Sample records for sub-cuticular oil storage

  1. Erecting Gas Storage Facilities and Oil Centers (United States)


    standard metal, reenforced concrete, or stone storage tanks; while high-viscosity dark pro- ducts ( bitumens , residual oils and tar oils) are stored in...sedimentary (dense limestones, dolomites, gypsum, chalk, aleurites, argillites, etc.), metamorphic (clay schists and slates, quartzite, siliceous

  2. Optimal Location of an Oil Storage Facility

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    Giovanni Quiel


    Full Text Available Given three oil drilling sites, we devise a method to determine the optimal location for a storage facility such that the total length of pipeline required to connect each site to the facility is minimized. First we represent the total distance of piping as the sum of the individual distances between the storage facility and each oil well. From this, both the optimal overall pipeline length and the location of the storage facility which realizes the minimal length can be determined through the first and second partial derivative tests.

  3. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage. (United States)


    ... subpart. (a) Storage units. Used oil generators shall not store used oil in units other than tanks.... Containers and aboveground tanks used to store used oil at generator facilities must be: (1) In good... leaks). (c) Labels. (1) Containers and aboveground tanks used to store used oil at generator facilities...

  4. Long-term storage of three unconventional oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ismail H.


    Full Text Available Three samples, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, were stored (autoxidized in the dark at 30±2 °C for 24 months. Oil aliquots were withdrawn every 2-4 month for analyses of changes in four quality indexes, namely fatty acid composition, tocopherol content, peroxide value and oxidative stability index by Rancimat. After 24 months of storage the fatty acid composition of the three oils showed no change while tocopherol contents were decreased. SCO and MBO showed only slight changes in their oxidative stability as indicated by the peroxide value and induction period during the 24 months of storage. Sorghum bug oil showed a periodical increase in the peroxide value and had less stability as measured by the Rancimat in comparison to other oils.Tres muestras de aceite, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, fueron almacenadas en la oscuridad a 30±2 °C durante 24 meses. Cada 2- 4 meses se toman alícuotas para analizar los cambios de calidad. Se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, el contenido en tocoferol, el índice de peróxidos y la estabilidad oxidativa mediante el aparato Rancimat. Después de 24 meses de almacenamiento, la composición en ácidos grasos no experimentó variación mientras que el contenido en tocoferol disminuyó en los tres aceites. SCO y MBO mostraron cambios minoritarios como se comprobó por los indices de peroxides y estabilidad a los 24 meses. SBO fue el menos estable de los tres aceites.

  5. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.


    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  6. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

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    Joelmir Grassi Presente


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  7. The Potency of Fire and Explosion Hazard on Premium Oil Storage Tank at Depot X 2007

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    Fatma Lestari


    Full Text Available Premium oil storage tanks have fire and explosion risk because Premium oil is flammable liquid. Because of that, fire and explosion risk assessment on Premium oil storage tank at Depot X is needed as foundation to fire and explosion risk management, and comply with regulations. Method of this research is Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index. This research indicate that F&EI value for Premium oil storage tank is 118,82. Based on that F&EI value, level of risk at Premium oil storage tank is intermediate risk.

  8. Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage. (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi


    In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value and anisidine value measurements in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effects in comparison to BHA. Oil samples supplemented with EO concentration of 0.08% were the most stable during storage (p < 0.05). EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of 31.5 ± 0.6 µg mL⁻¹. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.

  9. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil. (United States)

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby


    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures.

  10. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.). (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen


    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  11. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the same way, the trend of total phenols, oxidative stability and radical scavenging capacity of the studied olive oils showed a decrease during the fruit storage at ambient temperature. This reduction was more severe in Chemlali olive oils than those of Chétoui cultivar. Storage of fruits at 5°C prevented the fast alteration ...

  12. Characteristics of denatured rapeseed oil during storage and refining processes

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    Philen, R. M.


    Full Text Available In 1981, toxic oil syndrome, a progressive multi-system disease caused by consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with aniline occurred in Spain. To date, the causal toxic agent or agents remain unknown. Measures of acidity, moisture, impurities, phosphorous, soaps, and spectrophotometric determinations of color at 409 nm were performed. Since fatty acid anilide concentrations in these oils are associated with risk of disease, w e studied the formation of aniline-derived compounds over time after oil denaturation and by oil deodorization temperatures (200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC and times (3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 hours. Formation of fatty acid anilide compounds increased with storage time. Deodorization led to a reduction of total anilides in all the samples, particularly at temperatures above 245ºC. Esters of 3-(N-phenylamino-1,2-propanediol were not detected.En 1981 tuvo lugar en España el llamado «Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico», una enfermedad progresiva multi-sistemática causada por el consumo de aceite de colza desnaturalizado con anilina. Hasta la fecha, el agente o agentes tóxicos causantes permanecen desconocidos. Se han realizado medidas de acidez, humedad, impurezas, fósforo, jabones y determinaciones espectrofotométricas de color a 409 nm. Puesto que las concentraciones de anilidas de los ácidos grasos en estos aceites se asocian al riesgo de padecer la enfermedad, se estudiaron la formación de compuestos derivados de anilina durante el tiempo de desnaturalización y con las temperaturas y tiempos de desodorización (temperaturas: 200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC y tiempos: 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 y 6 horas. La formación de anilidas de ácidos grasos aumenta con el tiempo de almacenamiento. La desodorización conlleva una reducción de la cantidad total de anilidas en todas las muestras, particularmente cuando la temperatura es superior a 245ºC. No fueron

  13. Prolonging storage time of baby ginger by using a sand-based storage medium and essential oil treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Sui, Guoliang; He, Yongzhou; Liu, Dongjie; Yan, Jing; Liu, Shuxiang; Qin, Wen


    Wilt and rot occur readily during storage of baby ginger because of its tender skin and high moisture content (MC). A storage medium, which consisted of sand, 20% water, and 3.75% super absorbent polymers delayed weight loss and loss of firmness at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity. Microorganisms were isolated and purified from decayed rhizomes; among these, 3 fungi were identified as pathogens. The results of 18S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these fungi belonged to Penicillium, Fusarium, and Mortierella genera. The use of essential oil for controlling these pathogens was then investigated in vitro. Essential oils extracted from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) completely inhibited the growth of all of the above pathogens at a concentration of 2000 ppm. Cinnamon oil showed higher antifungal activity in the drug sensitivity test with minimal fungicidal concentration (ginger storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Paraffinic sludge reduction in crude oil storage tanks through the use of shearing and resuspension

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    Dundr Zdenek


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of cleaning paraffinic crude oil sludge from storage tanks by shearing and resuspension using an in-line jet mixer. An explanation is presented of why sludge deposition occurs in storage tanks that contain paraffinic crude oil. Conventional methods of tank cleaning are discussed. A theory regarding the behaviour of a submerged fluid jet is presented and the concept of “critical energy minimum’ is established.This paper presents a method used to successfully clean a crude oil storage tank using an in-line jet mixer and the results of a practical case study are presented.

  15. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage. (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah


    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories shall have quality control procedure for monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. In order to establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters need to be evaluated. In this study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products were examined over a period of ten months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested herein include crude palm oil (CPO), refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO), RBD palm olein (RBDPOo), and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils, i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP), were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage condition has preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products; CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples for validation of test results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the Maximization of Durable Years of the Underground Oil Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon


    Objectives of the study on the maximization of durable years of the underground oil storage facility are as follows - Establishment of the detailed field of study and methodology for the preparation of guideline of operation and maintenance of underground oil storage facility - Preparation of program for the assessment of the impedimental factor of safety such as clogging and seawater intrusion. The study sites are Yeosu, Pyeongtaek, Ulsan underground oil storage facilities which are operated by KNOC, SK gas and E1. Various pending problems of each facilities were summarized and assessed. Long-term program for the maximization of durable years of the underground oil storage facility was prepared based on the results of the assessment of each study sites

  17. Paraffinic sludge reduction in crude oil storage tanks through the use of shearing and resuspension


    Dundr Zdenek; Heath Greg M.; Heath Robert A.


    This paper presents a method of cleaning paraffinic crude oil sludge from storage tanks by shearing and resuspension using an in-line jet mixer. An explanation is presented of why sludge deposition occurs in storage tanks that contain paraffinic crude oil. Conventional methods of tank cleaning are discussed. A theory regarding the behaviour of a submerged fluid jet is presented and the concept of critical energy minimum is established.This paper presents a method used to successfully clean a ...

  18. Quantification of oil recovery efficiency, CO 2 storage potential, and fluid-rock interactions by CWI in heterogeneous sandstone oil reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran; Sisson, Adam


    Significant interest exists in improving recovery from oil reservoirs while addressing concerns about increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The combination of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and safe geologic storage of CO2 in oil reservoirs is appealing and can be achieved by carbonated (...... for oil recovery and CO2 storage potential on heterogeneous cores. Since not all the oil reservoirs are homogenous, understanding the potential of CWI as an integrated EOR and CO2 storage scenario in heterogeneous oil reservoirs is essential.......Significant interest exists in improving recovery from oil reservoirs while addressing concerns about increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The combination of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and safe geologic storage of CO2 in oil reservoirs is appealing and can be achieved by carbonated (CO...

  19. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

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    Xilin Shi


    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  20. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha (United States)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed


    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  1. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage. (United States)


    ... store used oil in units other than tanks, containers, or units subject to regulation under parts 264 or 265 of this chapter. (b) Condition of units. Containers and aboveground tanks used to store oil at... aboveground tanks used to store used oil at burner facilities must be equipped with a secondary containment...

  2. Production of tung oil biodiesel and variation of fuel properties during storage. (United States)

    Shang, Qiong; Lei, Jiao; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Houfang; Liang, Bin


    The crude Tung oil with 4.72 mg KOH/g of acid value (AV) was converted by direct transesterification, and the reaction mixture was quantified. The phase distribution data showed that 38.24% of excess methanol, 11.76% of KOH, 10.13% of soap and 4.36% of glycerol were in the biodiesel phase; 0.35% of biodiesel dissolved in the glycerol phase. Tung oil biodiesel as well as its blends with 0(#) diesel was investigated under different storage conditions. The results indicated that higher temperature greatly influenced the storage stability, especially when the volume fraction of Tung oil biodiesel is increased in the blends.

  3. Analysis of Peroxisomal β-Oxidation During Storage Oil Mobilization in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings. (United States)

    Hielscher, Björn; Charton, Lennart; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Linka, Nicole


    Peroxisomal β-oxidation in plants is essential for mobilization of storage oil in seed-oil storing plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. In plants, degradation of fatty acids occurs exclusively in peroxisomes via β-oxidation, driving seedling growth and development upon germination. Thus, the determination of storage oil breakdown rates is a useful approach to investigate defects in peroxisomal β-oxidation. Here we describe an acid catalyzed derivatization process of fatty acids representing a fast and efficient procedure to generate high yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The subsequent analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allows the quantification of total fatty acid content. The results provide detailed information of the complete storage oil breakdown process via peroxisomal β-oxidation during seedling growth.

  4. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.


    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  5. Diversity and abundance of bacteria in an underground oil-storage cavity

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    Kodama Yumiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms inhabiting subterranean oil fields have recently attracted much attention. Since intact groundwater can easily be obtained from the bottom of underground oil-storage cavities without contamination by surface water, studies on such oil-storage cavities are expected to provide valuable information to understand microbial ecology of subterranean oil fields. Results DNA was extracted from the groundwater obtained from an oil-storage cavity situated at Kuji in Iwate, Japan, and 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA fragments were amplified by PCR using combinations of universal and Bacteria-specific primers. The sequence analysis of 154 clones produced 31 different bacterial sequence types (a unique clone or group of clones with sequence similarity of > 98. Major sequence types were related to Desulfotomaculum, Acetobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacula, Zoogloea and Thiomicrospira denitrificans. The abundance in the groundwater of bacterial populations represented by these major sequence types was assessed by quantitative competitive PCR using specific primers, showing that five rDNA types except for that related to Desulfobacula shared significant proportions (more than 1% of the total bacterial rDNA. Conclusions Bacteria inhabiting the oil-storage cavity were unexpectedly diverse. A phylogenetic affiliation of cloned 16S rDNA sequences suggests that bacteria exhibiting different types of energy metabolism coexist in the cavity.

