulent environments, and the equations are modified to take predator and prey behaviour into account. Simple equations that describe prey encounter rates for cruising predators, suspension feeders, ambush feeders, and pause-travel predators in calm and turbulent water...
Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing
Kumar, Abhishek
2017-01-11
In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.
Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades
Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.
2015-01-01
estimated using a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence. Nebula turbulence is described by its Reynolds number Re = (L/eta)(exp 4/3), where L = H alpha(exp 1/2) is the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, alpha the turbulent viscosity parameter, and eta is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t(sub eta). In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can handle, so some physical arguments are needed to extend the results of numerical simulations to nebula conditions. In this paper, we report new physics to be incorporated into our statistical models.
Universal small-scale structure in turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability
Zhdankin, Vladimir; Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Lesur, Geoffroy
2017-05-01
The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion discs is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. We find that the simulations exhibit a similar degree of intermittency as in standard MHD turbulence. We perform a statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures and find that energy dissipation is concentrated in thin sheet-like structures that span a wide range of scales up to the box size. We show that these structures exhibit strikingly similar statistical properties to those in standard MHD turbulence. Additionally, the structures are oriented in the toroidal direction with a characteristic tilt of approximately 17.^{circ}5, implying an effective guide field in that direction.
On Landau's prediction for large-scale fluctuation of turbulence energy dissipation
Mouri, H.; Takaoka, M.; Hori, A.; Kawashima, Y.
2005-01-01
Kolmogorov's theory for turbulence in 1941 is based on a hypothesis that small-scale statistics are uniquely determined by the kinematic viscosity and the mean rate of energy dissipation. Landau remarked that the local rate of energy dissipation should fluctuate in space over large scales and hence should affect small-scale statistics. Experimentally, we confirm the significance of this large-scale fluctuation, which is comparable to the mean rate of energy dissipation at the typical scale fo...
PECASE - Multi-Scale Experiments and Modeling in Wall Turbulence
2014-12-23
roughness, vibrations, non -alignment of the different sections of the pipe, thermal effects, as well as taking into account the effects not modeled by...flows. In particular, work is ongoing to consider adaptation of the formulation to consider rough-wall, non - Newtonian and compressible flows, and...image velocimetry measurements in turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech., 541:21–54, 2005. Y. Hwang and C. Cossu. Linear non -normal energy
Bardoczi, Laszlo
Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are a major impediment in the development of operational scenarios of present toroidal fusion devices. The multi-scale and non-linear interaction of NTMs with turbulence has been an active field of theoretical plasma research in the past decade for its role in plasma confinement. However, little to no experimental effort has been devoted to explore this interaction. As part of this thesis, dedicated experiments were conducted utilizing the full complement of the DIII-D turbulence diagnostics to study the effect of NTM on turbulence as well as the effect of turbulence on NTM growth. The first localized measurements of long and intermediate wavelength turbulent density fluctuations and long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations modified by magnetic islands are presented. These long and intermediate wavelengths correspond to the expected Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) and Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) scales, respectively. Two regimes were observed when tracking density fluctuations during NTM evolution: (1) small islands are characterized by steep electron temperature radial profile and turbulence levels comparable to that of the background; (2) large islands have a flat electron temperature profile and reduced turbulence level at the O-point. Radially outside of the large island, the electron temperature profile is steeper and the turbulence level increased compared to the no or small island case. It was also found that turbulence is reduced in the O-point region compared to the X-point region. This helical structure of turbulence modification leads to a 15% modulation of the density fluctuation power as the island rotates in the lab frame and this modulation is nearly in phase with the electron temperature modulation. These measurements were also used to determine the turbulence penetration length scale at the island separatrix and was found that the turbulence penetration length scale is on the order of the
An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Qian
2010-07-01
Full Text Available One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75×75 km^{2}.
Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O_{3}, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O_{3} SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases
Autonomous Operation of Hybrid Microgrid with AC and DC Sub-Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
This paper investigates on the active and reactive power sharing of an autonomous hybrid microgrid. Unlike existing microgrids which are purely ac, the hybrid microgrid studied here comprises dc and ac sub-grids, interconnected by power electronic interfaces. The main challenge here is to manage...... the power flow among all the sources distributed throughout the two types of sub-grids, which certainly is tougher than previous efforts developed for only either ac or dc microgrid. This wider scope of control has not yet been investigated, and would certainly rely on the coordinated operation of dc...... sources, ac sources and interlinking converters. Suitable control and normalization schemes are therefore developed for controlling them with results presented for showing the overall performance of the hybrid microgrid....
Subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent channel flows
Silvis, Maurits H.; Bae, Hyunji Jane; Trias, F. Xavier; Abkar, Mahdi; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2017-11-01
We aim to design subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows. Rotating turbulent flows form a challenging test case for large-eddy simulation due to the presence of the Coriolis force. The Coriolis force conserves the total kinetic energy while transporting it from small to large scales of motion, leading to the formation of large-scale anisotropic flow structures. The Coriolis force may also cause partial flow laminarization and the occurrence of turbulent bursts. Many subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation are, however, primarily designed to parametrize the dissipative nature of turbulent flows, ignoring the specific characteristics of transport processes. We, therefore, propose a new subgrid-scale model that, in addition to the usual dissipative eddy viscosity term, contains a nondissipative nonlinear model term designed to capture transport processes, such as those due to rotation. We show that the addition of this nonlinear model term leads to improved predictions of the energy spectra of rotating homogeneous isotropic turbulence as well as of the Reynolds stress anisotropy in spanwise-rotating plane-channel flows. This work is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under Project Number 613.001.212.
Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow
Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G.E.; Attili, A; Bisetti, F; Buxton, O.R.H.
2016-01-01
The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and
AM05-12-001 Large-scale Fluctuation of Turbulence Energy Dissipation
毛利, 英明; 高岡, 正憲; 堀, 晃浩; 川島, 儀英; H, MOURI; M., Takaoka; A., Hori; Y., Kawashima; 同志社大学工学部; 気象研究所; Doshisha University; Meteorological Research Institute
2005-01-01
Kolmogorov's theory for turbulence in 1941 is based on a hypothesis that small-scale statistics are uniquely determined by the kinematic viscosity and the mean rate of energy dissipation. Landau remarked that the local rate of energy dissipation should fluctuate in space over scales of large eddies and hence should affect small-scale statistics. Experimentally, we confirm the significance of this fluctuation, which is comparable to the mean rate of energy dissipation at the typical scale of l...
Performance of four turbulence closure models implemented using a generic length scale method
Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Arango, H.G.; Signell, R.P.
2005-01-01
A two-equation turbulence model (one equation for turbulence kinetic energy and a second for a generic turbulence length-scale quantity) proposed by Umlauf and Burchard [J. Marine Research 61 (2003) 235] is implemented in a three-dimensional oceanographic model (Regional Oceanographic Modeling System; ROMS v2.0). These two equations, along with several stability functions, can represent many popular turbulence closures, including the k-kl (Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5), k-??, and k-?? schemes. The implementation adds flexibility to the model by providing an unprecedented range of turbulence closure selections in a single 3D oceanographic model and allows comparison and evaluation of turbulence models in an otherwise identical numerical environment. This also allows evaluation of the effect of turbulence models on other processes such as suspended-sediment distribution or ecological processes. Performance of the turbulence models and sediment-transport schemes is investigated with three test cases for (1) steady barotropic flow in a rectangular channel, (2) wind-induced surface mixed-layer deepening in a stratified fluid, and (3) oscillatory stratified pressure-gradient driven flow (estuarine circulation) in a rectangular channel. Results from k-??, k-??, and gen (a new closure proposed by Umlauf and Burchard [J. Marine Research 61 (2003) 235]) are very similar for these cases, but the k-kl closure results depend on a wall-proximity function that must be chosen to suit the flow. Greater variations appear in simulations of suspended-sediment concentrations than in salinity simulations because the transport of suspended-sediment amplifies minor variations in the methods. The amplification is caused by the added physics of a vertical settling rate, bottom stress dependent resuspension, and diffusive transport of sediment in regions of well mixed salt and temperature. Despite the amplified sensitivity of sediment to turbulence models in the estuary test case, the four
Horizontal Structure of Turbulence on Decimeter to 10m Scales in Fast Tidal Flows
Horwitz, R.; Hay, A. E.
2016-02-01
We characterize the structure of turbulence in a very fast tidal channel in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia that has been identified for development as a commercial tidal power resource. A subsurface mooring that orients into the flow was equipped with a horizontally-aimed AD2CP, and upward- and downward-looking ADCPs. Two week-long deployments provide velocity measurements of tidal flows up to 4 m/s that are used to describe the spatial (lateral) and temporal structure of turbulent fluctuations on decimeter to 10m scales. The spatial scales and temporal intermittency vary with both speed of the flow and the effects of upstream topography.
A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence
Kibbey, Timothy P.
2014-01-01
A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.
Multi-scale analysis of local flow topology in isotropic turbulence
Danish, Mohammad; Meneveau, Charles
2017-11-01
Knowledge of local flow-topology, as described by the velocity gradients, is useful to develop insights of turbulence processes, such as energy cascade, material element deformation, etc. Much has been learned in recent past about flow-topology at the smallest (viscous) scales of turbulence. However, less is known at larger (or inertial) scales of turbulence. In this work, we present a detailed study on the scale-dependence of various quantities of our interest, like population fraction of different flow-topologies, joint probability distribution of second and third invariants of velocity gradient tensor, etc. We use a new filter proposed by Eyink & Aluie to decompose the flow into small and large scales. We provide further insights for the observed behavior of scale-dependence by examining the probability fluxes appearing in the Fokker-Plank equation. Specifically, we aim to understand whether the differences observed between the viscous and inertial range are due to different effects caused by pressure, subgrid-scale or viscous stresses, or various combination thereof. For this purpose, we use the isotropic turbulence dataset at Reλ = 433 available at JHTDB and the analysis tools developed for SciServer, including FFT to evaluate filtering and gradients. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grants No. 1507469 and 1633124).
Small-Scale Bolometers for Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Experiments
Smith, Jolinda; Wybourne, M. N.
1998-03-01
We have developed small (50 =B5m) bolometers for use at the Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Laboratory at the University of Oregon. The devices are composed of AuGe sensing elements on 50 =B5m diameter optic fibers. Micron-size bolometers have recently been reported; however, in these devices the sensing elements were defined using a crude wire-masking technique.(O. Chanal, B. Baguenard, O. B=E9thoux, and B. Chabaud, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68), 2442 (1997) By using electron-beam lithography to define the sensing elements, we have greater control over their geometry and electrical characteristics. We will also discuss the application of electron-beam lithography to the fabrication of submicron bolometers and anemometers.
Turbulent methane combustion in a laboratory-scale furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oksanen, A.; Maeki-Mantila, E. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering
1996-12-31
Methane combustion in the 400 rotational symmetric test chamber by ENEL was investigated. The prediction of the reaction rates of methane and carbon monoxide was based on the models which are taking into consideration the effect of turbulence on the oxidation phenomena namely the eddy dissipation concept model (EDC) and the eddy dissipation model (EDM). The experimental results of the distributions of the different species concentrations, temperature, velocities, turbulence quantities etc. were measured in the chamber cross-sections. The formation of nitric oxide was modelled using the thermal- and prompt-NO formation mechanisms and the formulation was based on the chemical kinetics and the probability density function (pdf) with the {beta}- and {delta}-distributions. If more than one variable is taken into consideration in the use of pdf it is very difficult to find distribution for different variables and especially to solve them with the moderate amount of the computing time. Therefore, in this presentation the amount of the pdf variables was limited as small as possible i.e. only one variable namely the mixture fraction was used the variance of which was solved from the transport equation. The computational domain which was divided into about seven thousand cells includes areas where the mean values of the variables can be supposed to be known and where the distribution of the probability is very narrow. Because in every computational cell the probability distribution as accurate as possible is wanted the linearization of the integration was made. The effect of the local extinction on the reaction rates was also included in the paper
On the stability of large-scale streaks in turbulent Couette and Poiseulle flows
Park, Junho; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo
2011-01-01
The linear secondary stability of large-scale optimal streaks in turbulent Couette flow at Re=52 and Poiseulle flow at Re=300 is investigated. The streaks are computed by solving the nonlinear two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an eddy-viscosity model. Optimal initial conditions leading the largest linear transient growth are used, and as the amplitude of the initial vortices increases, the amplitude of streaks gradually increases. Instabilities of the streaks appear when their amplitude exceeds approximately 18% of the velocity difference between walls in turbulent Couette flow and 21% of the centerline velocity in turbulent Poiseuille flow. When the amplitude of the streaks is sufficiently large, the instabilities attain significant growth rates in a finite range of streamwise wavenumbers that shows good agreement with the typical streamwise wavenumbers of the large-scale motions in the outer region.
Turbulence-generated proton-scale structures in the terrestrial magnetosheath
Vörös, Zoltán; Echim, Marius M; Consolini, Giuseppe; Narita, Yasuhito
2016-01-01
Recent results of numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations suggest that in collisionless space plasmas turbulence can spontaneously generate thin current sheets. These coherent structures can partially explain intermittency and the non-homogenous distribution of localized plasma heating in turbulence. In this Letter Cluster multi-point observations are used to investigate the distribution of magnetic field discontinuities and the associated small-scale current sheets in the terrestrial magnetosheath downstream of a quasi-parallel bow shock. It is shown experimentally, for the first time, that the strongest turbulence generated current sheets occupy the long tails of probability distribution functions (PDFs) associated with extremal values of magnetic field partial derivatives. During the analyzed one hour long time interval, about a hundred strong discontinuities, possibly proton-scale current sheets were observed.
Universal Scaling Laws for Dense Particle Suspensions in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows.
Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul
2016-09-23
The macroscopic behavior of dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in turbulent plane channel flow is examined. We show that particles larger than the smallest turbulence scales cause the suspension to deviate from the continuum limit in which its dynamics is well described by an effective suspension viscosity. This deviation is caused by the formation of a particle layer close to the wall with significant slip velocity. By assuming two distinct transport mechanisms in the near-wall layer and the turbulence in the bulk, we define an effective wall location such that the flow in the bulk can still be accurately described by an effective suspension viscosity. We thus propose scaling laws for the mean velocity profile of the suspension flow, together with a master equation able to predict the increase in drag as a function of the particle size and volume fraction.
Simple subgrid scale stresses models for homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.
Large eddy simulations employing the filtering of Navier-Stokes equations highlight stresses, related to the interaction between large scales below the cut and small scales above it, which have been designated 'subgrid scale stresses'. Their effects include both the energy flux through the cut and a component of viscous diffusion. The eddy viscosity introduced in the subgrid scale models which give the correct energy flux through the cut by comparison with spectral closures is shown to depend only on the small scales. The Smagorinsky (1963) model can only be obtained if the cut lies in the middle of the inertial range. A novel model which takes the small scales into account statistically, and includes the effects of viscosity, is proposed and compared with classical models for the Comte-Bellot and Corrsin (1971) experiment.
On the self-sustained nature of large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow
Rawat, Subhandu; Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun; Rincon, François
2015-11-01
Large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows are frequently interpreted as resulting from an aggregation process of smaller-scale structures. Here, we explore the alternative possibility that such large-scale motions are themselves self-sustained and do not draw their energy from smaller-scale turbulent motions activated in buffer layers. To this end, it is first shown that large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow at Re=2150 self-sustain even when active processes at smaller scales are artificially quenched by increasing the Smagorinsky constant Cs in large eddy simulations. These results are in agreement with earlier results on pressure driven turbulent channels. We further investigate the nature of the large-scale coherent motions by computing upper and lower-branch nonlinear steady solutions of the filtered (LES) equations with a Newton-Krylov solver,and find that they are connected by a saddle-node bifurcation at large values of Cs. Upper branch solutions for the filtered large scale motions are computed for Reynolds numbers up to Re=2187 using specific paths in the Re-Cs parameter plane and compared to large-scale coherent motions. Continuation to Cs = 0 reveals that these large-scale steady solutions of the filtered equations are connected to the Nagata-Clever-Busse-Waleffe branch of steady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast, we find it impossible to connect the latter to buffer layer motions through a continuation to higher Reynolds numbers in minimal flow units.
Turbulence-induced contact rates of plankton : the question of scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian
1998-01-01
methodology can bias encounter rate estimates in turbulent situations. We show that a scale based on the predator's reactive distance is more appropriate, as it has clear theoretical support, and is consistent with other mathematical treatments of encounter problems. Applying the reactive distance...
Steady large-scale modulation of a moderately turbulent co-flow jet
Cardoso de Souza, T.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2014-01-01
The effects of a spatial modulation acting at the inflow of a moderately turbulent planar jet surrounded by a faster co-flow are investigated using direct numerical simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations. We adopt a superposition of spatially filtered small-scale random perturbations and a
Below the Kolmogorov scale: the non-turbulent sex life of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Below the Kolmogorov length scale there is no turbulence and phytoplankton gametes swim in order to encounter each other and achieve syngamy. An encounter rate model, Z = ð p2 R2 u N, is derived incorporating cell size (R), swimming speed (u) and cell concentration (N). Assuming Z = 1 day–1, calculations using this ...
Silvis, Maurits H; Verstappen, Roel
2016-01-01
We study the construction of subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, we aim to consolidate a systematic approach of constructing subgrid-scale models, based on the idea that it is desirable that subgrid-scale models are consistent with the properties of the Navier-Stokes equations and the turbulent stresses. To that end, we first discuss in detail the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the near-wall scaling behavior, realizability and dissipation properties of the turbulent stresses. We furthermore summarize the requirements that subgrid-scale models have to satisfy in order to preserve these important mathematical and physical properties. In this fashion, a framework of model constraints arises that we apply to analyze the behavior of a number of existing subgrid-scale models that are based on the local velocity gradient. We show that these subgrid-scale models do not satisfy all the desired properties, after which we explain that this is p...
Multiscale interaction between a large scale magnetic island and small scale turbulence
Choi, M. J.; Kim, J.; Kwon, J.-M.; Park, H. K.; In, Y.; Lee, W.; Lee, K. D.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Ko, W.-H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, Y. S.; Na, Y.-S.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, B. H.
2017-12-01
Multiscale interaction between the magnetic island and turbulence has been demonstrated through simultaneous two-dimensional measurements of turbulence and temperature and flow profiles. The magnetic island and turbulence can mutually interact via coupling between the electron temperature (T e ) gradient, the T e turbulence, and the poloidal flow. The T e gradient altered by the magnetic island steepens outside and flattens inside the island. The T e turbulence can appear in increased T e gradient regions. The combined effects of the T e gradient and the poloidal flow shear determines the two-dimensional distribution of the T e turbulence. When the poloidal vortex flow forms, it can maintain the steepest T e gradient and the magnetic island acts more like an electron heat transport barrier. Interestingly, when the T e gradient, the T e turbulence, and the vortex flow shear increase beyond critical levels, the magnetic island turns into a fast electron heat transport channel, which directly leads to the minor disruption.
Quantify the continuous dependence of SST-turbulent heat flux relationship on spatial scales
Li, Furong; Sang, Huiyan; Jing, Zhao
2017-06-01
Relationship among different quantities usually changes in the time, spatial, and spectral domains due to the complicated dynamics in the geosystem. In this study, we propose a general statistical modeling approach to address this problem and apply the approach to evaluating the continuous dependence of relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and turbulent heat flux (T-Q relationship) on spatial scales. In the Kuroshio extension region, it is found that the turbulent heat flux (defined positive upward) anomalies are positively correlated to SST anomalies at scales ranging from 150 km to 4000 km. The T-Q relationship stays stable at mesoscales (<1000 km) with a regression coefficient α of 26 W/(m2K). However, its value decreases rapidly as scales further increase. In addition, α exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle with coherent phase at all the scales. The largest and smallest values occur in winter and summer, respectively.
Observation of turbulent intermittency scaling with magnetic helicity in an MHD plasma wind tunnel.
Schaffner, D A; Wan, A; Brown, M R
2014-04-25
The intermittency in turbulent magnetic field fluctuations has been observed to scale with the amount of magnetic helicity injected into a laboratory plasma. An unstable spheromak injected into the MHD wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment displays turbulent magnetic and plasma fluctuations as it relaxes into a Taylor state. The level of intermittency of this turbulence is determined by finding the flatness of the probability distribution function of increments for magnetic pickup coil fluctuations B˙(t). The intermittency increases with the injected helicity, but spectral indices are unaffected by this variation. While evidence is provided which supports the hypothesis that current sheets and reconnection sites are related to the generation of this intermittent signal, the true nature of the observed intermittency remains unknown.
On a self-sustaining process at large scale in the turbulent channel flow
Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo
2010-11-01
The near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows has been understood as the place where an independent self-sustaining cycle exists, and the associated coherent motions in this region have been rigorously described with traveling waves and/or unstable periodic orbits in the phase space. On the other hand, in the outer region, turbulent motions have often been thought to be produced from the active near-wall cycles via so called the `bottom-up' process. However, recent investigations revealed that outer layer motions can experience significant non-normal amplifications. These findings suggest that self-sustaining processes could also exist at large scale. In this study, we consider a fully-developed turbulent channel at Reτ 550. We show that large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer region can sustain even when smaller-scale structures in the near-wall and the logarithmic regions are artificially quenched. The self-sustaining process is active only at the lengths scales larger than LxxLz 3h x1.5h, in good accordance with the most energetic length scales observed in the outer region.
Numerical measurements of scaling relations in two-dimensional conformal fluid turbulence
Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan; Lehner, Luis
2017-08-01
We present measurements of relativistic scaling relations in (2+1)-dimensional conformal fluid turbulence from direct numerical simulations, in the weakly compressible regime. These relations were analytically derived previously in [1] for a relativistic fluid; this work is a continuation of that study, providing further analytical insights together with numerical experiments to test the scaling relations and extract other important features characterizing the turbulent behavior. We first explicitly demonstrate that the non-relativistic limit of these scaling relations reduce to known results from the statistical theory of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence. In simulations of the inverse-cascade range, we find the relevant relativistic scaling relation is satisfied to a high degree of ac-curacy. We observe that the non-relativistic versions of this scaling relation underperform the relativistic one in both an absolute and relative sense, with a progressive degradation as the rms Mach number increases from 0.14 to 0.19. In the direct-cascade range, the two relevant relativistic scaling relations are satisfied with a lower degree of accuracy in a simulation with rms Mach number 0.11. We elucidate the poorer agreement with further simulations of an incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid. Finally, as has been observed in the incompressible Navier-Stokes case, we show that the energy spectrum in the inverse-cascade of the conformal fluid exhibits k -2 scaling rather than the Kolmogorov/Kraichnan expectation of k -5/3, and that it is not necessarily associated with compressive effects. We comment on the implications for a recent calculation of the fractal dimension of a turbulent (3 + 1)-dimensional AdS black brane.
Huang, Yongxiang; Wang, Lipo; Schmitt, F. G.; Zheng, Xiaobo; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yulu
2017-07-01
In recent years several local extrema-based methodologies have been proposed to investigate either the nonlinear or the nonstationary time series for scaling analysis. In the present work, we study systematically the distribution of the local extrema for both synthesized scaling processes and turbulent velocity data from experiments. The results show that for the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) without intermittency correction the measured extremal-point-density (EPD) agrees well with a theoretical prediction. For a multifractal random walk (MRW) with the lognormal statistics, the measured EPD is independent of the intermittency parameter μ , suggesting that the intermittency correction does not change the distribution of extremal points but changes the amplitude. By introducing a coarse-grained operator, the power-law behavior of these scaling processes is then revealed via the measured EPD for different scales. For fBm the scaling exponent ξ (H ) is found to be ξ (H )=H , where H is Hurst number, while for MRW ξ (μ ) shows a linear relation with the intermittency parameter μ . Such EPD approach is further applied to the turbulent velocity data obtained from a wind tunnel flow experiment with the Taylor scale λ -based Reynolds number Reλ=720 , and a turbulent boundary layer with the momentum thickness θ based Reynolds number Reθ=810 . A scaling exponent ξ ≃0.37 is retrieved for the former case. For the latter one, the measured EPD shows clearly four regimes, which agrees well with the corresponding sublayer structures inside the turbulent boundary layer.
Electron Heating at Kinetic Scales in Magnetosheath Turbulence
Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Lecontel, O.; Retino, A.; Breuillard, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Vaivads, A.; Lavraud, B.; Eriksson, E.;
2017-01-01
We present a statistical study of coherent structures at kinetic scales, using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the Earths magnetosheath. We implemented the multi-spacecraft partial variance of increments (PVI) technique to detect these structures, which are associated with intermittency at kinetic scales. We examine the properties of the electron heating occurring within such structures. We find that, statistically, structures with a high PVI index are regions of significant electron heating. We also focus on one such structure, a current sheet, which shows some signatures consistent with magnetic reconnection. Strong parallel electron heating coincides with whistler emissions at the edges of the current sheet.
MMS Observations of Ion-Scale Magnetic Island in the Magnetosheath Turbulent Plasma
Huang, S. Y.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Contel, O. Le; Yuan, Z. G.; Chasapis, A.; Aunai, N.; Breuillard, H.; Deng, X. H.; Zhou, M.;
2016-01-01
In this letter, first observations of ion-scale magnetic island from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma are presented. The magnetic island is characterized by bipolar variation of magnetic fields with magnetic field compression, strong core field, density depletion, and strong currents dominated by the parallel component to the local magnetic field. The estimated size of magnetic island is about 8 di, where di is the ion inertial length. Distinct particle behaviors and wave activities inside and at the edges of the magnetic island are observed: parallel electron beam accompanied with electrostatic solitary waves and strong electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves inside the magnetic island and bidirectional electron beams, whistler waves, weak electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves, and strong broadband electrostatic noise at the edges of the magnetic island. Our observations demonstrate that highly dynamical, strong wave activities and electron-scale physics occur within ion-scale magnetic islands in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma..
Cosmological dark turbulence and scaling relations in self-gravitating systems
Nakamichi, A.; Morikawa, M.
Many scaling relations have been observed for self-gravitating systems (SGS) in the universe. We explore a consistent understanding of them from a simple principle based on the proposal that the collision-less dark matter (DM) fluid terns into a turbulent state, i.e. dark turbulence, after crossing the caustic surface in the non-linear stage. After deriving Kolmogorov scaling laws from Navier-Stokes and Jeans equations by the method used in solving the Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we apply this to several observations such as the scale-dependent velocity dispersion, mass-luminosity ratio, and mass-angular momentum relation. They all point the concordant value for the constant energy flow per mass: 0.3 cm2/s3, which may be understood as the speed of the hierarchical coalescence process in the cosmic structure formation.
Spectral scaling of the Leray-{alpha} model for two-dimensional turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lunasin, Evelyn [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kurien, Susan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Titi, Edriss S [Department of Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine (UCI), Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)], E-mail: elunasin@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: skurien@lanl.gov, E-mail: etiti@math.uci.edu
2008-08-29
We present data from high-resolution numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes-{alpha} and the Leray-{alpha} models for two-dimensional turbulence. It was shown previously (Lunasin et al 2007 J. Turbul. 8 30) that for wavenumbers k such that k{alpha} >> 1, the energy spectrum of the smoothed velocity field for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes-{alpha} (NS-{alpha}) model scales as k{sup -7}. This result is in agreement with the scaling deduced by dimensional analysis of the flux of the conserved enstrophy using its characteristic time scale. We therefore hypothesize that the spectral scaling of any {alpha}-model in the sub-{alpha} spatial scales must depend only on the characteristic time scale and dynamics of the dominant cascading quantity in that regime of scales. The data presented here, from simulations of the two-dimensional Leray-{alpha} model, confirm our hypothesis. We show that for k{alpha} >> 1, the energy spectrum for the two-dimensional Leray-{alpha} scales as k{sup -5}, as expected by the characteristic time scale for the flux of the conserved enstrophy of the Leray-{alpha} model. These results lead to our conclusion that the dominant directly cascading quantity of the model equations must determine the scaling of the energy spectrum.
Nature of the MHD and kinetic scale turbulence in the magnetosheath of Saturn: Cassini observations
Hadid, L Z; Kiyani, K H; Retinò, A; Modolo, R; Canu, P; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K
2016-01-01
Low frequency turbulence in Saturn's magnetosheath is investigated using in-situ measurements of the Cassini spacecraft. Focus is put on the magnetic energy spectra computed in the frequency range $\\sim[10^{-4}, 1]$Hz. A set of 42 time intervals in the magnetosheath were analyzed and three main results that contrast with known features of solar wind turbulence are reported: 1) The magnetic energy spectra showed a $\\sim f^{-1}$ scaling at MHD scales followed by an $\\sim f^{-2.6}$ scaling at the sub-ion scales without forming the so-called inertial range; 2) The magnetic compressibility and the cross-correlation between the parallel component of the magnetic field and density fluctuations $ C(\\delta n,\\delta B_{||}) $ indicates the dominance of the compressible magnetosonic slow-like modes at MHD scales rather than the Alfv\\'en mode; 3) Higher order statistics revealed a monofractal (resp. multifractal) behaviour of the turbulent flow downstream of a quasi-perpendicular (resp. quasi-parallel) shock at the sub-i...
Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence
Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.; Tu, C.-Y.
1995-01-01
The geometrical and scaling properties of the energy flux of the turbulent kinetic energy in the solar wind have been studied. By present experimental technology in solar wind measurements, we cannot directly measure the real volumetric dissipation rate, epsilon(t), but are constrained to represent it by surrogating the energy flux near the dissipation range at the proton gyro scales. There is evidence for the multifractal nature of the so defined dissipation field epsilon(t), a result derived from the scaling exponents of its statistical q-th order moments. The related generalized dimension D(q) has been determined and reveals that the dissipation field has a multifractal structure. which is not compatible with a scale-invariant cascade. The associated multifractal spectrum f(alpha) has been estimated for the first time for MHD turbulence in the solar wind. Its features resemble those obtained for turbulent fluids and other nonlinear multifractal systems. The generalized dimension D(q) can, for turbulence in high-speed streams, be fitted well by the functional dependence of the p-model with a comparatively large parameter, p = 0.87. indicating a strongly intermittent multifractal energy cascade. The experimental value for D(p)/3, if used in the scaling exponent s(p) of the velocity structure function, gives an exponent that can describe some of the observations. The scaling exponent mu of the auto correlation function of epsilon(t) has also been directly evaluated. It has the value of 0.37. Finally. the mean dissipation rate was determined, which could be used in solar wind heating models.
Montzka, Carsten; Herbst, Michael; Weihermüller, Lutz; Verhoef, Anne; Vereecken, Harry
2017-07-01
Agroecosystem models, regional and global climate models, and numerical weather prediction models require adequate parameterization of soil hydraulic properties. These properties are fundamental for describing and predicting water and energy exchange processes at the transition zone between solid earth and atmosphere, and regulate evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff generation. Hydraulic parameters describing the soil water retention (WRC) and hydraulic conductivity (HCC) curves are typically derived from soil texture via pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Resampling of those parameters for specific model grids is typically performed by different aggregation approaches such a spatial averaging and the use of dominant textural properties or soil classes. These aggregation approaches introduce uncertainty, bias and parameter inconsistencies throughout spatial scales due to nonlinear relationships between hydraulic parameters and soil texture. Therefore, we present a method to scale hydraulic parameters to individual model grids and provide a global data set that overcomes the mentioned problems. The approach is based on Miller-Miller scaling in the relaxed form by Warrick, that fits the parameters of the WRC through all sub-grid WRCs to provide an effective parameterization for the grid cell at model resolution; at the same time it preserves the information of sub-grid variability of the water retention curve by deriving local scaling parameters. Based on the Mualem-van Genuchten approach we also derive the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the water retention functions, thereby assuming that the local parameters are also valid for this function. In addition, via the Warrick scaling parameter λ, information on global sub-grid scaling variance is given that enables modellers to improve dynamical downscaling of (regional) climate models or to perturb hydraulic parameters for model ensemble output generation. The present analysis is based on the ROSETTA PTF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Montzka
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Agroecosystem models, regional and global climate models, and numerical weather prediction models require adequate parameterization of soil hydraulic properties. These properties are fundamental for describing and predicting water and energy exchange processes at the transition zone between solid earth and atmosphere, and regulate evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff generation. Hydraulic parameters describing the soil water retention (WRC and hydraulic conductivity (HCC curves are typically derived from soil texture via pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Resampling of those parameters for specific model grids is typically performed by different aggregation approaches such a spatial averaging and the use of dominant textural properties or soil classes. These aggregation approaches introduce uncertainty, bias and parameter inconsistencies throughout spatial scales due to nonlinear relationships between hydraulic parameters and soil texture. Therefore, we present a method to scale hydraulic parameters to individual model grids and provide a global data set that overcomes the mentioned problems. The approach is based on Miller–Miller scaling in the relaxed form by Warrick, that fits the parameters of the WRC through all sub-grid WRCs to provide an effective parameterization for the grid cell at model resolution; at the same time it preserves the information of sub-grid variability of the water retention curve by deriving local scaling parameters. Based on the Mualem–van Genuchten approach we also derive the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the water retention functions, thereby assuming that the local parameters are also valid for this function. In addition, via the Warrick scaling parameter λ, information on global sub-grid scaling variance is given that enables modellers to improve dynamical downscaling of (regional climate models or to perturb hydraulic parameters for model ensemble output generation. The present analysis is based
Lagrangian filtered density function for LES-based stochastic modelling of turbulent dispersed flows
Innocenti, A; Chibbaro, S
2016-01-01
The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study turbulent dispersed flows when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGS) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves for a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided b...