  6. Storage stability of biocrude oils from fast pyrolysis of poultry litter. (United States)

    Mante, Ofei D; Agblevor, Foster A


    The unstable nature of biocrude oils produced from conventional pyrolysis of biomass is one of the properties that limits its application. In the disposal of poultry litter via pyrolysis technology, the biocrude oil produced as a value-added product can be used for on farm applications. In this study, we investigated the influence of bedding material (wood shavings) on the storage stability of biocrude oils produced from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter. The biocrude oils produced from manure, wood (pine and oak), and mixtures of manure and wood in proportions (75:25 50:50, and 25:75w/w%) were stored under ambient conditions in sealed glass vials for a period of 6 months and their stability were monitored by measuring the changes in viscosity over time. The manure oil had the lowest rate of viscosity change and thus was relatively the most stable and the oils from the 50:50w/w% litter mixtures were the least stable. The rate of viscosity change of the manure biocrude oil was 1.33cP/day and that of the 50/50 litter mixture was 7.6cP/day for pine and 4.17cP/day for oak. The spectrometric analyses of the biocrude oils showed that the presence of highly reactive oxygenated functionalities in the oil were responsible for the instability characteristic of the litter biocrude oils. The poor stability of the biocrude oil from the 50:50w/w% litter mixtures was attributed to reactions between nitrogenous compounds (amides) from protein degradation and oxygenated compounds from the decomposition of polysaccharides and lignin. The addition of 10% methanol and 10% ethanol to the oil from 50% manure and 50% pine reduced the initial viscosity of the oil and was also beneficial in slowing down the rate of viscosity change during storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar


    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  8. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage. (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng


    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  9. Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage. (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Zribi, Akram; Bouaziz, Mohamed


    This study is undertaken to determine the storage stability of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in different containers such as clear and dark glass bottles, polyethylene (PE) and tin containers. The different oil samples were stored under light at room temperature. Quality parameters monitored during a 6-month-storage period included: acidity, peroxide value (PV), spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), chlorophyll and carotene pigments, fatty acids and sterol compositions, total phenols, Rancimat induction time as well as sensory evaluation. Tin containers and dark glass bottles recorded the lowest oxidation values. In addition, oil packed in tin containers and dark glass bottles showed better physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics than that stored in clear glass bottles and PE containers. A significant decrease (p containers. Such results proved that the storage of oil in tin containers and dark glass bottles appeared most adequate, and showed a gradual loss of quality during storage, especially in PE containers and clear glass bottles. This study has shown that the best packaging materials for the commercial packing of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil are tin containers and dark glass bottles.

  10. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.P.


    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  11. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns. (United States)


    mentioned a roof collapse in a limestone mine owned by Fenix and Scissons (site not given) in a similar manner as an abandoned iron mine owned by...May 1980 (courtesy of Fenix and Scissions, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma). Data Contains: a). Areas Favorable for Mined Storage in the United States. b

  12. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications (United States)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  13. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of red palm oil “Ogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Addition of 10% (w/v) red palm oil increased the beta carotene content of “ogi” by 2 to 18 folds, improved energy levels, decreased final viscosity and enhanced the colour of “ogi”. However, the stability of the product during ambient storage decreased with time due to the onset of lipid oxidation. Keywords: Red ...

  14. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions. (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai


    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  15. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.


    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  16. Impact of Refrigerated Storage on Quality of Oil from Freshwater Jarko (Wallago attu Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat N. Memon


    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu was evaluated by measuring fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA, peroxide value (PV, acid value (AV, sponification value (SV, iodine value (IV and poylene index (PI up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90th day of storage. The results of PV, AV and FFA demonstrates that Wallago attu fish oil remained acceptable for consumption for 60 days but eventually exceeded the recommended values after 60 days of refrigerated storage.

  17. Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E L


    Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

  18. Effect of temperature and storage time of wheat germ on the oil tocopherol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capitani


    Full Text Available Wheat germ represents approximately 3% of the grain and it contains 8-14% oil, which is a rich source of tocopherols (vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid. The present work shows the influence of temperature (27ºC and 45ºC and storage time (maximum 35 days of the wheat germ on the concentration of tocopherol in the oil. Their effect on other quality parameters was also investigated. Results indicated that oil oxidation and free fatty acid formation increased markedly with temperature and storage time. The initial sample contained 3134 µg/g total tocopherol, of which 67% was α-tocopherol and, in a lower proportions, β-tocopherol and Γ-tocopherol (30.5% and 2.4%, respectively. In the temperature range studied, tocopherols decreased as a function of storage time following first-order kinetics. The rate constant k for β-tocopherol increased with temperature. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the storage conditions applied.

  19. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage (United States)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant


    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  20. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.


    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  1. Kinetics of diglyceride formation and isomerization in virgin olive oils by employing 31P NMR spectroscopy. Formulation of a quantitative measure to assess olive oil storage history. (United States)

    Spyros, Apostolos; Philippidis, Angelos; Dais, Photis


    Diacylglycerol isomers and free acidity were determined for five extra virgin olive oils of different initial acidities by employing a facile (31)P NMR methodology as a function of storage time and storage conditions. The kinetic treatment of the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TGs) and the isomerization of 1,2-diacylglycerols (1,2-DGs) to 1,3-diacylglycerols (1,3-DGs) during storage of 18 months at ambient temperature in the dark and light and at 5 degrees C in the dark showed that the isomerization is strongly dependent on the rate of the TGs hydrolysis, the initial free acidity (H(0)) of the virgin olive oil samples, and storage conditions. Although the time-evolution of the diacylglycerols (DGs) depends on the TGs hydrolysis, the ratio D of the concentration of 1,2-DGs to the total amount of DGs was found to be independent of this factor. From the kinetic expression of the ratio D, a quantitative measure was formulated that allows the estimation of the storage time or age of virgin olive oils. Application of this quantitative measure to several olive oil samples of known and unknown storage history resulted in a very good agreement with respect to the actual storage time for up to 10-12 months of storage. For a longer storage period, where the isomerization of DGs is close to its equilibrium state, the calculated age index is only indicative.

  2. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles. (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G


    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike


    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...... period, and off-flavors were more pronounced in SFO. The lower oxidative stability of SFO was probably related to the initially lower quality (regarding oxidation products), which is apparently a result of the long production procedure required. Addition of metal chelators did not reduce the oxidation...

  4. Activated carbons from African oil palm waste shells and fibre for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo


    Full Text Available We prepared a series of activated carbons by chemical activation with two strong bases in-group that few use, and I with waste from shell and fibers and oil-palm African. Activated carbons are obtained with relatively high surface areas (1605 m2/g. We study the textural and chemical properties and its effect on hydrogen storage. The activated carbons obtained from fibrous wastes exhibit a high hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 wt % at 77 K and 12 bar.

  5. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity. (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed


    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG


    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  7. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander


    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  8. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations (United States)

    Burruss, Robert


    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible.

  9. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif


    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  10. Iron-Corroding Methanogen Isolated from a Crude-Oil Storage Tank ▿


    Uchiyama, Taku; Ito, Kimio; Mori, Koji; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Harayama, Shigeaki


    Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel in anaerobic environments has been attributed to hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. A sludge sample collected from the bottom plate of a crude-oil storage tank was used to inoculate a medium containing iron (Fe0) granules, which was then incubated anaerobically at 37°C under an N2-CO2 atmosphere to enrich for microorganisms capable of using iron as the sole source of electrons. A methanogen, designated strain KA1, was isolated from the enrichment ...

  11. Evaluation of Seawater Intrusion Potential into a Coastal Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Korea (United States)

    Lee, E.; Lim, J.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.


    Underground oil storage caverns have been operated in Korea since 1990s, and the facility at Yeosu, south coast of Korea, is one of the largest underground oil storage facilities in Korea. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring of the facility has been performed to find out whether the facility maintains secure containment condition and long-term stability. Recently, seawater intrusion into the base of the storage cavern was suspected based on the long-term monitoring of water levels and chemical analyses of seepage water pumped out from cavern bottom. The sudden decrease of water pressure during the construction of storage tunnel seems to cause the inland movement of saline water. In this study, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the potential of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern using a three dimensional groundwater simulation model, FEFLOW (Diersch, 2005). The geometry of the cavern and water curtain was represented by using the implemented functions. The groundwater flow field and seawater intrusion in response to construction activity was also estimated. The simulation results were validated by comparing EC and salinity of seepage water monitoring data. Sensitivity analyses on hydraulic conductivity and water pressure from the water curtain or injection well were also conducted. Relatively high groundwater level was observed at this site due to the low hydraulic conductivity of base rock and high altitude of the mountains. Therefore, the amount of intruded seawater does not seem to be significant. However, apparent decrease of water level was observed along the main fracture zone and seawater could be intruded along these paths. Simulation results show that the seawater intrusion to the cavern is mainly controlled by the fracture zone, which would be the main channel of groundwater movement. The injection of fresh water to the injection wells along the coast may retard the intrusion of seawater.

  12. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line


    Background Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Methodology/Principal Findings Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions/Significance It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours. PMID:24260265

  13. Prediction of the mooring force of a 2-D floating oil storage tank (United States)

    Chu, Xinjie; Dong, Sheng; Zhao, Xizeng


    A Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based model is developed to predict the mooring force of a two-dimensional floating oil storage tank under wave conditions, which is validated against to a newly performed experiment. In the experiment, a box-shaped floating oil storage apparatus is used. Computations are performed by an improved CIP-based Cartesian grid model, in which the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A multiphase flow solver is adopted to treat the water-air-body interactions. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is implemented to treat the body surface. Main attention is paid to the sum force of mooring line and velocity field around the body. It is found that the sum force of the mooring line increases with increasing wave amplitude. The body suffers from water wave impact and large body motions occur near the free surface. The vortex occurs near the sharp edge, i.e., the sharp bottom corners of the floating oil storage tank and the vortex shedding can be captured by the present numerical model. The present model could be further improved by including turbulence model which is currently under development. Comparison between the computational mooring forces and the measured mooring forces is presented with a reasonable agreement. The developed numerical model can predict the mooring line forces very well.

  14. Influence of Teucrium polium L. essential oil on the oxidative stability of canola oil during storage. (United States)

    Sayyad, Ruhollah; Farahmandfar, Reza


    The susceptibility of Teucrium polium essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant for canola oil was studied. Major compounds of the EO were 11-acetoxyeudesman-4-α-ol (26.3%) and α-bisabolol (24.6%). Different concentrations (200, 600 and 1200 ppm) of EO and synthetic antioxidant BHA (200 ppm) were added to canola oil and incubated for 60 days at room temperature. Acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), iodine value (IV), total phenolics (TP), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) of canola oil were determined. Antioxidant capacity of the EO was measured by DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Results exhibited that DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid experiment detections on the EO were analogous in high concentrations to those detected on BHA. Moreover, incorporated EO samples had better AV, PV, CV, IV, TP and TPC than control. EO at concentration of 600 ppm indicated higher antioxidant activity in canola oil compared with BHA.

  15. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini


    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  16. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall


    off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...... oxidation. As processing will often cause extra oxidative stress to the omega-3 oil, extrinsic factors are especially important to consider during processing. Due to the complexity of multiphase foods, it is very difficult to predict the oxidative stability and therefore the behaviour and efficacy...... of antioxidants in omega-3 oil enriched products and optimal composition and processing conditions must be evaluated for each product....

  17. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul


    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  18. Increasing Antioxidant Content of Broccoli Sprouts Using Essential Oils During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Awady Aml A.