Xiao, Yan; Li, Zhe; Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Jinsong
2016-01-01
The main goal of the present work is to test the hypothesis that small-scale turbulence affected physiological activities and the morphology of cyanobacteria in high turbulence environments. Using quantified turbulence in a stirring device, we conducted one set of experiments on cultures of two strains of cyanobacteria with different phenotypes; i.e., unicellular Microcystis flos-aquae and colonial Anabaena flos-aquae. The effect of small-scale turbulence examined varied from 0 to 8.01×10-2 m2s-3, covering the range of turbulence intensities experienced by cyanobacteria in the field. The results of photosynthesis activity and the cellular chlorophyll a in both strains did not change significantly among the turbulence levels, indicating that the potential indirect effects of a light regime under the gradient of turbulent mixing could be ignored. However, the experiments demonstrated that small-scale turbulence significantly modulated algal nutrient uptake and growth in comparison to the stagnant control. Cellular N and C of the two stains showed approximately the same responses, resulting in a similar pattern of C/N ratios. Moreover, the change in the phosphate uptake rate was similar to that of growth in two strains, which implied that growth characteristic responses to turbulence may be dependent on the P strategy, which was correlated with accumulation of polyphosphate. Additionally, our results also showed the filament length of A. flos-aquae decreased in response to high turbulence, which could favor enhancement of the nutrient uptake. These findings suggested that both M. flos-aquae and A. flos-aquae adjust their growth rates in response to turbulence levels in the ways of asynchronous cellular stoichiometry of C, N, and P, especially the phosphorus strategy, to improve the nutrient application efficiency. The fact that adaptation strategies of cyanobacteria diversely to turbulence depending on their physiological conditions presents a good example to
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.
2017-12-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree
Scaling regimes of 2d turbulence with power-law stirring: theories versus numerical experiments
Mazzino, A.; Muratore-Ginanneschi, P.; Musacchio, S.
2009-10-01
We inquire about the statistical properties of the pair formed by the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible velocity field and the advection-diffusion equation for a scalar field transported in the same flow in two dimensions (2d). The system is in a regime of fully developed turbulence stirred by forcing fields with Gaussian statistics, white noise in time and self-similar in space. In this setting and if the stirring is concentrated at small spatial scales, as if due to thermal fluctuations, it is possible to carry out a first-principles ultraviolet renormalization group analysis of the scaling behavior of the model. Kraichnan's phenomenological theory of two-dimensional turbulence upholds the existence of an inertial range characterized by inverse energy transfer at scales larger than the stirring one. For our model Kraichnan's theory, however, implies scaling predictions radically discordant from the renormalization group results. We perform accurate numerical experiments to assess the actual statistical properties of 2d turbulence with power-law stirring. Our results clearly indicate that an adapted version of Kraichnan's theory is consistent with the observed phenomenology. We also provide some theoretical scenarios to account for the discrepancy between renormalization group analysis and the observed phenomenology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiyani, K. H.; Fauvarque, O. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sahraoui, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Observatoire de Saint-Maur, F-94107 Saint-Maur-Des-Fosses (France); Khotyaintsev, Yu. V., E-mail: k.kiyani@imperial.ac.uk [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
2013-01-20
The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster and ACE spacecraft missions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. In the context of wave-mediated theories of turbulence, we show that this enhancement in magnetic fluctuations parallel to the local mean background field is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic compressibility signature of kinetic Alfven wave solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation. More generally, we discuss how these results may arise naturally due to the prominent role of the Hall term at sub-ion Larmor scales. Furthermore, computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of the fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius is that of a single isotropic globally scale-invariant process distinct from the anisotropic statistics of the inertial range.
Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Sahraoui, F.; Hnat, B.; Fauvarque, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
2013-01-01
The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster and ACE spacecraft missions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. In the context of wave-mediated theories of turbulence, we show that this enhancement in magnetic fluctuations parallel to the local mean background field is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic compressibility signature of kinetic Alfvén wave solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation. More generally, we discuss how these results may arise naturally due to the prominent role of the Hall term at sub-ion Larmor scales. Furthermore, computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of the fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius is that of a single isotropic globally scale-invariant process distinct from the anisotropic statistics of the inertial range.
Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow
Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.
2016-10-01
The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.
Investigation of large-scale structures in turbulent boundary layers using PIV in multiple planes
Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nick; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Hambleton, Will; Longmire, Ellen
2004-11-01
Stereo-PIV measurements were made on multiple planes in a turbulent boundary layer, including inclined cross-stream planes at ±45^rc to the streamwise direction, together with streamwise-wall-normal and streamwise-spanwise planes. The results show clear evidence of large-scale organization with long streamwise low-momentum zones consistent with the scenario of spatially coherent packets of hairpin vortices in the logarithmic region of the flow. Statistical correlation analysis across the boundary layer indicates the occurrence of a distinct two-regime behavior, in which streamwise-velocity-fluctuation correlation contours either appear to be coupled to the buffer region, or decoupled from it. The demarkation between these two regimes is found to scale well with outer variables. The results are consistent with a coherent structure that becomes increasingly uncoupled (or decorrelated) from the wall as it grows beyond the logarithmic region, providing additional support for a wall-wake description of turbulent boundary layers.
Coronae as Consequence of Large Scale Magnetic Fields in Turbulent Accretion Disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
G. Blackman, Eric; Pessah, Martin Elias
2009-01-01
Non-thermal X-ray emission in compact accretion engines can be interpreted to result from magnetic dissipation in an optically thin magnetized corona above an optically thick accretion disk. If coronal magnetic field originates in the disk and the disk is turbulent, then only magnetic structures...... large enough for their turbulent shredding time to exceed their buoyant rise time survive the journey to the corona. We use this concept and a physical model to constrain the minimum fraction of magnetic energy above the critical scale for buoyancy as a function of the observed coronal to bolometric...... AGN, for which of order 30 per cent of the bolometric flux is in the X-ray band, we find that more than 20 per cent of the magnetic energy must be of large enough scale to rise and dissipate in the corona....
Properties of small-scale interfacial turbulence from a novel thermography based approach
Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph
2013-04-01
Oceans cover nearly two thirds of the earth's surface and exchange processes between the Atmosphere and the Ocean are of fundamental environmental importance. At the air-sea interface, complex interaction processes take place on a multitude of scales. Turbulence plays a key role in the coupling of momentum, heat and mass transfer [2]. Here we use high resolution infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence. Thermographic data is analized from a range of laboratory facilities and experimental conditions with wind speeds ranging from 1ms-1 to 7ms-1 and various surface conditions. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: (1) The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. (2) The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. We present a new image processing based approach to the analysis of the spacing of cold streaks based on a machine learning approach [4, 1] to classify the thermal footprints of near surface turbulence. Our random forest classifier is based on classical features in image processing such as gray value gradients and edge detecting features. The result is a pixel-wise classification of the surface heat pattern with a subsequent analysis of the streak spacing. This approach has been presented in [3] and can be applied to a wide range of experimental data. In spite of entirely different boundary conditions, the spacing of turbulent cells near the air-water interface seems to match the expected turbulent cell size for flow near a no-slip wall. The analysis of the spacing of cold streaks shows consistent behavior in a range of laboratory facilities when expressed as a function of water sided friction velocity, u*. The scales
Experimental study of Nonlinear, Multi-Scale Turbulence in the HSX stellarator
Ohshima, S.; Deng, C. B.; Wilcox, R. S.; Nishizawa, T.; Almagri, A. F.; Likin, K. M.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Sarff, S. R.
2017-10-01
Micro scale turbulence depends on parameters such as local magnetic shear and curvature, and also excitation and damping mechanisms of zonal flows relate to the topology of the configuration. In the HSX stellarator, the Langmuir probe measurements indicate that a nonlinear interaction exists among a zonal flow like mode in the frequency range up to 5 kHz, a coherent mode at 20 kHz, and broadband turbulence. These two coherent modes are interacting with broadband fluctuation, and moreover these modes couples with each other. Interestingly, the nonlinear interaction appears differently depending on the location on the flux surface, which demonstrates a toroidal asymmetry, attributed to three dimensional configurations, exists on the multi-scale interactions. The detail of the analysis results and a new dedicated experiment for zonal flow physics in HSX using a newly designed capacitive probe will be discussed in this poster.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak
Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number......This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... volume method. The study is followed by a detailed investigation of the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) modeling. New SGS models are implemented into the computing code, and the effect of SGS models are examined for different applications. Fully developed boundary layer flows are investigated at low and high...
Benchmarking and scaling studies of pseudospectral code Tarang for turbulence simulations
VERMA, MAHENDRA K
2013-09-21
Tarang is a general-purpose pseudospectral parallel code for simulating flows involving fluids, magnetohydrodynamics, and Rayleigh–Bénard convection in turbulence and instability regimes. In this paper we present code validation and benchmarking results of Tarang. We performed our simulations on 10243, 20483, and 40963 grids using the HPC system of IIT Kanpur and Shaheen of KAUST. We observe good ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ scaling for Tarang on these systems.
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
Scaling of normalized mean energy and scalar dissipation rates in a turbulent channel flow
Abe, Hiroyuki; Antonia, Robert Anthony
2011-05-01
Non-dimensional parameters for the mean energy and scalar dissipation rates Cɛ and Cɛθ are examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained in a fully developed turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar (Pr = 0.71) at several values of the Kármán (Reynolds) number h+. It is shown that Cɛ and Cɛθ are approximately equal in the near-equilibrium region (viz., y+ = 100 to y/h = 0.7) where the production and dissipation rates of either the turbulent kinetic energy or scalar variance are approximately equal and the magnitudes of the diffusion terms are negligibly small. The magnitudes of Cɛ and Cɛθ are about 2 and 1 in the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively, when h+ is sufficiently large. The former value is about the same for the channel, pipe, and turbulent boundary layer, reflecting the similarity between the mean velocity and temperature distributions among these three canonical flows. The latter value is, on the other hand, about twice as large as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence due to the existence of the large-scale u structures in the channel. The behaviour of Cɛ and Cɛθ impacts on turbulence modeling. In particular, the similarity between Cɛ and Cɛθ leads to a simple relation for the scalar variance to turbulent kinetic energy time-scale ratio, an important ingredient in the eddy diffusivity model. This similarity also yields a relation between the Taylor and Corrsin microscales and analogous relations, in terms of h+, for the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and Corrsin microscale Peclet number. This dependence is reasonably well supported by both the DNS data at small to moderate h+ and the experimental data of Comte-Bellot [Ph. D. thesis (University of Grenoble, 1963)] at larger h+. It does not however apply to a turbulent boundary layer where the mean energy dissipation rate, normalized on either wall or outer variables, is about 30% larger than for the channel flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. André
2003-08-01
Full Text Available Unusual structures characterized by a very high-velocity divergence have been observed in the high-latitude F-region with SuperDARN radars (André et al., 2000. These structures have been interpreted as due to local demagnetization of the plasma in the ionospheric F-region, during very specific geophysical conditions. In this study, the collective wave scattering theory is used to characterize the decameter-scale turbulence (l approx 15 m inside the structures. The distribution function of the diffusion coefficient is modified when the structures are generated, suggesting that two regimes of turbulence coexist. A temporal analysis decorrelates the two regimes and gives access to the dynamics associated with the structures. It is shown that a high turbulent regime precedes the plasma demagnetization and should be related to an energy deposition. Then a second regime appears when the plasma is demagnetized and disappears simultaneously with the structures. This study is the first application of the collective wave scattering theory to a specific geophysical event.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (turbulence
Reynolds number effects on scale energy analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan
2009-11-01
Scale energy analysis combines two approaches of studying wall- bounded turbulent flows - analysis in physical space and analysis in scale space. Previously, scale energy analysis has been performed on DNS channel flow data for a range of friction Reynolds numbers Reτ= 180-934 and dual plane PIV boundary layer data at Reτ= 1100. The dual plane technique allows determination of the full velocity gradient tensor in the measurement plane. Dual Plane PIV data were acquired in streamwise-spanwise planes in the logarithmic region of a water channel boundary layer at two higher Reynolds numbers - Reτ= 2400 and 3000. The results of this study will be described and compared with the lower Re data. It is observed that in general, the production and scale transfer terms of the turbulent kinetic energy increase with increasing Reynolds number. The cross-over scale, which divides the range of scales into a transfer-dominated region and a production- dominated region, increases with increasing Reynolds numbers, resulting in a larger range of transfer-dominated scales at higher Reynolds numbers.
Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney; Hill, James; Olsen, Michael
2013-11-01
Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a technique to produce monodisperse functional nanoparticles. Microscale multi-inlet vortex reactors (MIVR) have been effectively applied to FNP due to their ability to provide rapid mixing and flexibility of inlet flow conditions. A scaled-up MIVR could potentially generate large quantities of functional nanoparticles, giving FNP wider applicability in industry. In the presented research, the turbulent velocity field inside a scaled-up, macroscale MIVR is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Within the reactor, velocity is measured using both two-dimensional and stereoscopic PIV at two Reynolds numbers (3500 and 8750) based on the flow at each inlet. Data have been collected at numerous locations in the inlet channels, the reaction chamber, and the reactor outlet. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses have been obtained based on 5000 instantaneous velocity realizations at each measurement location. The turbulent mixing process has also been investigated with passive scalar planar laser-induced fluorescence and simultaneous PIV/PLIF. Velocity and concentration results are compared to results from previous experiments in a microscale MIVR. Scaled profiles of turbulent quantities are similar to those previously found in the microscale MIVR.
Self-sustaining processes at all scales in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun
2017-03-01
We collect and discuss the results of our recent studies which show evidence of the existence of a whole family of self-sustaining motions in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with scales ranging from those of buffer-layer streaks to those of large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer layer. The statistical and dynamical features of this family of self-sustaining motions, which are associated with streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices, are consistent with those of Townsend's attached eddies. Motions at each relevant scale are able to sustain themselves in the absence of forcing from larger- or smaller-scale motions by extracting energy from the mean flow via a coherent lift-up effect. The coherent self-sustaining process is embedded in a set of invariant solutions of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations which take into full account the Reynolds stresses associated with the residual smaller-scale motions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Paradisi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures.
The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ ~ 1/τ^{μ}, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold.
A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X^{2}⟩ ~ t^{2H}, is independent from the threshold.
From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate.
The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μ_{D} ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μ_{D} is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that
Paradisi, P.; Cesari, R.; Donateo, A.; Contini, D.; Allegrini, P.
2012-02-01
We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures. The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ) ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold. A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold. From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate. The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that this renewal point process can be associated to birth and death of coherent structures and to turbulent transport near the ground, where the contribution of turbulent coherent structures becomes dominant.
Derivation of Zagarola-Smits scaling in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers
Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan
2018-01-01
This Rapid Communication derives the Zagarola-Smits scaling directly from the governing equations for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG TBLs). It has long been observed that the scaling of the mean streamwise velocity in turbulent boundary layer flows differs in the near surface region and in the outer layer. In the inner region of small-velocity-defect boundary layers, it is generally accepted that the proper velocity scale is the friction velocity, uτ, and the proper length scale is the viscous length scale, ν /uτ . In the outer region, the most generally used length scale is the boundary layer thickness, δ . However, there is no consensus on velocity scales in the outer layer. Zagarola and Smits [ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-4950 (1998)] proposed a velocity scale, U ZS=(δ1/δ ) U∞ , where δ1 is the displacement thickness and U∞ is the freestream velocity. However, there are some concerns about Zagarola-Smits scaling due to the lack of a theoretical base. In this paper, the Zagarola-Smits scaling is derived directly from a combination of integral, similarity, and order-of-magnitude analysis of the mean continuity equation. The analysis also reveals that V∞, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, is a proper scale for the mean wall-normal velocity V . Extending the analysis to the streamwise mean momentum equation, we find that the Reynolds shear stress in ZPG TBLs scales as U∞V∞ in the outer region. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of the mass and mean momentum balance in the outer region of ZPG TBLs.
Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Weston, B.; Estremera, Shariff Kareem
2014-01-01
The initial accretion of primitive bodies (asteroids and TNOs) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Here we focus on the asteroids where constituent particle (read "chondrule") sizes are observationally known; similar arguments will hold for TNOs, but the constituent particles in those regions will be smaller, or will be fluffy aggregates, and are unobserved. Traditional growth-bysticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] (or even a mm-cm-size barrier [2]) in turbulent nebulae, while nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids [3]. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, other obstacles are encountered through the 1-10km size range [4]. Another clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids [5]; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios [6-8]. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation [7,8] are determined by a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence [9]. Nebula turbulence can be described by its Reynolds number Re = L/eta sup(4/3), where L = ETA alpha sup (1/2) the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, and a the nebula turbulent viscosity parameter, and ? is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t?. In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can
Turbulent Flow Structure Inside a Canopy with Complex Multi-Scale Elements
Bai, Kunlun; Katz, Joseph; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-01
Particle image velocimetry laboratory measurements are carried out to study mean flow distributions and turbulent statistics inside a canopy with complex geometry and multiple scales consisting of fractal, tree-like objects. Matching the optical refractive indices of the tree elements with those of the working fluid provides unobstructed optical paths for both illuminations and image acquisition. As a result, the flow fields between tree branches can be resolved in great detail, without optical interference. Statistical distributions of mean velocity, turbulence stresses, and components of dispersive fluxes are documented and discussed. The results show that the trees leave their signatures in the flow by imprinting wake structures with shapes similar to the trees. The velocities in both wake and non-wake regions significantly deviate from the spatially-averaged values. These local deviations result in strong dispersive fluxes, which are important to account for in canopy-flow modelling. In fact, we find that the streamwise normal dispersive flux inside the canopy has a larger magnitude (by up to four times) than the corresponding Reynolds normal stress. Turbulent transport in horizontal planes is studied in the framework of the eddy viscosity model. Scatter plots comparing the Reynolds shear stress and mean velocity gradient are indicative of a linear trend, from which one can calculate the eddy viscosity and mixing length. Similar to earlier results from the wake of a single tree, here we find that inside the canopy the mean mixing length decreases with increasing elevation. This trend cannot be scaled based on a single length scale, but can be described well by a model, which considers the coexistence of multi-scale branches. This agreement indicates that the multi-scale information and the clustering properties of the fractal objects should be taken into consideration in flows inside multi-scale canopies.
Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-06-01
The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)
Magnetic compressibility and Isotropic Scale-Invariant Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulence
Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Hnat, B.; Sahraoui, F.
2010-12-01
The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic fluctuations is investigated scale-by-scale using high cadence in-situ magnetic field ACE, and Cluster FGM and STAFF observations spanning five decades in scales from the inertial to dissipation ranges of plasma turbulence. We find an abrupt transition at ion kinetic scales to a single isotropic stochastic process as characterized by the single functional form of the probability density functions (PDFs) of fluctuations that characterizes the dissipation range on all observable scales. In contrast to the inertial range, this is accompanied by a successive scale-invariant reduction in the ratio between parallel and transverse power. We suggest that this reflects the phase space nature of the cascade which operates in a scale-invariant isotropic manner in the (kinetic) dissipation range - distinct from the anisotropic phenomenology in the (magnetohydrodynamic) inertial range. Alternatively, if we assume that non-linear effects are weak in the dissipation range and use the results of the linear dispersion theory of waves; then our measurements of fluctuation anisotropy provide deep insight into the nature of these waves. In particular, using these measurements to form a measure for the scale-by-scale magnetic compressibility, we can distinguish between the competing hypotheses of oblique kinetic Alfven waves versus Whistler waves dominating the energy transfer in the dissipation range. By looking at the scale-by-scale PDFs of the fluctuations we will also comment on how reasonable the assumption of linear theory is as we cross from the inertial to the dissipation range of plasma turbulence.
A priori study of subgrid-scale features in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.
2017-10-01
At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and turbulence modeling, a priori studies are a reliable tool to understand the underlying physics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) motions in turbulent flows. In this paper, properties of the SGS features in the framework of a large-eddy simulation are studied for a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). To do so, data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent air-filled RBC in a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio unity and π spanwise open-ended distance are used at two Rayleigh numbers R a ∈{1 08,1 010 } [Dabbagh et al., "On the evolution of flow topology in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Fluids 28, 115105 (2016)]. First, DNS at Ra = 108 is used to assess the performance of eddy-viscosity models such as QR, Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE), and the recent S3PQR-models proposed by Trias et al. ["Building proper invariants for eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models," Phys. Fluids 27, 065103 (2015)]. The outcomes imply that the eddy-viscosity modeling smoothes the coarse-grained viscous straining and retrieves fairly well the effect of the kinetic unfiltered scales in order to reproduce the coherent large scales. However, these models fail to approach the exact evolution of the SGS heat flux and are incapable to reproduce well the further dominant rotational enstrophy pertaining to the buoyant production. Afterwards, the key ingredients of eddy-viscosity, νt, and eddy-diffusivity, κt, are calculated a priori and revealed positive prevalent values to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. The topological analysis suggests that the effective turbulent diffusion paradigm and the hypothesis of a constant turbulent Prandtl number are only applicable in the large-scale strain-dominated areas in the bulk. It is shown that the bulk-dominated rotational structures of vortex-stretching (and its synchronous viscous dissipative structures) hold
Baars, Woutijn J.; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan
2015-11-01
Interactions between small- and large-scale motions are inherent in the near-wall dynamics of wall-bounded flows. We here examine the scale-interaction embedded within the streamwise velocity component. Data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry in ZPG turbulent boundary layers, for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ ≡ δUτ / ν ~ 2800 to 22800. After first decomposing velocity signals into contributions from small- and large-scales, we then represent the time-varying small-scale energy with time series of its instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency, via a wavelet-based method. Features of the scale-interaction are inferred from isocorrelation maps, formed by correlating the large-scale velocity with its concurrent small-scale amplitude and frequency. Below the onset of the log-region, the physics constitutes aspects of amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. Time shifts, associated with the correlation extrema--representing the lead/lag of the small-scale signatures relative to the large-scales--are shown to be governed by inner-scaling. Wall-normal trends of time shifts are explained by considering the arrangement of scales in the log- and intermittent-regions, and how they relate to stochastic top-down and bottom-up processes.
Universality of solar-wind turbulent spectrum from MHD to electron scales.
Alexandrova, O; Saur, J; Lacombe, C; Mangeney, A; Mitchell, J; Schwartz, S J; Robert, P
2009-10-16
To investigate the universality of magnetic turbulence in space plasmas, we analyze seven time periods in the free solar wind under different plasma conditions. Three instruments on Cluster spacecraft operating in different frequency ranges give us the possibility to resolve spectra up to 300 Hz. We show that the spectra form a quasiuniversal spectrum following the Kolmogorov's law approximately k(-5/3) at MHD scales, a approximately k(-2.8) power law at ion scales, and an exponential approximately exp[-sqrt[k(rho)e
Constraining the Turbulence Scale and Mixing of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula
Ng, Chi Yung; Ma, Y. K.; Bucciantini, Niccolo; Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Temim, Tea
2016-04-01
Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are synchrotron-emitting nebulae resulting from the interaction between pulsars' relativistic particle outflows and the ambient medium. The Snail PWN in supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 is a rare system that has recently been crushed by supernova reverse shock. We carried out radio polarization observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and found highly ordered magnetic field structure in the nebula. This result is surprising, given the turbulent environment expected from hydrodynamical simulations. We developed a toymodel and compared simple simulations with observations to constrain the characteristic turbulence scale in the PWN and the mixing with supernova ejecta. We estimate that the turbulence scale is about one-eighth to one-sixth of the nebula radius and a pulsar wind filling factor of 50-75%. The latter implies substantial mixing of the pulsar wind with the surrounding supernova ejecta.This work is supported by an ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.
Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Turbulence and Finite Larmor Radius Effects at Mercury
Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Donovan, E. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.
2011-01-01
We use a nonstationary generalization of the higher-order structure function technique to investigate statistical properties of the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by MESSENGER spacecraft during its first flyby (01/14/2008) through the near-Mercury space environment, with the emphasis on key boundary regions participating in the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. Our analysis shows, for the first time, that kinetic-scale fluctuations play a significant role in the Mercury's magnetosphere up to the largest resolvable timescale (approx.20 s) imposed by the signal nonstationariry, suggesting that turbulence at this plane I is largely controlled by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, we report the presence of a highly turbulent and extended foreshock system filled with packets of ULF oscillations, broad-band intermittent fluctuations in the magnetosheath, ion-kinetic turbulence in the central plasma sheet of Mercury's magnetotail, and kinetic-scale fluctuations in the inner current sheet encountered at the outbound (dawn-side) magnetopause. Overall, our measurements indicate that the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as the surrounding region, are strongly affected by non-MHD effects introduced by finite sizes of cyclotron orbits of the constituting ion species. Physical mechanisms of these effects and their potentially critical impact on the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetic field remain to be understood.
Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun
2016-11-01
Turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is believed to contain a wide spectrum of coherent structures, from near-wall low-speed streaks characterized by inner scale to log-layer large-scale coherent motions (LSM and VLSM) characterized by outer scale. Recent studies have evidenced the interaction between these multi-scale structures via either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms, which implies the possibility of identifying the coexistence of their footprints at medium flow layer. Here, we propose a Quasi-Bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition method (QB-VMD), which is an update of the traditional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with bandwidth limitation, for the decomposition of the PIV measured 2D flow fields with large ROI (Δx × Δz 4 δ × 1 . 5 δ) at specified wall-normal heights (y / δ = 0 . 05 0 . 2) of a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ = 3460 . The empirical modes identified by QB-VMD well capture the characteristics of log-layer LSMs as well as that of near-wall streak-like structures. The lateral scales of these structures are analyzed and their respective energy contribution are evaluated. Supported by both the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372001 and 11490552) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. YWF-16-JCTD-A-05).
Rasthofer, U.; Gravemeier, V.
2013-02-01
Multifractal subgrid-scale modeling within a variational multiscale method is proposed for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow. In the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach, the subgrid-scale velocity is evaluated from a multifractal description of the subgrid-scale vorticity, which is based on the multifractal scale similarity of gradient fields in turbulent flow. The multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach is integrated into a variational multiscale formulation, which constitutes a new application of the variational multiscale concept. A focus of this study is on the application of the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach to wall-bounded turbulent flow. Therefore, a near-wall limit of the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach is derived in this work. The novel computational approach of multifractal subgrid-scale modeling within a variational multiscale formulation is applied to turbulent channel flow at various Reynolds numbers, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step and turbulent flow past a square-section cylinder, which are three of the most important and widely-used benchmark examples for wall-bounded turbulent flow. All results presented in this study confirm a very good performance of the proposed method. Compared to a dynamic Smagorinsky model and a residual-based variational multiscale method, improved results are obtained. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the subgrid-scale energy transfer incorporated by the proposed method very well approximates the expected energy transfer as obtained from appropriately filtered direct numerical simulation data. The computational cost is notably reduced compared to a dynamic Smagorinsky model and only marginally increased compared to a residual-based variational multiscale method.
Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Sung, C.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Chrystal, C.; Jenko, F.
2017-05-01
We present the first localized measurements of long and intermediate wavelength turbulent density fluctuations ( n ˜ ) and long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations ( T˜ e ) modified by m /n =2 /1 Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) islands (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). These long and intermediate wavelengths correspond to the expected Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Mode scales, respectively. Two regimes have been observed when tracking n ˜ during NTM evolution: (1) small islands are characterized by a steep Te radial profile and turbulence levels comparable to those of the background; (2) large islands have a flat Te profile and reduced turbulence level at the O-point. Radially outside the large island, the Te profile is steeper and the turbulence level increased compared to the no or small island case. Reduced turbulence at the O-point compared to the X-point leads to a 15% modulation of n˜ 2 across the island that is nearly in phase with the Te modulation. Qualitative comparisons to the GENE non-linear gyrokinetic code are promising with GENE replicating the observed scaling of turbulence modification with island size. These results are significant as they allow the validation of gyrokinetic simulations modeling the interaction of these multi-scale phenomena.
Fluctuations in the solar wind that show scaling- MHD turbulence and coronal origin.
Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.; Hnat, B.; Nicol, R. M.; Wicks, R.
2008-12-01
In- situ spacecraft observations of plasma parameters are at minute (or below) resolution for intervals spanning the solar cycle and provide a large number of samples for statistical studies. These observations reveal that the power spectrum of the components of magnetic field typically has two characteristic features, an inertial range of turbulence over several orders of magnitude with approximately Kolmogorov power law and at lower frequencies, an approximately '1/f' energy containing range believed to be of direct coronal origin. On the other hand, the (much lower energy density) magnetic field magnitude power spectrum typically shows a single scaling range that spans these timescales. This is consistent with the idea that the power seen in the components, but not necessarily the magnitude, of magnetic field is dominated by Alfvenic turbulence in the evolving solar wind. Here, we use quantitative statistical techniques to explore the idea that the solar wind exhibits fluctuations over a broad range of timescales characteristic of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence evolving in the presence of structures of direct coronal origin. We find a strong correlation between the solar cycle variation in the scaling properties of magnetic energy density fluctuations and the magnetic complexity of the coronal magnetic fields. At solar maximum in the ecliptic, the magnetic energy density as seen by WIND and ACE shows a fractal signature, whereas at minimum it is multifractal. This is corroborated by ULLYSES polar observations at solar minimum in quiet, fast solar wind where again, multifractal scaling is found. High magnetic complexity in the corona then corresponds to fractal, rather than multifractal scaling in magnetic energy density seen at 1AU; remarkably, this fractal signature dominates the full dynamic range of observations, extending across timescales typically identified with both the '1/f' and 'inertial range'. Intervals when WIND and ACE simultaneously sample
Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi
2012-02-01
The small-scale dynamo is a process by which turbulent kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, and thus it is expected to depend crucially on the nature of the turbulence. In this paper, we present a model for the small-scale dynamo that takes into account the slope of the turbulent velocity spectrum v(ℓ)proportional ℓ([symbol see text])V}, where ℓ and v(ℓ) are the size of a turbulent fluctuation and the typical velocity on that scale. The time evolution of the fluctuation component of the magnetic field, i.e., the small-scale field, is described by the Kazantsev equation. We solve this linear differential equation for its eigenvalues with the quantum-mechanical WKB approximation. The validity of this method is estimated as a function of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. We calculate the minimal magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, Rm_{crit}, using our model of the turbulent velocity correlation function. For Kolmogorov turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/3), we find that the critical magnetic Reynolds number is Rm(crit) (K) ≈ 110 and for Burgers turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/2) Rm(crit)(B) ≈ 2700. Furthermore, we derive that the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field for a general type of turbulence is Γ proportional Re((1-[symbol see text])/(1+[symbol see text])) in the limit of infinite magnetic Prandtl number. For decreasing magnetic Prandtl number (down to Pm >/~ 10), the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo decreases. The details of this drop depend on the WKB approximation, which becomes invalid for a magnetic Prandtl number of about unity.
Anomalous Scaling from Controlled Closure in a Shell Model of Turbulence
Lvov, V S; Pomyalov, A; Procaccia, I; L'vov, Victor S.; Pierotti, Daniela; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar
1998-01-01
We present a model of hydrodynamic turbulence for which the program of computing the scaling exponents from first principles can be developed in a controlled fashion. The model consists of $N$ suitably coupled copies of the "Sabra" shell model of turbulence. The couplings are chosen to include two components: random and deterministic, with a relative importance that is characterized by a parameter called $\\epsilon$. It is demonstrated, using numerical simulations of up to 25 copies and 28 shells that in the $N\\to functions whose scaling exponents are anomalous. The theoretical calculation of the scaling exponents follows verbatim the closure procedure suggested recently for the Navier-Stokes problem, with the additional advantage that in the $N\\to procedure. The main result of this paper is a finite and closed set of scale-invariant equations for the 2nd and 3rd order statistical objects of the theory. This set of equations takes into account terms up to order $\\epsilon^4$ and neglects terms of order $\\epsilo...
Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow
Fiscaletti, D.
2016-10-24
The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.
Li, Zhe; Xiao, Yan; Yang, Jixiang; Li, Chao; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong
2017-11-01
Turbulent mixing, in particular on a small scale, affects the growth of microalgae by changing diffusive sublayers and regulating nutrient fluxes of cells. We tested the nutrient flux hypothesis by evaluating the cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of microalgae under different turbulent mixing conditions. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were cultivated in different stirring batch reactors with turbulent dissipation rates ranging from 0.001 51 m2/s3 to 0.050 58 m2/s3, the latter being the highest range observed in natural aquatic systems. Samples were taken in the exponential growth phase and compared with samples taken when the reactor was completely stagnant. Results indicate that, within a certain range, turbulent mixing stimulates the growth of A. flos-aquae. An inhibitory effect on growth rate was observed at the higher range. Photosynthesis activity, in terms of maximum effective quantum yield of PSII (the ratio of F v/ F m) and cellular chlorophyll a, did not change significantly in response to turbulence. However, Chl a/C mass ratio and C/N molar ratio, showed a unimodal response under a gradient of turbulent mixing, similar to growth rate. Moreover, we found that increases in turbulent mixing might stimulate respiration rates, which might lead to the use of polyphosphate for the synthesis of cellular constituents. More research is required to test and verify the hypothesis that turbulent mixing changes the diffusive sublayer, regulating the nutrient flux of cells.
Li, Zhe; Xiao, Yan; Yang, Jixiang; Li, Chao; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong
2017-01-01
Turbulent mixing, in particular on a small scale, affects the growth of microalgae by changing diffusive sublayers and regulating nutrient fluxes of cells. We tested the nutrient flux hypothesis by evaluating the cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of microalgae under different turbulent mixing conditions. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were cultivated in different stirring batch reactors with turbulent dissipation rates ranging from 0.001 51 m2/s3 to 0.050 58 m2/s3, the latter being the highest range observed in natural aquatic systems. Samples were taken in the exponential growth phase and compared with samples taken when the reactor was completely stagnant. Results indicate that, within a certain range, turbulent mixing stimulates the growth of A. flos-aquae. An inhibitory effect on growth rate was observed at the higher range. Photosynthesis activity, in terms of maximum effective quantum yield of PSII (the ratio of F v/F m) and cellular chlorophyll a, did not change significantly in response to turbulence. However, Chl a/C mass ratio and C/N molar ratio, showed a unimodal response under a gradient of turbulent mixing, similar to growth rate. Moreover, we found that increases in turbulent mixing might stimulate respiration rates, which might lead to the use of polyphosphate for the synthesis of cellular constituents. More research is required to test and verify the hypothesis that turbulent mixing changes the diffusive sublayer, regulating the nutrient flux of cells.
Energy spectrum scaling in an agent-based model for bacterial turbulence
Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne
2017-11-01
Numerous models have been developed to examine the behavior of dense bacterial swarms and to explore the visually striking phenomena of bacterial turbulence. Most models directly impose fluid dynamics physics, either by modeling the active matter as a fluid or by including interactions between the bacteria and a fluid. In this work, however, the `turbulence' is solely an emergent property of the collective behavior of the bacterial population, rather than a consequence of imposed fluid dynamics physical modeling. The system is simulated using a two dimensional Vicsek-style model, with the addition of individual repulsion to simulate bacterial collisions and physical interactions, and without the common flocking or sensing behaviors. Initial results indicate the presence of k-1 scaling in a portion of the kinetic energy spectrum that can be considered analogous to the inertial subrange in turbulent energy spectra. This result suggests that the interaction of large numbers of individual active bacteria may also be a contributing factor in the emergence of fluid dynamics phenomena, in addition to the physical interactions between bacteria and their fluid environment.
The Effect of Small Scale Turbulence on the Physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterium
Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Guala, Michele
2014-11-01
Microcystis aeruginosa is a single-celled blue-green alga, or cyanobacterium, that is responsible for poor water quality and microcystin production, which in high concentrations can be harmful to humans and animals. These harmful effects arise during cyanobacterium blooms. Blooms occur mainly in the summer when the algae grow uncontrollably and bond together to form colonies which accumulate on the surface of freshwater ecosystems. The relationship between fluid motion generated by wind and internal waves in stratified aquatic ecosystems and Microcystis can help explain the mechanisms of such blooms. We investigated the effect of small scale fluid motion on the physiology of Microcystis in a reactor with two underwater speakers. Different turbulent intensities were achieved by systematically changing the input signal frequency (30-50 Hz) and magnitude (0.1-0.2V) to the speakers. The role of turbulence is quantified by relating energy dissipation rates with the cell number, chlorophyll amount, dissolved oxygen production/uptake, and pH. The results suggest that turbulence mediates the physiology of Microcystis. The findings could be instrumental in designing restoration strategies that can minimize Microcystis blooms. This work was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and University of Minnesota start-up funding.
Scaling laws for homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame
Speziale, Charles G.; Mhuiris, Nessan Macgiolla
1988-01-01
The scaling properties of plane homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame are examined mathematically by a direct analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is proved that two such shear flows are dynamically similar if and only if their initial dimensionless energy spectrum E star (k star, 0), initial dimensionless shear rate SK sub 0/epsilon sub 0, initial Reynolds number K squared sub 0/nu epsilon sub 0, and the ration of the rotation rate to the shear rate omega/S are identical. Consequently, if universal equilibrium states exist, at high Reynolds numbers, they will only depend on the single parameter omega/S. The commonly assumed dependence of such equilibrium states on omega/S through the Richardson number Ri=-2(omega/S)(1-2 omega/S) is proven to be inconsistent with the full Navier-Stokes equations and to constitute no more than a weak approximation. To be more specific, Richardson number similarity is shown to only rigorously apply to certain low-order truncations of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e., to certain second-order closure models) wherein closure is achieved at the second-moment level by assuming that the higher-order moments are a small perturbation of their isotropic states. The physical dependence of rotating turbulent shear flows on omega/S is discussed in detail along with the implications for turbulence modeling.
Intermittency and scaling of vorticity in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
Hnat, Bogdan; Dura, Paula; Robinson, James; Dendy, Richard
2012-10-01
Vorticity plays a central role in particle and energy transport driven by fluid and drift turbulence in plasmas with magnetic fields. Characterising the largest spatiotemporal concentrations of vorticity, and quantifying the scaling of vorticity with plasma parameters and system size, is therefore important for tokamak transport studies. We address this using a modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model, extended (J M Dewhurst et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 072306 (2009)) to include a background magnetic field gradient. Although vorticity is defined in terms of gradients in the underlying fluid velocity, we find that the statistical properties of fluctuations in vorticity can differ significantly from those of fluctuations in velocity and density. We relate this to changes in the morphology of coherent structures within the turbulence, and to the nature of turbulent interactions -- cascade, or few-wave coupling. Some of the key properties depend on the direction of the magnetic field gradient. This may give rise to differences between inboard and outboard edge plasma transport in tokamaks.
Reversing flow causes passive shark scale actuation in a separating turbulent boundary layer
Lang, Amy; Gemmell, Bradford; Motta, Phil; Habegger, Laura; Du Clos, Kevin; Devey, Sean; Stanley, Caleb; Santos, Leo
2017-11-01
Control of flow separation by shortfin mako skin in experiments has been demonstrated, but the mechanism is still poorly understood yet must be to some extent Re independent. The hypothesized mechanisms inherent in the shark skin for controlling flow separation are: (1) the scales, which are capable of being bristled only by reversing flow, inhibit flow reversal events from further development into larger-scale separation and (2) the cavities formed when scales bristle induces mixing of high momentum flow towards the wall thus energizing the flow close to the surface. Two studies were carried out to measure passive scale actuation caused by reversing flow. A small flow channel induced an unsteady, wake flow over the scales prompting reversing flow events and scale actuation. To resolve the flow and scale movements simultaneously we used specialized optics at high magnification (1 mm field of view) at 50,000 fps. In another study, 3D printed models of shark scales, or microflaps (bristling capability up to 50 degrees), were set into a flat plate. Using a tripped, turbulent boundary layer grown over the long flat plate and a localized adverse pressure gradient, a separation bubble was generated within which the microflaps were placed. Passive flow actuation of both shark scales and microflaps by reversing flow was observed. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant.
Scales of Marine Turbulence in Cook Strait (New Zealand) in the Context of Tidal Energy Turbines
Stevens, Craig
2017-04-01
Cook Strait, the channel separating New Zealand's North and South Islands, is at it's narrowest around 22 km across with flows driven by a semidiurnal tide, wind and a baroclinic pressure gradient. Water depths are around 250-300 m in the main part of the channel, with shoals to the south and the submerged Fishermans Rock (aka pinnacle) in the centre northwest of the Strait. The substantial tidal flow speed is due to the tide being nearly out of phase comparing the ends of the strait and further enhanced by a narrowing of the strait. It has significant potential for a tidal energy resource suitable for extraction due to both its significant energy levels but also its proximity to electricity infrastructure and nationally high uptake of renewable energy in general. Here we describe recent flow and turbulence data and contextualise them in terms of scales relevant to marine energy extraction. With flow speeds reaching 3 m s-1 in a water column of > 200 m depth the setting is heuristically known to be highly turbulent. Turbulent energy dissipation rates are modest but high for oceans, around 5x10-5 W kg-1. Thorpe scales, the observed quantity representing the energy-bearing scale, are often as much as one quarter of the water depth. This means eddy sizes can potentially be larger than blade length. A boundary-layer structure was apparent but highly variable. This has implications for both operation of tidal turbines, as well as modulating their effect on the environment. Fishermans Rock itself is interesting as if can be considered a proxy for a larger array of turbines.
Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence-first results from CICLoPE.
Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H
2017-03-13
This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10(4) are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow.
Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo
2012-02-01
We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).
Large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. G. Chkhetiani
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the present review we discuss certain studies of large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows performed by S. S. Moiseev and his co-authors during the last years of his life and continued by his co-authors after he passed away. It is shown that many ideas developed in these works have not lost their novelty and urgency until now, and can form the basis of future studies in this field.
Probability density and scaling exponents of longitudinal structure functions in strong turbulence
Yakhot, V
1997-01-01
The advective terms in the Navier-Stokes and Burgers equations are similar. It is proposed that the longitudinal structure functions $S_{n}(r)$ in homogeneous and isotropic three- dimensional turbulence are goverened by a one-dimensional equation of motion, resembling the 1D-Burgers equation, with the strongly non-local pressure contributions accounted for by galilean-invariance-breaking terms. The resulting equations give both scaling exponents and amplitudes of the structure functions in an excellent agreement with experimental data. The derived probability density function $P(\\Delta u,r)\
Correlations at large scales and the onset of turbulence in the fast solar wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wicks, R. T.; Roberts, D. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 672, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Horbury, T. S. [Space and Atmospheric Physics Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chen, C. H. K., E-mail: robert.t.wicks@nasa.gov [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2013-12-01
We show that the scaling of structure functions of magnetic and velocity fields in a mostly highly Alfvénic fast solar wind stream depends strongly on the joint distribution of the dimensionless measures of cross helicity and residual energy. Already at very low frequencies, fluctuations that are both more balanced (cross helicity ∼0) and equipartitioned (residual energy ∼0) have steep structure functions reminiscent of 'turbulent' scalings usually associated with the inertial range. Fluctuations that are magnetically dominated (residual energy ∼–1), and so have closely anti-aligned Elsasser-field vectors, or are imbalanced (cross helicity ∼1), and so have closely aligned magnetic and velocity vectors, have wide '1/f' ranges typical of fast solar wind. We conclude that the strength of nonlinear interactions of individual fluctuations within a stream, diagnosed by the degree of correlation in direction and magnitude of magnetic and velocity fluctuations, determines the extent of the 1/f region observed, and thus the onset scale for the turbulent cascade.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ringeval
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The quality of the global hydrological simulations performed by land surface models (LSMs strongly depends on processes that occur at unresolved spatial scales. Approaches such as TOPMODEL have been developed, which allow soil moisture redistribution within each grid-cell, based upon sub-grid scale topography. Moreover, the coupling between TOPMODEL and a LSM appears as a potential way to simulate wetland extent dynamic and its sensitivity to climate, a recently identified research problem for biogeochemical modelling, including methane emissions. Global evaluation of the coupling between TOPMODEL and an LSM is difficult, and prior attempts have been indirect, based on the evaluation of the simulated river flow. This study presents a new way to evaluate this coupling, within the ORCHIDEE LSM, using remote sensing data of inundated areas. Because of differences in nature between the satellite derived information – inundation extent – and the variable diagnosed by TOPMODEL/ORCHIDEE – area at maximum soil water content, the evaluation focuses on the spatial distribution of these two quantities as well as on their temporal variation. Despite some difficulties in exactly matching observed localized inundated events, we obtain a rather good agreement in the distribution of these two quantities at a global scale. Floodplains are not accounted for in the model, and this is a major limitation. The difficulty of reproducing the year-to-year variability of the observed inundated area (for instance, the decreasing trend by the end of 90s is also underlined. Classical indirect evaluation based on comparison between simulated and observed river flow is also performed and underlines difficulties to simulate river flow after coupling with TOPMODEL. The relationship between inundation and river flow at the basin scale in the model is analyzed, using both methods (evaluation against remote sensing data and river flow. Finally, we discuss the potential of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinson, F
2006-03-15
- This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - {epsilon} RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A
A Three-Dimensional Scale-adaptive Turbulent Kinetic Energy Model in ARW-WRF Model
Zhang, Xu; Bao, Jian-Wen; Chen, Baode
2017-04-01
A new three-dimensional (3D) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) subgrid mixing model is developed to address the problem of simulating the convective boundary layer (CBL) across the terra incognita in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF). The new model combines the horizontal and vertical subgrid turbulent mixing into a single energetically consistent framework, in contrast to the convectional one-dimensional (1D) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. The transition between large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesoscale limit is accomplished in the new scale-adaptive model. A series of dry CBL and real-time simulations using the WRF model are carried out, in which the newly-developed, scale-adaptive, more general and energetically consistent TKE-based model is compared with the conventional 1D TKE-based PBL schemes for parameterizing vertical subgrid turbulent mixing against the WRF LES dataset and observations. The characteristics of the WRF-simulated results using the new and conventional schemes are compared. The importance of including the nonlocal component in the vertical buoyancy specification in the newly-developed general TKE-based scheme is illustrated. The improvements of the new scheme over convectional PBL schemes across the terra incognita can be seen in the partitioning of vertical flux profiles. Through comparing the results from the simulations against the WRF LES dataset and observations, we will show the feasibility of using the new scheme in the WRF model in the lieu of the conventional PBL parameterization schemes.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Condensation in Clouds
Shariff, K.; Paoli, R.
2004-01-01
In this brief, we investigate the turbulent condensation of a population of droplets by means of a direct numerical simulation. To that end, a coupled Navier-Stokes/Lagrangian solver is used where each particle is tracked and its growth by water vapor condensation is monitored exactly. The main goals of the study are to find out whether turbulence broadens the droplet size distribution, as observed in in situ measurements. The second issue is to understand if and for how long a correlation between the droplet radius and the local supersaturation exists for the purpose of modeling sub-grid scale microphysics in cloud-resolving codes. This brief is organized as follows. In Section 2 the governing equations are presented, including the droplet condensation model. The implementation of the forcing procedure is described in Section 3. The simulation results are presented in Section 4 together with a sketch of a simple stochastic model for turbulent condensation. Conclusions and the main outcomes of the study are given in Section 5.
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chumakov, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
Comparison of very-large-scale motions of turbulent pipe and boundary layer simulations
Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin
2013-04-01
A direct numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow was performed to investigate the similarities and differences of very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) to those of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flows. The Reynolds number was set to ReD = 35 000, and the computational domain was 30 pipe radii in length. Inspection of instantaneous fields, streamwise two-point correlations, and population trends of the momentum regions showed that the streamwise length of the structures in the pipe flow grew continuously beyond the log layer (y/δ 3δ), and the maximum length of the VLSMs increased up to ˜30δ. Such differences between the TBL and pipe flows arose due to the entrainment of large plumes of the intermittent potential flow in the TBL, creating break-down of the streamwise coherence of the structures above the log layer with the strong swirling strength and Reynolds shear stress. The average streamwise length scale of the pipe flow was approximately 1.5-3.0 times larger than that of the TBL through the log and wake regions. The maximum contribution of the structures to the Reynolds shear stress was observed at approximately 6δ in length, whereas that of the TBL was at 1δ-2δ, indicating a higher contribution of the VLSMs to the Reynolds shear stress in the pipe flow than in the TBL flow.
Medvedev, Mikhail V.
2017-01-01
Faraday effect - a common and useful probe of cosmic magnetic fields - is the result of magnetically-induced birefringence in plasmas causing rotation of the polarization plane of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. Classically, the rotation angle scales with the wavelength as Δϕ =RMλ2 , where RM is the rotation measure. Although a typical RM in the Milky Way is of the order of a few hundred to a few thousand, a famous Cygnus region shows anomalously small, even negative rotation measures. Moreover, Faraday rotation measurements seem to be inconsistent with the standard λ2-law. We argue that fast micro-turbulence can cause this anomaly. We demonstrate that electromagnetic high-frequency and/or small-scale fluctuations can lead to effective plasma collisionality by scattering electrons over pitch-angle. We show that such quasi-collisionality radically alters Faraday rotation and other radiative transport properties, e.g., absorption, transmission and reflection. Thus, we explain the Cygnus puzzle by anomalous Faraday rotation in a thin ``blanket'' of highly turbulent plasma at the front of an interstellar bubble/shock. Supported by DOE grant DE-SC0016368.
Li, Feng-Chen; Wang, Lu; Cai, Wei-Hua
2015-07-01
A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2011M500652), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51276046 and 51206033), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020).
Falgarone, E.; Pety, J.; Hily-Blant, P.
2009-11-01
Aims: The condensation of diffuse gas into molecular clouds and dense cores occurs at a rate driven largely by turbulent dissipation. This process still has to be caught in action and characterized. Methods: We observed a mosaic of 13 fields with the IRAM-PdB interferometer (PdBI) to search for small-scale structure in the 12CO(1-0) line emission of the turbulent and translucent environment of a low-mass dense core in the Polaris Flare. The large size of the mosaic (1' × 2') compared to the resolution (4'') is unprecedented in the study of the small-scale structure of diffuse molecular gas. Results: The interferometer data uncover eight weak and elongated structures with thicknesses as small as ≈3 mpc (600 AU) and lengths up to 70 mpc, close to the size of the mosaic. These are not filaments because once merged with short-spacings data, the PdBI-structures appear to be the sharp edges, in space and velocity-space, of larger-scale structures. Six out of eight form quasi-parallel pairs at different velocities and different position angles. This cannot be the result of chance alignment. The velocity-shears estimated for the three pairs include the highest values ever measured in regions that do not form stars (up to 780 km s-1 pc-1). The CO column density of the PdBI-structures is in the range N(CO) = 1014 to 1015 cm-2 and their H2 density, estimated in several ways, does not exceed a few 103 cm-3. Because the larger scale structures have sharp edges (with little or no overlap for those that are pairs), they have to be thin layers of CO emission. We call them SEE(D)S for sharp-edged extended (double) structures. These edges mark a transition, on the milliparsec scale, between a CO-rich component and a gas undetected in the 12CO(1-0) line because of its low CO abundance, presumably the cold neutral medium. Conclusions: We propose that these SEE(D)S are the first directly-detected manifestations of the intermittency of interstellar turbulence. The large velocity
Large-eddy simulation of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirl-burner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galpin, Jeremy [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Naudin, Alexandre; Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale [INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Angelberger, Christian; Colin, Olivier [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)
2008-10-15
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirling flame is performed, in the configuration of a burner experimentally studied by Meier et al. [Combust. Flame 150 (1-2) (2007) 2-26]. Measurements of velocity field, temperature, and major species concentrations are compared against LES results. The unresolved sub-grid scale turbulent species and temperature fluctuations are accounted for using a presumed probability density function and flamelet tabulated detailed chemistry. Before the turbulent burner is simulated, various strategies to introduce tabulated detailed chemistry into a fully compressible Navier-Stokes solver are discussed and tested for laminar flames. The objective is to ensure a proper coupling between chemical tables and unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in their fully compressible form, accounting for the inherent constraints of high-performance computing. Comparisons of LES results with experiments are discussed in terms of filtered quantities, leading to the introduction of an extra term to account for the difference in filter sizes used in experiment and LES. Velocity, temperature, and major species LES fields are then compared against measurements. Most of the turbulent flame features are reproduced, and observed discrepancies are analyzed to seek out possible improvements of the subgrid-scale modeling. (author)
Chkhetiani, Otto G.; Gledzer, Evgeny B.
2017-11-01
Interactions violating the symmetry of positive and negative total helicity components are considered. In the ideal case where one of the components is zero, the system have two sign-definite integrals of motion, which lead to an inverse energy cascade, as occurs in two-dimensional turbulence. The generation of large-scale modes is considered in the quasi-normal approximation and is manifested as the instability of second moments, a mechanism of which was discussed at the end of previous century. A crucial point in this mechanism is the presence of mean turbulence with large-scale helical disturbances and small-scale sources of energy and helicity. In the case of both helicity components being nonzero, the possibility of the large-scale generation is studied by applying numerical experiments with a shell model and by analyzing special cases of interactions between different shells of the model. In all the approaches used, it is shown that an inverse energy flux (from small to large scales) can exist at a certain level of external helical noises in large-scale modes, which depends on the degree of ;mixing; oppositely signed helicity components.
Suppressed ion-scale turbulence in a hot high-β plasma.
Schmitz, L; Fulton, D P; Ruskov, E; Lau, C; Deng, B H; Tajima, T; Binderbauer, M W; Holod, I; Lin, Z; Gota, H; Tuszewski, M; Dettrick, S A; Steinhauer, L C
2016-12-21
An economic magnetic fusion reactor favours a high ratio of plasma kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure in a well-confined, hot plasma with low thermal losses across the confining magnetic field. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are potentially attractive as a reactor concept, achieving high plasma pressure in a simple axisymmetric geometry. Here, we show that FRC plasmas have unique, beneficial microstability properties that differ from typical regimes in toroidal confinement devices. Ion-scale fluctuations are found to be absent or strongly suppressed in the plasma core, mainly due to the large FRC ion orbits, resulting in near-classical thermal ion confinement. In the surrounding boundary layer plasma, ion- and electron-scale turbulence is observed once a critical pressure gradient is exceeded. The critical gradient increases in the presence of sheared plasma flow induced via electrostatic biasing, opening the prospect of active boundary and transport control in view of reactor requirements.
Collisional Scaling of the Energy Transfer in Drift-Wave Zonal Flow Turbulence.
Schmid, B; Manz, P; Ramisch, M; Stroth, U
2017-02-03
The collisionality scaling of density and potential coupling together with zonal flow energy transfer and spectral power is investigated at the stellarator experiment TJ-K. With a poloidal probe array, consisting of 128 Langmuir probes, density and potential fluctuations are measured on four neighboring flux surfaces simultaneously over the complete poloidal circumference. By analyzing Reynolds stress and pseudo-Reynolds stress, it is found that, for increasing collisionality, the coupling between density and potential decreases which hinders the zonal flow drive. Also, as a consequence, the nonlinear energy transfer, as well as the zonal flow contribution to the complete turbulent spectrum, decreases the same way. This is in line with theoretical expectations and is a first experimental verification of the importance of collisionality for large-scale structure formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.
Hernandez Perez, Francisco Emanuel
Hydrogen (H2) enrichment of hydrocarbon fuels in lean premixed systems is desirable since it can lead to a progressive reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions, while paving the way towards pure hydrogen combustion. In recent decades, large-eddy simulation (LES) has emerged as a promising tool to computationally describe and represent turbulent combustion processes. However, a considerable complication of LES for turbulent premixed combustion is that chemical reactions occur in a thin reacting layer at small scales which cannot be entirely resolved on computational grids and need to be modelled. In this thesis, subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling for LES of lean H 2-enriched methane-air turbulent premixed combustion was investigated. Two- and three-dimensional fully-compressible LES solvers for a thermally perfect reactive mixture of gases were developed and systematically validated. Two modelling strategies for the chemistry-turbulence interaction were pursued: the artificially thickened flame model with a power-law SFS wrinkling approach and the presumed conditional moment (PCM) coupled with the flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) chemistry tabulation technique. Freely propagating and Bunsen-type flames corresponding to stoichiometric and lean premixed mixtures were considered. Validation of the LES solvers was carried out by comparing predicted solutions with experimental data and other published numerical results. Head-to-head comparisons of different SFS approaches, including a transported flame surface density (FSD) model, allowed to identify weaknesses and strengths of the various models. Based on the predictive capabilities of the models examined, the PCM-FPI model was selected for the study of hydrogen-enrichment of methane. A new progress of reaction variable was proposed to account for NO. The importance of transporting species with different diffusion coefficients was demonstrated, in particular for H2. The proposed approach was
Geophysical turbulence and the duality of the energy flow across scales
Pouquet, A
2013-01-01
The ocean and the atmosphere, and hence the climate system, are governed at large scale by interactions between the pressure gradient, Coriolis force and buoyancy force. This leads to a quasi-geostrophic balance in which, in a two-dimensional-like fashion, the energy injected e.g. by solar radiation, winds or tides goes to large scales in what is known as an inverse cascade. Yet, except for Ekman friction, energy dissipation and turbulent mixing occur at small scale implying the formation of small scales in a direct energy cascade associated with breaking of geostrophic dynamics through wave-eddy interactions \\cite{ledwell_00, vanneste_13} or with frontogenesis \\cite{hoskins_72, mcwilliams_10}. How do these phenomena co-exist? There are several known physical systems, idealized representations of more complex fluids as occur in geophysics and astrophysics, that exhibit such a dual behavior of energy flowing to the large scales and to the small scales, with constant fluxes as required by theoretical arguments....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian
1995-01-01
Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices...... is consistent with classical coagulation theory. We then demonstrate that differences in larval search strategy (pause- travel versus cruise search) and behaviour (e.g. reactive distance, swimming speed, pause duration) will lead to substantial differences in estimated encounter rates. In general, small larvae...... are more likely to benefit from turbulence-increased encounter than larger larvae. Overall ingestion rate probability (= probability of encounter x probability of successful pursuit) is likely to be highest at moderate-high levels of turbulence. In most larval fish habitats, turbulence levels appear to lie...
Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Archambeau, F
1995-06-01
This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author) 87 refs.
Aspect ratio dependence of heat transfer and large-scale flow in turbulent convection
Bailon-Cuba, Jorge; Schumacher, Joerg
2010-01-01
The heat transport and corresponding changes in the large-scale circulation (LSC) in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection are studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations as a function of the aspect ratio $\\Gamma$ of a closed cylindrical cell and the Rayleigh number $Ra$. For small and moderate aspect ratios, the global heat transfer law $Nu=A\\times Ra^{\\beta}$ shows a power law dependence of both fit coefficients $A$ and $\\beta$ on the aspect ratio. A minimum Nusselt number coincides with the point where the LSC undergoes a transition from a single-roll to a double-roll pattern. With increasing aspect ratio, we detect complex multi-roll LSC configurations. The aspect ratio dependence of the turbulent heat transfer for small and moderate $\\Gamma$ is in line with a varying amount of energy contained in the LSC, as quantified by the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition analysis. For $\\Gamma\\gtrsim 8$ the heat transfer becomes independent of the aspect ratio.
Zhou, Bowen; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng
2017-04-01
Compared to the representation of vertical turbulent mixing through various PBL schemes, the treatment of horizontal turbulence mixing in the boundary layer within mesoscale models, with O(10) km horizontal grid spacing, has received much less attention. In mesoscale models, subgrid-scale horizontal fluxes most often adopt the gradient-diffusion assumption. The horizontal mixing coefficients are usually set to a constant, or through the 2D Smagorinsky formulation, or in some cases based on the 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure. In this work, horizontal turbulent mixing parameterizations using physically based characteristic velocity and length scales are proposed for the convective boundary layer based on analysis of a well-resolved, wide-domain large-eddy simulation (LES). The proposed schemes involve different levels of sophistication. The first two schemes can be used together with first-order PBL schemes, while the third uses TKE to define its characteristic velocity scale and can be used together with TKE-based higher-order PBL schemes. The current horizontal mixing formulations are also assessed a priori through the filtered LES results to illustrate their limitations. The proposed parameterizations are tested a posteriori in idealized simulations of turbulent dispersion of a passive scalar. Comparisons show improved horizontal dispersion by the proposed schemes, and further demonstrate the weakness of the current schemes.
Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; McKee, G. R.
2017-12-01
Recent measurements of turbulent density ( n ˜ ) and electron-temperature ( T˜ e ) fluctuations have reported turbulence modifications by Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) islands: turbulence decreases (increases) inside (outside) the island region when the island width (W) exceeds a threshold (WT), in qualitative agreement with gyrokinetic simulations. As the cross-field transport in tokamaks is dominantly driven by turbulence, these observations call into question the conventional understanding of confinement degradation by NTMs and magnetic island stability physics. The experimental data presented here support the following points: (i) When profiles flatten at the O-point and gradients increase outside of the island, n ˜ decreases (increases) inside (outside) the island. Along with the parallel transport resulting in increased fluxes inside the island, the increase of n ˜ outside of the island offers an explanation for the temporal increase of fluxes in that region. As the plasma stored energy (WMHD) gradually decreases in synchronization with the island growth and saturation, gradients, n ˜ and fluxes also decrease outside the island until they become about the same as before NTM onset. These fluxes balance the constant sources, and the plasma comes to a steady state at lower WMHD. (ii) Turbulence reduction in the O-point region has a destabilizing effect on the island. This effect is, however, nearly compensated by the reduced confinement. These observations suggest that driving turbulence in the island region could lead to smaller saturated islands offering a path toward better confinement and safer operation of reactor-scale fusion devices.
Similarity and Scaling of Turbulent Flame Speeds for Expanding Premixed Flames of C4-C8 n -alkanes
Wu, Fujia; Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Yang, Sheng; Law, Chung K.
2013-11-01
We experimentally investigated the propagation speed of constant-pressure expanding flames in near isotropic turbulence using a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. The motivation is to test whether the fuel similarity concept among C4-C8 n-alkanes on laminar flames also holds for turbulent flames. Previously it was found that the laminar flame speed and Markstein length are almost identical for C4-C8 n-alkanes. If this fuel similarity concept can also be shown for turbulent flames, it will suggest a canonical flame structure for large hydrocarbon fuels, i . e . , large fuels always decompose to small C0-C4 fuel fragments before being oxidized, and would significantly simplify the description of the flames. Preliminary results show that in the flamelet and thin-reaction zone, turbulent flame speeds of C4-C8 n-alkanes are indeed largely similar at various conditions, thereby suggesting the fuel similarity for turbulent flames. In addition, it is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed also approximately scales with the square root of an appropriately-defined Reynolds number recently found for C0-C4 fuels. This work was supported by the AFOSR under the technical monitoring of Dr. Chiping Li.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buschman, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Buschman@unnpp.gov; Aumiller, David L.
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Direct contact condensation data on liquid jets up to 1.7 MPa in pure steam and in the presence of noncondensable gas. • Identified a pressure effect on the impact of noncondensables to suppress condensation heat transfer not captured in existing data or correlations. • Pure steam data is used to develop a new correlation for condensation heat transfer on subcooled liquid jets. • Noncondensable data used to develop a modification to the renewal time estimate used in the Young and Bajorek correlation for condensation suppression in the presence of noncondensables. • A jet injection boundary condition, using a sub-grid jet condensation model, is developed for COBRA-IE which provides a more detailed estimate of the condensation rate on the liquid jet and allows the use of jet specific closure relationships. - Abstract: Condensation on liquid jets is an important phenomenon for many different facets of nuclear power plant transients and analyses such as containment spray cooling. An experimental facility constructed at the Pennsylvania State University, the High Pressure Liquid Jet Condensation Heat Transfer facility (HPLJCHT), has been used to perform steady-state condensation heat transfer experiments in which the temperature of the liquid jet is measured at different axial locations allowing the condensation rate to be determined over the jet length. Test data have been obtained in a pure steam environment and with varying concentrations of noncondensable gas. This data extends the available jet condensation data from near atmospheric pressure up to a pressure of 1.7 MPa. An empirical correlation for the liquid side condensation heat transfer coefficient has been developed based on the data obtained in pure steam. The data obtained with noncondensable gas were used to develop a correlation for the renewal time as used in the condensation suppression model developed by Young and Bajorek. This paper describes a new sub-grid liquid jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Che, Haihong [University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)
2016-03-25
We summarize our recent studies on the origin of solar wind kinetic scale turbulence and electron halo in the electron velocity distribution function. Increasing observations of nanoflares and microscopic type III radio bursts strongly suggest that nanoflares and accelerated electron beams are common in the corona. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we show that both the core-halo feature and kinetic scale turbulence observed in the solar wind can be produced by the nonlinear evolution of electron two-stream instability driven by nanoflare accelerated electron beams. The energy exchange between waves and particles reaches equilibrium in the inner corona and the key features of the turbulence and velocity distribution are preserved as the solar wind escapes into interplanetary space along open magnetic field lines. Observational tests of the model and future theoretical work are discussed.
Experimental investigation of small scale geometries in a turbulent round jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gampert, Markus; Schaefer, Philip; Peters, Norbert, E-mail: mgampert@itv.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Combustion Technology, RWTH Aachen Templergraben 64, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2011-12-22
In the present work, we present a method to gather highly accurate three-dimensional measurements of a scalar field in order to experimentally validate the theory of dissipation elements as developped by Wang and Peters (2006, 2008). Combining a two-dimensional high-speed Rayleigh scattering technique with Taylor's hypothesis allows to resolve the concentration field of gaseous propane discharging into ambient air from a turbulent round jet at a Reynolds number (based on nozzle diameter and exit velocity) of 2,800 down to the Kolmogorov scale in every spatial direction. Based on the acquired data, the normalized probability density function of the length of dissipation elements P-tilde (l-tilde) is investigated at various downstream positions x/d = 15 - 40 and an excellent agreement with the theoretically derived model equation is obtained.