    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high content of glucosinolate and antioxidant. Sprouts and mature broccoli are of potential importance in devising chemoprotective strategies in humans. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of essential oils on broccoli seed germination, increase their antioxidant content and determine the glucosinolate concentration and other phytochemical parameters in 3-day-old sprouts during cold storage at 4°C and 95% RH for 15 days. The results showed that all treatments of essential oils increased germination index, seed germination percentage, seedling length, seedling vigour index, yield and the antioxidant content of broccoli sprout and reduced the microbial load compared to the control. Fortunately, the coliform bacteria was not detected in all treatments. Different essential oils of fennel, caraway, basil, thyme and sage were tested. The thyme oil was the best treatment, which increased the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and glucosinolate compared to the control at different storage periods. In the sprouts treated with thyme oil treatment and the control, at the end of cold storage, 1.98% and 28.06% of total phenolic content, 1.90% and 20.28% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 1.39% and 58.33% of flavonoids, 1.93% and 36.25% of vitamin C, 2.95% and 22.02% of anthocyanin and 2.18% and 49.12% of glucosinolate were lost, respectively. A slight reduction differences in all detected compound concentrations occurred between the initial content and the end of storage period because of the application of thyme oil compared to the control. Therefore, the total glucosinolate level in the sprout (27.02 μg/g F.W. was higher than that in the florets (7.37 μg/g F.W.. Glucoraphanin was the most abundant aliphatic glucosinolate present in the sprout and reached the highest value (16.24 μg/g F.W. followed by glucoerucin (5

  19. Time of harvesting and storage of soyabeans: influence on oil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regitano-d'Arce, M. A.B.


    Full Text Available Soybean var. IAC-8 was harvested in five different times, two previous (R7 and R8 and two subsequent (C1 and C2 to the usual commercial harvest time (H. The seeds were air dried at normal ambient temperature before storage. Those with 15% moisture could be kept for only three months. Those with 12% moisture were kept for six months. Initial characterization of the seeds revealed the least oil content in seeds from the harvest of R8. In addition, the sample R8 had the least acidity and the oil had better storage properties regarding peroxide value. During storage a general increase in acidity has been observed in the oil from seeds from all the samples and at the two moisture levels. Peroxide value of the oil decreased after three months of storage, except for R8 oils, and were even lower in the 15% moisture seeds. Spectrophotometric absorption in the ultraviolet range indicated the formation of conjugated double bonds as the period of storage increased, independently of the harvest time and seed moisture. There was little change in the iodine values of any of the samples during the storage period. The oils from R8 were the ones that showed the least oxidative deterioration during the period studied, whereas R7 and C2 seed oils were considered to have deteriorated the most.

    Se recolectó soja de la variedad IAC-8 en cinco momentos diferentes, dos previos (R7 y R8 y dos siguientes (C1 y C2 al tiempo normal de recolección comercial (H. Las semillas se secaron al aire a temperatura ambiente después del almacenamiento. Aquellas con un 15% de humedad pudieron ser conservadas durante solo tres meses. Aquellas con un 12% de humedad fueron guardadas durante seis meses. La caracterización inicial de las semillas mostró el más bajo contenido en aceite en semillas procedentes de la cosecha R8. Además la muestra RB tuvo la menor acidez y el aceite presentó las mejores propiedades al almacenamiento considerando el índice de peróxido. Durante

  20. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.


    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  1. Variability of 4-Monomethylsterols and 4,4'-Dimethylsterols in Olive Oil and Their Use as Indicators of Olive Variety, Ripening Degree, and Oil Storage Temperature. (United States)

    Lukić, Marina; Lukić, Igor; Sladonja, Barbara; Piližota, Vlasta


    To investigate the variability of 4-monomethylsterols and 4,4'-dimethylsterols in olive oil as a result of variety, ripening, and storage temperature, 36 samples were subjected to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), and results were processed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Relative amounts (percent) of β-amyrin, cycloartenol, and 24-methylenecycloartanol accounted for the most variation due to variety, while citrostadienol (percent) and 24-methylenecycloartanol (milligrams per 100 g) were strongly affected by ripening. Multivariate statistics differentiated olive oils regardless of storage conditions, which implied the possibility to use 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols as indicators of variety and ripening degree for fresh and stored oils. Absolute changes in 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols after storage were of a much smaller magnitude, meaning the investigated olive oils essentially retained health-beneficial features that derive from these compounds. Relative changes caused by storage were specific for each storage temperature and were useful in discriminating oils by linear discriminant analysis.

  2. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom


    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  3. Stability and antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate during long-term storage in an oil-in-water emulsion. (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Yang, Tsung-Shi


    This study investigated the stability and antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in medium chain triglyceride (MCT) or soybean oil (SBO) dispersed in an oil-in-water (o/w) system during long-term storage. Oil type, content, and oxidative stability affect the stability and antimicrobial activity of AITC during storage. High oil content is favorable for AITC stability in the emulsion. Notably, AITC with MCT is more stable than AITC with SBO with the same oil content. Consequently, AITC with MCT is more effective than AITC with SBO in inhibiting G(-) bacteria (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and G(+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes).

  4. Effects of processing methods and commercial storage conditions on the extra virgin olive oil quality indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiritsakis, A.


    Full Text Available The effect of machinery groups, packing materials and light intensities was ascertained on indices of oxidative deterioration, peroxide value, and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 of extra virgin olive oil for one season of olive harvesting in an effort to simulate commercial storage conditions. It was revealed that during the storage of olive oil the peroxide value was significantly affected by the type of extraction machinery, packing material and light intensity. It is significant that oil exposed to diffused daylight and artificial light attained maximum PV in the second or third month of storage and de creased thereafter, while samples stored in the dark attained their maximum PV during the sixth month of storage. Oil samples extracted using the centrifugal type of machines and kept in glass containers in the dark had higher peroxide values than those extracted by the classic method. The rate of changes of the PV and the two indices K232 and K270 was also affected similarly by the type of machinery, packing material and light intensity.El efecto de la maquinaria, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz fue relacionado con los índices de deterioración oxidativa, índice de peróxidos (IP y coeficientes de extinción K232 y K270 del aceite de oliva virgen extra durante una campaña de cosecha de aceituna en un esfuerzo por simular las condiciones de almacenamiento comercial. Esto reveló que durante el almacenamiento del aceite de oliva el índice de peróxidos fue afectado significativamente por el tipo de maquinaria de extracción, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz. Es significativo que el aceite expuesto a la luz diaria difusa y a la artificial alcanzara el máximo IP en el segundo o tercer mes de almacenamiento, decreciendo a partir de este momento, mientras que las muestras almacenadas en oscuridad no alcanzaban su máximo IP hasta el sexto mes de conservación. Las muestras de aceite extraídas con centr

  5. Influence of storage time and temperature on the chemical composition of the essential oil of Hyptis pectinata L. Poit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. JESUS


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hyptis pectinata, popularly known as “sambacaitá”, is a native medicinal herb used by local people for treating disease. Its pharmacological, antimicrobial, and medicinal properties have been reported in several studies. The essential oil of the leaves is rich in terpene compounds responsible for its properties. Because there are factors that can influence the chemical composition of essential oils, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage on Hyptis pectinata essential oil for 360 days at two different temperatures. The essential oil was distilled from dried leaves of seven-month-old plants using the hydrodistillation method, and the chemical composition was determined using GC-MS and GC/FID. The effects of storage on the essential oil Hyptis pectinata were tested over the course of a year (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 days, using two temperatures: room (±32ºC and freezer (-20ºC. The predominant compounds in the essential oil are β–caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and germancrene D. The concentration of the chemical constituents of the essential oil varied depending on the storage temperature, and over the 360 days. The storage of the essential oil at room temperature over one year resulted in higher concentrations of β-elemene, α-copaene, germacrene D, caryophyllene oxide, and (E,E-α-farnesene and lower content of α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, compared to the results obtained from storing the essential oil in a freezer. These results indicate that the essential oil should be stored in a freezer, which provides greater stability to the concentration of the chemical constituents.

  6. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)


    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  7. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage. (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang


    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar


    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  9. Managing the cultivation and processing of microalgae to prolong storage in water-in-oil emulsions. (United States)

    Fernández, Lorena; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert; VanderGheynst, Jean S


    Producing biofuel from microalgae on a large scale will require high biomass productivity using systems such as high-rate raceway ponds. The vast scale of proposed raceway ponds, spanning 247 to 988 acres per farm, suggests practices currently used in commercial monoculture agricultural systems will need to be adopted for cultivation of algae. In commercial crop production, monoculture is facilitated by a well-established seed production, distribution, and delivery system. Currently, no such system exists for microalgae. The aims of this study were to investigate the application of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the storage of microalgae and the management steps required to prolong cell viability. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared with Chlorella sorokiniana, C. minutissima, C. vulgaris var. vulgaris, and C. vulgaris to investigate the impacts of cell cultivation medium and cell acclimation prior to emulsification on cell viability during storage. For emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana, cells that received an acclimation treatment 24 h between cell separation from the cultivation medium and emulsification survived over 100 days longer than cells that did not receive an acclimation treatment. Emulsions prepared with C. sorokiniana grown in medium containing 29.7 mM KNO3, 1.66 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O, and 0.85 mM FeSO4 · 2H2O had higher levels of viable cells after 100 days of storage compared to cells grown in medium containing 9.90 mM KNO3 and 0.20 mM MgSO4 · 7H2O with no FeSO4 · 2H2O. The results indicate that processing of cells can be managed to increase the stability of microalgae in W/O emulsions.

  10. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage. (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A; El-Zahar, Kahled M


    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL(-1). In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g(-1) after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese.

  11. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin TermehYousefi


    Full Text Available Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  12. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material. (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro


    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  13. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability. (United States)

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat


    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated (p < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  14. Pretreatment of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks using chemical oxidation process with hydrogen peroxide and Fenton


    Ramin Nabizadeh; Kazem Naddafi; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Massoud Yunesian; Ali Koolivand


    Background & Objectives: Remaining crude oil in storage tanks lead to accumulation of oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of chemical oxidation using H2O2 and Fenton’s reagent in removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks. Materials & methods: In this experimental study, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton’s reagent were a...

  15. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks


    K Naddafi; R Nabizadeh; S Nasseri; K Yaghmaeian; A Koolivand


    Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control), 1:2, 1:4, 1:6,...

  16. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  17. Influence of storage time and temperature on the chemical composition of the essential oil of Hyptis pectinata L. Poit




    ABSTRACT Hyptis pectinata, popularly known as “sambacaitá”, is a native medicinal herb used by local people for treating disease. Its pharmacological, antimicrobial, and medicinal properties have been reported in several studies. The essential oil of the leaves is rich in terpene compounds responsible for its properties. Because there are factors that can influence the chemical composition of essential oils, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage on H...

  18. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.


    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  19. Assessment of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil at ambient and sunlight storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Hussain, Abdullah


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to probe the extent of oxidative alterations in soybean oil (SBO, subjected to ambient and sunlight storage, over a period of 180 days. The magnitude of oxidative changes was monitored by the periodical measurement of peroxide value (PV, color, free fatty acid (FFA contents, refractive index (RI, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, conjugated trienes-, and iodine- values. At the end of storage period (180 days, the initial contents of FFA (0.02 % as oleic acid and PV (0.02 meq/kg of oil of the SBO samples subjected to ambient and sunlight storage reached the level of 1.77, 2.90 % and 20.52, 41.89 meq/kg of oil, respectively. The initial values of RI (40°C (1.4630, panisidine (1.10, conjugated dienes (0.08 and conjugated trienes (0.04 rose to the point of 1.4647, 1.4659; 36.13, 50.40; 23.97, 41.49 and 13.81, 19.35, respectively. Whereas, the iodine value (g of I /100 g of oil decreased from 138.00 to 126.18 and 118.04, respectively. At the end of storage period, the overall order, indicative of the oxidative changes in RI, FFA, IV, color (red + yellow, PV, P-anisidine, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes of the SBO subjected to ambient and sunlight storage was as follows: 1.001:1.002, 1.00:1.65, 0.91:0.86, 0.80:0.60 + 0.75:0.50, 1.00:2.04, 1.00:1.39, 1.00:1.73 and 1.00:1.40, respectively. The results of various parameters investigated in the present study demonstrated the magnitude of oxidative deterioration of the SBO samples exposed to sunlight to be significantly (P Se lleva a cabo un estudio para conocer las diferencias en la oxidación del aceite de soja conservado a temperatura ambiente y a la luz solar durante un periodo de 180 días. Los cambios en la oxidación fueron evaluados mediante medidas periódicas del índice de peroxidos, color, acidez libre, índice de refracción (RI, índice de p-anisidina, dienos conjugados e índice de yodo. Al final del periodo de almacenamiento, los niveles de

  20. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, I.; Haugsgjerd, B.O.