New insights into sub-ion scale turbulence in Earth's magnetosheath using MMS data
Breuillard, Hugo; Andriopoulou, Maria; Graham, Daniel; Le Contel, Olivier; Huang, Shiyong; Hadid, Lina; Sahraoui, Fouad; Alexandrova, Olga; Berthomier, Matthieu; Retino, Alessandro; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
On January 22nd 2016, MMS was located in Earth's magnetosheath and detected intense lion roars showing a secondary bandwidth. Detailed polarization analysis, using burst data from SCM and EDP instruments, and numerical simulation, using WHAMP, are performed in this study. They show that these mainly perpendicular fluctuations are highly nonlinear whistler wave packets, and that a high sampling rate is needed to pick up the peaks of the signal. As a result, their amplitude might have been underestimated in previous missions such as Cluster, which can have a significant impact on electron dynamics. Using FPI burst data, we show that electron velocity distribution functions exhibit a gyrophase-bunched signature in the presence of these lion roars. The analysis of magnetic and density fluctuations, inferred from spacecraft potential, also show the highly-compressible nature of turbulence up to electron scales.
Kadum, Hawwa; Rockel, Stanislav; Holling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim; Cal, Raul Bayon
2017-11-01
The wake behind a floating model horizontal axis wind turbine during pitch motion is investigated and compared to a fixed wind turbine wake. An experiment is conducted in an acoustic wind tunnel where hot-wire data are acquired at five downstream locations. At each downstream location, a rake of 16 hot-wires was used with placement of the probes increasing radially in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonally at 45 deg. In addition, the effect of turbulence intensity on the floating wake is examined by subjecting the wind turbine to different inflow conditions controlled through three settings in the wind tunnel grid, a passive and two active protocols, thus varying in intensity. The wakes are inspected by statistics of the point measurements, where the various length/time scales are considered. The wake characteristics for a floating wind turbine are compared to a fixed turbine, and uncovering its features; relevant as the demand for exploiting deep waters in wind energy is increasing.
Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow
Willis, Ashley P.; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo
2010-09-01
The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths λθ+≈70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.
A scale-aware subgrid model for quasi-geostrophic turbulence
Bachman, Scott D.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Pearson, Brodie
2017-02-01
This paper introduces two methods for dynamically prescribing eddy-induced diffusivity, advection, and viscosity appropriate for primitive equation models with resolutions permitting the forward potential enstrophy cascade of quasi-geostrophic dynamics, such as operational ocean models and high-resolution climate models with O>(25>) km horizontal resolution and finer. Where quasi-geostrophic dynamics fail (e.g., the equator, boundary layers, and deep convection), the method reverts to scalings based on a matched two-dimensional enstrophy cascade. A principle advantage is that these subgrid models are scale-aware, meaning that the model is suitable over a range of grid resolutions: from mesoscale grids that just permit baroclinic instabilities to grids below the submesoscale where ageostrophic effects dominate. Two approaches are presented here using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques adapted for three-dimensional rotating, stratified turbulence. The simpler approach has one nondimensional parameter, Λ, which has an optimal value near 1. The second approach dynamically optimizes Λ during simulation using a test filter. The new methods are tested in an idealized scenario by varying the grid resolution, and their use improves the spectra of potential enstrophy and energy in comparison to extant schemes. The new methods keep the gridscale Reynolds and Péclet numbers near 1 throughout the domain, which confers robust numerical stability and minimal spurious diapycnal mixing. Although there are no explicit parameters in the dynamic approach, there is strong sensitivity to the choice of test filter. Designing test filters for heterogeneous ocean turbulence adds cost and uncertainty, and we find the dynamic method does not noticeably improve over setting Λ = 1.
Traveling wave solutions of large-scale structures in turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 1000
Hwang, Yongyun; Willis, Ashley; Cossu, Carlo
2016-11-01
Recently, a set of stationary invariant solutions for the large-scale structures in turbulent Couette flow was computed at Reτ = 128 using an over-damped LES with the Smagorinsky model which accounts the effect of the surrounding small-scale motions. In this talk, we show that this approach can be extended to Reτ = 1000 in turbulent channel flow, towards the regime where the large-scale structures in the form of very-large-scale motions (long streaky motions) and large-scale motions (short vortical structures) energetically emerge. We demonstrate that a set of invariant solutions in the form of a traveling wave can be computed from simulations of the self-sustaining large-scale structures in the minimal unit with midplane reflection symmetry. By approximating the surrounding small scales with an artificially elevated Smagorinsky constant, a set of equilibrium states are found, labelled upper- and lower-branch according to their related wall shear stress. In particular, we will show that the upper-branch equilibrium state is a reasonable proxy for the spatial structure and the turbulent statistics of the self-sustaining large-scale structures. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK (EP/N019342/1).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-10-13
The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.
Conry, Patrick; Sharma, Ashish; Leo, Laura; Fernando, H. J. S.; Potosnak, Mark; Hellmann, Jessica
2013-11-01
The modeling of urban heat island (UHI) requires a multi-scale approach as it involves numerous physical phenomena spanning a range of scales. We have performed a comprehensive study of Chicago's UHI via coupling of mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and micro-scale ENVI-met models. The application of the latter model to a Lincoln Park neighborhood and a parallel observational campaign will be the primary focus of this presentation. ENVI-met employs a computational fluid dynamics model to represent heterogeneity of urban areas, providing fine resolution output of UHI dynamics. In the field campaign, two stations located on rooftops of DePaul University buildings were each equipped with a sonic anemometer and vertical array of thermocouples, allowing investigations of spatial variability of flow, turbulent fluxes, and temperature profiles in an urban roughness sublayer. One of these was located above a rooftop garden and the other above a conventional rooftop. Downscaled output from the WRF model or a set of observational data served as initial and boundary conditions for the ENVI-met model. The model's predicative capabilities were assessed through comparison with another set of observational data, and dynamical causes for the model's poor behavior were identified. Funded by NSF Grant No. 0934592 and ND-ECI.
Donner, Leo
2014-05-01
Cumulus mass fluxes are essential controls on the interactions between cumulus convection and large-scale flows. Cumulus parameterizations have generally been built around them, and these parameterizations are basic components of climate models. Several important questions in climate science depend also on cumulus vertical velocities. Interactions between aerosols and convection comprise a prominent example, and scale-aware cumulus parameterizations that require explicit information about cumulus areas are another. Basic progress on these problems requires realistic characterization of cumulus vertical velocities from observations and models. Recent deployments of dual-Doppler radars are providing unprecedented observations, which can be compared against cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The CRMs can subsequently be analyzed to develop and evaluate parameterizations of vertical velocities in climate models. Vertical velocities from several cloud models will be compared against observations in this presentation. CRM vertical velocities will be found to depend strongly on model resolution and treatment of sub-grid turbulence and microphysics. Although many current state-of-science CRMs do not simulate vertical velocities well, recent experiments with these models suggest that with appropriate treatments of sub-grid turbulence and microphysics robustly realistic modeling of cumulus vertical velocities is possible.
Franci, L.; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Hellinger, P.
2015-12-01
We investigate the properties of the solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, large-scale, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. These constitute the most accurate hybrid simulations of ion-scale turbulence ever presented so far, and let us explore a very wide range of scales, i.e., three decades in wave vectors simultaneously. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of in-plane large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. We perform a set of simulations with many different values of two fundamental parameters, i.e., the plasma beta, β, and the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, Brms, in order to investigate their relevance in determining the spectral properties of the turbulent cascade around ion scales. Once turbulence is fully developed, we observe the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations following a power law with a spectral index of -5/3 in the inertial range, with a spectral break around ion scales and a steeper power law in the sub-ion range. The scale at which the steepening of the spectrum occurs changes when exploring the (β,Brms) parameter space. Such a movement of the spectral break is clearer when looking at the spectra of the parallel magnetic fluctuations and of the density fluctuations. Moreover, these share the same power law behavior at sub-ion scales, exhibiting a spectral index of -2.8, which seems to be independent on the values of the two varying parameters. We compare our results with solar wind observations, and we suggest possible explanations for such behavior.
Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Dunlop, M. W.; Sahraoui, F.
2009-12-01
In-situ observations of fluctuations in the solar wind typically show an ‘inertial range’ of MHD turbulence, and at higher frequencies, a cross-over to spatial temporal scales where kinetic effects become important. In-situ monitors such as WIND and ACE have provided observations over a decade of this dissipation/dispersion range that have motivated theoretical studies that in turn predict the nature of the scaling in this region. We will present some results from very high-frequency magnetic field data from the four Cluster II spacecraft in intervals where the spacecraft were in quasi-stationary ambient solar wind and where the instruments were operating in burst mode. The magnetic field data are from the fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers from the Cluster FGM experiment (~67Hz), and the STAFF experiment (~450 Hz). These data sets provide observations of this dissipation/dispersion range over approximately two decades in frequency. This high cadence allows a more precise determination of the statistics at these small scales; especially the estimation of scaling exponents. Theories centred around the dispersion of MHD waves and their associated damping and particle heating have been proposed to account for this scaling range. Since the spacecraft data shows a clean break from the scaling in the inertial range, followed by a different power-law spanning over approximately two decades, these theories centre around predictions of the spectral slope and the associated scaling exponents. Motivated by the need to distinguish these theoretical predictions, we perform a robust multiscale statistical analysis focusing on power spectra, PDFs of field fluctuations, higher-order statistics to quantify the scaling of fluctuations; as well as describing the degree of anisotropy in the fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the average magnetic field. We use these results to infer the nature of the physical processes as we pass through the crossover from inertial
Grete, P; Schmidt, W; Schleicher, D R G
2016-01-01
Even though compressible plasma turbulence is encountered in many astrophysical phenomena, its effect is often not well understood. Furthermore, direct numerical simulations are typically not able to reach the extreme parameters of these processes. For this reason, large-eddy simulations (LES), which only simulate large and intermediate scales directly, are employed. The smallest, unresolved scales and the interactions between small and large scales are introduced by means of a subgrid-scale (SGS) model. We propose and verify a new set of nonlinear SGS closures for future application as an SGS model in LES of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We use 15 simulations (without explicit SGS model) of forced, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence with varying sonic Mach number $\\mathrm{M_s} = 0.2$ to $20$ as reference data for the most extensive \\textit{a priori} tests performed so far in literature. In these tests we explicitly filter the reference data and compare the performance of the new closures against th...
Turbulence scaling study in an MHD wind tunnel on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment
Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Wan, A.
2013-12-01
The turbulence of colliding plasmas is explored in an MHD wind tunnel on the SSX in an effort to understand solar wind physics in a laboratory setting. Fully ionized hydrogen plasma is produced by two plasma guns on opposite sides of a 1m by 15cm copper cylinder creating plasma with L/ρi ~ 75-150, β ~ 0.1-0.2 and Lundquist number ~ 1000. Modification of B-field, Ti and β are made through stuffing flux variation of the plasma guns. Presented here are turbulent f-/k-spectra and correlation times and lengths of B-field fluctuations as measured by a 16 channel B-dot radial probe array at the chamber midplane using both FFT and wavelet analysis techniques. Power-law behavior is observed spanning about two decades of frequencies [100kHz-10MHz] and about one decade of wavelength [10cm-1cm]. Power-law fits to spectra show scaling in these regions to be robust to changes in stuffing flux; fits are on the order of f-4 and k-2 for all flux variations. Low frequency fluctuations [law behavior is seen in f-spectra for frequencies around f=fci while changes in k-spectra slopes appear around 1/k ~ 5ρi. Dissipation range fits are made with an exponentially modified power-law model [Terry et al, PoP 2012]. Fluctuation measurements in axial velocity are made using a Mach probe with edge flows reaching M ~ 0.4. Both B-field and velocity fluctuations persist on the same timescale in these experiments, though Mach velocity f-spectra show power-laws slightly shallower than those for B-field. Comparison of spectra from MHD and Hall MHD simulations of SSX performed within the HiFi modeling framework are made to the experimental results.
Experimental Investigation of Large-Scale Flow Structures in Turbulent Mixed Convection
Koerner, Max; Resagk, Christian; Thess, Andre
2014-11-01
We report on experimental investigations of the temporal and spatial behavior of large-scale flow structures (LSC) in turbulent mixed convection. Using a reduced scale model room with a passenger cabin based geometry allows a global view on the LSCs, which are mainly responsible for thermal comfort and air quality within rooms. Moreover, the usage of pressurized working gases like air or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) enables experimental investigations within broad ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Rayleigh number Ra. Thus, it is also possible to achieve realistic values of the dimensionless numbers allowing direct conclusions to be drawn about the LSCs in rooms similar to passenger cabins. The LSCs are determined by measurements of the 2D velocity field using a 2D2C particle image velocimetry system. In order to characterize three-dimensionally evolved flow structures, the measurement plane can be moved throughout the depth of the model room. We found very complex LSCs ranging from two-dimensional to three-dimensional structures and from one-roll systems over simple two-roll ones to chaotic behavior of the flow. The formation the LSCs has a strong dependency on the relation between Re and Ra and they often show distinct coherent oscillations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the DFG (Grant No. TH497-32-1) for financial support.
Generalized Two-Component Model of Solar Wind Turbulence: Coupled Large and Small Scales
Oughton, S.; Wiengarten, T.; Engelbrecht, N. E.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Scherer, K.
2016-12-01
We extend a two-component model for the evolution of (small-scale) fluctuations in the solar windplasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to dynamicallarge-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like pieceand a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Support for driving of the fluctuations is included, for example, by velocity shear and pickup ions. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the CRONOS [1] framework, and these are validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. We also employ the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations to calculate ab initio diffusion mean free paths and drift lengthscales for the transport of cosmic rays in the turbulent solar wind. [1] Wiengarten et al. ApJ, vol 805, 155, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/155 (2015)
Kinetic turbulence simulations at extreme scale on leadership-class systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bei [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Tang, William [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Williams, Timothy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Madduri, Kamesh [The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-01-01
Reliable predictive simulation capability addressing confinement properties in magnetically confined fusion plasmas is critically-important for ITER, a 20 billion dollar international burning plasma device under construction in France. The complex study of kinetic turbulence, which can severely limit the energy confinement and impact the economic viability of fusion systems, requires simulations at extreme scale for such an unprecedented device size. Our newly optimized, global, ab initio particle-in-cell code solving the nonlinear equations underlying gyrokinetic theory achieves excellent performance with respect to "time to solution" at the full capacity of the IBM Blue Gene/Q on 786,432 cores of Mira at ALCF and recently of the 1,572,864 cores of Sequoia at LLNL. Recent multithreading and domain decomposition optimizations in the new GTC-P code represent critically important software advances for modern, low memory per core systems by enabling routine simulations at unprecedented size (130 million grid points ITER-scale) and resolution (65 billion particles).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbin, Gerald [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1998-02-02
This study highlights the potentialities of the numerical technique of large scale simulation in describing and understanding the turbulent flows in a complex geometry. Particularly, it is focussed on flows of free jet, confined jets and multiple jets of high solidity grid. Spatial simulations of the circular zone close to a free jet, of high Reynolds number were performed. In spite of an evident sensitivity to upstream conditions good agreement between our statistical predictions and different experimental measurements was obtained. The multiple coherent vortical structures implied in the transition to turbulence of the jet were found. At the same time, helical or annular axisymmetric vortices were observed. Also, an original vortical arrangement was evidenced, resulting from the alternating inclination and local pairing of these rings. It could been forced through an ad-hoc excitation which modifies subsequently drastically the jet development. When an axisymmetric excitation is imposed after formation of annular structures, pairs of counter-rotative longitudinal vortices occur and generate lateral jets. Their nature and presence in case of a helical excitation are discussed. An efficient method for controlling their number is developed. Then, one is studied the very low frequency periodic phenomenon of backward-facing transition to turbulence which develops in the confined jet and grid multiple jets (a phenomenon generic in numerous flows). It was found to depend not only on the characteristic of the re-circulation (pre-transition) zones but also on the upstream flow (zone of post-transition stagnation, pressure effect). Large scale transversal motions of the fluid have been found beginning from the grid. An interpretation of this phenomenon is suggested 193 refs., 109 figs.
Large-scale control strategy for drag reduction in turbulent channel flows
Yao, Jie; Chen, Xi; Thomas, Flint; Hussain, Fazle
2017-06-01
In a recent article, Canton et al. [J. Canton et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 081501(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.081501] reported significant drag reduction in turbulent channel flow by using large-scale, near-wall streamwise swirls following the control strategy of Schoppa and Hussain [W. Schoppa and F. Hussain, Phys. Fluids 10, 1049 (1998), 10.1063/1.869789] for low Reynolds numbers only, but found no drag reduction at high friction Reynolds numbers (Reτ=550 ). Here we show that the lack of drag reduction at high Re observed by Canton et al. is remedied by the proper choice of the large-scale control flow. In this study, we apply near-wall opposed wall-jet forcing to achieve drag reduction at the same (high) Reynolds number where Canton et al. found no drag reduction. The steady excitation is characterized by three control parameters, namely, the wall-jet-forcing amplitude A+, the spanwise spacing Λ+, and the wall jet height yc+ (+ indicates viscous scaling); the primary difference between Schoppa and Hussain's work (also that of Canton et al.) and this Rapid Communication is the emphasis on the explicit choice of yc+ here. We show as an example that with a choice of A+≈0.015 ,Λ+≈1200 , and yc+≈30 the flow control definitely suppresses the wall shear stress at a series of Reynolds numbers, namely, 19 %,14 % , and 12 % drag reductions at Reτ=180 , 395, and 550, respectively. Further study should explore optimization of these parameter values.
Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.-m. Hsu
2011-08-01
Full Text Available With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO_{2}, NO_{x}, CO, SO_{2}, and O_{3} and aerosol (PM_{10} measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of −5/3 and −1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, −3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.
Two-length-scale turbulence model for self-similar buoyancy-, shock-, and shear-driven mixing
Morgan, Brandon E.; Schilling, Oleg; Hartland, Tucker A.
2018-01-01
The three-equation k -L -a turbulence model [B. Morgan and M. Wickett, Three-equation model for the self-similar growth of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, Phys. Rev. E 91, 043002 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.043002] is extended by the addition of a second length scale equation. It is shown that the separation of turbulence transport and turbulence destruction length scales is necessary for simultaneous prediction of the growth parameter and turbulence intensity of a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer when model coefficients are constrained by similarity analysis. Constraints on model coefficients are derived that satisfy an ansatz of self-similarity in the low-Atwood-number limit and allow the determination of model coefficients necessary to recover expected experimental behavior. The model is then applied in one-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor, reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and combined Rayleigh-Taylor-Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mixing layers to demonstrate that the expected growth rates are recovered numerically. Finally, it is shown in the case of combined instability that the model predicts a mixing width that is a linear combination of Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz mixing processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boivin, M.
1996-12-31
An investigation of dilute dispersed turbulent two-way coupling two-phase flows has been undertaken with the hemp of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on stationary-forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The particle relaxation times range from the Kolmogorov to the Eulerian time scales and the load goes up to 1. The analyses is made within the Eulerian-model framework, enhanced by the National Hydraulics Laboratory Lagrangian approach, which is extended here to include inverse coupling and Reynolds effects. Particles are found to dissipate on average turbulence energy. The spectra of the fluid-particle exchange energy rate show that small particles drag the fluid at high wavenumbers, which explains the observed relative increase of small scale energy. A spectral analysis points as responsible mechanism the transfer of fluid-particle covariance by fluid turbulence. Regarding the modeling, he Reynolds dependency and the load contribution are found crucial for good predictions of the dispersed phase moments. A study for practical applications with Large Eddy Simulations (LES) has yielded: LES can be used two-way coupling two-phase flows provided that a dynamic mixed sub-grid scale model is adopted and the particle relaxation time is larger than the cutoff filter one; the inverse coupling should depend more on the position of this relaxation time with respect to the Eulerian one than to the Kolmogorov one. (author) 67 refs.
Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.
2018-03-01
We re-consider the plate-like model of turbulence in the Earth's core, proposed by Braginsky and Meytlis (1990), and show that it is plausible for core parameters not only in polar regions but extends to mid- and low-latitudes where rotation and gravity are not parallel, except in a very thin equatorial layer. In this model the turbulence is highly anisotropic with preferred directions imposed by the Earth's rotation and the magnetic field. Current geodynamo computations effectively model sub-grid scale turbulence by using isotropic viscous and thermal diffusion values significantly greater than the molecular values of the Earth's core. We consider a local turbulent dynamo model for the Earth's core in which the mean magnetic field, velocity and temperature satisfy the Boussinesq induction, momentum and heat equations with an isotropic turbulent Ekman number and Roberts number. The anisotropy is modelled only in the thermal diffusion tensor with the Earth's rotation and magnetic field as preferred directions. Nonlocal organising effects of gravity and rotation (but not aspect ratio in the Earth's core) such as an inverse cascade and nonlocal transport are assumed to occur at longer length scales, which computations may accurately capture with sufficient resolution. To investigate the implications of this anisotropy for the proposed turbulent dynamo model we investigate the linear instability of turbulent magnetoconvection on length scales longer than the background turbulence in a rotating sphere with electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and isothermal boundary conditions. The equations are linearised about an axisymmetric basic state with a conductive temperature, azimuthal magnetic field and differential rotation. The basic state temperature is a function of the anisotropy and the spherical radius. Elsasser numbers in the range 1-20 and turbulent Roberts numbers 0.01-1 are considered for both equatorial symmetries of the magnetic basic state. It is found
Modeling Macro- and Micro-Scale Turbulent Mixing and Chemistry in Engine Exhaust Plumes
Menon, Suresh
1998-01-01
Simulation of turbulent mixing and chemical processes in the near-field plume and plume-vortex regimes has been successfully carried out recently using a reduced gas phase kinetics mechanism which substantially decreased the computational cost. A detailed mechanism including gas phase HOx, NOx, and SOx chemistry between the aircraft exhaust and the ambient air in near-field aircraft plumes is compiled. A reduced mechanism capturing the major chemical pathways is developed. Predictions by the reduced mechanism are found to be in good agreement with those by the detailed mechanism. With the reduced chemistry, the computer CPU time is saved by a factor of more than 3.5 for the near-field plume modeling. Distributions of major chemical species are obtained and analyzed. The computed sensitivities of major species with respect to reaction step are deduced for identification of the dominant gas phase kinetic reaction pathways in the jet plume. Both the near field plume and the plume-vortex regimes were investigated using advanced mixing models. In the near field, a stand-alone mixing model was used to investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on the micro- and macro-scale mixing processes using a reduced reaction kinetics model. The plume-vortex regime was simulated using a large-eddy simulation model. Vortex plume behind Boeing 737 and 747 aircraft was simulated along with relevant kinetics. Many features of the computed flow field show reasonable agreement with data. The entrainment of the engine plumes into the wing tip vortices and also the partial detrainment of the plume were numerically captured. The impact of fluid mechanics on the chemical processes was also studied. Results show that there are significant differences between spatial and temporal simulations especially in the predicted SO3 concentrations. This has important implications for the prediction of sulfuric acid aerosols in the wake and may partly explain the discrepancy between past numerical studies
Gregory Lough, R.; Mountain, David G.
the observed and estimated values had similar profiles. However, differences in vertical profiles may be attributed to differential digestion time, pursuit behavior affected by high turbulence, vertical migration of the larger larvae, an optimum light level for feeding, smaller-scale prey patchiness, and the gross estimates of turbulence. Response-surface estimation of averaged feeding ratios as a function of averaged prey density (0-50 m) with a minimum water-column turbulence value predicted that 5-6 mm larvae have a maximum feeding response at the highest prey densities (> 30 prey 1 -1) and lower turbulence estimates ( 10 prey 1 -1) as turbulence increases to intermidiate levels, clearly showing an interaction effect. In general, maximum feeding ratios occur at low to intermediate levels of turbulence where average prey density is greater than 10-20 prey 1 -1.
Equilibrium-eulerian les model for turbulent poly-dispersed particle-laden flow
Icardi, Matteo
2013-04-01
An efficient Eulerian method for poly-dispersed particles in turbulent flows is implemented, verified and validated for a channel flow. The approach couples a mixture model with a quadrature-based moment method for the particle size distribution in a LES framework, augmented by an approximate deconvolution method to reconstructs the unfiltered velocity. The particle velocity conditioned on particle size is calculated with an equilibrium model, valid for low Stokes numbers. A population balance equation is solved with the direct quadrature method of moments, that efficiently represents the continuous particle size distribution. In this first study particulate processes are not considered and the capability of the model to properly describe particle transport is investigated for a turbulent channel flow. First, single-phase LES are validated through comparison with DNS. Then predictions for the two-phase system, with particles characterised by Stokes numbers ranging from 0.2 to 5, are compared with Lagrangian DNS in terms of particle velocity and accumulation at the walls. Since this phenomenon (turbophoresis) is driven by turbulent fluctuations and depends strongly on the particle Stokes number, the approximation of the particle size distribution, the choice of the sub-grid scale model and the use of an approximate deconvolution method are important to obtain good results. Our method can be considered as a fast and efficient alternative to classical Lagrangian methods or Eulerian multi-fluid models in which poly-dispersity is usually neglected.
Turbulent CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar: Length Scales, Results and Comparison with In-Situ Sensors
Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.
2009-01-01
The vertical CO2 flux in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated with a Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL). The instrument was operated next to the WLEF instrumented tall tower in Park Falls, Wisconsin during three days and nights in June 2007. Profiles of turbulent CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity fluctuations are measured by in-situ sensors and Doppler DIAL. Time and space scales of turbulence are precisely defined in the ABL. The eddy-covariance method is applied to calculate turbulent CO2 flux both by lidar and in-situ sensors. We show preliminary mean lidar CO2 flux measurements in the ABL with a time and space resolution of 6 h and 1500 m respectively. The flux instrumental errors decrease linearly with the standard deviation of the CO2 data, as expected. Although turbulent fluctuations of CO2 are negligible with respect to the mean (0.1 %), we show that the eddy-covariance method can provide 2-h, 150-m range resolved CO2 flux estimates as long as the CO2 mixing ratio instrumental error is no greater than 10 ppm and the vertical velocity error is lower than the natural fluctuations over a time resolution of 10 s.
Hartlep, Thomas; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Weston, Brian
2017-03-01
Turbulent flows preferentially concentrate inertial particles depending on their stopping time or Stokes number, which can lead to significant spatial variations in the particle concentration. Cascade models are one way to describe this process in statistical terms. Here, we use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) dataset of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence to determine probability distribution functions (PDFs) for cascade multipliers, which determine the ratio by which a property is partitioned into subvolumes as an eddy is envisioned to decay into smaller eddies. We present a technique for correcting effects of small particle numbers in the statistics. We determine multiplier PDFs for particle number, flow dissipation, and enstrophy, all of which are shown to be scale dependent. However, the particle multiplier PDFs collapse when scaled with an appropriately defined local Stokes number. As anticipated from earlier works, dissipation and enstrophy multiplier PDFs reach an asymptote for sufficiently small spatial scales. From the DNS measurements, we derive a cascade model that is used it to make predictions for the radial distribution function (RDF) for arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers, Re, finding good agreement with the asymptotic, infinite Re inertial range theory of Zaichik and Alipchenkov [New J. Phys. 11, 103018 (2009), 10.1088/1367-2630/11/10/103018]. We discuss implications of these results for the statistical modeling of the turbulent clustering process in the inertial range for high Reynolds numbers inaccessible to numerical simulations.
Evolution of turbulence and in-plane vortices in the near field flow behind multi-scale planar grids
Gan, L.; Krogstad, P.-Å.
2016-08-01
In this experimental work, we carry out detailed two-dimensional particle image velocimetry investigations for the near field wakes behind a conventional and two multi-scale planar grids, using stitched camera fields of view. Statistical independent measurements are conducted focusing on the first few mesh distances downstream of the grid. It is found that the multiple integral length scales originated from the grids loose their importance on the turbulence development after about three mesh distances downstream, much earlier than the distance where the turbulence becomes homogeneous. The largest eddy size, represented by the integral length scales, does not show clear differences in its growth rate among the three grids after an initial development of three times the largest grid size downstream. Nevertheless, when examining individual vortex behaviours using conditional averaging and filtering processes, clear differences are found. The grids are found to have different decay rates of peak vorticity and projected vortex strengths. Despite these differences, the in-plane vorticity correlation function reveals that the mean vortex shape of all the grids shows a universal near-Gaussian pattern which does not change much as the turbulence decays.
Amato, Alberto; Fortini, Stefania; Watteaux, Romain; Diano, Marcello; Espa, Stefania; Esposito, Serena; Ferrante, Maria I; Peters, Francesc; Iudicone, Daniele; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio
2016-03-01
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the impact of turbulence on aquatic organisms. In response to this interest, a novel instrument has been constructed, TURBOGEN, that generates turbulence in water volumes up to 13 l. TURBOGEN is fully computer controlled, thus, allowing for a high level of reproducibility and for variations of the intensity and characteristics of turbulence during the experiment. The calibration tests, carried out by particle image velocimetry, showed TURBOGEN to be successful in generating isotropic turbulence at the typical relatively low levels of the marine environment. TURBOGEN and its sizing have been devised with the long-term scope of analyzing in detail the molecular responses of plankton to different mixing regimes, which is of great importance in both environmental and biotechnological processes.
Romanski, Joy; Romanou, Anastasia; Bauer, Michael; Tselioudis, George
2013-01-01
We analyze daily wintertime cyclone variability in the central and eastern Mediterranean during 1958-2001, and identify four distinct cyclone states, corresponding to the presence or absence of cyclones in each basin. Each cyclone state is associated with wind flows that induce characteristic patterns of cooling via turbulent (sensible and latent) heat fluxes in the eastern Mediterranean basin and Aegean Sea. The relative frequency of occurrence of each state determines the heat loss from the Aegean Sea during that winter, with largest heat losses occurring when there is a storm in the eastern but not central Mediterranean (eNOTc), and the smallest occurring when there is a storm in the central but not eastern Mediterranean (cNOTe). Time series of daily cyclone states for each winter allow us to infer Aegean Sea cooling for winters prior to 1985, the earliest year for which we have daily heat flux observations. We show that cyclone states conducive to Aegean Sea convection occurred in 1991/1992 and 1992/1993, the winters during which deep water formation was observed in the Aegean Sea, and also during the mid-1970s and the winters of 1963/1964 and 1968/1969. We find that the eNOTc cyclone state is anticorrelated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) prior to 1977/1978. After 1977/1978, the cNOTe state is anticorrelated with both the NAO and the North Caspian Pattern (NCP), showing that the area of influence of large scale atmospheric teleconnections on regional cyclone activity shifted from the eastern to the central Mediterranean during the late 1970s. A trend toward more frequent occurrence of the positive phase of the NAO produced less frequent cNOTe states since the late 1970s, increasing the number of days with strong cooling of the Aegean Sea surface waters.
Wang, Guiquan; Abbas, Micheline; Climent, Eric
2017-08-01
Particle-resolved numerical simulations based on the Force Coupling Method are carried out to study the effect of finite-size particles on turbulent plane Couette flow. The Reynolds number is close to the laminar-turbulent transition, such that large-scale rotational structures are well developed and self-sustained. The study particularly considers the effect of concentration, particle size, and particle-to-fluid density ratio on the mixture flow features. Time-averaged profiles, in the wall-normal direction, of the mean flow and Reynolds stress components reveal that there is no significant difference between single-phase and two-phase flows at equivalent effective Reynolds number, except that the wall shear stress is higher for the two-phase flow. However, temporal and modal analysis of flow fluctuations suggest that besides injecting small-scale perturbation due to their rigidity, particles have an effect on the regeneration cycle of turbulence. Indeed, the shape of the streaks and the intermittent character of the flow (amplitude and period of oscillation of the modal fluctuation energy) are all altered by the particle presence, and especially by the inertial ones.
Three-dimensional spatial structures of solar wind turbulence from 10 000-km to 100-km scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique without assuming the validity of Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasi-two-dimensional power. However, the dominance of two-dimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.
Isterling, William M; Dally, Bassam B; Alwahabi, Zeyad T; Dubovinsky, Miro; Wright, Daniel
2012-01-01
Narrow laser beams directed from aircraft may at times pass through the exhaust plume of the engines and potentially degrade some of the laser beam characteristics. This paper reports on controlled studies of laser beam deviation arising from propagation through turbulent hot gases, in a well-characterized laboratory burner, with conditions of relevance to aircraft engine exhaust plumes. The impact of the temperature, laser wavelength, and turbulence length scale on the beam deviation has been investigated. It was found that the laser beam displacement increases with the turbulent integral length scale. The effect of temperature on the laser beam angular deviation, σ, using two different laser wavelengths, namely 4.67 μm and 632.8 nm, was recorded. It was found that the beam deviation for both wavelengths may be semiempirically modeled using a single function of the form, σ=a(b+(1/T)(2))(-1), with two parameters only, a and b, where σ is in microradians and T is the temperature in °C. © 2012 Optical Society of America
Measurement of Turbulent Fluxes of Swirling Flow in a Scaled Up Multi Inlet Vortex Reactor
Olsen, Michael; Hitimana, Emmanual; Hill, James; Fox, Rodney
2017-11-01
The multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) has been developed for use in the FlashNanoprecipitation (FNP) process. The MIVR has four identical square inlets connected to a central cylindrical mixing chamber with one common outlet creating a highly turbulent swirling flow dominated by a strong vortex in the center. Efficient FNP requires rapid mixing within the MIVR. To investigate the mixing, instantaneous velocity and concentration fields were acquired using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence. The simultaneous velocity and concentration data were used to determine turbulent fluxes and spatial cross-correlations of velocity and concentration fluctuations. The measurements were performed for four inlet flow Reynolds numbers (3250, 4875, 6500, and 8125) and at three measurement planes within the reactor. A correlation between turbulent fluxes and vortex strength was found. For all Reynolds numbers, turbulent fluxes are maximum in the vortex dominated central region of the reactor and decay away from the vortex. Increasing Reynolds number increased turbulent fluxes and subsequently enhanced mixing. The mixing performance was confirmed by determining coefficients of concentration variance within the reactor.