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40°C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil...... firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters......, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. An Assessment of Hydrological Safety for the Yeosu Underground Oil Storage Caverns, U-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun


    The objectives of this report are as follows: -Assessment of overall hydrological safety for the Yeosu underground oil storage caverns U-1-1 prior to the completion of the construction -Assessment of the efficiency of water curtain in the facility and establishment of the comprehensive countermeasures. This report has following contents: -Examination of the geological properties - geology and fracture distribution -Investigation of hydrological system - groundwater flow system and main water conductive feature - hydrochemical properties -Investigation of the safety of the facility - efficiency of the water curtain system - amount of inflow water to the caverns - suitability of the observation boreholes in the facility -Overall interpretation and assessment -Suggestion of the guideline for the operation problems.

  2. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero


    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  3. Metabolic Changes during Storage of Brassica napus Seeds under Moist Conditions and the Consequences for the Sensory Quality of the Resulting Virgin Oil. (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Schweiger, Rabea; Pons, Caroline; Wagner, Claudia; Brühl, Ludger; Matthäus, Bertrand; Müller, Caroline


    Virgin rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil is a valuable niche product, if delivered with a high quality. In this study, the effects of moist storage of B. napus seeds for 1 to 4 days on the seed metabolome and the chemo-sensory properties of the produced oils were determined. The concentrations of several primary metabolites, including monosaccharides and amino acids, rapidly increased in the seeds, probably indicating the breakdown of storage compounds to support seed germination. Seed concentrations of indole glucosinolates increased with a slight time offset suggesting that amino acids may be used to modify secondary metabolism. The volatile profiles of the oils were pronouncedly influenced by moist seed storage, with the sensory quality of the oils decreasing. This study provides a direct time-resolved link between seed metabolism under moist conditions and the quality of the resulting oils, thereby emphasizing the crucial role of dry seed storage in ensuring high oil quality.

  4. Final Report on Assessment of Crude Oil and Refined Petroleum Product Quality During Long-Term Storage. (United States)


    crystalline wax, sand, clay , water and possibly asphaltenes. Emulsions at the water-oil interface have been reported after prolonged storage, and...detection of hydrogen sulfide was noted. The bitumen sediment and water inherently present in crude may contribute to this layer by settling out during

  5. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.


    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  6. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei


    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12...

  7. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.


    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...

  8. Mathematical model to predict the formation of pyropheophytin a in virgin olive oil during storage. (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz


    A mathematical model has been developed that describes the changes of pyropheophytin a (pyphya) in virgin olive oil (VOO). The model has been created using multivariate statistical procedures and is used in the prediction of the stability and loss of freshness of VOO. An earlier thermokinetic study (Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Mı́nguez-Mosquera, M. I.; Gandul-Rojas, B. Thermal degradation kinetics of chlorophyll pigments in virgin olive oils. 1. Compounds of series a. J. Agric. Food Chem.2010, 58, 6200-6208) that looked at the characterization of the degradation of pheophytin a (phya), the main chlorophyll compound in VOO and a precursor of pyphya, allowed the authors to obtain the kinetic parameters necessary for mathematically expressing the percentage of pyphya, according to the time and temperature of storage using the Arrhenius model. Data regarding the percentage of pyphya obtained during the actual degradation of VOO in darkness, at room temperature and with a limited supply of oxygen, has allowed the mathematical prediction model to be validated. Using average monthly temperatures in the calculation of kinetic constants, theoretical data are obtained that are generally found to be within 95% confidence levels of experimental data.

  9. Oxidative stability of waste cooking oil and white diesel upon storage at room temperature. (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Chrysikou, Loukia P


    Renewable diesel fuels are alternative fuels produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out at pilot-plant scale and a paraffinic diesel, called "white" diesel was obtained. The white diesel and WCO samples were stored for one year at room temperature under normal atmospheric conditions, but not exposed to sunlight. Viscosity, total acid number (TAN), induction period (IP), carbonaceous deposits, density, cold flow properties, distillation and water content were monitored. TAN and density of the white diesel stored in conventional bottles changed from 0 to 0.221 mg KOH/g and from 787 to 838 kg/m(3), respectively. The remaining parameters did not vary significantly. Water content of WCO increased from 482 to 2491 mg/kg, TAN from 0.744 to 0.931 mg KOH/g, whereas viscosity, IP and carbon residues fluctuated mildly. The results are indicative of the white diesel's stability, rendering it suitable for prolonged storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.


    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  11. Microorganism viability influences internal phase droplet size changes during storage in water-in-oil emulsions. (United States)

    VanderGheynst, Jean S; Guo, Hong-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Scher, Herbert


    Water-in-oil emulsions provide an alternative for long-term stabilization of microorganisms. Maintaining physical stability of the emulsion and cell viability is critical for large-scale application. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were prepared with the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Physical stability was measured via light scattering measurements of the internal phase droplets and cell viability was measured by plating and enumerating colony forming units. Emulsions were demonstrated to stabilize L. giganteum and C. vulgaris for more than 4 months without refrigeration. Introducing nutrients into the internal phase of W/O emulsions without cells had no significant effect on changes in aqueous phase droplet size dynamics. Internal phase droplet size changes that occurred over time were greater in the presence of cells. Increases in droplet size were correlated with cell death indicating measurement of internal phase droplet size changes may be an approach for monitoring declines in cell viability during storage.

  12. Effects of essential oil treatment, gas atmosphere, and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes in a model vegetable system. (United States)

    Scollard, Johann; Francis, Gillian A; O'Beirne, David


    Natural antimicrobials such as plant essential oils (EOs) may be useful for controlling pathogenic bacteria on fresh-cut vegetables. The antilisterial properties of EOs (thyme, oregano, and rosemary), in combination with different storage atmospheres (air, 5% CO2-2% O2-93% N2, and 20% CO2-1% O2-79% N2) and temperatures (4 and 80C), were examined using a gas flow-through system combined with a vegetable agar model. The antimicrobial effects of the EOs varied depending on the oil, the Listeria strain and species, the method of application, and the storage conditions tested. Using the disk diffusion assay, the antilisterial effectiveness of the oils was in the following order: thyme EO > oregano EO > rosemary EO. Volatiles released from the EOs resulted in very small antilisterial effects, indicating that the oils needed to be in direct contact with cultures in order to be effective. There were strain and species effects, with L. innocua NCTC 11288 exhibiting the strongest resistance to EOs, and L. monocytogenes NCTC 7973 being the most sensitive strain. In addition, the effectiveness of the EOs was influenced by storage atmosphere and temperature. Use of EOs in combination with a gas atmosphere of 20% CO2-1% O2-79% N2 had the greatest antilisterial effect, suggesting that high CO2 atmospheres enhanced the antilisterial properties of EOs. Lowering the storage temperature from 8 to 4OC improved the antilisterial activity of thyme oil. It is concluded that thyme and oregano EOs display strong inhibitory effects against Listeria and that increasing CO2 levels and lowering storage temperatures further enhance these antilisterial effects.

  13. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN. Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu


    Full Text Available In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15% and safrole (17.15%, followed by myristicin (14.18% and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%. After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  14. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van


    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  15. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives. (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M


    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  16. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of Bifurcaria bifurcata aqueous extract on canola oil. Effect of extract concentration on the oxidation stability and volatile compound generation during oil storage. (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Dominguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel


    In this research the antioxidant activity of water extracts of Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) at different dose against butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was evaluated in canola oil. Water extracts were firstly characterized in terms of total solid and polyphenolic compound contents, and their antioxidant activity together with that of BHT was evaluated using several in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP). Next, the progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in canola oil added with five BBE concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm) and two BHT concentrations (50 and 200ppm) using an accelerated oxidation test. The progress in lipid oxidation was monitored by assessing some chemical indices (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and conjugated dienes) during oil storage and some volatile compounds at the end of the storage period. BBE showed a significant antioxidant effect, being this ability concentration-dependent. The extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to BBE dose, specially with regard to primary oxidation products. At the highest level of BBE, significant decreases of primary and secondary oxidation products, with respect to the control, were obtained with reduction percentages of 71.53%, 72.78%, 68.17% and 71.3% for peroxides, conjugated dienes, p-anisidine and TOTOX values, respectively. A level of 600ppm or higher concentration of the extract inhibits the lipid oxidation in a similar way than BHT at 200ppm. Regarding the inhibition of the formation of volatile compounds, both BBE and BHT strongly inhibited the formation of volatiles during oil storage, being this inhibition similar for all the concentrations of BBE and BHT essayed. Overall, results indicated that BBE can be used as a potential natural additive for improving oxidative stability of canola oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrastructure and oil secretion in Hiptage sericea Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arumugasamy


    Full Text Available The oil secreting glands of Hiptage sericea Hook. consist of three regions: epithelial, sub-epithelial and sub-glandular. In early stages, the oil secreting cells are characterized by the presence of plastids with starch grains and electron translucent vesicles, mitochondria, rER, polysomes, small vacuoles, numerous lipid bodies and well-defined nucleus with nucleolus. Later, the accumulation of plastoglobuli and inclusion bodies occur in the matrix of the plastid. Tubular, smooth endoplasmic reticulum begins to appear in the cytoplasm. With the onset of secretion, the osmiophilic contents of plastids which appear as electron dense, round droplets move-into cytoplasm and often occur in the region of the plasmalemma invaginations. However, in matured glands the lipid bodies disappear from the cytoplasm. The size of the vacuoles increases and are filled with electron opaque substance. Similar substances are also found in the sub-cuticular spaces as well as outside the cuticle.

  18. Preservation Mechanism of Chitosan-Based Coating with Cinnamon Oil for Fruits Storage Based on Sensor Data. (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Xu, Qinglian; Yang, Simon X; Chen, Cunkun; Tang, Yong; Sun, Shumin; Zhang, Liang; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong


    The chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agent has been developed recently to control the decay of fruits. However, its fresh keeping and antimicrobial mechanism is still not very clear. The preservation mechanism of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil for fruits storage is investigated in this paper. Results in the atomic force microscopy sensor images show that many micropores exist in the chitosan coating film. The roughness of coating film is affected by the concentration of chitosan. The antifungal activity of cinnamon oil should be mainly due to its main consistent trans-cinnamaldehyde, which is proportional to the trans-cinnamaldehyde concentration and improves with increasing the attachment time of oil. The exosmosis ratios of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of cinnamon oil. Morphological observation indicates that, compared to the normal cell, the wizened mycelium of A. flavus is observed around the inhibition zone, and the growth of spores is also inhibited. Moreover, the analysis of gas sensors indicate that the chitosan-oil coating could decrease the level of O₂ and increase the level of CO₂ in the package of cherry fruits, which also control the fruit decay. These results indicate that its preservation mechanism might be partly due to the micropores structure of coating film as a barrier for gas and a carrier for oil, and partly due to the activity of cinnamon oil on the cell disruption.

  19. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  20. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan


    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year

  1. Study of chemical changes produced in virgin olive oils with different phenolic contents during an accelerated storage treatment. (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Chiavaro, Emma; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Cerretani, Lorenzo


    Chemical changes produced in an extra virgin olive oil sample in the presence (EVOO) and absence (EVOOP) of its phenolic fraction during an accelerated storage treatment at 60 degrees C up to 7 weeks were studied. Modifications in phenol content, as well as changes in several quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorbance, fatty acid composition, oxidative stability index, and tocopherol content) were also evaluated under the same storage conditions and compared to those of the same sample deprived of phenolic compounds. When the phenolic extract of the EVOO was studied, a decrease of the antioxidants first present in the sample and an increase of the oxidized products were observed. In addition, oxidation seemed to produce the transformation of such phenolic compounds as secoiridoids and the appearance of oxidized forms of them. These latter compounds could be used as molecular markers of the lack of extra virgin olive oil freshness.