Frediani, M. E.; Hacker, J.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hopson, T. M.
2015-12-01
This study aims at improving regional simulation of 10-meter wind speed by verifying PBL schemes for storms at different scales, including convective storms, blizzards, tropical storms and nor'easters over complex terrain in the northeast U.S. We verify a recently proposed sub-grid topographic drag scheme in stormy conditions and compare it with two PBL schemes (Mellor-Yamada and Yonsei University) from WRF-ARW over a region in the Northeast U.S. The scheme was designed to adjust the surface drag over regions with high subgrid-scale topographic variability. The schemes are compared using spatial, temporal, and pattern criteria against surface observations. The spatial and temporal criteria are defined by season, diurnal cycle, and topography; the pattern, is based on clusters derived using clustering analysis. Results show that the drag scheme reduces the positive bias of low wind speeds, but over-corrects the high wind speeds producing a magnitude-increasing negative bias with increasing speed. Both other schemes underestimate the most frequent low-speed mode and overestimate the high-speeds. Error characteristics of all schemes respond to seasonal and diurnal cycle changes. The Topo-wind experiment shows the best agreement with the observation quantiles in summer and fall, the best representation of the diurnal cycle in these seasons, and reduces the bias of all surface stations near the coast. In more stable conditions the Topo-wind scheme shows a larger negative bias. The cluster analysis reveals a correlation between bias and mean speed from the Mellor-Yamada and Yonsei University schemes that is not present when the drag scheme is used. When the drag scheme is used the bias correlates with wind direction; the bias increases when the meridional wind component is negative. This pattern corresponds to trajectories with more land interaction with the highest biases found in northwest circulation clusters.
Bursting and large-scale intermittency in turbulent convection with differential rotation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.
2003-01-01
The tilting mechanism, which generates differential rotation in two-dimensional turbulent convection, is shown to produce relaxation oscillations in the mean flow energy integral and bursts in the global fluctuation level, akin to Lotka-Volterra oscillations. The basic reason for such behavior...... of convective turbulence, as manifested by exponential tails in single-point probability distribution functions. Moreover, the spatio-temporal evolution of convective structures illustrates the mechanism triggering avalanche events in the transport process. The latter involves the overlap of delocalized mixing...
Effect of Fluid Viscoelasticity on Turbulence and Large-Scale Vortices behind Wall-Mounted Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Tsukahara
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic fluid flows in a channel with wall-mounted plates were performed to investigate the influence of viscoelasticity on turbulent structures and the mean flow around the plate. The constitutive equation follows the Giesekus model, valid for polymer or surfactant solutions, which are generally capable of reducing the turbulent frictional drag in a smooth channel. We found that turbulent eddies just behind the plates in viscoelastic fluid decreased in number and in magnitude, but their size increased. Three pairs of organized longitudinal vortices were observed downstream of the plates in both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids: two vortex pairs were behind the plates and the other one with the longest length was in a plate-free area. In the viscoelastic fluid, the latter vortex pair in the plate-free area was maintained and reached the downstream rib, but its swirling strength was weakened and the local skin-friction drag near the vortex was much weaker than those in the Newtonian flow. The mean flow and small spanwise eddies were influenced by the additional fluid force due to the viscoelasticity and, moreover, the spanwise component of the fluid elastic force may also play a role in the suppression of fluid vortical motions behind the plates.
Magnetic Reconnection as a Driver for a Sub-ion-scale Cascade in Plasma Turbulence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Franci, L.; Cerri, S.S.; Califano, F.; Landi, S.; Papini, E.; Verdini, A.; Matteini, L.; Jenko, F.; Hellinger, Petr
2017-01-01
Roč. 850, č. 1 (2017), L16/1-L16/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic reconnection * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016
On the Effect of an Anisotropy-Resolving Subgrid-Scale Model on Turbulent Vortex Motions
2014-09-19
expression coincides with the modified Leonard stress proposed by Ger- mano et al. (1991). In this model, the SGS turbulence energy kSGS may be evaluated as... mano subgridscale closure method. Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 4, pp. 633-635. Morinishi, Y. and Vasilyev, O.V. (2001), A recommended modification to the
Antonova, E. E.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.
1997-01-01
A current sheet model with developed medium scale turbulence has been constructed. It is suggested that regular plasma flow in the current sheet is compensated by diffusive flux and plasma mixing, leading to temperature equalization. The analyzed turbulence has the form of electrostatic vortices in which electrons and ions move with the same velocities and hence does not lead to anomalous resistivity and current dissipation. It is possible to determine the plasma pressure dependence on magnetic vector potential and to find the Grad--Shafranov equation solutions. The theory is used to explain the Earth's magnetosphere plasma sheet characteristics. It is taken into account that experimentally observed plasma velocity fluctuations in the Earth's plasma sheet and quiescent prominences are much higher than regular plasma flow velocities. The analysis of turbulent current sheet dynamics after the regular motion weakening allows to construct the prominence formation theory. The decreasing of plasma pressure in the sheet due to diffusion leads to field-aligned plasma flow and plasma tube filling by cold chromospheric plasma by the action of siphon mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)
2011-12-15
A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)
Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.; Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.
2017-10-01
Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) constitute an ideal astrophysical environment to test our current understanding of relativistic plasma processes. It is well known that magnetic fields play a crucial role in their dynamics and emission properties. At present, one of the main issues concerns the level of magnetic turbulence present in these systems, which in the absence of space resolved X-ray polarization measures cannot be directly constrained. In this work, we investigate, for the first time using simulated synchrotron maps, the effect of a small-scale fluctuating component of the magnetic field on the emission properties in X-ray. We illustrate how to include the effects of a turbulent component in standard emission models for PWNe and which consequences are expected in terms of net emissivity and depolarization, showing that the X-ray surface brightness maps can provide already some rough constraints. We then apply our analysis to the Crab and Vela nebulae and by comparing our model with Chandra and Vela data, we found that the typical energies in the turbulent component of the magnetic field are about 1.5-3 times the one in the ordered field.
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
USING CMAQ FOR EXPOSURE MODELING AND CHARACTERIZING THE SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES
Atmospheric processes and the associated transport and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are known to be highly variable in time and space. Current air quality models that characterize atmospheric chemistry effects, e.g. the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), provide vo...
12th EUROMECH European Turbulence Conference
Eckhardt, Bruno
2009-01-01
This volume comprises the communications presented at the EUROMECH European Turbulence Conference ETC12, held in Marburg in September 2009. The topics covered by the meeting include: Acoustics of turbulent flows Atmospheric turbulence Control of turbulent flows Geophysical and astrophysical turbulence Instability and transition Intermittency and scaling Large eddy simulation and related techniques Lagrangian aspects MHD turbulence Reacting and compressible turbulence Transport and mixing Turbulence in multiphase and non-Newtonian flows Vortex dynamics and structure formation Wall bounded flows
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Kiyani, K.; Watkins, N.
2007-12-01
The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. We quantify the 'macroscopic' scaling seen in extended intervals of solar wind by testing for scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in the timeseries both directly and via structure function analysis. In practice there are statistical limitations presented by a finite length time series which we will first discuss. The anisotropic nature of solar wind fluctuations can be accessed by decomposing the vector velocity linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field. These show distinct scaling. That of the perpendicular fluctuations is consistent with recent predictions for anisotropic MHD. That of the parallel fluctuations is close to the scaling which we find in the number and magnetic energy density, and Poynting flux. One interpretation of the co- existence of these scalings in the solar wind is that they reflect both local and nonlocal phenomenologies, with implications for our understanding of the evolving solar wind. Intriguingly, a more detailed analysis of magnetic energy density reveals a solar cycle dependence, and at solar maximum, self affine rather than multifractal scaling, suggesting the scaling is of solar origin. To see how these fluctuations impact on magnetospheric activity, we consider the same analysis performed on fluctuations of the AU and AL geomagnetic indices that provide a measure of magnetospheric activity, and of the epsilon parameter which is a measure of the solar wind driver.
Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.; Estrada, P.
2016-01-01
The initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models in turbulent nebulae encounter a "meter-size barrier" due to both drift and destruction, or even a millimeter-to-centimeter-size "bouncing" barrier. Recent suggestions have been made that some "lucky" particles might be able to outgrow the collision and/or drift barriers, and lead to so-called "streaming instabilities" or SI. However, new full models of growth by sticking in the presence of radial drift show that lucky particles (the largest particles, at the tail of the size distribution, that grow beyond the nominal fragmentation and drift barriers) are far too rare to lead to any collective effects such as streaming or gravitational instabilities. Thus we need to focus on typical radii gamma(sub M) which contain most of the mass. Our models of disks with weak-to-moderate turbulence, which include all the most recent experimental constraints on collisional growth, erosion, bouncing, and fragmentation, as well as radial drift, find that growth stalls quite generally at sizes gamma(sub M) which are too small to settle into layers which are dense enough for any collective effects (streaming or gravitational instabilities) to arise. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the nominal barriers (perhaps if the actual sticking or strength is larger than current estimates for pure ice or pure silicate, with specific grain sizes), turbulent nebulae present subsequent formidable obstacles to incremental growth through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, non-turbulent nebulae alpha is less than 10(Sup -4).
Solar Plasma Radio Emission in the Presence of Imbalanced Turbulence of Kinetic-Scale Alfvén Waves
Lyubchyk, O.; Kontar, E. P.; Voitenko, Y. M.; Bian, N. H.; Melrose, D. B.
2017-09-01
We study the influence of kinetic-scale Alfvénic turbulence on the generation of plasma radio emission in the solar coronal regions where the ratio β of plasma to magnetic pressure is lower than the electron-to-ion mass ratio me/mi. The present study is motivated by the phenomenon of solar type I radio storms that are associated with the strong magnetic field of active regions. The measured brightness temperature of the type I storms can be up to 10^{10} K for continuum emission, and can exceed 10^{11} K for type I bursts. At present, there is no generally accepted theory explaining such high brightness temperatures and some other properties of the type I storms. We propose a model with an imbalanced turbulence of kinetic-scale Alfvén waves that produce an asymmetric quasi-linear plateau on the upper half of the electron velocity distribution. The Landau damping of resonant Langmuir waves is suppressed and their amplitudes grow spontaneously above the thermal level. The estimated saturation level of Langmuir waves is high enough to generate observed type I radio emission at the fundamental plasma frequency. Harmonic emission does not appear in our model because the backward-propagating Langmuir waves undergo strong Landau damping. Our model predicts 100% polarization in the sense of the ordinary (o-) mode of type I emission.
Wall-Modeled Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) for turbulent flows incompressible past an airfoil. The virtual wall model, originally developed by Chung & Pullin (J. of Fluid Mech., 2009), is extended to generalized curvilinear coordinates and implemented using a body-fitted structured C-grid for airfoils. This model dynamically couples the outer resolved region with the wall region, and imposes a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field on the ``virtual'' wall. The virtual wall model is combined with the stretched spiral vortex sub-grid scale model in a self-consistent framework, which is tested in WMLES of flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at different Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack. The numerical results show that the wall model is able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of the separation bubble. Some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the direct numerical simulation results (Re =104) of flow past the same airfoil. We will present verification test cases to quantify the effectiveness of the wall model in both attached and separated flow regimes. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The IBM Blue Gene/P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Zheng, Jinlei; Hu, Qiang
2018-01-01
We present unique and additional observational evidence for the self-generation of small-scale coherent magnetic flux rope structures in the solar wind. Such structures with durations between 9 and 361 minutes are identified from Wind in situ spacecraft measurements through the Grad–Shafranov (GS) reconstruction approach. The event occurrence counts are on the order of 3500 per year on average and have a clear solar-cycle dependence. We build a database of small-scale magnetic flux ropes from 20 yr worth of Wind spacecraft data. We show a power-law distribution of the wall-to-wall time corresponding well to the inertial range turbulence, which agrees with relevant observations and numerical simulation results. We also provide the axial current density distribution from the GS-based observational analysis, which yields a non-Gaussian probability density function consistent with numerical simulation results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinkovic, I.
2005-07-15
In order to study atmospheric pollution and the dispersion of industrial stack emissions, a large eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky-Germano sub-grid-scale model is coupled with Lagrangian tracking of fluid particles containing scalar, solid particles and droplets. The movement of fluid particles at a sub-grid level is given by a three-dimensional Langevin model. The stochastic model is written in terms of sub-grid-scale statistics at a mesh level. By introducing a diffusion model, the coupling between the large-eddy simulation and the modified three-dimensional Langevin model is applied to passive scalar dispersion. The results are validated by comparison with the wind-tunnel experiments of Fackrell and Robins (1982). The equation of motion of a small rigid sphere in a turbulent flow is introduced. Solid particles and droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian way. The velocity of solid particles and droplets is considered to have a large scale component (directly computed by the large-eddy simulation) and a sub-grid scale part. Because of inertia and gravity effects, solid particles and droplets, deviate from the trajectories of the surrounding fluid particles. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian correlation timescale is introduced into the Langevin model previously developed for the sub-grid velocity of fluid particles. Two-way coupling and collisions are taken into account. The results of the large-eddy simulation with solid particles are compared with the wind-tunnel experiments of Nalpanis et al. (1993) and of Taniere et al. (1997) on sand particles in saltation and in modified saltation, respectively. A model for droplet coalescence and breakup is implemented which allows to predict droplet interactions under turbulent flow conditions in the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach. Coalescence and breakup are considered as a stochastic process with simple scaling symmetry assumption for the droplet radius, initially proposed by Kolmogorov (1941). At high
The fusion code XGC: Enabling kinetic study of multi-scale edge turbulent transport in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Azevedo, Eduardo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abbott, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koskela, Tuomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worley, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ku, Seung-Hoe [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yoon, Eisung [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Shephard, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lang, Jianying [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Choi, Jong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Podhorszki, Norbert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Klasky, Scott [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parashar, Manish [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2017-01-01
The XGC fusion gyrokinetic code combines state-of-the-art, portable computational and algorithmic technologies to enable complicated multiscale simulations of turbulence and transport dynamics in ITER edge plasma on the largest US open-science computer, the CRAY XK7 Titan, at its maximal heterogeneous capability, which have not been possible before due to a factor of over 10 shortage in the time-to-solution for less than 5 days of wall-clock time for one physics case. Frontier techniques such as nested OpenMP parallelism, adaptive parallel I/O, staging I/O and data reduction using dynamic and asynchronous applications interactions, dynamic repartitioning.
Alignments and small scale statistics in the production region of grid turbulence
Paul, Immanuvel; Papadakis, George; Vassilicos, John Christos; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team
2015-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent flow generated by a single square grid is investigated using an unstructured finite volume method. The maximum value of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number throughout the computed flow field is about 40. The main focus of this study is on the production region which lies in the lee of the grid where turbulence builds up. Statistics of vorticity and of eigenvalues (λi, where i =1,2,3) and eigenvectors (ei, where i =1,2,3) of the fluctuating strain rate tensor (Sij) are analyzed. It is observed that the PDFs of all the eigenvalues in the production region are highly non-gaussian. The PDFs of the compressive (λ3) and intermediate (λ2) eigenvalues are strongly skewed to negative and positive values respectively. The energy spectrum of the streamwise fluctuating velocity has a well-defined power law with an exponent around -2 or -5/3 over more than one decade depending on the position in the production region. It is also observed that the most extensive eigenvector (e1) and the intermediate eigenvector (e2) align significantly with vorticity vector in the production region, which in turn increases average enstrophy production.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Barton Bray
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.
Klewicki, Joseph; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Marusic, Ivan
2014-11-01
Within the canonical turbulent boundary layer the spanwise component of vorticity, ωz, is the only component that has a non-negligible mean value. For this and other reasons, the motions bearing ωz play a central role in boundary layer dynamics. A compact four element (`Foss-style') hotwire probe was used to acquire well-resolved ωz fluctuation time series over an unprecedented Reynolds number range, 1 , 500 behaviors of the statistical moments and frequency spectra of the ωz fluctuations, and further explores the self-similarity between the mean and rms profiles seen at low Reynolds number. The observed ωz behaviors are discussed relative to mean dynamical structure and the asymptotic properties of the boundary layer vorticity field. The support of the Australian Research Council and the National Science Foundation are gratefully acknowledged.
Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man
2015-01-01
Five-year simulation experiments with a multi-scale modeling Framework (MMF) with a advanced intermediately prognostic higher-order turbulence closure (IPHOC) in its cloud resolving model (CRM) component, also known as SPCAM-IPHOC (super parameterized Community Atmospheric Model), are performed to understand the fast tropical (30S-30N) cloud response to an instantaneous doubling of CO2 concentration with SST held fixed at present-day values. SPCAM-IPHOC has substantially improved the low-level representation compared with SPCAM. It is expected that the cloud responses to greenhouse warming in SPCAM-IPHOC is more realistic. The change of rising motion, surface precipitation, cloud cover, and shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing in SPCAM-IPHOC from the greenhouse warming will be presented in the presentation.
Olivares-Espinosa, H.; Breton, S.-P.; Masson, C.; Dufresne, L.
2014-12-01
An Actuator Disk (AD) model is implemented in the CFD platform OpenFOAM® with the purpose of studying the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the wake of the rotor of a horizontal-axis wind turbine. This AD model is based on the blade-element theory and it employs airfoil data to calculate the distribution of forces over the disk of a conceptual 5 MW offshore wind turbine. A uniform, non-turbulent flow is used as inflow so the turbulence is only produced in the wake of the AD. Computations are performed using Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to capture the unsteady fluctuations in the flow. Additionally, a classic Smagorinsky Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) technique is employed to model the unfiltered motions. This new AD implementation makes use of a control system to adjust the rotational velocity of the rotor (below rated power) to the local conditions of the wind flow. The preliminary results show that the wake characteristics are influenced by the force distribution on the disk when compared to the wake produced by a uniformly loaded AD. Also, we observe that the simulated rotor reacts correctly to the introduction of the control system, although operating below the optimal power.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: chasapis@udel.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2017-07-20
Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.
Effect of helicity on the correlation time of large scales in turbulent flows
Cameron, Alexandre; Alexakis, Alexandros; Brachet, Marc-Étienne
2017-11-01
Solutions of the forced Navier-Stokes equation have been conjectured to thermalize at scales larger than the forcing scale, similar to an absolute equilibrium obtained for the spectrally truncated Euler equation. Using direct numeric simulations of Taylor-Green flows and general-periodic helical flows, we present results on the probability density function, energy spectrum, autocorrelation function, and correlation time that compare the two systems. In the case of highly helical flows, we derive an analytic expression describing the correlation time for the absolute equilibrium of helical flows that is different from the E-1 /2k-1 scaling law of weakly helical flows. This model predicts a new helicity-based scaling law for the correlation time as τ (k ) ˜H-1 /2k-1 /2 . This scaling law is verified in simulations of the truncated Euler equation. In simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations the large-scale modes of forced Taylor-Green symmetric flows (with zero total helicity and large separation of scales) follow the same properties as absolute equilibrium including a τ (k ) ˜E-1 /2k-1 scaling for the correlation time. General-periodic helical flows also show similarities between the two systems; however, the largest scales of the forced flows deviate from the absolute equilibrium solutions.
Multi-fidelity uncertainty quantification in large-scale predictive simulations of turbulent flow
Geraci, Gianluca; Jofre-Cruanyes, Lluis; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-11-01
The performance characterization of complex engineering systems often relies on accurate, but computationally intensive numerical simulations. It is also well recognized that in order to obtain a reliable numerical prediction the propagation of uncertainties needs to be included. Therefore, Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) plays a fundamental role in building confidence in predictive science. Despite the great improvement in recent years, even the more advanced UQ algorithms are still limited to fairly simplified applications and only moderate parameter dimensionality. Moreover, in the case of extremely large dimensionality, sampling methods, i.e. Monte Carlo (MC) based approaches, appear to be the only viable alternative. In this talk we describe and compare a family of approaches which aim to accelerate the convergence of standard MC simulations. These methods are based on hierarchies of generalized numerical resolutions (multi-level) or model fidelities (multi-fidelity), and attempt to leverage the correlation between Low- and High-Fidelity (HF) models to obtain a more accurate statistical estimator without introducing additional HF realizations. The performance of these methods are assessed on an irradiated particle laden turbulent flow (PSAAP II solar energy receiver). This investigation was funded by the United States Department of Energy's (DoE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under the Predicitive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II at Stanford University.
A new view on the M 87 jet origin: Turbulent loading leading to large-scale episodic wiggling
Britzen, S.; Fendt, C.; Eckart, A.; Karas, V.
2017-05-01
opening angle. In this paper we present evidence for two different operating modes of the jet of M 87. The jet switches between two phases: I) the jet ridge line is at least double or the jet axis is displaced vertically, and II) an unperturbed phase where the jet ridge line remains almost straight but is smoothly curved and the jet components are aligned along a classical jet axis. The mode change occurs every couple of years. Between the two operating modes, a transition phase is visible. Conclusions: The M 87 jet visible at 15 GHz probes a different physical zone compared to the standard blazar-zone we tend to see in AGN jets. The most likely scenario explaining the observed phenomena is a turbulent mass loading into the jet, most probably due to local, fast reconnection processes driven by turbulence of a tangled magnetic field, which is either generated in the accretion disk or the disk corona. In addition, on large scales, a global magnetic structure is required to channel the turbulent flow into what evolves into a large-scale jet. Large-scale jet instabilities may explain the curved pattern of the observed jet flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-M. Bosqued
2006-12-01
waves. Our observations imply that the e.m. frequencies observed in the magnetosheath result from the Doppler shift of a spatial turbulence frozen in the plasma, and that the intensity of the turbulent k spectrum is strongly anisotropic, for both e.m. and e.s. fluctuations. We conclude that the turbulence has strongly anisotropic k distributions, on scales ranging from kc/ωpe≃0.3 (50 km to kλDe≃1 (30 m, i.e. at electron scales, smaller than the Cluster separation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Roberts, O. W.; Narita, Y.; Escoubet, C. P.
2017-12-01
This analysis represents the first time that a simultaneous measurement of parallel and perpendicular spectral indices at both inertial and kinetic scales has been made directly in wave vector space, using a single interval of solar wind plasma. An interferometric wave vector analysis method is applied to four-point magnetometer data from the Cluster spacecraft to study for the first time the anisotropic and axially asymmetric energy spectrum directly in the three-dimensional wave vector space in the solar wind on spatial scales for the fluid picture (at about 6000 km) down to the ion kinetic regime (at about 400 km) without invoking Taylor’s frozen-in flow hypothesis. At fluid scales, the spectral index is found to transition from -2 along the large-scale magnetic field direction to a spectral index approaching -5/3 in the perpendicular direction. The wave number for the spectral break between ion inertial and kinetic scales occurs at larger scales in the parallel projection, compared to the perpendicular. At ion kinetic scales, the spectrum in the parallel direction is difficult to measure, while the two perpendicular directions are also anisotropic and vary between -8/3 and -11/3. This suggests that a single anisotropic process where symmetry is broken in a single direction cannot account for the results.
Buaria, D.; Yeung, P. K.
2017-12-01
A new parallel algorithm utilizing a partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model to achieve high scalability is reported for particle tracking in direct numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow. The work is motivated by the desire to obtain Lagrangian information necessary for the study of turbulent dispersion at the largest problem sizes feasible on current and next-generation multi-petaflop supercomputers. A large population of fluid particles is distributed among parallel processes dynamically, based on instantaneous particle positions such that all of the interpolation information needed for each particle is available either locally on its host process or neighboring processes holding adjacent sub-domains of the velocity field. With cubic splines as the preferred interpolation method, the new algorithm is designed to minimize the need for communication, by transferring between adjacent processes only those spline coefficients determined to be necessary for specific particles. This transfer is implemented very efficiently as a one-sided communication, using Co-Array Fortran (CAF) features which facilitate small data movements between different local partitions of a large global array. The cost of monitoring transfer of particle properties between adjacent processes for particles migrating across sub-domain boundaries is found to be small. Detailed benchmarks are obtained on the Cray petascale supercomputer Blue Waters at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For operations on the particles in a 81923 simulation (0.55 trillion grid points) on 262,144 Cray XE6 cores, the new algorithm is found to be orders of magnitude faster relative to a prior algorithm in which each particle is tracked by the same parallel process at all times. This large speedup reduces the additional cost of tracking of order 300 million particles to just over 50% of the cost of computing the Eulerian velocity field at this scale. Improving support of PGAS models on
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.F.D.; Water, W. van de
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
Exact scaling laws for helical three-dimensional two-fluid turbulent plasmas
Andrés, Nahuel; Sahraoui, Fouad
2016-01-01
We derive exact scaling laws for a three-dimensional incompressible helical two-fluid plasma, without the assumption of isotropy. For each ideal invariant of the two-fluid model, i.e. the total energy, the electron helicity and the proton helicity, we derive simple scaling laws in terms of two-point increments correlation functions expressed in terms of the velocity field of each species and the magnetic field. These variables are appropriate for comparison with \\textit{in-situ} measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges and data from numerical simulations. Finally, with the exact scaling laws and dimensional analysis we predict the magnetic energy and electron helicity spectra for different ranges of scales.
Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence
Kupka, Friedrich
2008-01-01
What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.
Investigation of large-scale coherence in a turbulent boundary layer using two-point correlations
Ganapathisubramani, B.; Hutchins, N.; Hambleton, W. T.; Longmire, E. K.; Marusic, I.
2005-02-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in streamwise-spanwise and inclined cross-stream planes (inclined at 45° and 135° to the principal flow direction) of a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Reτ˜ 1100). Two-point spatial velocity correlations computed using the PIV data reveal results that are consistent with an earlier study in which packets of hairpin vortices were identified by a feature-detection algorithm in the log region, but not in the outer wake region. Both streamwise-streamwise (Ruu) and streamwise-wall-normal (R_{uw}) correlations are significant for streamwise displacements of more than 1500 wall units. Zero crossing data for the streamwise fluctuating component u reveal that streamwise strips between zero crossings of 1500 wall units or longer occur more frequently for negative u than positive u, suggesting that long streamwise correlations in Ruu are dominated by slower streamwise structures. Additional analysis of R_{ww} correlations suggests that the long streamwise slow-moving regions contain discrete zones of strong upwash over extended streamwise distances, as might occur within packets of angled hairpin vortices. At a wall-normal location outside of the log region (z/δ = 0.5), the correlations are shorter in the streamwise direction and broader in the spanwise direction. Correlations in the inclined cross-stream plane data reveal good agreement with the streamwise-spanwise plane. Ruu in the 45° plane is more elongated along the in-plane wall-normal direction than in the 135° plane, which is consistent with the presence of hairpin packets with a low-speed region lifting away from the wall.
Osman, Kareem; Matthaeus, William; Gosling, Jack; Greco, Antonella; Servidio, Sergio; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Phan, Tai
2014-05-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in space plasmas and leads to the emergence of coherent structures. These display signatures of intermittency in the form of rare large amplitude fluctuations that produce highly non-Gaussian heavy tailed probability distribution functions, and have properties consistent with dynamical generation by strong plasma turbulence. Therefore, coherent structures embedded in the solar wind should reflect the nonlinear dynamics that give rise to intermittency, such as random magnetic reconnection between adjoining flux tubes. We present evidence from large scale numerical simulations and observations of a relationship between magnetic reconnection, current sheets and intermittent turbulence in the solar wind for the first time using in-situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. Reconnection exhausts and current sheets are concentrated in spatially non-uniform intermittent structures, such that 87-92% and ~9% respectively are associated with the most non-Gaussian 1% of fluctuations. The likelihood that an identified current sheet will also correspond to an active reconnection site increases dramatically as the least intermittent fluctuations are removed. Hence, the turbulent solar wind contains a hierarchy of intermittent structures that are increasingly linked to current sheets, which in turn are more likely to correspond to sites of active magnetic reconnection. These results could have far reaching implications for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas where turbulence and magnetic reconnection are ubiquitous.
On the Quasicollisionality of Plasmas with Small-Scale Electric Turbulence
Keenan, Brett D
2016-01-01
Chaotic electromagnetic fields are common in many relativistic plasma environments, where they can be excited by instabilities on kinetic spatial scales. When strong electric fluctuations exist on sub-electron scales, they may lead to small-angle, stochastic deflections of the electrons' pitch-angles. Under certain conditions, this closely resembles the effect of Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The electric pitch-angle diffusion coefficient acts as an effective collision -- or "quasi-collision" -- frequency. We show that quasi-collisions may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. In particular, we consider the quasi-collisional generalization of the classical Faraday effect.
Dmitrenko, A. V.
2017-11-01
New dependences of the coefficients of heat transfer and friction have been presented which are used for calculations in the reactor core at a supercritical water pressure by taking account of the parameters of perturbation in the coolant flow: of the intensity and scale of flow turbulence. These solutions have been obtained based on stochastic systems of equations for the turbulence and the equivalence of measures between deterministic (laminar) and random (turbulent) flows.
Self-Preservation of Large-Scale Structures in Burgers' Turbulence
Aurell, E; Wertgeim, I I; Aurell, Erik; Gurbatov, Sergey N.; Wertgeim, Igor I.
1993-01-01
Abstract:We investigate the stability of large-scale structures in Burgers' equation under the perturbation of high wave-number noise in the initial conditions. Analytical estimates are obtained for random initial data with spatial spectral density k^n, n < 1. Numerical investigations are performed for the case n=0, using a parallel implementation of the Fast Legendre Transform.
Sedlak, René; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael
2016-12-01
A new version of the Fast Airglow Imager (FAIM) for the detection of atmospheric waves in the OH airglow layer has been set up at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09° N, 11.28° E), Germany. The spatial resolution of the instrument is 17 m pixel-1 in zenith direction with a field of view (FOV) of 11.1 km × 9.0 km at the OH layer height of ca. 87 km. Since November 2015, the system has been in operation in two different setups (zenith angles 46 and 0°) with a temporal resolution of 2.5 to 2.8 s. In a first case study we present observations of two small wave-like features that might be attributed to gravity wave instabilities. In order to spectrally analyse harmonic structures even on small spatial scales down to 550 m horizontal wavelength, we made use of the maximum entropy method (MEM) since this method exhibits an excellent wavelength resolution. MEM further allows analysing relatively short data series, which considerably helps to reduce problems such as stationarity of the underlying data series from a statistical point of view. We present an observation of the subsequent decay of well-organized wave fronts into eddies, which we tentatively interpret in terms of an indication for the onset of turbulence. Another remarkable event which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument was observed during the night of 4-5 April 2016. It reveals the disintegration of a rather homogenous brightness variation into several filaments moving in different directions and with different speeds. It resembles the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation likely related to a vertical wind shear. This case shows a notable similarity to what is expected from theoretical modelling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). The comparatively high spatial resolution of the presented new version of the FAIM provides new insights into the structure of atmospheric wave instability and
Sedlak, René; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael
2017-04-01
A new version of the Fast Airglow Imager (FAIM) for the detection of atmospheric waves in the OH airglow layer has been set up at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre (DFD) of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09 ° N, 11.28 ° E), Germany. The spatial resolution of the instrument is 17 m/pixel in zenith direction with a field of view (FOV) of 11.1 km x 9.0 km at the OH layer height of ca. 87 km. Since November 2015, the system has been in operation in two different setups (zenith angles 46 ° and 0 °) with a temporal resolution of 2.5 to 2.8 s. In a first case study we present observations of two small wave-like features that might be attributed to gravity wave instabilities. In order to spectrally analyse harmonic structures even on small spatial scales down to 550 m horizontal wavelength, we made use of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) since this method exhibits an excellent wavelength resolution. MEM further allows analysing relatively short data series, which considerably helps to reduce problems such as stationarity of the underlying data series from a statistical point of view. We present an observation of the subsequent decay of well-organized wave fronts into eddies, which we tentatively interpret in terms of an indication for the onset of turbulence. Another remarkable event which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument was observed during the night of 4th to 5th April 2016. It reveals the disintegration of a rather homogenous brightness variation into several filaments moving in different directions and with different speeds. It resembles the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation likely related to a vertical wind shear. This case shows a notable similarity to what is expected from theoretical modelling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). The comparatively high spatial resolution of the presented new version of the FAIM airglow imager provides new insights into the structure of
Ghosh, Sanjoy; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
Recent analysis of the magnetic correlation function of solar wind fluctuations at 1 AU suggests the existence of two-component structure near the proton-cyclotron scale. Here we use two-and-one-half dimensional and three-dimensional compressible MHD models to look for two-component structure adjacent the proton-cyclotron scale. Our MHD system incorporates both Hall and Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) terms. We find that strong spectral anisotropies appear adjacent the proton-cyclotron scales depending on selections of initial condition and plasma beta. These anisotropies are enhancements on top of related anisotropies that appear in standard MHD turbulence in the presence of a mean magnetic field and are suggestive of one turbulence component along the inertial scales and another component adjacent the dissipative scales. We compute the relative strengths of linear and nonlinear accelerations on the velocity and magnetic fields to gauge the relative influence of terms that drive the system with wave-like (linear) versus turbulent (nonlinear) dynamics.