  2. Iron-Corroding Methanogen Isolated from a Crude-Oil Storage Tank ▿ (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Ito, Kimio; Mori, Koji; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Harayama, Shigeaki


    Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel in anaerobic environments has been attributed to hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. A sludge sample collected from the bottom plate of a crude-oil storage tank was used to inoculate a medium containing iron (Fe0) granules, which was then incubated anaerobically at 37°C under an N2-CO2 atmosphere to enrich for microorganisms capable of using iron as the sole source of electrons. A methanogen, designated strain KA1, was isolated from the enrichment culture. An analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KA1 is a Methanococcus maripaludis strain. Strain KA1 produced methane and oxidized iron much faster than did the type strain of M. maripaludis, strain JJT, which produced methane at a rate expected from the abiotic H2 production rate from iron. Scanning electron micrographs of iron coupons that had been immersed in either a KA1 culture, a JJT culture, or an aseptic medium showed that only coupons from the KA1 culture had corroded substantially, and these were covered with crystalline deposits that consisted mainly of FeCO3. PMID:20118376

  3. Iron-corroding methanogen isolated from a crude-oil storage tank. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Ito, Kimio; Mori, Koji; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Harayama, Shigeaki


    Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel in anaerobic environments has been attributed to hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. A sludge sample collected from the bottom plate of a crude-oil storage tank was used to inoculate a medium containing iron (Fe(0)) granules, which was then incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C under an N(2)-CO(2) atmosphere to enrich for microorganisms capable of using iron as the sole source of electrons. A methanogen, designated strain KA1, was isolated from the enrichment culture. An analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KA1 is a Methanococcus maripaludis strain. Strain KA1 produced methane and oxidized iron much faster than did the type strain of M. maripaludis, strain JJ(T), which produced methane at a rate expected from the abiotic H(2) production rate from iron. Scanning electron micrographs of iron coupons that had been immersed in either a KA1 culture, a JJ(T) culture, or an aseptic medium showed that only coupons from the KA1 culture had corroded substantially, and these were covered with crystalline deposits that consisted mainly of FeCO(3).

  4. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)


    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  5. Effect of black pepper essential oil on the quality of fresh pork during storage. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying; Pan, Dao-Dong; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Shao, Xing-Feng; Chen, Yin-Ji; Sun, Yang-Ying; Ou, Chang-Rong


    The effect of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), meat color, the percentage of metmyoglobin (MetMb%), microbiological parameters and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of pork loins stored at 4°C for 9days was evaluated. BPEO treatments showed lower TBARS, MetMb%, yellowness (b*) values, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae count and TVB-N values and higher lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values than the control during storage; the effectiveness of BPEO was dose-dependent. The retardation of the formation of MetMb by adding BPEO ensured higher L* and a* values and lower b* values than the control at 6 and 9days; the MetMb content has a similar trend to the lipid oxidation. The lower TVB-N value of BPEO treatments than the control could be attributed to the inhibition of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to BPEO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of 6-gingerol on physicochemical properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) surimi fortified with perilla oil during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Mi, Hongbo; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Cong; Yi, Shumin; Xu, Yongxia; Li, Jianrong


    Surimi is produced from deboned fish muscle through washing to remove blood, lipids, sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities. There is an increasing interest in the fortification of surimi with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids because of their health benefits. However, lipid oxidation should be considered as an important factor during storage. Hence, in this study, the quality properties and oxidative stability of surimi fortified with 30 g kg(-1) perilla oil (PO), or 5 g kg(-1) 6-gingerol (GI) or their combination (PO+GI) was investigated. Perilla oil significantly improved whiteness of surimi gel, but negatively influenced its gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture. However, there was no significant difference in texture properties among GI, PO+GI and control groups. During the whole storage period, GI and PO+GI groups had higher gel strength and WHC than control and PO groups. Moreover, lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), carbonyl content and total plate count (TPC) were observed in GI group compared with other groups. Perilla oil and 6-gingerol could be applied together to effectively fortify surimi qualities. Additionally, 6-gingerol could prevent lipid and protein oxidation and microbial growth of surimi during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Wang


    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%, caryophyllene (12.7%, β-cubebene (7.9%, 4-terpineol (7.5% and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%, while humulene epoxide II (29.4%, caryophyllene oxide (24.0%, diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7% and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7% were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  8. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan


    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  9. Properties and Storage Stability of O/W Emulsion Replaced with Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupongsak Sasikan


    Full Text Available The properties and changes of an o/w emulsion(mayonnaise as affected by the replacement of long-chain fatty acid oil with medium-chain fatty acid oil were studied. Different ratios of coconut oil (CNO and rice bran oil (RBO (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60 (v/v were blended as the oil base for the study. The highest replacement of RBO with CNO in an o/w emulsion that could be achieved with minimal change of sensory properties was 30%. The Emulsion Stability Index and oil-phase crystallisation temperatures of mayonnaise with RBO alone and with 30% CNO replacement did not change when stored at 30±2°C for 4 weeks. The droplet size of the mayonnaise containing only RBO increased, possibly due to droplet coalescence. In contrast, the droplet size of the mayonnaise with CNO:RBO=30:70 did not change during storage.

  10. Packaging methods and storage duration affect essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth.). (United States)

    Ebadi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Azizi, Majid; Ahmadi, Noorollah


    Changes in essential oils (EOs) content and composition of lemon verbena leave at different packaging methods (packaged with air, nitrogen, or under vacuum) and during storage period (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months) were determined. All the samples were hydrodistilled every 2 months during storage for EO content evaluation. EO composition was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that by extending the storage period in all packaging methods, EO content was significantly decreased. Parallel to the increase in the storage duration in all packaging methods, citral content was decreased, whereas the amounts of limonene and 1,8-cineole were increased. Packaging of lemon verbena leaves with nitrogen preserved the highest EO content during 8 months of storage and achieved the desired amounts of citral, limonene, and 1,8-cineole. This investigation also showed camphene may be a useful marker for the indication of storage duration of lemon verbena.

  11. Effect of α-tocopherol on oxidative stability of oil during spray drying and storage of dried emulsions. (United States)

    Hernández Sánchez, Maria Del Rayo; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Turchiuli, Christelle


    Lipophilic compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants can be encapsulated by spray drying in order to protect and prolong their functionalities and get new handling properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both the spray drying stage and storage (60°C - 50% RH) on the oxidation of lipophilic compounds encapsulated in spray dried oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w oil in dry matter) using maltodextrin as matrix and Tween® 20 as emulsifier. Emulsions were prepared with oil containing or not containing α-tocopherol (482ppm in oil) in order to also demonstrate the influence of the antioxidant. Results showed that there is a beginning of oxidation during spray drying, evidenced by a slight increase of markers of rancidity, i.e. conjugated dienes and volatile organic compounds. During storage, the oxidative degradation of PUFAs and α-tocopherol started quickly under the conditions of aging. This was shown to be due to the negative effect of the process and to the porosity of the solid matrix to oxygen, associated with the hollow structure of the particles. An inhibitory action of maltodextrin on α-tocopherol was also hypothesized, but it has to be confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of temperature and moisture during semi-hermetic storage on the quality evaluation parameters of soybean grain and oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Ziegler


    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill is the most cultivated oilseed in the world, being of major importance in food, feed and biodiesel production. The quality of the product being marketed is directly influenced by storage techniques, and the grain moisture, temperature and storage time are primarily responsible for most of the amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity during the semi-hermetic storage on chemical and technological parameters for assessing the quality of soybean. The kernels were stored for 12 months in semi-hermetic system with two combinations temperature (15 to 25 °C and humidity (12 and 16% and then evaluated for the occurrence of plagues, variations in humidity, levels of lipids and proteins, protein solubility, oil quality, carotenoids, color, enthalpy and thousand grain weight. The results showed that the increase in storage time leads to changes in chemical and technological parameters. The preservation of the parameters of acid oil and thousand grain weight was dependent reductions in moisture, while the incidence of pests, protein solubility, enthalpy, carotenoid levels and parameters of color preservation were preserved by reducing temperature.

  13. A comparison study on the antibacterial efficiency of essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum in ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shohreh Dadfar


    Conclusion: The results indicated that both essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum increased the microbial stability of ground meat during storage, whereas dried powder showed more preservative capability at final days of storage. So it is possible to use this kind of natural product instead of synthetic one to reduce the disease of consumers and enhancing the organoleptic features of food

  14. effect of cold storage on the composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrodistilled volatile oil of fresh leaves and leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. stored for 24hr at 4oC were compared. The GC, LSC and GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed major quantitative differences in their chemical composition. The predominantly sesquitepene rich oils differed mainly in the percentage of their ...

  15. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities. (United States)


    ... this chapter. (c) Condition of units. Containers and aboveground tanks used to store used oil at... containment for existing aboveground tanks. Existing aboveground tanks used to store used oil at transfer.... (f) Secondary containment for new aboveground tanks. New aboveground tanks used to store used oil at...

  16. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......, the effect of the diet on protein oxidation in fish fillets was also determined. In both studies, feeding regimes significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Moreover concentration of primary oxidation products at the end of the storage period was highest in fish fed lipids with the highest unsaturation......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...

  17. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. (United States)

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of optical remote sensing techniques to quantify emissions from urban oil wells, storage tanks, and other small stationary sources (United States)

    Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Tisopulos, L.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Robinson, R. A.; Innocenti, F.; Perry, S.


    Oil fields in the Los Angeles Basin remain very productive even after more than a century-long history of exploration. There are currently over 5,000 active oil wells the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), with a large portion placed in close proximity of residences, schools and other sensitive receptors. Gaseous emissions from oil wells and equipment related to oil extraction can have a significant impact on air quality. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and other state regulatory agencies have a number of rules aimed to reduce Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and to minimize potential impacts to nearby communities. However, little information is available on the effectiveness of current control measures and magnitude of emissions remain largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, in the fall of 2015 the SCAQMD, Fluxsense Inc., the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and Kassay Field Services Inc. conducted a comprehensive five-week study to measure gaseous emissions from oil wells, oil pumps, intermediate storage tanks, and other small point sources. A combination of optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques was used to detect and quantify emissions VOCs, methane, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other gaseous pollutants. Fluxsense used Solar Occultation Flux (SOF), Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), and Extractive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to survey a large number of oil extraction sites and other small emission sources within SCAB. Similarly, Kassay Field Services carried out open-path FTIR measurements to complement observations provided by Fluxsense. Concurrently, NPL operated their Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system on a smaller sub-set of sources to validate the emission results provided by Fluxsense and Kassay. During this presentation we will discuss the results of this joined measurement effort and the potential impacts of the observed emissions on neighboring communities. Additionally

  19. Protection of polyunsaturated oils against ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage using a polyphenol oxidase containing extract from red clover. (United States)

    Gadeyne, F; Van Ranst, G; Vlaeminck, B; Vossen, E; Van der Meeren, P; Fievez, V


    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are to a large extent subject to biohydrogenation in a ruminal environment, which results to the healthy value of these PUFA being lost upon dietary addition to ruminants. PUFA are also prone to lipid oxidation upon storage. Therefore, it was tested whether emulsions could be protected against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage by using protein extracts rich in polyphenol oxidase, an enzyme responsible for browning of plant tissues. PUFA rich emulsions were made with a protein extract from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) before adding a synthetic diphenol (4-methylcatechol) to induce protection. Results after in vitro incubation confirmed the hypothesis and indicated the potential to prevent PUFA in linseed or fish oil from ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage through addition of 4-methylcatechol to the emulsions. Protection depended on the amount of oil present and protein concentrations in the emulsions. Protection efficiency increased with increasing the amounts of diphenol present in the emulsion per unit interfacial surface area. It is suggested that protection is caused by an effective encapsulation by cross-linking of the protein layer at the emulsion interface. For the first time, a method is described to protect PUFA using an enzyme abundantly available in nature, polyphenol oxidase, in combination with 4-methylcatechol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage. (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai


    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Diesel oil safety stock in storage and distribution terminals: a case study: Porto Velho/Rio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rubens C. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); D' agosto, Marcio A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    This paper presents a methodology for calculating diesel oil safety stock in distributor terminals located in the northern of Brazil, applied on a case study for terminals in the state of Rondonia. From the mapping of logistic flows related to transport and storage of diesel oil, the risk factors that cause uncertainties in lead time were analyzed and quantified. Through a research conducted among economic agents (producers, distributors and carriers) operating in the region, it was measured the relevance and impact of risk factors on the safety stock in the terminals. The safety stock was calculated by the classical equation of inventories, as well as by the methodology proposed in this paper. The difference between the two methods has unveiled inefficiencies derived from uncertainties in lead time. Recommendations of actions to mitigate the risk factors are included at the end of this paper. (author)

  2. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with superior adsorption and hydrophobic properties toward oil spill cleanup and hydrocarbon storage. (United States)

    Yang, Chi; Kaipa, Ushasree; Mather, Qian Zhang; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin F; Omary, Mohammad A


    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C(6)-C(8) hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  3. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein


    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages.