On the Field Theoretical Approach to the Anomalous Scaling in Turbulence
Runov, A V
1999-01-01
Anomalous scaling problem in the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is treated in the framework of the field theoretical approach, successfully applied earlier to the Kraichnan rapid advection model. Two cases of the space dimensions d=2 and d->infinity, which allow essential simplification of the calculations, are analysed. The presence of infinite set of the Galilean invariant composite operators with negative critical dimensions in the model discussed has been proved. It allows, as well as for the Kraichnan model, to justify the anomalous scaling of the structure functions. The explicit expression for the junior operator of this set, related to the square of energy dissipation operator, has been found in the first order of the epsilon-expansion. Its critical dimension is strongly negative in the two dimensional case and vanishes while d->infinity.
Scaling forecast models for wind turbulence and wind turbine power intermittency
Duran Medina, Olmo; Schmitt, Francois G.; Calif, Rudy
2017-04-01
The intermittency of the wind turbine power remains an important issue for the massive development of this renewable energy. The energy peaks injected in the electric grid produce difficulties in the energy distribution management. Hence, a correct forecast of the wind power in the short and middle term is needed due to the high unpredictability of the intermittency phenomenon. We consider a statistical approach through the analysis and characterization of stochastic fluctuations. The theoretical framework is the multifractal modelisation of wind velocity fluctuations. Here, we consider three wind turbine data where two possess a direct drive technology. Those turbines are producing energy in real exploitation conditions and allow to test our forecast models of power production at a different time horizons. Two forecast models were developed based on two physical principles observed in the wind and the power time series: the scaling properties on the one hand and the intermittency in the wind power increments on the other. The first tool is related to the intermittency through a multifractal lognormal fit of the power fluctuations. The second tool is based on an analogy of the power scaling properties with a fractional brownian motion. Indeed, an inner long-term memory is found in both time series. Both models show encouraging results since a correct tendency of the signal is respected over different time scales. Those tools are first steps to a search of efficient forecasting approaches for grid adaptation facing the wind energy fluctuations.
Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Aleksei; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Markovich, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Hanjalic, Kemal
2017-11-01
We investigate flame-flow interactions in an atmospheric turbulent high-swirl methane/air lean jet-flame at Re from 5,000 to 10,000 and equivalence ratio below 0.75 at the conditions of vortex breakdown. The focus is on the spatial correlation between the propagation of large-scale vortex structures, including precessing vortex core, and the variations of the local heat release. The measurements are performed by planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl and formaldehyde, applied simultaneously with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique. The data are processed by the proper orthogonal decomposition. The swirl rate exceeded critical value for the vortex breakdown resulting in the formation of a processing vortex core and secondary helical vortex filaments that dominate the unsteady flow dynamics both of the non-reacting and reacting jet flows. The flame front is located in the inner mixing layer between the recirculation zone and the annular swirling jet. A pair of helical vortex structures, surrounding the flame, stretch it and cause local flame extinction before the flame is blown away. This work is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Grant No 16-19-10566).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. O'Driscoll
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Turbulence characteristics in the Indonesian seas on the horizontal scale of order of 100 km were calculated with a regional model of the Indonesian seas circulation in the area based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. As is well known, the POM incorporates the Mellor–Yamada turbulence closure scheme. The calculated characteristics are: twice the turbulence kinetic energy per unit mass, q^{2}; the turbulence master scale, ℓ; mixing coefficients of momentum, K_{M}; and temperature and salinity, K_{H}; etc. The analyzed turbulence has been generated essentially by the shear of large-scale ocean currents and by the large-scale wind turbulence. We focused on the analysis of turbulence around important topographic features, such as the Lifamatola Sill, the North Sangihe Ridge, the Dewakang Sill, and the North and South Halmahera Sea Sills. In general, the structure of turbulence characteristics in these regions turned out to be similar. For this reason, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the Lifamatola Sill region because dynamically this region is very important and some estimates of mixing coefficients in this area are available.
Briefly, the main results are as follows. The distribution of q^{2} is quite adequately reproduced by the model. To the north of the Lifamatola Sill (in the Maluku Sea and to the south of the Sill (in the Seram Sea, large values of q^{2} occur in the deep layer extending several hundred meters above the bottom. The observed increase of q^{2} near the very bottom is probably due to the increase of velocity shear and the corresponding shear production of q^{2} very close to the bottom. The turbulence master scale, ℓ, was found to be constant in the main depth of the ocean, while ℓ rapidly decreases close to the bottom, as one would expect. However, in deep profiles away from the sill, the
2014-12-06
with Numerical Modeling , Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (10 2014) David C. Fritts, Ling Wang, Kam Wan, Marvin A. Geller , Dale A. Lawrence, Joe...Numerical modeling of multi-scale interactions, instabilities, and turbulence, J. Atmos. Sci., submitted. Wang, L., D. C. Fritts, and M. A. Geller ...intrusions. Comparisons of measurements and modeling revealed many similarities and enabled an 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13
Di Bernardino, Annalisa; Monti, Paolo; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Querzoli, Giorgio
2017-11-01
Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics are obtained from a water-channel experiment of an idealized two-dimensional urban canopy flow in neutral conditions. The objective is to quantify the Eulerian (TE) and Lagrangian (TL) time scales of the turbulence above the canopy layer as well as to investigate their dependence on the aspect ratio of the canopy, AR, as the latter is the ratio of the width ( W) to the height ( H) of the canyon. Experiments are also conducted for the case of flat terrain, which can be thought of as equivalent to a classical one-directional shear flow. The values found for the Eulerian time scales on flat terrain are in agreement with previous numerical results found in the literature. It is found that both the streamwise and vertical components of the Lagrangian time scale, T_u^L and T_w^L , follow Raupach's linear law within the constant-flux layer. The same holds true for T_w^L in both the canopies analyzed (AR= 1 and AR= 2) and also for T_u^L when AR = 1. In contrast, for AR = 2, T_u^L follows Raupach's law only above z=2H. Below that level, T_u^L is nearly constant with height, showing at z=H a value approximately one order of magnitude greater than that found for AR = 1. It is shown that the assumption usually adopted for flat terrain, that β =TL/TE is proportional to the inverse of the turbulence intensity, also holds true even for the canopy flow in the constant-flux layer. In particular, γ /i_u fits well β _u =T_u^L /T_u^E in both the configurations by choosing γ to be 0.35 (here, i_u =σ _u / \\bar{u} , where \\bar{u} and σ _u are the mean and the root-mean-square of the streamwise velocity component, respectively). On the other hand, β _w =T_w^L /T_w^E follows approximately γ /i_w =0.65/( {σ _w /\\bar{u} } ) for z > 2H, irrespective of the AR value. The second main objective is to estimate other parameters of interest in dispersion studies, such as the eddy diffusivity of momentum (KT) and the Kolmogorov constant (C_0). It is
Cluster observations in the magnetosheath – Part 2: Intensity of the turbulence at electron scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-M. Bosqued
2006-12-01
BV is ≃90°. The e.m. fluctuations are more intense in these magnetosheath regions, in the spacecraft frame where they are observed in the "whistler" range; and the e.s. fluctuations are less intense in these same regions, in the spacecraft frame where they are observed in the "ion acoustic" range. We conclude that the intensity of the permanent fluctuations in the e.m. range only depends on the Doppler shift, so that from day to day and from place to place in the magnetosheath, the k spectrum in the plasma frame has an invariant shape and a constant intensity. This is observed on scales ranging from kc/ωpe≃0.3 (50 km to kc/ωpe≃30 (500 m, i.e. at electron scales smaller than the Cluster separation.
Azimuthal asymmetries of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Brown, Eric; Ahlers, Guenter
2008-10-01
Previously we published a dynamical model [E. Brown and G. Ahlers, Phys. Fluids 20, 075101 (2008)] for the large-scale-circulation (LSC) dynamics of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in cylindrical containers. The model consists of a pair of stochastic ordinary differential equations, motivated by the Navier-Stokes equations, one each for the strength δ and the orientation θ0 of the LSC. Here we extend it to cases where the rotational invariance of the system is broken by one of several physically relevant perturbations. As an example of this symmetry breaking we present experimental measurements of the LSC dynamics for a container tilted relative to gravity. In that case the model predicts that the buoyancy of the thermal boundary layers encourages fluid to travel along the steepest slope, that it locks the LSC in this direction, and that it strengthens the flow, as seen in experiments. The increase in LSC strength is shown to be responsible for the observed suppression of cessations and azimuthal fluctuations. We predict and observe that for large enough tilt angles, the restoring force that aligns the flow with the slope is strong enough to cause oscillations of the LSC around this orientation. This planar oscillation mode is different from coherent torsional oscillations that have been observed previously. The model was applied also to containers with elliptical cross sections and predicts that the pressure due to the side wall forces the flow into a preferred orientation in the direction of the longest diameter. When the ellipticity is large enough, then oscillations around this orientation are predicted. The model shows that various azimuthal asymmetries will lock the LSC orientation. However, only those that act on the δ-equation (such as tilting relative to gravity) will enhance the LSC strength and suppress cessations and other azimuthal dynamics. Those that affect only the θ0 equation, such as an interaction with Earth's Coriolis force, will align the flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. L. Parkinson
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Multi-scale structure of the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 AU undergoes significant evolution with the phase of the solar cycle. Wind spacecraft measurements during 1995 to 1998 and ACE spacecraft measurements during 1997 to 2005 were used to characterise the evolution of small-scale (~1 min to 2 h fluctuations in the solar wind speed v_{sw}, magnetic energy density B^{2}, and solar wind ε parameter, in the context of large-scale (~1 day to years variations. The large-scale variation in ε most resembled large-scale variations in B^{2}. The probability density of large fluctuations in ε and B^{2} both had strong minima during 1995, a familiar signature of solar minimum. Generalized Structure Function (GSF analysis was used to estimate inertial range scaling exponents a_{GSF} and their evolution throughout 1995 to 2005. For the entire data set, the weighted average scaling exponent for small-scale fluctuations in v_{sw} was a_{GSF}=0.284±0.001, a value characteristic of intermittent MHD turbulence (>1/4, whereas the scaling exponents for corresponding fluctuations in B^{2} and ε were a_{GSF}=0.395±0.001 and 0.334±0.001, respectively. These values are between the range expected for Gaussian fluctuations (1/2 and Kolmogorov turbulence (1/3. However, the scaling exponent for ε changed from a Gaussian-Kolmogorov value of 0.373±0.005 during 1997 (end of solar minimum to an MHD turbulence value of 0.247±0.004 during 2003 (recurrent fast streams. Changes in the characteristics of solar wind turbulence may be reproducible from one solar cycle to the next.
Nakamichi, A.; Morikawa, M.
2009-05-01
We aim for a consistent understanding of various scaling relations reported for self-gravitating systems, based on the proposal that the collisionless dark matter fluid turns into a turbulent state, i.e. dark turbulence, after crossing the caustic surface in the non-linear stage. Kolmogorov scaling laws with a constant energy flow per mass of 0.3 cm^2/s3 are suggested from observations.
M. M. Clark; T. H. Fletcher; R. R. Linn
2010-01-01
The chemical processes of gas phase combustion in wildland fires are complex and occur at length-scales that are not resolved in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of landscape-scale wildland fire. A new approach for modelling fire chemistry in HIGRAD/FIRETEC (a landscape-scale CFD wildfire model) applies a mixtureâ fraction model relying on thermodynamic...
LITOS – a new balloon-borne instrument for fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Theuerkauf
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings in the stratosphere up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit, the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched from any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007, LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. A first case study allows a clear distinction between non-turbulent regions and a turbulent layer with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.
Maulik, Romit
2016-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a relaxation filtering closure approach to account for subgrid scale effects in explicitly filtered large eddy simulations using the concept of anisotropic diffusion. We utilize the Perona-Malik diffusion model and demonstrate its shock capturing ability and spectral performance for solving the Burgers turbulence problem, which is a simplified prototype for more realistic turbulent flows showing the same quadratic nonlinearity. Our numerical assessments present the behavior of various diffusivity functions in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis with respect to the free modeling parameters. In comparison to direct numerical simulation (DNS) and under-resolved DNS results, we find that the proposed closure model is efficient in the prevention of energy accumulation at grid cut-off and is also adept at preventing any possible spurious numerical oscillations due to shock formation under the optimal parameter choices. In contrast to other relaxation filtering approaches, it...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labit, B
2002-10-01
In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure {beta} or the normalized Larmor radius, {rho}{sub *}. The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters {beta} and {rho}{sub *}. The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand
Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr
2016-01-01
We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma beta, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all the cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with $\\beta$ (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, $d_i$...
Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J C
2016-11-01
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.
Turbulent Plasmoid Reconnection
Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2016-01-01
The plasmoid instability may lead to fast magnetic reconnection through long current sheets(CS). It is well known that large-Reynolds-number plasmas easily become turbulent. We address the question whether turbulence enhances the energy conversion rate of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. We carry out appropriate numerical MHD simulations, but resolving simultaneously the relevant large-scale (mean-) fields and the corresponding small-scale, turbulent, quantities by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) is not possible. Hence we investigate the influence of small scale turbulence on large scale MHD processes by utilizing a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model. We verify the applicability of our SGS model and then use it to investigate the influence of turbulence on the plasmoid instability. We start the simulations with Harris-type and force-free CS equilibria in the presence of a finite guide field in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. We use the DNS results to investigate the growt...
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
This thesis addresses stochastic modelling of turbulence with applications to wind energy in mind. The primary tool is ambit processes, a recently developed class of computationally tractable stochastic processes based on integration with respect to Lévy bases. The subject of ambit processes...... is still undergoing rapid development. Turbulence and wind energy are vast and complicated subjects. Turbulence has structures across a wide range of length and time scales, structures which cannot be captured by a Gaussian process that relies on only second order properties. Concerning wind energy, a wind...... turbine operates in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. In this respect, three regimes are of particular interest: modelling the turbulent wind before it interacts with the wind turbine (e.g. to be used in load simulations), modelling of the interaction of the wind with the wind turbine (e...
Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Peebles, W. A.; Jenko, F.; McKee, G.
2016-05-01
We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n ˜ (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the core of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n ˜ was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that n ˜ could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient instability.
Group-kinetic theory and modeling of atmospheric turbulence
Tchen, C. M.
1989-01-01
A group kinetic method is developed for analyzing eddy transport properties and relaxation to equilibrium. The purpose is to derive the spectral structure of turbulence in incompressible and compressible media. Of particular interest are: direct and inverse cascade, boundary layer turbulence, Rossby wave turbulence, two phase turbulence; compressible turbulence, and soliton turbulence. Soliton turbulence can be found in large scale turbulence, turbulence connected with surface gravity waves and nonlinear propagation of acoustical and optical waves. By letting the pressure gradient represent the elementary interaction among fluid elements and by raising the Navier-Stokes equation to higher dimensionality, the master equation was obtained for the description of the microdynamical state of turbulence.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Innocenti, Alessio; Marchioli, Cristian; Chibbaro, Sergio
2016-11-01
The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study particle-laden turbulent flows, when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGSs) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided by LES and then used to advance the SDEs in time. The model consistency is assessed in the limit of particles with zero inertia, when "duplicate fields" are available from both the Eulerian LES and the Lagrangian tracking. Tests with inertial particles were performed to examine the capability of the model to capture the particle preferential concentration and near-wall segregation. Upon comparison with DNS-based statistics, our results show improved accuracy and considerably reduced errors with respect to the case in which no SGS model is used in the equations of particle motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2017-12-01
The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.
Chacón Rebollo, Tomás
2015-03-01
This paper introduces a variational multi-scale method where the sub-grid scales are computed by spectral approximations. It is based upon an extension of the spectral theorem to non necessarily self-adjoint elliptic operators that have an associated base of eigenfunctions which are orthonormal in weighted L2 spaces. This allows to element-wise calculate the sub-grid scales by means of the associated spectral expansion. We propose a feasible VMS-spectral method by truncation of this spectral expansion to a finite number of modes. We apply this general framework to the convection-diffusion equation, by analytically computing the family of eigenfunctions. We perform a convergence and error analysis. We also present some numerical tests that show the stability of the method for an odd number of spectral modes, and an improvement of accuracy in the large resolved scales, due to the adding of the sub-grid spectral scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmeling, D., E-mail: Daniel.Schmeling@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany); Westhoff, A.; Kuehn, M.; Bosbach, J.; Wagner, C. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > Superposition of forced and thermal convection is studied in a rectangular cavity. > For pure forced convection the mean wind exhibits a solid body rotation. > Four buoyancy induced convection rolls are formed for mixed convection at Ar {approx} 3.3. > The enthalpy flux difference between out- and inflowing air has a maximum at Ar {approx} 0.6. - Abstract: Results of an experimental study of flow structure formation and heat transport in turbulent forced and mixed convection are presented. The experiments were conducted in a rectangular cavity with a square cross section, which has an aspect ratio between length and height of {Gamma}{sub xz} = 5. Air at atmospheric pressure was used as working fluid. The air inflow was supplied through a slot below the ceiling, while exhausting was provided by another slot, which is located directly above the floor. Both vents extend over the whole length of the cell. In order to induce thermal convection the bottom of the cell is heated while the ceiling is maintained at a constant temperature. This configuration allows to generate and study mixed convection under well defined conditions. Results of forced convection at Re = 1.07 x 10{sup 4} as well as mixed convection at 1.01 x 10{sup 4} {<=} Re {<=} 3.4 x 10{sup 4} and Ra = 2.4 x 10{sup 8} (3.3 {>=} Ar {>=} 0.3), which were obtained by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and local temperature measurements, are presented. For purely forced convection a 2D mean wind, which can be approximated by a solid body rotation, is found. With increasing Archimedes number this structure becomes unstable, leading to a transition of the solid body rotation into additional smaller convection rolls. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the instantaneous velocity fields has been performed for further analysis of these coherent large-scale structures. Their fingerprint is found in the spatial temperature distribution of the out flowing air at the end of the outlet channel, which
Patch scale turbulence over dryland and irrigated surfaces in a semi-arid landscape during BEAREX08
Quantifying turbulent fluxes of heat and water vapor over heterogeneous surfaces presents unique challenges. For example, in many arid and semi-arid regions, parcels of irrigated cropland are juxtaposed with hot, dry surfaces. Contrasting surface conditions can result in the advection of warm dry ai...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
. However, it turns out that the velocities in the inner part of the boundary layer only increase slightly, and there is no effect on the obtained surface pressures or lift coefficients. It appears that the resolved turbulence has a too large length scale to cause the effect as seen in experiments...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Zhang, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations of the bubbly flow in two square cross-sectioned bubble columns were conducted with the commercial CFD package CFX-4.4. The effect of the model constant used in the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, CS, as well as the interfacial closures for the drag, lift and virtual mass forces
Kiyani, K.; Sahraoui, F.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Fauvarque, O.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
2012-12-01
The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale-by-scale using high cadence in-situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster and ACE spacecraft missions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase towards isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. In the context of wave-mediated theories of turbulence, we show that this enhancement in magnetic fluctuations parallel to the local mean background field is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic compressibility signature of kinetic Alfvén wave solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation. More generally, we discuss how these results may arise naturally due to the prominent role of the Hall term at sub-ion Larmor scales. Furthermore, computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of the fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius is that of a single isotropic globally scale-invariant process distinct from the anisotropic statistics of the inertial range.(Upper panel) PSD (from Cluster) of the transverse and parallel components spanning the inertial and dissipation ranges. (Lower panel) Ratio of parallel over transverse PSD. Horizontal dot-dashed line indicates a ratio of 1/3 where isotropy in power occurs. Vertical dashed and dashed-dotted lines indicate the ion and electron gyro-radii respectively, Doppler-shifted to spacecraft frequency using the Taylor hypothesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Z. Baumert
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.
The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E^{2}. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E^{1}. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.
2010-12-01
The power spectral density of magnetic field components in the fast solar wind on magnetohydrodynamic scales typically shows two power law regions, identified with an inertial range of turbulence, and at lower frequencies, a ~1/f range of coronal origin. The power spectral density of field magnitude shows a single power law region across these scales. We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the averaged statistical properties of magnetic field magnitude and component fluctuations over timescales of ~2 minutes to 5.6 hours observed in-situ in the fast quiet solar wind at solar minimum at 1AU with the ACE spacecraft. Fluctuations in the field components show an 'inertial range' of scaling up to ~30 minutes and beyond this, uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. In contrast, the magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single scaling behaviour up to 5 hours and are non-Gaussian over this entire range of scales. Thus unlike for the components, a single stochastic process could account for the fluctuations in field magnitude over both the inertial range and 1/f range of timescales the fast solar wind.
Multilevel turbulence simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tziperman, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1994-12-31
The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Dartevelle
2005-09-05
The objective of this manuscript is to fully derive a geophysical multiphase model able to ''accommodate'' different multiphase turbulence approaches; viz., the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), or hybrid RANSLES. This manuscript is the first part of a larger geophysical multiphase project--lead by LANL--that aims to develop comprehensive modeling tools for large-scale, atmospheric, transient-buoyancy dusty jets and plume (e.g., plinian clouds, nuclear ''mushrooms'', ''supercell'' forest fire plumes) and for boundary-dominated geophysical multiphase gravity currents (e.g., dusty surges, diluted pyroclastic flows, dusty gravity currents in street canyons). LES is a partially deterministic approach constructed on either a spatial- or a temporal-separation between the large and small scales of the flow, whereas RANS is an entirely probabilistic approach constructed on a statistical separation between an ensemble-averaged mean and higher-order statistical moments (the so-called ''fluctuating parts''). Within this specific multiphase context, both turbulence approaches are built up upon the same phasic binary-valued ''function of presence''. This function of presence formally describes the occurrence--or not--of any phase at a given position and time and, therefore, allows to derive the same basic multiphase Navier-Stokes model for either the RANS or the LES frameworks. The only differences between these turbulence frameworks are the closures for the various ''turbulence'' terms involving the unknown variables from the fluctuating (RANS) or from the subgrid (LES) parts. Even though the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic models for RANS and LES have the same set of Partial Differential Equations, the physical interpretations of these PDEs cannot be the same, i.e., RANS models an averaged field, while LES simulates a
Diaz-Daniel, Carlos; Laizet, Sylvain; Vassilicos, J. Christos
2017-05-01
The present work investigates numerically the statistics of the wall shear stress fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and their relation to the velocity fluctuations outside of the near-wall region. The flow data are obtained from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a zero pressure-gradient TBL using the high-order flow solver Incompact3D [S. Laizet and E. Lamballais, "High-order compact schemes for incompressible flows: A simple and efficient method with quasi-spectral accuracy," J. Comput. Phys. 228(16), 5989 (2009)]. The maximum Reynolds number of the simulation is R e𝜃≈2000 , based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness of the boundary layer. The simulation data suggest that the root-mean-squared fluctuations of the streamwise and spanwise wall shear-stress components τx and τz follow a logarithmic dependence on the Reynolds number, consistent with the empirical correlation of Örlü and Schlatter [R. Örlü and P. Schlatter, "On the fluctuating wall-shear stress in zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows," Phys. Fluids 23, 021704 (2011)]. These functional dependencies can be used to estimate the Reynolds number dependence of the wall turbulence dissipation rate in good agreement with reference DNS data. Our results suggest that the rare negative events of τx can be associated with the extreme values of τz and are related to the presence of coherent structures in the buffer layer, mainly quasi-streamwise vortices. We also develop a theoretical model, based on a generalisation of the Townsend-Perry hypothesis of wall-attached eddies, to link the statistical moments of the filtered wall shear stress fluctuations and the second order structure function of fluctuating velocities at a distance y from the wall. This model suggests that the wall shear stress fluctuations may induce a higher slope in the turbulence energy spectra of streamwise velocities than the one predicted by the Townsend-Perry attached
2015-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Langmuir Turbulence Eric A. D’Asaro, Ramsey Harcourt...definitive experimental tests of the hypothesis that Langmuir Turbulence , specifically the equations of motion with the addition of the Craik-Leibovich...vortex force and advection by the surface wave Stokes drift, can accurately describe turbulence in the upper ocean boundary layer under conditions of
Sediment and plankton lift off recirculations in strong synthetic turbulence (KS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Castilla, Roberto; Sekula, Emil; Furmanek, Petr
2014-05-01
equilibrium (or not) cascade may lead to more physically realistic (and understandable) models to paramerize sub-grid scaling. Care has to be taken when interpreting the direct 3D Kolmogorov cascade and the Inverse 2D Kraichnan Cascade. It is very interesting to use ESS and the third order structure functions (p=3) to investigate the scale to scale transfer of energy (and enstrophy) A parameter space based on Richardson numbers, Rossby numbers and Reynolds Numbers can be used to determine the dominant instability with different intermittencies in a complex full stratified-rotating flow. Intermittency diminishes as spectral slope increases between 5/3 (Kolmogorov's local energy balance) and 3 (Kraichnan's local enstrophy balance) like near a boundary. (Rodriguez et al 1999, Redondo et al. 1993)(Gabaldon and Redondo 2001) Helicity local balance leads to a 7/3 Energy spectra that may be strongly affected by intermittency. It should also depend on the length scale. So in K62, Kolmogorov introduced the notion of intermittency, and he would transpose the universality character of his previous constant to the universality of several parameters, the intermittence which is generalized to higher orders p, μ(p). We know that μ is not universal, as it varies from approximately 0.2 to 0.7, according to different experiments. The new energy spectra, E(k,p), has a correction term in its power: -5/3 becomes -5/3-μ(p)/9, thus, the global form of the spectra is E(k) ~ k -β(p), The different simulations produce very different spatial distributions of the bio-tracers. Gabaldon J., Redondo J.M. (2009) Plankton vertical distribution in the ocean, CUM, XTDFTG in Advances in Environmental Turbulence. UPC, Barcelona. 212. Kraichnan, R.H.: (1966), 'Dispersion of particle pairs in homogeneous turbulence', Physics Fluids, 9, 1728. Kolmogorov, A. N. (1941). The local structure of turbulence in Incompressible viscous fluid at very large Reynolds numbers. C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 30:301. Richardson, L. F
Pan, Wen-hao; Liu, Shi-he; Huang, Li
2018-02-01
This study developed a three-layer velocity model for turbulent flow over large-scale roughness. Through theoretical analysis, this model coupled both surface and subsurface flow. Flume experiments with flat cobble bed were conducted to examine the theoretical model. Results show that both the turbulent flow field and the total flow characteristics are quite different from that in the low gradient flow over microscale roughness. The velocity profile in a shallow stream converges to the logarithmic law away from the bed, while inflecting over the roughness layer to the non-zero subsurface flow. The velocity fluctuations close to a cobble bed are different from that of a sand bed, and it indicates no sufficiently large peak velocity. The total flow energy loss deviates significantly from the 1/7 power law equation when the relative flow depth is shallow. Both the coupled model and experiments indicate non-negligible subsurface flow that accounts for a considerable proportion of the total flow. By including the subsurface flow, the coupled model is able to predict a wider range of velocity profiles and total flow energy loss coefficients when compared with existing equations.
Baya Toda, Hubert; Cabrit, Olivier; Truffin, Karine; Bruneaux, Gilles; Nicoud, Franck
2014-07-01
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in complex geometries and industrial applications like piston engines, gas turbines, or aircraft engines requires the use of advanced subgrid-scale (SGS) models able to take into account the main flow features and the turbulence anisotropy. Keeping this goal in mind, this paper reports a LES-dedicated experiment of a pulsatile hot-jet impinging a flat-plate in the presence of a cold turbulent cross-flow. Unlike commonly used academic test cases, this configuration involves different flow features encountered in complex configurations: shear/rotating regions, stagnation point, wall-turbulence, and the propagation of a vortex ring along the wall. This experiment was also designed with the aim to use quantitative and nonintrusive optical diagnostics such as Particle Image Velocimetry, and to easily perform a LES involving a relatively simple geometry and well-controlled boundary conditions. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model [M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot, "A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model," Phys. Fluids A 3(7), 1760-1765 (1991)] and the σ-model [F. Nicoud, H. B. Toda, O. Cabrit, S. Bose, and J. Lee, "Using singular values to build a subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 23(8), 085106 (2011)]. Both models give similar results during the first phase of the experiment. However, it was found that the dynamic Smagorinsky model could not accurately predict the vortex-ring propagation, while the σ-model provides a better agreement with the experimental measurements. Setting aside the implementation of the dynamic procedure (implemented here in its simplest form, i.e., without averaging over homogeneous directions and with clipping of negative values to ensure numerical stability), it is suggested that the mitigated predictions of the dynamic Smagorinsky model are due to the dynamic constant, which strongly depends on the mesh resolution
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, E.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1986-01-01
The existence of large scale coherent structures in turbulent shear flows has been well documented. Discrepancies between experimental and computational data suggest a necessity to understand the roles they play in mass and momentum transport. Using conditional sampling and averaging on coincident two-component velocity and concentration velocity experimental data for swirling and nonswirling coaxial jets, triggers for identifying the structures were examined. Concentration fluctuation was found to be an adequate trigger or indicator for the concentration-velocity data, but no suitable detector was located for the two-component velocity data. The large scale structures are found in the region where the largest discrepancies exist between model and experiment. The traditional gradient transport model does not fit in this region as a result of these structures. The large scale motion was found to be responsible for a large percentage of the axial mass transport. The large scale structures were found to convect downstream at approximately the mean velocity of the overall flow in the axial direction. The radial mean velocity of the structures was found to be substantially greater than that of the overall flow.
Calderer, Antoni; Guo, Xin; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2018-02-01
We develop a numerical method for simulating coupled interactions of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence. We employ an efficient large-scale model to develop offshore wind and wave environmental conditions, which are then incorporated into a high resolution two-phase flow solver with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The large-scale wind-wave interaction model is based on a two-fluid dynamically-coupled approach that employs a high-order spectral method for simulating the water motion and a viscous solver with undulatory boundaries for the air motion. The two-phase flow FSI solver is based on the level set method and is capable of simulating the coupled dynamic interaction of arbitrarily complex bodies with airflow and waves. The large-scale wave field solver is coupled with the near-field FSI solver with a one-way coupling approach by feeding into the latter waves via a pressure-forcing method combined with the level set method. We validate the model for both simple wave trains and three-dimensional directional waves and compare the results with experimental and theoretical solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of the new computational framework by carrying out large-eddy simulation of a floating offshore wind turbine interacting with realistic ocean wind and waves.
Cascades in helical turbulence
Ditlevsen, P D
2001-01-01
The existence of a second quadratic inviscid invariant, the helicity, in a turbulent flow leads to coexisting cascades of energy and helicity. An equivalent of the four-fifth law for the longitudinal third order structure function, which is derived from energy conservation, is easily derived from helicity conservation cite{Procaccia,russian}. The ratio of dissipation of helicity to dissipation of energy is proportional to the wave-number leading to a different Kolmogorov scale for helicity than for energy. The Kolmogorov scale for helicity is always larger than the Kolmogorov scale for energy so in the high Reynolds number limit the flow will always be helicity free in the small scales, much in the same way as the flow will be isotropic and homogeneous in the small scales. A consequence is that a pure helicity cascade is not possible. The idea is illustrated in a shell model of turbulence.
Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma
Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk
2017-04-01
As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salerno, R.; Vignati, E.
1994-01-01
Fifth International Conference on the Development and Application of Computer Techniques to Environmental Studies, Envirosoft/94.......Fifth International Conference on the Development and Application of Computer Techniques to Environmental Studies, Envirosoft/94....
Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2010-01-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence may be represented by finite Fourier series, where the inherent periodic box serves as a surrogate for a bounded astrophysical plasma. Independent Fourier coefficients form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function containing a Hermitian covariance matrix with positive eigenvalues. The eigenvalues at lowest wave number can be very small, resulting in a large-scale coherent structure: a turbulent dynamo. This is seen in computations and a theoretical explanation in terms of 'broken ergodicity' contains Taylor s theory of force-free states. An important problem for future work is the case of real, i.e., dissipative flows. In real flows, broken ergodicity and coherent structure are still expected to occur in MHD turbulence at the largest scale, as suggested by low resolution simulations. One challenge is to incorporate coherent structure at the largest scale into the theory of turbulent fluctuations at smaller scales.
Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.
Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S
2015-08-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.
Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence
Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.
2005-01-01
Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We c...
1997-07-06
THIS IS A SAFETY NOTICE. The guidance contained herein supersedes : the guidance provided in the current edition of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, relating to selected wake turbulence separations and aircraft weight classifications. This Notice ...
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Phenomenology of turbulent convection
Verma, Mahendra; Chatterjee, Anando; Kumar, Abhishek; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-11-01
We simulate Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in which a fluid is confined between two thermally conducting plates. We report results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of RBC turbulence on 40963 grid, the highest resolution hitherto reported, on 65536 cores of Cray XC40, Shaheen II, at KAUST. The non-dimensional parameters of our simulation are: the Rayleigh number Ra = 1 . 1 ×1011 (the highest ever for a pseudo-spectral simulation) and Prandtl number of unity. We present energy flux diagnostics of shell-to-shell (in wave number space) transfer. Furthermore, noting that convective flows are anisotropic due to buoyancy, we quantify anisotropy by subdividing each wavenumber shell into rings and quantify ring energy spectrum. An outstanding question in convective turbulence is the wavenumber scaling of the energy spectrum. Our pseudo-spectral simulations of turbulent thermal convection coupled with novel energy transfer diagnostics have provided a definitive answer to this question. We conclude that convective turbulence exhibits behavior similar to fluid turbulence, that is, Kolmogorov's k - 5 / 3 spectrum with forward and local energy transfers, along with a nearly isotropic energy distribution. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: universal features
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K.
2015-02-01
The energy cascade of electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) turbulence is considered. Fractal and multi-fractal models for the energy dissipation field are used to determine the spatial intermittency corrections to the scaling behavior in the high-wavenumber (electron hydrodynamic limit) and low-wavenumber (magnetization limit) asymptotic regimes of the inertial range. Extrapolation of the multi-fractal scaling down to the dissipative microscales confirms in these asymptotic regimes a dissipative anomaly previously indicated by the numerical simulations of EMHD turbulence. Several basic features of the EMHD turbulent system are found to be universal which seem to transcend the existence of the characteristic length scale d e (which is the electron skin depth) in the EMHD problem: equipartition spectrum; Reynolds-number scaling of the dissipative microscales; scaling of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the electron-flow velocity (or magnetic field) gradient (even with intermittency corrections); dissipative anomaly; and critical exponent scaling.
Organized motion in turbulent flow
Cantwell, B. J.
A review of organized motion in turbulent flow indicates that the transport properties of most shear flows are dominated by large-scale vortex nonrandom motions. The mean velocity profile of a turbulent boundary layer consists of a viscous sublayer, buffer layer, and a logarithmic outer layer; an empirical formula of Coles (1956) applies to various pressure gradients. The boundary layer coherent structure was isolated by the correlation methods of Townsend (1956) and flow visualization by direct observations of complex unsteady turbulent motions. The near-wall studies of Willmart and Wooldridge (1962) used the space-time correlation for pressure fluctuations at the wall under a thick turbulent boundary layer; finally, organized motion in free shear flows and transition-control of mixing demonstrated that the Reynolds number invariance of turbulence shows wide scatter.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo
Shebalin, John V.
2016-01-01
Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.
Oceanic turbulence - Big bangs or continuous creation?
Caldwell, D. R.
1983-01-01
A hypothesis concerning the turbulence characteristics of 'microstructure' patches in the ocean is proposed in which a turbulence field is driven at the same time and scale at which it is observed. The driving energy is converted into turbulence kinetic energy in such a way that the observed overturning thickness scale is linearly related to the length scale. This hypothesis is contrasted with that of Gibson (1982), in which the 'patches' are produced by rare, powerful turbulence generators that have 'fossilized' prior to their observation. Careful attention is given to the sampling process and its assumptions.
Controlling turbulence in present and future stellarators.
Xanthopoulos, P; Mynick, H E; Helander, P; Turkin, Y; Plunk, G G; Jenko, F; Görler, T; Told, D; Bird, T; Proll, J H E
2014-10-10
Turbulence is widely expected to limit the confinement and, thus, the overall performance of modern neoclassically optimized stellarators. We employ novel petaflop-scale gyrokinetic simulations to predict the distribution of turbulence fluctuations and the related transport scaling on entire stellarator magnetic surfaces and reveal striking differences to tokamaks. Using a stochastic global-search optimization method, we derive the first turbulence-optimized stellarator configuration stemming from an existing quasiomnigenous design.
Jurcisinová, E; Jurcisin, M
2008-01-01
The influence of uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of the scaling regimes and on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a passive scalar advected by a Gaussian solenoidal velocity field with finite correlation time is investigated by the field theoretic renormalization group and operator product expansion within one-loop approximation. Possible scaling regimes are found and classified in the plane of exponents epsilon-eta , where epsilon characterizes the energy spectrum of the velocity field in the inertial range E proportional, variantk;{1-2epsilon} , and eta is related to the correlation time of the velocity field at the wave number k which is scaled as k;{-2+eta} . It is shown that the presence of anisotropy does not disturb the stability of the infrared fixed points of the renormalization group equations, which are directly related to the corresponding scaling regimes. The influence of anisotropy on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of the passive scalar field is studied as a function of the fixed point value of the parameter u , which represents the ratio of turnover time of scalar field and velocity correlation time. It is shown that the corresponding one-loop anomalous dimensions, which are the same (universal) for all particular models with a concrete value of u in the isotropic case, are different (nonuniversal) in the case with the presence of small-scale anisotropy and they are continuous functions of the anisotropy parameters, as well as the parameter u . The dependence of the anomalous dimensions on the anisotropy parameters of two special limits of the general model, namely, the rapid-change model and the frozen velocity field model, are found when u-->infinity and u-->0 , respectively.
Slabaugh, Carson Daniel
two-dimensional, two-component velocity field measurements is discussed. The effects of high flame luminosity and particle defocusing on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. Laser sheet absorption effects, which have been reported to be severe in many previous high pressure OH-PLIF attempts, were not observed to be significant in this work. The time-averaged peak and (spatial) mean signal to noise ratios were 12.7 and 6.3, respectively, at the flame B operating condition; 550 kW total thermal power and 1.0 MPa combustion chamber pressure. Simultaneous 5 kHz PIV and OH-PLIF measurements showed good agreement between single-shot flow-flame interactions, but unresolved, out-of-plane velocity components restricted the interpretation of the temporal context. At a 5 kHz interrogation frequency, the temporal resolution of the measurements was found to be sufficient for only the largest scales within the turbulent flame. The development of an analysis library for the extraction of physical data from highly-resolved planar measurements is also described. The resolution of the measurements, in space and time, is described with respect to the integral scales of the flow. The mean flow structure and its resultant effect on flame behavior is discussed. A method to perform mass-weighted averaging of flow variables was developed for direct comparison of turbulent flow properties between experimental measurements and computations. Conditional statistical sampling and length-scale filtering were used to elucidate details of flow-flame interactions as they pertain to sub-grid modeling in large-eddy simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Yassin A., E-mail: y-hassan@tamu.edu
2016-04-01
Highlights: • Near wall full-field velocity components under subcooled boiling were measured. • Simultaneous shadowgraphy, infrared thermometry wall temperature and particle-tracking velocimetry techniques were combined. • Near wall velocity modifications under subcooling boiling were observed. - Abstract: Multi-phase flows are one of the challenges on which the CFD simulation community has been working extensively with a relatively low success. The phenomena associated behind the momentum and heat transfer mechanisms associated to multi-phase flows are highly complex requiring resolving simultaneously for multiple scales on time and space. Part of the reasons behind the low predictive capability of CFD when studying multi-phase flows, is the scarcity of CFD-grade experimental data for validation. The complexity of the phenomena and its sensitivity to small sources of perturbations makes its measurements a difficult task. Non-intrusive and innovative measuring techniques are required to accurately measure multi-phase flow parameters while at the same time satisfying the high resolution required to validate CFD simulations. In this context, this work explores the feasible implementation of innovative measuring techniques that can provide whole-field and multi-scale measurements of two-phase flow turbulence, heat transfer, and boiling parameters. To this end, three visualization techniques are simultaneously implemented to study subcooled boiling flow through a vertical rectangular channel with a single heated wall. These techniques are listed next and are used as follow: (1) High-speed infrared thermometry (IR-T) is used to study the impact of the boiling level on the heat transfer coefficients at the heated wall, (2) Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to analyze the influence that boiling parameters have on the liquid phase turbulence statistics, (3) High-speed shadowgraphy with LED illumination is used to obtain the gas phase dynamics. To account
Variational Multi-Scale method with spectral approximation of the sub-scales.
Dia, Ben Mansour
2015-01-07
A variational multi-scale method where the sub-grid scales are computed by spectral approximations is presented. It is based upon an extension of the spectral theorem to non necessarily self-adjoint elliptic operators that have an associated base of eigenfunctions which are orthonormal in weighted L2 spaces. We propose a feasible VMS-spectral method by truncation of this spectral expansion to a nite number of modes.
Turbulence in Natural Environments
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
Large eddy simulation of turbulent mixing by using 3D decomposition method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Issakhov, Alibek, E-mail: aliisahov@mail.ru [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2011-12-22
Parallel implementation of algorithm of numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence is presented in this research. The dynamic Smagorinsky model is applied for sub-grid simulation of turbulence. The numerical algorithm was worked out using a scheme of splitting on physical parameters. At the first stage it is supposed that carrying over of movement amount takes place only due to convection and diffusion. Intermediate field of velocity is determined by method of fractional steps by using Thomas algorithm (tridiagonal matrix algorithm). At the second stage the determined intermediate field of velocity is used for determination of the field of pressure. Three dimensional Poisson equation for the field of pressure is solved using over relaxation method.
Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.
2004-01-01
We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...
Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A
2008-04-11
The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tariff Turbulence. * See also Information File on p. 1340 this issue. licence to practice should he deviate from the norm unduly. The Standard Tariff of fees is reviewed regularly in the light of increased costs, the rise in the cost of living, for the elimination of anomalies and so forth and this tariff for private patients, with its 10% ...
Manipulating the anisotropy of turbulence
Chang, Kelken; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2011-01-01
Most turbulence theories apply only to the ideal state of statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Almost all natural flows, including laboratory flows, are neither. In order to know the extent of the validity of the theories, we need to understand the influence of deviations from this ideal state. In this paper, we describe an experiment in which we not only generate isotropic turbulence, but also turbulence whose level of anisotropy can be varied systematically, while maintaining a certain degree of homogeneity. As a first step toward understanding the effect of anisotropy on turbulence, we report on the isotropy of the velocity structure functions for scales smaller than a characteristic length scale describing the large-scale motions of the flow. Our apparatus was nearly spherical, was filled with air, and generated axisymmetric turbulence. We set the ratio of axial to radial velocity fluctuation amplitudes to various values between 0.6 and 2.3. We then measured two-point velocity structure fun...
Thickness fluctuations in turbulent soap films.
Greffier, O; Amarouchene, Y; Kellay, H
2002-05-13
Rapidly flowing soap films provide a simple and attractive system to study two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence. By measuring the rapid fluctuations of the thickness of the film in the turbulent regime, we find that the statistics of these fluctuations closely resemble those of a passive scalar field in a turbulent flow. The scalar spectra are well described by Kolmogorov-like scaling while the high-order moments show clear deviations from regular scaling just like dye or temperature fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows.
Wang, C. R.
1983-01-01
A turbulent boundary layer flow analysis of the momentum and thermal flow fields near the forward stagnation point due to a circular cylinder in turbulent cross flow is presented. Turbulence modeling length scale, anisotropic turbulence initial profiles and boundary conditions were identified as functions of the cross flow turbulence intensity and the boundary layer flow far field velocity. These parameters were used in a numerical computational procedure to calculate the mean velocity, mean temperature, and turbulence double correlation profiles within the flow field. The effects of the cross flow turbulence on the stagnation region momentum and thermal flow fields were investigated. This analysis predicted the existing measurements of the stagnation region mean velocity and surface heat transfer rate with cross flow Reynolds number and turbulence intensity less than 250,000 and 0.05, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall, David A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science
2015-11-01
We proposed to implement, test, and evaluate recently developed turbulence parameterizations, using a wide variety of methods and modeling frameworks together with observations including ARM data. We have successfully tested three different turbulence parameterizations in versions of the Community Atmosphere Model: CLUBB, SHOC, and IPHOC. All three produce significant improvements in the simulated climate. CLUBB will be used in CAM6, and also in ACME. SHOC is being tested in the NCEP forecast model. In addition, we have achieved a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the PDF-based parameterizations of turbulence and convection.
Extreme fluctuations and the finite lifetime of the turbulent state.
Goldenfeld, Nigel; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Gioia, Gustavo
2010-03-01
We argue that the transition to turbulence is controlled by large amplitude events that follow extreme distribution theory. The theory suggests an explanation for recent observations of the turbulent state lifetime which exhibit superexponential scaling behavior with Reynolds number.
Decker, Mark; Or, Dani; Pitman, Andy; Ukkola, Anna
2017-03-01
The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model overestimates evapotranspiration (E) at numerous flux tower sites during boreal spring. The overestimation of E is not eliminated when the nonlinear dependence of soil evaporation on soil moisture or a simple litter layer is introduced into the model. New resistance terms, previously developed from a pore-scale model of soil evaporation, are incorporated into the treatment of under canopy water vapor transfer in CABLE. The new resistance terms reduce the large positive bias in spring time E at multiple flux tower sites and also improve the simulation of daily sensible heat flux. The reduction in the spring E bias allows the soil to retain water into the summer, improving the seasonality of E. The simulation of daily E is largely insensitive to the details of the implementation of the pore model resistance scheme. The more physically based treatment of soil evaporation presented here eliminates the need for empirical functions that reduce evaporation as a function of soil moisture that are included in many land surface models.
Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...
Turbulent pipe flow at extreme Reynolds numbers.
Hultmark, M; Vallikivi, M; Bailey, S C C; Smits, A J
2012-03-02
Both the inherent intractability and complex beauty of turbulence reside in its large range of physical and temporal scales. This range of scales is captured by the Reynolds number, which in nature and in many engineering applications can be as large as 10(5)-10(6). Here, we report turbulence measurements over an unprecedented range of Reynolds numbers using a unique combination of a high-pressure air facility and a new nanoscale anemometry probe. The results reveal previously unknown universal scaling behavior for the turbulent velocity fluctuations, which is remarkably similar to the well-known scaling behavior of the mean velocity distribution.
Tokamak turbulence with stochastic field lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyer, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph
1998-03-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of ballooning turbulence in a tokamak plasma with stochastic magnetic field lines are presented. Three main features are observed. First, the level of pressure fluctuations decreases in the ergodic layer. Secondly, this is essentially due to a suppression of large scale structures. Finally, the turbulent heat diffusivity does not decrease in the stochastic are due to an increase of electric fluctuations. These observations are in agreement with turbulence measurements on Tore Supra. (author) 27 refs.
Two-dimensional turbulent convection
Mazzino, Andrea
2017-11-01
We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].
Regimes of turbulence without an energy cascade
Barenghi, C F; Baggaley, A W
2016-01-01
Experiments and numerical simulations of turbulent $^4$He and $^3$He-B have established that, at hydrodynamic length scales larger than the average distance between quantum vortices, the energy spectrum obeys the same 5/3 Kolmogorov law which is observed in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of ordinary fluids. The importance of the 5/3 law is that it points to the existence of a Richardson energy cascade from large eddies to small eddies. However, there is also evidence of quantum turbulent regimes without Kolmogorov scaling. This raises the important questions of why, in such regimes, the Kolmogorov spectrum fails to form, what is the physical nature of turbulence without energy cascade, and whether hydrodynamical models can account for the unusual behaviour of turbulent superfluid helium. In this work we describe simple physical mechanisms which prevent the formation of Kolmogorov scaling in the thermal counterflow, and analyze the conditions necessary for emergence of quasiclassical regime in quantum tu...
Intermittency measurement in two dimensional bacterial turbulence
Qiu, Xiang; Huang, Yongxiang; Chen, Ming; Lu, Zhiming; Liu, Yulu; Zhou, Quan
2016-01-01
In this paper, an experimental velocity database of a bacterial collective motion , e.g., \\textit{B. subtilis}, in turbulent phase with volume filling fraction $84\\%$ provided by Professor Goldstein at the Cambridge University UK, was analyzed to emphasize the scaling behavior of this active turbulence system. This was accomplished by performing a Hilbert-based methodology analysis to retrieve the scaling property without the $\\beta-$limitation. A dual-power-law behavior separated by the viscosity scale $\\ell_{\
Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.
2013-07-01
on 'Universal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and small-scale dynamo', Blackman on 'Accretion disks and dynamos: toward a unified mean field theory', Frederiksen et al on 'Stochastic subgrid parameterizations for atmospheric and oceanic flows', Grinstein et al 'On coarse-grained simulations of turbulent material mixing', Klimenko on 'Mixing, entropy and competition', Smalyuk on 'Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion', and Sugiyama on 'Intrinsic stochasticity in fusion plasmas'. In particular, Beresnyak reviews the universal magneto-hydrodynamic scenario and small-scale dynamo (including the measurement of its efficiency), Kolmogorov constant and anisotropy constant in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. Blackman discusses recent developments in the theory of accretion disks and dynamos, and proposes a potential path toward a unified mean field theory of these astrophysical phenomena. Frederiksen et al discusses novel approaches to stochastic sub-grid parameterizations for atmospheric and oceanic flows. Grinstein et al discuss numerical approaches for turbulent material mixing that employ coarse-grained simulations. Klimenko presents a new general framework for studies of competitive mixing and non-traditional thermodynamics that can be applied to random behavior associated with turbulence, mixing and competition. Smalyuk discusses the advancements in experimental diagnostics of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion. Sugiyama reviews magnetic fusion and discusses stochastic processes and intrinsic stochasticity in fusion plasmas. Conclusion . In conclusion, the authors hope that this new Topical Issue will continue to serve for exposure of the state-of-the-art in recent theoretical, experimental and numerical developments in 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' phenomena to a broad scientific community, for integration of our knowledge of the subject and for further enrichment of its
Effects of compressibility on boundary-layer turbulence
Acharya, M.
1976-01-01
A series of turbulence measurements in a subsonic compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow in the Mach number range of 0.1 to 0.7 is described. Measurements include detailed surveys of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses, and other quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy. These data are examined to bring out the effects of compressibility and show that the stream-wise and transverse fluctuations and the turbulent shear stress follow a universal scaling law. A preliminary attempt is made to examine some of the assumptions made in turbulence models commonly used in numerical codes for the calculation of compressible flows.
Turbulence of Dilute Polymer Solution
Xi, Heng-Dong; Xu, Haitao
2013-01-01
In fully developed three dimensional fluid turbulence the fluctuating energy is supplied at large scales, cascades through intermediate scales, and dissipates at small scales. It is the hallmark of turbulence that for intermediate scales, in the so called inertial range, the average energy flux is constant and independent of viscosity [1-3]. One very important question is how this range is altered, when an additional agent that can also transport energy is added to the fluid. Long-chain polymers dissolved at very small concentrations in the fluid are such an agent [4,5]. Based on prior work by de Gennes and Tabor [6,7] we introduce a theory that balances the energy flux through the turbulent cascade with that of the energy flux into the elastic degrees of freedom of the dilute long-chain polymer solution. We propose a refined elastic length scale, $r_\\varepsilon$, which describes the effect of polymer elasticity on the turbulence energy cascade. Our experimental results agree excellently with this new energy ...
Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Osman, K.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2014-12-01
A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multifractal scaling observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational contraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.
Linear stability analysis of swirling turbulent flows with turbulence models
Gupta, Vikrant; Juniper, Matthew
2013-11-01
In this paper, we consider the growth of large scale coherent structures in turbulent flows by performing linear stability analysis around a mean flow. Turbulent flows are characterized by fine-scale stochastic perturbations. The momentum transfer caused by these perturbations affects the development of larger structures. Therefore, in a linear stability analysis, it is important to include the perturbations' influence. One way to do this is to include a turbulence model in the stability analysis. This is done in the literature by using eddy viscosity models (EVMs), which are first order turbulence models. We extend this approach by using second order turbulence models, in this case explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models (EARSMs). EARSMs are more versatile than EVMs, in that they can be applied to a wider range of flows, and could also be more accurate. We verify our EARSM-based analysis by applying it to a channel flow and then comparing the results with those from an EVM-based analysis. We then apply the EARSM-based stability analysis to swirling pipe flows and Taylor-Couette flows, which demonstrates the main benefit of EARSM-based analysis. This project is supported by EPSRC and Rolls-Royce through a Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship.
Variable density turbulence tunnel facility
Bodenschatz, E.; Bewley, G. P.; Nobach, H.; Sinhuber, M.; Xu, H.
2014-09-01
The Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, produces very high turbulence levels at moderate flow velocities, low power consumption, and adjustable kinematic viscosity between 10-4 m2/s and 10-7 m2/s. The Reynolds number can be varied by changing the pressure or flow rate of the gas or by using different non-flammable gases including air. The highest kinematic viscosities, and hence lowest Reynolds numbers, are reached with air or nitrogen at 0.1 bar. To reach the highest Reynolds numbers the tunnel is pressurized to 15 bars with the dense gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Turbulence is generated at the upstream ends of two measurement sections with grids, and the evolution of this turbulence is observed as it moves down the length of the sections. We describe the instrumentation presently in operation, which consists of the tunnel itself, classical grid turbulence generators, and state-of-the-art nano-fabricated hot-wire anemometers provided by Princeton University [M. Vallikivi, M. Hultmark, S. C. C. Bailey, and A. J. Smits, Exp. Fluids 51, 1521 (2011)]. We report measurements of the characteristic scales of the flow and of turbulent spectra up to Taylor Reynolds number Rλ ≈ 1600, higher than any other grid-turbulence experiment. We also describe instrumentation under development, which includes an active grid and a Lagrangian particle tracking system that moves down the length of the tunnel with the mean flow. In this configuration, the properties of the turbulence are adjustable and its structure is resolvable up to Rλ ≈ 8000.
Variable density turbulence tunnel facility.
Bodenschatz, E; Bewley, G P; Nobach, H; Sinhuber, M; Xu, H
2014-09-01
The Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, produces very high turbulence levels at moderate flow velocities, low power consumption, and adjustable kinematic viscosity between 10(-4) m(2)/s and 10(-7) m(2)/s. The Reynolds number can be varied by changing the pressure or flow rate of the gas or by using different non-flammable gases including air. The highest kinematic viscosities, and hence lowest Reynolds numbers, are reached with air or nitrogen at 0.1 bar. To reach the highest Reynolds numbers the tunnel is pressurized to 15 bars with the dense gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Turbulence is generated at the upstream ends of two measurement sections with grids, and the evolution of this turbulence is observed as it moves down the length of the sections. We describe the instrumentation presently in operation, which consists of the tunnel itself, classical grid turbulence generators, and state-of-the-art nano-fabricated hot-wire anemometers provided by Princeton University [M. Vallikivi, M. Hultmark, S. C. C. Bailey, and A. J. Smits, Exp. Fluids 51, 1521 (2011)]. We report measurements of the characteristic scales of the flow and of turbulent spectra up to Taylor Reynolds number R(λ) ≈ 1600, higher than any other grid-turbulence experiment. We also describe instrumentation under development, which includes an active grid and a Lagrangian particle tracking system that moves down the length of the tunnel with the mean flow. In this configuration, the properties of the turbulence are adjustable and its structure is resolvable up to R(λ) ≈ 8000.
Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence
Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael
2014-05-01
Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014
Shinn, Aaron F.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations can be very computationally expensive, especially for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent ows. In LES the large, energy containing eddies are resolved by the computational mesh, but the smaller (sub-grid) scales are modeled. In DNS, all scales of turbulence are resolved, including the smallest dissipative (Kolmogorov) scales. Clusters of CPUs have been the standard approach for such simulations, but an emerging approach is the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which deliver impressive computing performance compared to CPUs. Recently there has been great interest in the scientific computing community to use GPUs for general-purpose computation (such as the numerical solution of PDEs) rather than graphics rendering. To explore the use of GPUs for CFD simulations, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver was developed for a GPU. This solver is capable of simulating unsteady laminar flows or performing a LES or DNS of turbulent ows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a fractional-step method and are spatially discretized using the finite volume method on a Cartesian mesh. An immersed boundary method based on a ghost cell treatment was developed to handle flow past complex geometries. The implementation of these numerical methods had to suit the architecture of the GPU, which is designed for massive multithreading. The details of this implementation will be described, along with strategies for performance optimization. Validation of the GPU-based solver was performed for fundamental bench-mark problems, and a performance assessment indicated that the solver was over an order-of-magnitude faster compared to a CPU. The GPU-based Navier-Stokes solver was used to study film-cooling flows via Large Eddy Simulation. In modern gas turbine engines, the film-cooling method is used to protect turbine blades from hot combustion gases. Therefore, understanding the physics of
Investigating prominence turbulence with Hinode SOT Dopplergrams
Hillier, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Ichimoto, K.
2017-01-01
Quiescent prominences host a diverse range of flows, including Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven upflows and impulsive downflows, and so it is no surprise that turbulent motions also exist. As prominences are believed to have a mean horizontal guide field, investigating any turbulence they host could shed light on the nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a wide range of astrophysical systems. In this paper we have investigated the nature of the turbulent prominence motions using structure function analysis on the velocity increments estimated from Hα Dopplergrams constructed with observational data from Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The probability density function of the velocity increments shows that as we look at increasingly small spatial separations the distribution displays greater departure from a reference Gaussian distribution, hinting at intermittency in the velocity field. Analysis of the even order structure functions for both the horizontal and vertical separations showed the existence of two distinct regions displaying different exponents of the power law with the break in the power law at approximately 2000 km. We hypothesise this to be a result of internal turbulence excited in the prominence by the dynamic flows of the system found at this spatial scale. We found that the scaling exponents of the pth order structure functions for these two regions generally followed the p/ 2 (smaller scales) and p/ 4 (larger scales) laws that are the same as those predicted for weak MHD turbulence and Kraichnan-Iroshnikov turbulence respectively. However, the existence of the p/ 4 scaling at larger scales than the p/ 2 scaling is inconsistent with the increasing nonlinearity expected in MHD turbulence. We also found that as we went to higher order structure functions, the dependence of the scaling exponent on the order p is nonlinear implying that intermittency may be playing an important role in the turbulent cascade. Estimating the heating
Compressibility in Solar Wind Plasma Turbulence
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G.
2005-12-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamics is often assumed to describe solar wind turbulence. We use extended self-similarity to reveal scaling in the structure functions of density fluctuations in the solar wind as seen by the ACE spacecraft. The obtained scaling is then compared with that found in the inertial range of quantities identified previously as passive scalars in other turbulent systems. We find that these are not coincident. This implies that either solar wind turbulence is compressible or that straightforward comparison of structure functions does not adequately capture its inertial range properties.
Experiments in turbulent pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torbergsen, Lars Even
1998-12-31
This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.
Effects of the computational time step on numerical solutions for turbulent flow
Choi, Haecheon; Moin, Parviz
1994-01-01
Effects of large computational time steps on the computed turbulence were investigated using a fully implicit method. In turbulent channel flow computations the largest computational time step in wall units which led to accurate prediction of turbulence statistics was determined. Turbulence fluctuations could not be sustained if the computational time step was near or larger than the Kolmogorov time scale.
Wave-Turbulence Interactions: a DPIV Study
Lang, Amy; Lalinde, David
1999-11-01
Previous studies on wave-turbulence interactions, such as the one by Olmez & Milgram (JFM, 1992), supported the hypothesis that the dominant mechanism for the dissipation of non-breaking waves by turbulence is vertical mixing, rather than wave-to-turbulence energy transfer in the wave layer. In this study, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to study the increase in turbulence levels due to the presence of surface waves. Two types of turbulent fields were studied. A grid of cylindrical rods was placed in a water tunnel with smaller scale turbulence resulting in the wake of the grid. The second case used a flat plate grid, with the plates aligned parallel to the free-stream flow. This allowed for a range of scales to be generated within the turbulent flow-field in the test section. Next, a wave-generator was placed in the tunnel allowing waves to propagate into the area studied and interact with the grid-generated turbulence. Variation in wavelength and frequency of the surface waves was performed. Results will be presented.
Stochastic Theory of Turbulence Mixing by Finite Eddies in the Turbulent Boundary Layer
Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.
1995-01-01
Turbulence mixing is treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic hypothesis. The theory simplifies for mixing by exchange (strong-eddies) and is then applied to the boundary layer (involving scaling). This maps boundary layer turbulence onto
Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Osman, K T; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B
2013-01-01
A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Els\\"asser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.
ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B., E-mail: k.t.osman@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2014-03-10
A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.
Sokolov, Andrey; Nishiguchi, Daiki; Aronson, Igor
Living systems represented by ensembles of motile organisms demonstrate a transition from a chaotic motion to a highly ordered state. Examples of such living systems include suspensions of bacteria, schools of fish, flocks of birds and even crowds of people. In spite of significant differences in interacting mechanisms and motion scales, ordered living systems have many similarities: short-range alignment of organism, turbulent-like motion, emergence of large-scale flows and dynamic vortices. In this work, we rectify a turbulent dynamics in suspensions of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis by imposing periodical constraints on bacterial motion. Bacteria, swimming between periodically placed microscopic vertical pillars, may self-organize in a stable lattice of vortices. We demonstrate the emergence of a strong anti-ferromagnetic order of bacterial vortices in a rectangular lattice of pillars. Hydrodynamic interaction between vortices increases the stability of an emerged pattern. The highest stability of vortices in the anti-ferromagnetic lattice and the fastest vortices speed were observed in structures with the periods comparable with a correlation length of bacterial unconstrained motion. A.S and I.A were supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science And Engineering, under contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357 and D.N was supported by ALPS and JSPS Grant No. 26-9915.
Turbulence distance for laser beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Huang, Yongping; Zhang, Bin
2013-11-01
Based on the second-order moments and the non-Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum, the general analytical expression for the turbulence distance of laser beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence is derived, which depends on the non-Kolmogorov turbulence parameters including the generalized exponent parameter α, inner scale l(0), and outer scale L(0) and the initial second-order moments of the beams at the plane of z=0. Taking the partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian linear array (PCHGLA) beam as an illustrative example, the effects of non-Kolmogorov turbulence and array parameters on the turbulence distance are discussed in detail. The results show that the turbulence distance z(Mx)(α) of PCHGLA beams through non-Kolmogorov turbulence first decreases to a dip and then increases with increasing α, and the value of z(Mx)(α) increases with increasing beam number and beam order and decreasing coherence parameter, meaning less influence of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on partially coherent array beams than that of fully coherent array beams and a single partially coherent beam. However, the value of z(Mx)(α) for PCHGLA beams first increases nonmonotonically with the increasing of the relative beam separation x0' for x0'≤1 and increases monotonically as x0' increases for x0'>1. Moreover, the variation behavior of the turbulence distance with the generalized exponent parameter, inner scale, and outer scale of the turbulence and the beam number is similar, but different with the relative beam separation for coherent and incoherent combination cases.
Turbulent character of wind energy.
Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim
2013-03-29
Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov's 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy.
Bifurcations analysis of turbulent energy cascade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Divitiis, Nicola de, E-mail: n.dedivitiis@gmail.com
2015-03-15
This note studies the mechanism of turbulent energy cascade through an opportune bifurcations analysis of the Navier–Stokes equations, and furnishes explanations on the more significant characteristics of the turbulence. A statistical bifurcations property of the Navier–Stokes equations in fully developed turbulence is proposed, and a spatial representation of the bifurcations is presented, which is based on a proper definition of the fixed points of the velocity field. The analysis first shows that the local deformation can be much more rapid than the fluid state variables, then explains the mechanism of energy cascade through the aforementioned property of the bifurcations, and gives reasonable argumentation of the fact that the bifurcations cascade can be expressed in terms of length scales. Furthermore, the study analyzes the characteristic length scales at the transition through global properties of the bifurcations, and estimates the order of magnitude of the critical Taylor-scale Reynolds number and the number of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence.
Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence
Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.
2015-12-01
Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.
ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)
2015-12-15
Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.
Impacts of small-scale variability on the determination of bulk thermal diffusivity in snowpacks
Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.
2012-04-01
Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important physical property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snowmelt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. These phenomena have broad implications in studies of climate and heat and water budgets on many scales. Furthermore, sub grid scale phenomena may enhance these heat and mass exchanges in the snow pack due to its porous nature. We hypothesize that the heat transfer effects of these small-scale variabilities may be seen as an increased bulk thermal diffusivity of the snow. Direct measurements of snow thermal diffusivity require coupled measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which are nonstationary due to snow metamorphism. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements are typically obtained with specialized heating probes or plates and snow density measurements require digging snow pits. Therefore, direct measurements are difficult to obtain with high enough temporal resolution such that direct comparisons with atmospheric conditions can be made. This study uses highly resolved temperature measurements from the Plaine Morte glacier in Switzerland as initial and boundary conditions to numerically solve the 1D heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The method uses flux boundary conditions to constrain thermal diffusivity such that spuriously high values in thermal diffusivity are eliminated. Additionally, a t-test ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity results in further constraints on thermal diffusivity that eliminate spuriously low values. The results show that time resolved thermal diffusivity can be determined from easily implemented and inexpensive temperature measurements of seasonal snow with good agreement to widely used parameterizations based on snow density. This high time resolution further affords the ability to explore possible turbulence-induced enhancements to heat and mass transfer in the snow.
Grunloh, Timothy P.