  4. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil is very appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. The effect of packaging materials (stainless, jar, clear polyethylenene terephthalate (PET), clear glass and dark glass bottles) on quality attributes of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was studied ...

  5. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.


    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  6. Effect of preformed konjac gels, with and without olive oil, on the technological attributes and storage stability of merguez sausage. (United States)

    Triki, M; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ruiz-Capillas, C


    In order to improve the fat content of fresh sausages (merguez), the effects of both reducing beef fat level (by konjac gel-KG) and incorporing olive oil (in a konjac matrix-OKM) on nutritional, quality characteristic and refrigerated storage stability were studied. Fat reductions in merguez sausages of between 53 and 76% were achieved when beef fat was replaced with KG; the proportion reached 34-49% using OKM as a beef fat replacer, where 23 to 36% of total fat in the merguez was from olive oil. The merguez contained substantial amounts of some minerals (Mg and Fe). Sensory analysis revealed no significant differences between the control and the reformulated products, which had relatively low levels of lipid oxidation. Shelf life and biogenic amines of merguez sausage were not affected by formulation during refrigerated storage. Therefore, the use of konjac materials as fat replacers could reduce total caloric energy by replacing/reducing beef fat and improving sausage formulation to achieve healthier merguez products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed seeds under different storage conditions. (United States)

    Phasukarratchai, Naphatsarnan; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Tongcumpou, Chantra


    Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPS under various conditions is important for the utilisation of PEs. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPS under different storage conditions. PE degradation rates were found to be first-order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10 -3 d -1 for both JCO and JPS unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280% to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPS due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilised JPS showed an 80% to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPS under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light-protected container and below 4 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of sodium alginate bead encapsulation on the storage stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2. (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; Laddomada, Barbara; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of encapsulation on the storage stability of oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide from a micronized durum wheat bran fraction. Wheat bran oil was encapsulated in 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads. Encapsulated and unencapsulated oil samples were stored at 4 or 25 °C, in daylight or darkness, over 90 days, and, at defined time points, subjected to stability evaluation based on fatty acid hydroperoxide production and tocopherol (α, β, and γ forms), tocotrienol (α, β, and γ forms) and carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene) degradation. The encapsulation of the oil into alginate beads significantly increased stability, optimally when stored at 4 °C, maintaining high levels of isoprenoids and low content of fatty acid hydroperoxides over 30 days of storage.

  9. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis on the Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti


    Full Text Available The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3% of rosemary oil (RO on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food.

  11. Colour Determination and Change of Sensory Properties of Mayonnaise with Different Contents of Oil Depending on Length of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. SIKIMIĆ


    Full Text Available This paper studies the stability of three types of mayonnaise (with 75 %, 50 % and 30 % of edible refined sunflower oil and other additives by measuring colour on photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter “MOM-colour 100“, showing the results in CIE (Y(%, l (nm and Č (% and CIE L ´ a ´ b system immediately after preparation, after 90 and 180 days of warehousing, at temperature of +5°C. In parallel, sensory analysis was conducted by means of the analytical point system when a group of experienced tasters evaluated the appearance, colour, fragrance and taste, during the storage lasting up to 180 days. It was established that average estimates for the appearance, colour and both, statistically do not depend significantly on the contents of mayonnaise and statistically very much depend on the time of storage. The interaction of contents of mayonnaise and time of storage statistically significantly influences the average estimate of the appearance and to all sensory properties.

  12. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna


    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  13. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro


    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  14. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage. (United States)

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata


    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. (Chemotaxonomic) Implications of Postharvest/Storage-Induced Changes in Plant Volatile Profiles--the Case of Artemisia absinthium L. Essential Oil. (United States)

    Blagojević, Polina D; Radulović, Niko S; Skropeta, Danielle


    The plant volatile profile and the essential-oil chemical composition change during the storage of plant material. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model able to predict, explain, and quantify these changes. Mathematical equations, derived under the assumption that the essential oil contained within plant material could be treated as an ideal solution (Raoult's law), were applied for tracking of postharvest changes in the volatile profile of Artemisia absinthium L. (the essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS). Starting from a specific chemical composition of an essential-oil sample obtained from plant material after a short drying period (typically 5-10 d), and by using the equations derived from this model, one could easily predict evaporation-induced changes in the volatile profile of the plant material. Based on the composition of the essential-oil sample obtained after a given storage time t, it is possible to identify those components that were involved in chemical reactions, both as reactants and possible products. The established model even allowed the recognition of pairs of transformation, i.e., 'daughter' products and their 'parent' compounds. The obtained results highlight that the essential-oil composition is highly dependent on the storage period of any plant material and urges caution in different types of phytochemical studies, especially chemotaxonomic ones, or practical application. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Prebiotic Carbohydrates: Effect on Reconstitution, Storage, Release, and Antioxidant Properties of Lime Essential Oil Microparticles. (United States)

    Campelo-Felix, Pedro Henrique; Souza, Hugo Júnior Barbosa; Figueiredo, Jayne de Abreu; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; de Oliveira, Cassiano Rodrigues; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Borges, Soraia Vilela


    The aim of this study was to include prebiotic biopolymers as wall material in microparticles of lime essential oil. Whey protein isolate (WPI), inulin (IN), and oligofructose (OL) biopolymers were used in the following combinations: WPI, WPI/IN (4:1), and WPI/OL (4:1). The emulsion droplets in the presence of inulin and oligofructose showed larger sizes on reconstitution. There was no significant difference in solubility of the particles, but the wettability was improved on addition of the polysaccharides. The size of the oligofructose chains favored the adsorption of water. Prebiotic biopolymers reduced thermal and chemical stability of the encapsulated oil. Microparticles produced with WPI showed a higher bioactive compound release rate, mainly due to its structural properties, that enabled rapid diffusion of oil through the pores. The use of prebiotic biopolymers can be a good option to add value to encapsulated products, thus promoting health benefits.

  17. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage. (United States)

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M


    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  18. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin. (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  19. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 23, 2011 ... highlight a light influence of time as well as type of container on the acidic composition of oils, although oleic acid ... quality by protecting the product from both oxygen and light ..... so pronounced like FFA and PV levels (Figure 1C). This ..... bottles exhibited a reduced intensity of the chlorophyll pigments ...

  20. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.

  1. Vitamin A retention in \\"palm oil-gari\\" during processing and storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari samples from six different locations in Imo state of Nigeria, were assessed for vit A activity for a period of 4 weeks. Five samples were randomly selected from each location and stored at 28°C under the usual household storage conditions. Gari sample enriched with vit A stored for 6 weeks under similar conditions but ...

  2. Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Arrays and Economic Allocation of Energy Storage System on Large Oil Tanker Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lan


    Full Text Available This study optimizes the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV panels on a large oil tanker ship system and considers the impact of partial shading to improve the performance of the PV system. This work presents a novel method that considers the difference between the expected and real outputs of PV modules to optimize the size of energy storage system (ESS. The method also takes into account the cost of wasted power, the capital cost of the system, fuel cost and the CO2 emissions. Unlike on land, power generation using a PV on a ship depends on the date, latitude and longitude of the navigation. Accordingly, this work considers a route from Dalian in China to Aden in Yemen, accounting for the seasonal and geographical variations of solar irradiation. This proposed method adopts five conditions associated with the navigation route to model the total shipload. Various cases are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Antibacterial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (iceberg and romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were wash...

  4. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  5. Effect of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. on fresh fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine OZPOLAT

    Full Text Available Abstract It is important that the methods and materials used for to lengthen the shelf-life of food are simple, inexpensive and safe. For these reasons, herbal additives like cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. have been preferred recently. Thus, the present study focuses on the influence of black cumin oil on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C. Acceptability scores for sensory quality of all described treatment groups decreased with storage time. Defined limits for mesophilic bacteria and Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N were reached after 21st days for the control group, after 24th days for with 0.2% black cumin oil treated group and after 28th days for with 0.4% and 0.6% black cumin oil treated groups. No difference was found among groups during storage in terms of defined thiobarbituric acid (TBA values. Consequently, it was found that black cumin oil treated groups had longer shelf-life and higher sensory quality than the untreated control group.

  6. Wastes generated during the storage of extra virgin olive oil as a natural source of phenolic compounds. (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesus; Giambanelli, Elisa; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto


    Phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been associated with beneficial effects for health. Indeed, these compounds exert strong antiproliferative effects on many pathological processes, which has stimulated chemical characterization of the large quantities of wastes generated during olive oil production. In this investigation, the potential of byproducts generated during storage of EVOO as a natural source of antioxidant compounds has been evaluated using solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction processes followed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) coupled to electrospray time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry (TOF/IT-MS). These wastes contain polyphenols belonging to different classes such as phenolic acids and alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavones. The relationship between phenolic and derived compounds has been tentatively established on the basis of proposed degradation pathways. Finally, qualitative and quantitative characterizations of solid and aqueous wastes suggest that these byproducts can be considered an important natural source of phenolic compounds, mainly hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone, and luteolin, which, after suitable purification, could be used as food antioxidants or as ingredients in nutraceutical products due to their interesting technological and pharmaceutical properties.

  7. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia (United States)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.


    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  8. The effect of chitosan coatings enriched with clove oil on sensory changes of rainbow trout at refrigerated storage (United States)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan


    The present study evaluated the effect of chitosan coating enriched with clove oil on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sensory changes during refrigerated storage at 4°C was done for a period of 15 days. Three different treatments were tested: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] clove EO added). Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for cooked fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. Panelists were asked to evaluate on a 5-point hedonic scale ranging from very poor (1) to very good (5) where: 1-very poor, 2-poor, 3-normal, 4-good and 5-very good. Sensory scores of each sample were at "good quality" after processing. Group C3 samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists.

  9. Well selection in depleted oil and gas fields for a safe CO2 storage practice: A case study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza


    Full Text Available Carbon capture and sequestration technology is recognized as a successful approach taken to mitigate the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. However, having a successful storage practice requires wise selection of suitable wells in depleted oil or gas fields to reduce the risk of leakage and contamination of subsurface resources. The aim of this paper is to present a guideline which can be followed to provide a better understanding of sophisticated wells chosen for injection and storage practices. Reviewing recent studies carried out on different aspects of geosequestration indicated that the fracture pressure of seals and borehole conditions such as cement-sheath integrity, distance from faults and fractures together with the depth of wells are important parameters, which should be part of the analysis for well selection in depleted reservoirs. A workflow was then designed covering these aspects and it was applied to a depleted gas field in Malaysia. The results obtained indicated that Well B in the field may have the potential of being a suitable conduit for injection. Although more studies are required to consider other aspects of well selections, it is recommended to employ the formation integrity analysis as part of the caprock assessment before making any decisions.

  10. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Hussain


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment results. The OBM treatment process involves the separation of hazardous fluid (such as diesel or mineral oil from solids Due to the lean quality of the OBM, the dust separation process in the cyclone caused blockage in the cyclone. This paper suggests a remedial way by means of installation of a hammer stick in the cyclone dust collector to overcome cyclone blockage. The analysis is performed to compare the pressure drop and the dust collection efficiency in the cyclone with and without the hammer stick. The post-installation experimental results showed that hammer stick can improve the cyclone dust collection efficiency without blockage of the cyclone.

  11. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  12. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates. (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun


    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  13. Pore Structure and Diagenetic Controls on Relative Permeability: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage (United States)

    Feldman, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Cather, M.; Mozley, P.