The objective of this dissertation is to develop a 3-D domain-overlapping coupling method that leverages the superior flow field resolution of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code STAR-CCM+ and the fast execution of the System Thermal Hydraulic (STH) code TRACE to efficiently and accurately model thermal hydraulic transport properties in nuclear power plants under complex conditions of regulatory and economic importance. The primary contribution is the novel Stabilized Inertial Domain Overlapping (SIDO) coupling method, which allows for on-the-fly correction of TRACE solutions for local pressures and velocity profiles inside multi-dimensional regions based on the results of the CFD simulation. The method is found to outperform the more frequently-used domain decomposition coupling methods. An STH code such as TRACE is designed to simulate large, diverse component networks, requiring simplifications to the fluid flow equations for reasonable execution times. Empirical correlations are therefore required for many sub-grid processes. The coarse grids used by TRACE diminish sensitivity to small scale geometric details such as Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internals. A CFD code such as STAR-CCM+ uses much finer computational meshes that are sensitive to the geometric details of reactor internals. In turbulent flows, it is infeasible to fully resolve the flow solution, but the correlations used to model turbulence are at a low level. The CFD code can therefore resolve smaller scale flow processes. The development of a 3-D coupling method was carried out with the intention of improving predictive capabilities of transport properties in the downcomer and lower plenum regions of an RPV in reactor safety calculations. These regions are responsible for the multi-dimensional mixing effects that determine the distribution at the core inlet of quantities with reactivity implications, such as fluid temperature and dissolved neutron absorber concentration.
The role of compressibility in solar wind plasma turbulence
Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra C.; Rowlands, George
2004-01-01
Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamics is often assumed to describe solar wind turbulence. We use extended self similarity to reveal scaling in structure functions of density fluctuations in the solar wind. Obtained scaling is then compared with that found in the inertial range of quantities identified as passive scalars in other turbulent systems. We find that these are not coincident. This implies that either solar wind turbulence is compressible, or that straightforward comparison of structur...
Assessment of the turbulence parameterization schemes for the Martian mesoscale simulations
Temel, Orkun; Karatekin, Ozgur; Van Beeck, Jeroen
2016-07-01
Turbulent transport within the Martian atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is one of the most important physical processes in the Martian atmosphere due to the very thin structure of Martian atmosphere and super-adiabatic conditions during the diurnal cycle [1]. The realistic modeling of turbulent fluxes within the Martian ABL has a crucial effect on the many physical phenomena including dust devils [2], methane dispersion [3] and nocturnal jets [4]. Moreover, the surface heat and mass fluxes, which are related with the mass transport within the sub-surface of Mars, are being computed by the turbulence parameterization schemes. Therefore, in addition to the possible applications within the Martian boundary layer, parameterization of turbulence has an important effect on the biological research on Mars including the investigation of water cycle or sub-surface modeling. In terms of the turbulence modeling approaches being employed for the Martian ABL, the "planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes" have been applied not only for the global circulation modeling but also for the mesoscale simulations [5]. The PBL schemes being used for Mars are the variants of the PBL schemes which had been developed for the Earth and these schemes are either based on the empirical determination of turbulent fluxes [6] or based on solving a one dimensional turbulent kinetic energy equation [7]. Even though, the Large Eddy Simulation techniques had also been applied with the regional models for Mars, it must be noted that these advanced models also use the features of these traditional PBL schemes for sub-grid modeling [8]. Therefore, assessment of these PBL schemes is vital for a better understanding the atmospheric processes of Mars. In this framework, this present study is devoted to the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches for the Martian ABL in comparison to Viking Lander [9] and MSL [10] datasets. The GCM/Mesoscale code being used is the PlanetWRF, the extended version
A turbulence model for buoyant flows based on vorticity generation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domino, Stefan Paul; Nicolette, Vernon F.; O' Hern, Timothy John; Tieszen, Sheldon R.; Black, Amalia Rebecca
2005-10-01
A turbulence model for buoyant flows has been developed in the context of a k-{var_epsilon} turbulence modeling approach. A production term is added to the turbulent kinetic energy equation based on dimensional reasoning using an appropriate time scale for buoyancy-induced turbulence taken from the vorticity conservation equation. The resulting turbulence model is calibrated against far field helium-air spread rate data, and validated with near source, strongly buoyant helium plume data sets. This model is more numerically stable and gives better predictions over a much broader range of mesh densities than the standard k-{var_epsilon} model for these strongly buoyant flows.
Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; Bañón Navarro, A.; McKee, G. R.
2017-06-01
Experimental signature of long-wavelength turbulence accelerating the recovery of Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) magnetic islands after they have been transiently reduced in size due to interaction with Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) is reported for the first time. This work shows that perturbations associated with ELMs result in peaking of the electron temperature (Te) in the O-point region of saturated core m/n = 2/1 islands (m/n being the poloidal/toroidal mode numbers). In synchronization with this Te peak, the island width shrinks by as much as 30% suggesting a key role of the Te peak in NTM stability due to modified pressure gradient (∇p) and perturbed bootstrap current (δjBS) at the O-point. Next, this Te peak relaxes via anomalous transport (i.e., the diffusivity is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the neoclassical value) and the island recovers. Long-wavelength turbulent density fluctuations ( n ˜ ) are reduced at the O-point of flat islands but these fluctuations are increased when Te is peaked which offers an explanation for the observed anomalous transport that is responsible for the relaxation of the Te peak. Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that n ˜ inside the peaked island is dominantly driven by the Ion Temperature Gradient instability. These measurements suggest that n ˜ accelerates NTM recovery after an ELM crash via accelerating the relaxation of ∇p at the O-point. These observations are qualitatively replicated by coupled predator-prey equations and modified Rutherford equation. In this simple model, turbulence accelerates NTM recovery via relaxing ∇p and therefore restoring δjBS at the O-point. The key physics of the relationship between the Te peak and NTM stability has potentially far-reaching consequences, such as NTM control via pellet injection in high-β tokamak plasmas.
Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)
2013-12-15
Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)
Kolmogorov Spectrum of Quantum Turbulence
Kobayashi, Michikazu; Tsubota, Makoto
2005-01-01
There is a growing interest in the relation between classical turbulence and quantum turbulence. Classical turbulence arises from complicated dynamics of eddies in a classical fluid. In contrast, quantum turbulence consists of a tangle of stable topological defects called quantized vortices, and thus quantum turbulence provides a simpler prototype of turbulence than classical turbulence. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and statistics of quantized vortices in quantum turbulence by n...
Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Xanthopoulos
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard
2002-01-01
... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...
Tanaka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Murakami, S.; Takahashi, H.; Osakabe, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Seki, R.; Michael, C. A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, C.; Shimizu, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Akiyama, T.; Ida, K.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, H.; Du, X. D.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yun, G. S.; the LHD Experimental Group
2017-11-01
Surveys of the ion and electron heat transports of neutral beam (NB) heating plasma were carried out by power balance analysis in He and H rich plasma at LHD. Collisionality was scanned by changing density and heating power. The characteristics of the transport vary depending on collisionality. In low collisionality, with low density and high heating power, an ion internal transport barrier (ITB) was formed. The ion heat conductivity (χ i) is lower than electron heat conductivity (χ e) in the core region at ρ power, χ i is higher than χ e across the entire range of plasma. These different confinement regimes are associated with different fluctuation characteristics. In ion ITB, fluctuation has a peak at ρ = 0.7, and in normal confinement, fluctuation has a peak at ρ = 1.0. The two confinement modes change gradually depending on the collisionality. Scans of concentration ratio between He and H were also performed. The ion confinement improvements were investigated using gyro-Bohm normalization, taking account of the effective mass and charge. The concentration ratio affected the normalized χ i only in the edge region (ρ ~ 1.0). This indicates ion species effects vary depending on collisionality. Turbulence was modulated by the fast ion loss instability. The modulation of turbulence is higher in H rich than in He rich plasma.
Recent progress in astrophysical plasma turbulence from solar wind observations
Chen, C H K
2016-01-01
This paper summarises some of the recent progress that has been made in understanding astrophysical plasma turbulence in the solar wind, from in situ spacecraft observations. At large scales, where the turbulence is predominantly Alfvenic, measurements of critical balance, residual energy, and 3D structure are discussed, along with comparison to recent models of strong Alfvenic turbulence. At these scales, a few percent of the energy is also in compressive fluctuations, and their nature, anisotropy, and relation to the Alfvenic component is described. In the small scale kinetic range, below the ion gyroscale, the turbulence becomes predominantly kinetic Alfven in nature, and measurements of the spectra, anisotropy, and intermittency of this turbulence are discussed with respect to recent cascade models. One of the major remaining questions is how the turbulent energy is dissipated, and some recent work on this question, in addition to future space missions which will help to answer it, are briefly discussed.
Time change and universality in turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen
of the probability densities of turbulent velocity increments. Furthermore, the application of a time change in terms of the scale parameter δ of the normal inverse Gaussian distribution results in a collapse of the densities of velocity increments onto Reynolds number independent distributions. We discuss this kind......We discuss a unifying description of the probability densities of turbulent velocity increments for a large number of turbulent data sets that include data from low temperature gaseous helium jet experiments, a wind tunnel experiment, an atmospheric boundary layer experiment and a free air jet...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events
Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian
2018-01-01
The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport
Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST: turbulence characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Jen-La Plante
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Turbulence observed during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST research campaign is analyzed. Using in-flight measurements of dynamic and thermodynamic variables at the interface between the stratocumulus cloud top and free troposphere, the cloud top region is classified into sublayers, and the thicknesses of these sublayers are estimated. The data are used to calculate turbulence characteristics, including the bulk Richardson number, mean-square velocity fluctuations, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, TKE dissipation rate, and Corrsin, Ozmidov and Kolmogorov scales. A comparison of these properties among different sublayers indicates that the entrainment interfacial layer consists of two significantly different sublayers: the turbulent inversion sublayer (TISL and the moist, yet hydrostatically stable, cloud top mixing sublayer (CTMSL. Both sublayers are marginally turbulent, i.e., the bulk Richardson number across the layers is critical. This means that turbulence is produced by shear and damped by buoyancy such that the sublayer thicknesses adapt to temperature and wind variations across them. Turbulence in both sublayers is anisotropic, with Corrsin and Ozmidov scales as small as ∼ 0.3 and ∼ 3 m in the TISL and CTMSL, respectively. These values are ∼ 60 and ∼ 15 times smaller than typical layer depths, indicating flattened large eddies and suggesting no direct mixing of cloud top and free-tropospheric air. Also, small scales of turbulence are different in sublayers as indicated by the corresponding values of Kolmogorov scales and buoyant and shear Reynolds numbers.
Iacobelli, M.; Haverkorn, M.; Orru, E.; Pizzo, R. F.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Chyzy, K.; Dettmar, R. -J.; Ensslin, T. A.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Horneffer, A.; Jurusik, W.; Junklewitz, H.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Paladino, R.; Reich, W.; Scaife, A.; Sobey, C.; Sotomayor-Beltran, C.; Alexov, A.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Birzan, L.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brueggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eisloeffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Griessmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hoerandel, J.; Jelic, V.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kramer, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Macario, G.; Mann, G.; McKean, J. P.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Roettgering, H.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.
2013-01-01
Aims. The characteristic outer scale of turbulence (i. e. the scale at which the dominant source of turbulence injects energy to the interstellar medium) and the ratio of the random to ordered components of the magnetic field are key parameters to characterise magnetic turbulence in the interstellar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plunian, F [ISTerre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lessinnes, T; Carati, D [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Stepanov, R, E-mail: Franck.Plunian@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation)
2011-12-22
Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen and Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.
Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley
2017-03-13
Phase relations between specific scales in a turbulent boundary layer are studied here by highlighting the associated nonlinear scale interactions in the flow. This is achieved through an experimental technique that allows for targeted forcing of the flow through the use of a dynamic wall perturbation. Two distinct large-scale modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wavenumbers were simultaneously forced in the boundary layer, and the resulting nonlinear response from their direct interactions was isolated from the turbulence signal for the study. This approach advances the traditional studies of large- and small-scale interactions in wall turbulence by focusing on the direct interactions between scales with triadic wavenumber consistency. The results are discussed in the context of modelling high Reynolds number wall turbulence.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. D. Stocker
2014-12-01
TOPMODEL (DYPTOP, which predicts the extent of inundation based on a computationally efficient TOPMODEL implementation. This approach rests on an empirical, grid-cell-specific relationship between the mean soil water balance and the flooded area. DYPTOP combines the simulated inundation extent and its temporal persistency with criteria for the ecosystem water balance and the modelled peatland-specific soil carbon balance to predict the global distribution of peatlands. We apply DYPTOP in combination with the LPX-Bern DGVM and benchmark the global-scale distribution, extent, and seasonality of inundation against satellite data. DYPTOP successfully predicts the spatial distribution and extent of wetlands and major boreal and tropical peatland complexes and reveals the governing limitations to peatland occurrence across the globe. Peatlands covering large boreal lowlands are reproduced only when accounting for a positive feedback induced by the enhanced mean soil water holding capacity in peatland-dominated regions. DYPTOP is designed to minimize input data requirements, optimizes computational efficiency and allows for a modular adoption in Earth system models.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos
Shebalin, John V
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
that small-scale interstellar turbulence must have a hydromagnetic origin; but the IK spectrum was too flat and the ideas ..... is the speed of sound and lmfp ∼ 1013 cm is the mean free path (due to Coulomb scattering) ..... [39] A Hewish, S J Bell, J D H Pilkington, P F Scott and R A Collins, Nature 217, 709 (1968). [40] P A G ...
Introduction to quantum turbulence
Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2014-01-01
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
The cosmic web and microwave background fossilize the first turbulent combustion
Gibson, Carl H.; Keeler, R. Norris
2016-10-01
Collisional fluid mechanics theory predicts a turbulent hot big bang at Planck conditions from large, negative, turbulence stresses below the Fortov-Kerr limit (Big bang turbulence fossilized when quarks formed, extracting the mass energy of the universe by extreme negative viscous stresses of inflation, expanding to length scales larger than the horizon scale ct. Viscous-gravitational structure formation by fragmentation was triggered at big bang fossil vorticity turbulence vortex lines during the plasma epoch, as observed by the Planck space telescope. A cosmic web of protogalaxies, protogalaxyclusters, and protogalaxysuperclusters that formed in turbulent boundary layers of the spinning voids are hereby identified as expanding turbulence fossils that falsify CDMHC cosmology.
Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective
Levich, Eugene
2009-07-01
. In particular, theoretical and numerical evidence is given indicating that BCC in turbulent channel/pipe flows have the depth at the walls proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number in wall units, Ly ∝ √Re, which is equivalent to the fractal dimension in normal to the walls y direction DyF = 0, 5, and the total dimension DF = Dx, zF + DyF = 2 + 0.5 = 2.5. Similar BCC structure and the same fractal dimension are suggested for geophysical turbulence, in near agreement with the recent comprehensive analysis of experimental and observational data. It is asserted that the atmospheric and oceanic events, e.g., tropical hurricanes, tornadoes and other mesoscale phenomena, and probably ocean currents are manifestations of BCC and their environs. Generally BCC should be rather seen as the turbulence core, while the whole surrounding 3D flow as being created and sustained by the intense vorticity of BCC by means of induction, in a manner similar to that for an electric current generating magnetic field. It is further argued that BCC is not only a theoretical concept important for fundamental grasp on turbulence, but may be a practical asset furnishing tools for turbulence management in regular fluids and plasmas. The concept of helical fluctuations in turbulence goes 25 years back in time, and while never totally abandoned nevertheless has been residing on the fringes of research activity. Experiment and numerical simulations had not been able to either validate or repudiate decisively the concept. However, recent large scale direct numerical simulations and proliferation of experimental and observational data showed convincingly how ubiquitous is the phenomenon of helicity fluctuations in various turbulent flows, from hurricanes and tornadoes to turbulent jets to solar wind plasma turbulence to turbulent flows in compressible fluids. This allowed a fresh look at the concept and led to a quantitative theory exposed in this paper. The paper concludes with a
Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence
Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.; Ghosh, Sanjoy
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional incompressible MHD spectral code is used to show that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ('Alfvenicity') at small scales. It is shown that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable, and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of MHD turbulence.
Turbulent Combustion Study of Scramjet Problem
2015-08-01
334. Springer, 2005. [24] M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. H. Cabot . A dynamic subgrid scale eddy viscosity model. Phys. Fluids A, 3:1760–1765...2014. [46] Charles Meneveau, Thomas S Lund, and William H Cabot . A lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model of turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Multifractal structure of turbulence in the magnetospheric cusp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Yordanova
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Magnetospheric cusps are regions which are characterized by highly turbulent plasma. We have used Polar magnetic field data to study the structure of turbulence in the cusp region. The wavelet transform modulus maxima method (WTMM has been applied to estimate the scaling exponent of the partition function and singularity spectra. Their features are similar to those found in the nonlinear multifractal systems. We have found that the scaling exponent does not allow one to conclude which intermittency model fits the experiment better. However, the singularity spectra reveal that different models can be ascribed to turbulence observed under various IMF conditions. For northward IMF conditions the turbulence is consistent with the multifractal p-model of fully developed fluid turbulence. For southward IMF experimental data agree with the model of non-fully developed Kolmogorov-like fluid turbulence.
Multifractal structure of turbulence in the magnetospheric cusp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Yordanova
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Magnetospheric cusps are regions which are characterized by highly turbulent plasma. We have used Polar magnetic field data to study the structure of turbulence in the cusp region. The wavelet transform modulus maxima method (WTMM has been applied to estimate the scaling exponent of the partition function and singularity spectra. Their features are similar to those found in the nonlinear multifractal systems. We have found that the scaling exponent does not allow one to conclude which intermittency model fits the experiment better. However, the singularity spectra reveal that different models can be ascribed to turbulence observed under various IMF conditions. For northward IMF conditions the turbulence is consistent with the multifractal p-model of fully developed fluid turbulence. For southward IMF experimental data agree with the model of non-fully developed Kolmogorov-like fluid turbulence.
Whither turbulence and big data in the 21st century?
Castillo, Luciano; Danaila, Luminita; Glauser, Mark
2017-01-01
This volume provides a snapshot of the current and future trends in turbulence research across a range of disciplines. It provides an overview of the key challenges that face scientific and engineering communities in the context of huge databases of turbulence information currently being generated, yet poorly mined. These challenges include coherent structures and their control, wall turbulence and control, multi-scale turbulence, the impact of turbulence on energy generation and turbulence data manipulation strategies. The motivation for this volume is to assist the reader to make physical sense of these data deluges so as to inform both the research community as well as to advance practical outcomes from what is learned. Outcomes presented in this collection provide industry with information that impacts their activities, such as minimizing impact of wind farms, opportunities for understanding large scale wind events and large eddy simulation of the hydrodynamics of bays and lakes thereby increasing energy ...
Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammelsaeter, H.R.
1997-12-31
Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.
Extended Self Similarity in Solar Wind Turbulence
Rowlands, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2005-12-01
The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. A hallmark of turbulence is scaling- and scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in certain solar wind in- situ bulk plasma parameters has been established from WIND and ACE observations on `short' timescales up to a few hours. On longer timescales there is a crossover in scaling to uncorrelated behaviour. The intermittency of the system is expressed in these parameters through the non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuations PDF up to this timescale. Here we apply a generic approach to turbulence- that of Extended Self Similarity (ESS)- to the analysis of solar wind observations. We find that ESS can extend the range of scaling and for some parameters reveals two distinct scaling regions for the `short' and long timescales, whereas for others, a single scaling encompasses the behaviour over the full range of timescales. That certain parameters, and conditions, can be distinguished via ESS may provide physical insight into the turbulent solar wind.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Turbulence generation by waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
Instabilities of flows and transition to turbulence
Sengupta, Tapan K
2012-01-01
Introduction to Instability and TransitionIntroductionWhat Is Instability?Temporal and Spatial InstabilitySome Instability MechanismsComputing Transitional and Turbulent FlowsFluid Dynamical EquationsSome Equilibrium Solutions of the Basic EquationBoundary Layer TheoryControl Volume Analysis of Boundary LayersNumerical Solution of the Thin Shear Layer (TSL) EquationLaminar Mixing LayerPlane Laminar JetIssues of Computing Space-Time Dependent FlowsWave Interaction: Group Velocity and Energy FluxIssues of Space-Time Scale Resolution of FlowsTemporal Scales in Turbulent FlowsComputing Time-Averag
Spectral properties of electromagnetic turbulence in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Shaikh
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD fluctuations in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear whistler mode turbulence study in a magnetized plasma involves incompressible electrons and immobile ions. Two-dimensional turbulent interactions and subsequent energy cascades are critically influenced by the electron whisters that behave distinctly for scales smaller and larger than the electron skin depth. It is found that in whistler mode turbulence there results a dual cascade primarily due to the forward spectral migration of energy that coexists with a backward spectral transfer of mean squared magnetic potential. Finally, inclusion of the ion dynamics, resulting from a two fluid description of the H-MHD plasma, leads to several interesting results that are typically observed in the solar wind plasma. Particularly in the solar wind, the high-time-resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of the MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high-frequency regime. In the latter, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD model and a finite frequency effect (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency arising from the ion inertia is essentially included to discern the dynamics of the smaller length scales (in comparison with the ion skin depth. This leads to a nonlinear H-MHD model, which is presented in this paper. With the help of our 3-D H-MHD code, we find that the characteristic turbulent interactions in the high-frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic-Alfvén time-scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic-Alfvén interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of the kinetic and magnetic energies.
Statistical analysis of Hasegawa-Wakatani turbulence
Anderson, Johan; Hnat, Bogdan
2017-06-01
Resistive drift wave turbulence is a multipurpose paradigm that can be used to understand transport at the edge of fusion devices. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model captures the essential physics of drift turbulence while retaining the simplicity needed to gain a qualitative understanding of this process. We provide a theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent events in Hasegawa-Wakatani turbulence with enforced equipartition of energy in large scale zonal flows, and small scale drift turbulence. We find that for a wide range of adiabatic index values, the stochastic component representing the small scale turbulent eddies of the flow, obtained from the autoregressive integrated moving average model, exhibits super-diffusive statistics, consistent with intermittent transport. The PDFs of large events (above one standard deviation) are well approximated by the Laplace distribution, while small events often exhibit a Gaussian character. Furthermore, there exists a strong influence of zonal flows, for example, via shearing and then viscous dissipation maintaining a sub-diffusive character of the fluxes.
Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.
2003-01-01
as the difference between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the sphere by the turbulent motions. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the occupation times in terms of the basic properties for the turbulent flow and the geometry...
Turbulent behaviour in magnetic hydrodynamics is not universal
Dmitriy, W
1996-01-01
A short distance expansion method (SDE) that is well known in the quantum field theory for analysis of turbulent behaviour of stochastic magnetic hydrodynamics of incompressible conductive fluid is applied. As a result is shown that in an inertial range the turbulent spectra of magnetic hydrodynamics depend on a scale of arising of curls.
Modelling of the decay of isotropic turbulence by the LES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdibekov, U S; Zhakebaev, D B, E-mail: uali1@mail.ru, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)
2011-12-22
This work deals with the modelling of degeneration of isotropic turbulence. To simulate the turbulent process the filtered three-dimensional nonstationary Navier-Stokes equation is used. The basic equation is closed with the dynamic model. The problem is solved numerically, and the equation of motion is solved by a modified method of fractional steps using compact schemes, the equation for pressure is solved by the Fourier method with a combination of matrix factorization. In the process of simulation changes of the kinetic energy of turbulence in the time, micro scale of turbulence and changes of inlongitudinal-transverse correlation functions are obtained, longitudinal and transverse one-dimensional spectra are defined.
Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Werner, Gregory R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2018-02-01
We describe results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in collisionless, magnetized, relativistic pair plasma. This physical regime provides a simple setting for investigating the basic properties of kinetic turbulence and is relevant for high-energy astrophysical systems such as pulsar wind nebulae and astrophysical jets. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of turbulent fluctuations in simulations on lattices of up to 10243 cells and containing up to 2 × 1011 particles. Due to the absence of a cooling mechanism in our simulations, turbulent energy dissipation reduces the magnetization parameter to order unity within a few dynamical times, causing turbulent motions to become sub-relativistic. In the developed stage, our results agree with predictions from magnetohydrodynamic turbulence phenomenology at inertial-range scales, including a power-law magnetic energy spectrum with index near -5/3, scale-dependent anisotropy of fluctuations described by critical balance, lognormal distributions for particle density and internal energy density (related by a 4/3 adiabatic index, as predicted for an ultra-relativistic ideal gas), and the presence of intermittency. We also present possible signatures of a kinetic cascade by measuring power-law spectra for the magnetic, electric and density fluctuations at sub-Larmor scales.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the
The effect of turbulent clustering on particle reactivity
Krüger, Jonas; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Løvås, Terese
2016-01-01
The effect of turbulence on the heterogeneous (solid-fluid) reactions of solid particles is studied numerically with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). A simplified reaction system is used, where the solid-fluid reaction is represented by a single isothermal reaction step. It is found that, due to the clustering of particles by the isotropic turbulence, the overall reaction rate is entirely controlled by the turbulence for large Damk\\"ohler numbers. The particle clustering significantly slows down the reaction rate for increasing Damk\\"ohler numbers which reaches an asymptotic limit that can be analytically derived. This implies that the effect of turbulence on heterogeneously reacting particles should be included in models that are used in CFD simulations of e.g. char burnout in combustors or gasifiers. Such a model, based on the chemical and turbulent time scales, is here proposed for the heterogeneous reaction rate in the presence of turbulence.
Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.
Turbulence Visualization at the Terascale on Desktop PCs.
Treib, M; Burger, K; Reichl, F; Meneveau, C; Szalay, A; Westermann, R
2012-12-01
Despite the ongoing efforts in turbulence research, the universal properties of the turbulence small-scale structure and the relationships between small- and large-scale turbulent motions are not yet fully understood. The visually guided exploration of turbulence features, including the interactive selection and simultaneous visualization of multiple features, can further progress our understanding of turbulence. Accomplishing this task for flow fields in which the full turbulence spectrum is well resolved is challenging on desktop computers. This is due to the extreme resolution of such fields, requiring memory and bandwidth capacities going beyond what is currently available. To overcome these limitations, we present a GPU system for feature-based turbulence visualization that works on a compressed flow field representation. We use a wavelet-based compression scheme including run-length and entropy encoding, which can be decoded on the GPU and embedded into brick-based volume ray-casting. This enables a drastic reduction of the data to be streamed from disk to GPU memory. Our system derives turbulence properties directly from the velocity gradient tensor, and it either renders these properties in turn or generates and renders scalar feature volumes. The quality and efficiency of the system is demonstrated in the visualization of two unsteady turbulence simulations, each comprising a spatio-temporal resolution of 10244. On a desktop computer, the system can visualize each time step in 5 seconds, and it achieves about three times this rate for the visualization of a scalar feature volume.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pope, Stephen B
2006-01-01
.... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...
Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Dyrud
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.
Enhancement of coalescence in turbulent clouds
Kerstein, Alan; Krueger, Steven
2017-11-01
An economical numerical model, called ClusColl, for droplet motions and collisions in turbulent flows has been developed, tested, and applied. In the linear eddy model, 1D turbulent advection of fluid is implemented by rearranging the fluid cells. Each permutation represents an individual turbulent eddy, and is called a ``triplet map.'' The triplet map captures flow processes as small as the smallest turbulent eddy, but the response of cloud droplets to turbulence has important features at scales as small as the droplet radius. ClusColl includes a 3D triplet map for droplets that captures these additional effects. We have also implemented a collision detection algorithm so that ClusColl can simulate collisions and coalescence between finite-inertia particles. For sedimenting droplets with St coalescence calculations made using ClusColl suggest that turbulence can significantly accelerate rain formation by droplet clustering and/or by spectral broadening due to entrainment and mixing. We are using ClusColl to investigate the relative roles that entrainment and mixing, droplet inertial effects, and ultragiant nuclei play in warm rain initiation.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Turbulence and Dispersion. K S Gandhi. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 48-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/10/0048-0061. Keywords. Turbulent ...
Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling
Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana
2016-04-01
New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362
Magnetic turbulence in a table-top laser-plasma relevant to astrophysical scenarios
Chatterjee, Gourab; Schoeffler, Kevin M.; Kumar Singh, Prashant; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Silva, Luis O.; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra
2017-06-01
Turbulent magnetic fields abound in nature, pervading astrophysical, solar, terrestrial and laboratory plasmas. Understanding the ubiquity of magnetic turbulence and its role in the universe is an outstanding scientific challenge. Here, we report on the transition of magnetic turbulence from an initially electron-driven regime to one dominated by ion-magnetization in a laboratory plasma produced by an intense, table-top laser. Our observations at the magnetized ion scale of the saturated turbulent spectrum bear a striking resemblance with spacecraft measurements of the solar wind magnetic-field spectrum, including the emergence of a spectral kink. Despite originating from diverse energy injection sources (namely, electrons in the laboratory experiment and ion free-energy sources in the solar wind), the turbulent spectra exhibit remarkable parallels. This demonstrates the independence of turbulent spectral properties from the driving source of the turbulence and highlights the potential of small-scale, table-top laboratory experiments for investigating turbulence in astrophysical environments.
Analysis of optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang
2013-09-01
The turbulence effect models derived with the Rytov theory method cannot be applied in the analysis of moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. In this work, new expressions of the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations are derived theoretically for optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are developed under Andrews' assumption that small-scale irradiance fluctuations are modulated by large-scale irradiance fluctuations of the optical wave. A wide range of turbulence strength is considered instead of a limited range for weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. These expressions have general spectral power law values in the range 3 to 4 instead of the standard power law value of 11/3 for Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze turbulence strength and turbulence spectral power law's variations on the final expressions.
Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling
Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen
2015-11-16
Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations.
Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Tsinober
1994-01-01
Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.
Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence
Tsinober, A.
We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926). The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc.) - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992) and Kit et al. (1993). The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry) and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson) which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.
Modelling enhanced confinement in drift-wave turbulence
Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Ashourvan, A.; Tynan, G. R.
2017-06-01
The results of modeling studies of an enhanced confinement in the drift wave turbulent plasma of the CSDX linear device are presented. The mechanism of enhanced confinement is investigated here using a reduced 1D, time-dependent model, which illustrates the exchange of enstrophy between two disparate scale structures: the mesoscale flow and profile, and the turbulence intensity fields. Mean density, mean vorticity, and turbulent potential enstrophy are the variables for this model. Total potential enstrophy is conserved in this model. Vorticity mixing occurs on a scale length related to an effective Rhines' scale of turbulence, and shrinks as both density and vorticity gradients steepen. Numerical results obtained from solution of the model agree well with the experimental data from CSDX showing: (i) a steepening of the mean density profile, indicating a radial transport barrier formation, (ii) the development of a radially sheared azimuthal flow velocity that coincides with the density steepening and initiates a turbulence quench, and (iii) negative Reynolds work values, indicating that fluctuations drive the shear flow. These observations as the magnitude of the magnetic field B increases are recovered using purely diffusive expressions for the vorticity and density fluxes. A new dimensionless turbulence parameter RDT-defined as the ratio of the integrated potential enstrophy transfer from turbulence to the flow, to the integrated potential enstrophy production due to relaxation of the density gradient is introduced as a turbulence collapse indicator that detects when the enhanced confinement state is triggered.
Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence
Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Turbulent Flame Speed and Self Similarity of Expanding Premixed Flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung
2011-11-01
In this study we present experimental turbulent flame speed data measured in constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogenous isotropic turbulence, in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. The cold flow is characterized by high speed particle image velocimetry while the flame propagation rate is obtained by tracking high speed Schlieren images of unity Lewis number methane-air flames over wide ranges of pressure and turbulence intensity. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from expanding flames and those from Bunsen geometries can be scaled by a single parameter: the turbulent Reynolds number utilizing recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the G equation, after correcting for gas expansion effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carreras, B A [BACV Solutions, Inc, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Garcia, L [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Llerena, I, E-mail: bacv@comcast.ne [Departament d' Algebra i Geometria, Facultat de Matematiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)
2010-10-15
The continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach allows us to construct transport models based on waiting times and particle flight distributions. The connection between the distribution of particle flights and the distribution of radial extents of the connected components of the flow has already been shown by Garcia et al (2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 046410). Here, the connection between the large-scale cycles of the flow structure and the trapping times is explored. It is shown that the distribution of trapping times of the tracers is given by the distribution of lifetimes of the large-scale cycles in the flow structure. This distribution has a power tail, which is the result of the dynamics of avalanche transport.
Carreras, B. A.; Garcia, L.; Llerena, I.
2010-10-01
The continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach allows us to construct transport models based on waiting times and particle flight distributions. The connection between the distribution of particle flights and the distribution of radial extents of the connected components of the flow has already been shown by Garcia et al (2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 046410). Here, the connection between the large-scale cycles of the flow structure and the trapping times is explored. It is shown that the distribution of trapping times of the tracers is given by the distribution of lifetimes of the large-scale cycles in the flow structure. This distribution has a power tail, which is the result of the dynamics of avalanche transport.
Turbulent diffusion of small particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margolin, L.G.
1977-11-01
The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley.
Transition to Turbulent Dynamo Saturation
Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Gallet, Basile; Alexakis, Alexandros
2017-11-01
While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction. We perform numerical simulations of the resulting set of reduced equations for Pm down to 2 ×10-5. This parameter regime is currently out of reach to fully 3D DNS. We show that the magnetic energy transitions from a high-Pm viscous scaling regime to a low-Pm turbulent scaling regime, the latter being independent of viscosity. The transition to the turbulent saturation regime occurs at a low value of the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm ≃10-3 , which explains why it has been overlooked by numerical studies so far.