    Multiphase flow in clay-bearing sandstones of the Morrow Sandstone governs the efficiency of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. This formation is the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of one million metric ton of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. The sandstone hosts eight major flow units that exhibit distinct microstructural characteristics due to diagenesis, including: "clean" macro-porosity; quartz overgrowths constricting some pores; ghost grains; intergranular porosity filled by microporous authigenic clay; and feldspar dissolution. We examine the microstructural controls on macroscale (core scale) relative permeability and capillary pressure behavior through: X-ray computed tomography, Robomet.3d, and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy imaging of the pore structure of the major flow units of the Morrow Sandstone; relative permeability and capillary pressure in the laboratory using CO2, brine, and oil at reservoir pressure and effective stress conditions. The combined data sets inform links between patterns of diagenesis and multiphase flow. These data support multiphase reservoir simulation and performance assessment by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  15. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat. (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk


    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  16. Effect of Jojoba Oil Emulsion on Prolonging Storage Periods of Costata Persimmon Fruits


    A.S.E. Abd-Allah; A.A. Eman; Abd El-Moneim; M.M.S. Saleh; M.A.A. El-Naggar


    This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons (2008-2009) and (2009-2010) on Costata persimmon fruits (Disopyros kaki, L) harvested at mature stage. Experimental fruits were divided into five similar groups; each of three boxes and each box about 2 kg. Fruits of each group were emulsified in one of the following jojoba oil emulsion concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Treated fruits were stored at 13+1oC and 90% RH. Weight loss percentage, decayed fruits, changes in fruit w...

  17. Dynamic CO{sub 2} storage capacity : linking CO{sub 2} sources to oil reservoirs suitable for CO{sub 2} EOR in the Alberta basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper addressed the feasibility of developing a capacity for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for CO{sub 2} incremental oil recovery (IOR) projects. The Alberta basin in western Canada produces nearly one third of Canada's CO{sub 2} emissions, of which more than 160 Mt come from oil sand plants, refineries, upgraders and power plants. These large stationary sources are conducive to large-scale CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage (CCGS). In order to proceed, industry requires basic information such as the location and quality of CO{sub 2} sources as well as the location and characteristics of potential CO{sub 2} sinks, particularly capacity, timing of availability, injectivity, existing field infrastructure, and potential for IOR. Many of the largest oil pools in the Alberta basin are already available for CO{sub 2} IOR. However, most will become available in the next 10 years, and the remainder will become available in the next 10-20 years. Approximately one third of these pools are under the influence of underlying aquifers, which influence storage capacity. According to average permeability and pay thickness of these large oil pools, the typical CO{sub 2} injectivity averages a few thousands tons/day/well. A dynamic CCGS model is being developed in central Alberta based on this information. Central Alberta is the focus of upstream and downstream petroleum industry for linking major CO{sub 2} sources to major oil pools. It has been estimated that 80 of the 11,000 oil pools in the Alberta sedimentary basin have a CO{sub 2} storage capacity greater than 1 Mt each. Screening and prediction work has shown that the Pembina Cardium pool has the largest incremental oil recovery potential with over 225 millions m{sup 3} of recoverable oil and a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 355 MT at 50 per cent hydrocarbon pore volume of CO{sub 2} injection. As such, it has the greatest opportunity for CCGS projects.

  18. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.


    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  19. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage. (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand


    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage. (United States)

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M


    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.


    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  2. Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage. (United States)

    Kotsiou, Kali; Tasioula-Margari, Maria


    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples, of five Greek olive varieties, were stored in dark glass bottles (headspace 0.5%) in a basement without central heating for 24 months. Quantitative variations of the phenolic compounds and their degradation products were monitored over time. The differences observed in the initial total phenolic compounds concentration (ranging between 250.77 and 925.75 mg/kg) were attributed to extraction system, olive variety, and maturity stage. Even after 24 months, the degree of reduction in total phenolic compounds did not exceed 31%. The reduction was more pronounced in dialdehydic forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones (DAFOA and DAFLA), indicating a more active participation in the hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the more polar secoiridoids. The initial total phenolic content was the main factor correlated to the degradation rate of the phenolic compounds. The decrease in secoiridoid derivatives, gave rise to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content and to the formation of four oxidized products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated investigation of seawater intrusion around oil storage caverns in a coastal fractured aquifer using hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Eunhee; Moon, Hee Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun


    SummarySeawater intrusion can be activated by the construction of underground caverns which act as groundwater sinks near a coastal area. In an environment complicated with such artificial structures, seawater intrusion is not simple and thus needs to be evaluated by means of multiple analytical approaches. This study uses geochemical and isotopic indicators to assess the characteristics of salinized seepage into an underground oil storage cavern in Yeosu, Korea. Cl-/Br- ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) of chemical data, and stable isotope data were used to determine the origin and the extent of salinization. Indications of seawater intrusion into the cavern through fractured bedrocks were observed; however, it was highly probable that another source may have contributed to the observed salinity. The PCA results revealed that the seepage water chemistry was predominantly affected both by seawater mixing and cement material dissolution. The maximum seawater mixing ratio in the seepage water was estimated on the basis of the Cl--Br- mixing ratio and the Cl--δ18O relation, with the results showing considerable variation ranging from less than 1% to as high as 14%, depending on the cavern location. The spatial variations in the chemical characteristics and in mixing ratios are believed to have resulted from the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the study site, as caused by both fractured aquifer and the cavern facilities.

  4. Air-Xe enrichments in Elk Hills oil field gases: role of water in migration and storage (United States)

    Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B. M.


    Hydrocarbons from the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR#1), Bakersfield, CA, are enriched in heavy noble gases. The 132Xe/ 36Ar ratios are as high as ˜576 times the ratio in air and represent the largest relative Xe-enrichments ever observed in terrestrial fluids. The Xe isotopic composition is indistinguishable from air. We show that these samples cannot be explained by equilibration of oil with air saturated water and secondary enrichment via a Rayleigh distillation gas stripping process. Based on laboratory studies of others with potential petroleum source rocks, we believe the source of this enriched heavy noble gas component was adsorbed air initially trapped in/on the source rocks that was expelled and mixed with the hydrocarbons during expulsion and primary migration. Kr and Xe enrichments decrease with increasing 36Ar concentration. We propose a model in which an initial Kr-Xe-enriched hydrocarbon becomes diluted with noble gases extracted from air saturated groundwater during expulsion, migration, and storage. The model generates an integrated water/hydrocarbon ratio for the production fluid which indicates a minimal role for water in hydrocarbon expulsion and migration. The results are interpreted to provide time/geometrical constraints on the mechanisms by which hydrocarbons can migrate as a separate phase.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds


    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande


    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  6. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang


    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico. (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G


    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  8. Antimicrobial Effect of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium Essential Oils in Two Storage Temperatures on the Survival of Debaryomyces hansenii in Iranian Doogh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity Karim


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Doogh is an Iranian preferred dairy drink, especially in warm seasons. Blowing by yeasts is a common occurring spoilage when this product is kept outside the refrigerator in warm temperature. Natural additives such as herbal essential oils, which also induce the desired flavor and color, may solve this problem and retard yeast growth. Spearmint, pennyroyal and some other herbs and their extracts were traditionally used in this product. In the current study, the antimicrobial effect of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium essential oils on the survival of Debaryomyces hansenii was evaluated in two different storage temperatures. Materials and Methods: Iranian Doogh was prepared according to the national standard method with different concentrations of the mentioned essential oils. Then all the samples were inoculated with yeast inocula to achieve a yeast count of >3×106 CFUml-1. Viability of Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated during the storage time (0-28 days of Doogh samples at 4°C and 25°C at different intervals. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc methods. Also α level was considered equal to 0.05. Results and Conclusion: Different concentrations of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium essential oils had significant effect on the growth of the yeast. Increasing the concentration of these essential oils decreased the logarithm of number of microorganisms. The essential oils of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in low concentrations have antimicrobial effect on spoilage yeast and can improve the sensory properties of Doogh. Therefore, they can be the best alternative preservatives for hazardous chemical compounds.

  9. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH


    Full Text Available and combinations of them have been used to study lipid oxidation. For example, PV, AV, free fatty acids (FFA), polar compounds and weight gain were used to study the oxidative deterioration of crude sunflower oils obtained by either pressing or solvent extraction... Publishers, London, pp 215?247 (1980). 5 Tian K and Dasgupta PK, Determination of oxidative stability of oils and fats. Anal Chem 71:1692?1698 (1999). 6 Frankel EN, In search of better methods to evaluate natural antioxidants and oxidative stability in food...

  10. AtDSEL, an Arabidopsis cytosolic DAD1-like acylhydrolase, is involved in negative regulation of storage oil mobilization during seedling establishment. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek


    Mobilization of seed storage reserves is essential for seed germination and seedling establishment. Here, we report that AtDSEL, an Arabidopsis thalianaDAD1-like Seedling Establishment-related Lipase, is involved in the mobilization of storage oils for early seedling establishment. AtDSEL is a cytosolic member of the DAD1-like acylhydrolase family encoded by At4g18550. Bacterially expressed AtDSEL preferentially hydrolyzed 1,3-diacylglycerol and 1-monoacylglycerol, suggesting that AtDSEL is an sn-1-specific lipase. AtDSEL-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:AtDSEL) were defective in post-germinative seedling growth in medium without an exogenous carbon source. This phenotype was rescued by the addition of sucrose to the growth medium. In contrast, loss-of-function mutant plants (atdsel-1 and atdsel-2) had a mildly fast-growing phenotype regardless of the presence of an exogenous carbon source. Electron microscopy revealed that 5-day-old 35S:AtDSEL cotyledons retained numerous peroxisomes and oil bodies, which were exhausted in wild-type and mutant cotyledons. The impaired seedling establishment of 35S:AtDSEL was not rescued by the addition of an exogenous fatty acid source, and 35S:AtDSEL seedling growth was insensitive to 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid, indicating that β-oxidation was blocked in AtDSEL-overexpressers. These results suggest that AtDSEL is involved in the negative regulation of seedling establishment by inhibiting the breakdown of storage oils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. STABILITAS OKSIDATIF MINYAK BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum DAN Canarium vulgare SELAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA SUHU 30 DAN 40°C [Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare Oil during Storage at 30 and 40°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati Djarkasi1


    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.

  12. Carbon dioxide power plant for total emission control and enhanced oil recovery. [Removal, storage, and use of CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, F L; Steinberg, M


    The design of a compact environmentally acceptable carbon dioxide diluted coal-oxygen fired power plant is described. The plant releases no combustion products to the atmosphere. The oxygen for combustion is separated in an air liquefaction plant and the effluent nitrogen is available for use in oil well production. Recycle carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen replaces the nitrogen for the combustion of coal in the burners. The carbon dioxide produced is used in enhanced oil recovery operations and injected into spent wells and excavated salt cavities for long-term storage. The recovery of CO/sub 2/ from a coal-burning power plant by this method appears to have the lowest energy expenditure and the lowest byproduct cost compared to alternative removal and recovery processes.

  13. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (United States)

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K


    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.

  14. Biodegradable Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Black Pepper Essential Oil for Shelf Life Extension of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) during Refrigerated Storage. (United States)

    Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Shad, Ehsan; Ziaee, Esmaeil; Yousefabad, Seyyed Hossein Asadi; Golmakani, Mohammad Taghi; Azizinia, Mehdi


    Chitosan (Ch) coating incorporated with black pepper essential oil (Ch+BPEO) was studied to extend the shelf life of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The chemical composition of BPEO was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial properties of BPEO were determined by disk diffusion agar, MIC, and MBC. Ch (2% [wt/vol]) and Ch+BPEO (2% [wt/vol] Ch with 1.5% [vol/vol] BPEO) were used for common carp fillet coating. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen) and microbiological (aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial counts) characteristics during 16 days. The GC-MS results indicated that main components in BPEO were carene, caryophyllene, limonene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The samples coated with Ch and Ch+BPEO resulted in lower pH and total volatile basic nitrogen values in comparison with the control. The microbiological analysis of fish fillets during refrigerated storage clearly indicated that Ch+BPEO coating significantly reduced the fish fillet microbial load. The aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial count of samples coated with Ch+BPEO were reduced approximately 4.1, 3.9, 2.3, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, at the end of the storage period. Finally, Ch and Ch+BPEO effectively improved the quality of fish fillet during refrigerated storage and extended the shelf life of fish fillets from 8 to 16 days. Black pepper; Chitosan; Common carp; Essential oil.

  15. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.


    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  16. Environmental Assessment Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility and Demolition of Hazardous Materials Storage Shed and Oil Change Pit, Jordan Lake Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Alabama (United States)


    decided that the environmental effects are not significant. The Air Force will issue a FONSI; an environ- mental impact statement (EIS) is not...related to environmental issues addressed in this EA are briefly described in Table 1. EA — Construction of Storage Facility and Demolition of...foxes, bobcats, game birds and other animals. Large numbers of migratory ducks and geese winter in the state. 3.4.4 Protected Species A protected

  17. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination. (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K


    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR


    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  19. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.


    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  20. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    ...), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated...

  1. Intermittent Water Injection on Top of Continuous CO2 Injection to Co-Optimize Oil Recovery and CO2-Storage


    Pranoto, Arif


    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The objective of this project is to maximize oil recovery and the CO2 stored during CO2-EOR. To reach that goal there are two important things to be achieved: gas production rate reduction and the oil production rate improvement. To attain the co-optimization, the following CO2 injection approaches were compared: CO2 continuous injection, WAG, Continuous water injection over continuous CO2 injection, and intermittent water injection over continuous ...

  2. Use of egg white protein powder based films fortified with sage and lemon balm essential oils in the storage of lor cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kavas


    Full Text Available Edible film was produced by adding 3 % sorbitol (w/v to egg white protein powder (EWPP. The first group of lor cheese samples was coated with a film fortified by sage essential oil (SEO and the second group of samples was coated with films enriched by adding lemon balm essential oil (BEO at various concentrations [0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % (v/v]. The films were labeled as EWPPSEO(0.5, EWPPSEO(1, EWPPSEO(2, EWPPBEO(0.5, EWPPBEO(1, EWPPBEO(2 to indicate the type and the concentration of the additive. The third batch of the lor cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the fourth batch was uncoated. All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Viable cell counts of these species, yeasts and moulds were determined after the cheese production. All the samples were stored at +4 °C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th day of the storage. Thereat significant (P0.05. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties were more significant in SEO at all concentrations compared to BEO. However, the antifungal effect of BEO was higher than that of SEO. The antifungal effect of BEO was the same at 1 % (v/v and 2 % (v/v concentrations. E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive. EWPP showed a bacteriostatic effect on the microorganisms and bactericidal effects were determined on the 30th day of the storage against L. monocytogenes and yeast-moulds.

  3. Prooxidant effect of α-tocopherol on soybean oil. Global monitoring of its oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions by1H nuclear magnetic resonance. (United States)

    Martin-Rubio, A S; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L; Guillén, María D


    The effect of adding α-tocopherol in proportions ranging from 0.002 to 5% in weight on the oxidative stability of soybean oil was studied. For the first time, the oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions including evolution of the molar percentages of the several types of oil acyl groups, and formation and evolution of various kinds of oxidation products comprising hydroperoxides, hydroxy-dienes and other alcohols, epoxides, aldehydes and keto-dienes, was followed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. It is proved that, except in the lowest proportion, α-tocopherol not only exerts a prooxidant effect on soybean oil but also modifies its oxidation pathway, affecting the oxidation products generation rate, their nature, relative proportions and concentrations. It is noticeable that the highest α-tocopherol concentrations induce the generation of some toxic compounds at earlier stages of the thermoxidation process and sometimes in higher concentration, such as certain oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and monoepoxides derived from linoleic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stability during frozen storage of fillets from silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen sedated with the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Daniel


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research aimed to evaluate whether the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT used in vivo as a sedative in the water for transporting fish could increase the oxidative stability of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen fillets during frozen storage. The chemical composition of EOAT and of fillets from fish exposed to EOAT (0, 30 or 40µL L-1 were assessed. The pH and lipid oxidation parameters (conjugated dienes, CD; thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substances, TBARS were evaluated in the fillets throughout the storage period (-18±2oC/17 months. The main compounds found in EOAT were α- and β-citral. Treatment with EOAT did not modify the proximate composition of the fillets, but 40µL L-1 EOAT reduced pH levels when compared to the control fillets (P<0.05. Compared to the control fillets, the fillets from fish treated with 30 and 40µL L-1 EOAT had higher initial CD values (P<0.05, whereas fillets from fish treated with 40µL L-1 EOAT had lower TBARS levels after 6, 9 and 17 months of storage (P<0.05. Results indicated that use of EOAT as a sedative in silver catfish transport water delays the degradation of primary oxidation products (CD into secondary products (TBARS in the frozen fillets. This delay in the lipid oxidation rate may increase the shelf life of frozen fillets.

  5. Changes in olive oils used as covering in preserves of eggplants (Solanum Melongena in relation to the time and the condition of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Felice, M.


    Full Text Available The use of the extra virgin olive oil as covering in food preserves presents some problems and still today object of study. With this research it was investigate the changes of some analytical parameters that occur during the storage in the olive oils used as covering in eggplant preserves. It was ascertained that in the oils in presence of the eggplants a drastic decrease of the total phenols was verified immediately after the thermal treatment affecting the oxidative processes. Besides it was observed that in all the oils stored under light the values of the K270. ΔK, the total chlorophylls and the 1,2-DG36/1,3-DG36 ratio were significantly changed.El uso de aceite de oliva virgen extra como cobertura en conservas alimentarias presenta una serie de problemas que son todavía hoy objeto de estudio. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los cambios de algunos parámetros analíticos producidos durante el almacenamiento en aceite de oliva usado como cobertura en la conservación de berenjenas. Se encontró que el aceite que ha estado en contacto con las berenjenas, sufrió una disminución de los fenoles totales inmediatamente después del tratamiento térmico, afectando a los procesos oxidativos. Se observó asimismo, que en todos los aceites almacenados a la luz variaron significativamente los valores del K270, del ΔK, de la clorofila y de la proporción de 1,2-DG36/1,3- DG36.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures. (United States)

    Moore-Neibel, Katherine; Gerber, Colin; Patel, Jitendra; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (Iceberg and Romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (6-log CFU/ml) and dried. Oregano oil was prepared at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% concentrations in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 1 or 2 min, and individually incubated at 4 or 8 °C. Samples were taken at day 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. The results showed that oregano oil was effective against S. Newport at all concentrations. S. Newport showed reductions from the PBS control of 0.7-4.8 log CFU/g (Romaine lettuce), 0.8-4.8 log CFU/g (Iceberg lettuce), 0.8-4.9 log CFU/g (mature spinach), and 0.5-4.7 log CFU/g (baby spinach), respectively. The antibacterial activity also increased with exposure time. Leaf samples treated for 2 min generally showed greater reductions (by 1.4-3.2 log CFU/g), than those samples treated for 1 min; however, there was minimal difference in antimicrobial activity among samples stored under refrigeration and abuse temperatures. This study demonstrates the potential of oregano oil to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A


    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  8. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage. (United States)

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai


    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.


    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  10. Hydrogen sulphide, odor, and VOC air emission control systems for heavy oil storage, transport, and processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, H.P. [APC Technologies, Inc. (Canada)


    In the heavy oil industry, companies have to control their air emissions in compliance with regulatory and process improvement objectives. The industry therefore operates air emission control systems to eliminate odor complaints, reduce personnel exposure to H2S and remove BTEX and VOC emissions. This paper studies different cases of companies which have chosen to use a fixed activated carbon adsorption unit. The study was conducted on three cases of heavy oil industries which installed the CarbonPure adsorption system and describes their objectives, processes, emissions, technology options and performances. Results showed an elimination of odor complaints, a reduction of personnel exposure to harmful air contaminants and a reduction of VOC concentrations in a reliable, low maintenance and economic manner. This study presents the greater benefits of the CarbonPure adsorption system combined with an ultra high efficiency unit over those of other adsorption systems.

  11. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul


    The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions. (United States)

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni


    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf


    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.


    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  15. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks (United States)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook


    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  16. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirt fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.

  17. An Investigation of Final Gas Tightness after Supplementation of MCT Water during the Yeosu Underground Oil Storage Caverns-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun


    This report has following contents: {center_dot}Estimation of vertical hydrological gradient and the leakage in the case of EL. 10 m of injection water pressure and EL. 0 m of MCT supplement water pressure {center_dot}Undertaking the groundwater flow modeling of Case 1 and Case 2, which are based on the results of MCT supplement test The results of this project have following contents: {center_dot}Case 1 : EL. 10 m of injection water head and , EL. -5 m of MCT supplement water head {center_dot}Case 2 : the same condition as case 1 except EL. 0 m of MCT supplement water head {center_dot}Calculation of water head distribution, vertical hydro-gradient and amount of leakage - (Case 1-1 and Case 2-1) atmospheric pressure of storage cavern - (Case 1-2 and Case 2-2) 2.0 kg/cm2.Abs of storage cavern - (Case 1-3 and Case 2-3) 0.5 kg/cm2.Abs of storage cavern {center_dot}Groundwater head change is not sensitive - Distribution of vertical hydro-gradient - Case 1-1 and Case 2-1: 1.5 {approx} 2.8 - Case 1-2 and Case 2-2: 1.4 {approx} 2.6 - Case 1-3 and Case 2-3: 1.7 {approx} 3.0 {center_dot}Estimated water leakage during the operation - Case 1-1 and Case 2-1: 932 {approx} 943 m3/d - Case 1-2 and Case 2-2: 812 {approx} 819 m3/d - Case 1-3 and Case 2-3: 1,022 {approx}1,030 m3/d {center_dot}It is estimated that the gas tightness can be secured as 1.4 {approx} 2.6 range of vertical hydro-gradient and the expected amount of leakage may be 850 {approx} 950 m3/d (average)

  18. Oxidative stability of soybean oil added to coffee husk extract (Coffea arabica L. under accelerated storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Franco RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract Several plants have been studied as potential sources of natural antioxidants for use in the food industry, especially polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract from coffee husk on the oxidative stability of soybean oil when stored in an oven. Samples were maintained at a temperature of 60 °C and their oxidative stability was evaluated once every 5 days for a period of 20 days through the Rancimat equipament and analysis of peroxide value, conjugated dienes and tocopherols retention. The oxidation rate in terms of mass gain was evaluated once every 24 hours for a period of 24 days. Although the antioxidant TBHQ showed a better efficiency in the inhibition of oxidation, coffee husk extract showed a synergistic effect when used with the synthetic, delaying the appearance of degradation products. In addition, the freeze-dried extract showed the ability to reduce the mass-gain rate when used alone as well as when used in combination with the synthetic antioxidant butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA, noting a synergistic effect on oxidative stability between the extract and the BHA. Therefore, coffee husk extract could be considered a source of natural antioxidants for synthetic antioxidants substitution.

  19. The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Govaris, A; Solomakos, N; Pexara, A; Chatzopoulou, P S


    The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil (EO) at 0.6 or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis was studied in minced sheep meat during storage at 4 degrees or 10 degrees C for 12 days. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of oregano EO at 0.6 or 0.9% in minced sheep meat was organoleptically acceptable, and attribute scores were higher for the EO at 0.6 than 0.9%. According to compositional analysis of the oregano EO, the phenols carvacrol (80.15%) and thymol (4.82%) were the predominant components. Treatment of minced sheep meat with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, proved insufficient to act against S. Enteritidis. The combination of the oregano EO at 0.6% with nisin at 500 IU/g showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis than the oregano EO at 0.6% but lower than the combination with nisin at 1000 IU/g, which in turn was lower than that of the oregano EO at 0.9%. In its turn, oregano EO at 0.9% showed lower antimicrobial activity than its combinations with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, which showed a bactericidal effect against the pathogen. The inhibition percentages of all treatments against S. Enteritidis at 10 degrees C were higher than those at 4 degrees C. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of storage and industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability characteristics of crude sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci, M.


    Full Text Available The influence of industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability of crude sunflower oil (pre-pressed, solvent-extracted, full-pressed and mixed oils was studied by means of the determination of free fatty acids, peroxide value, color value, iron, phosphorus, total and individual tocopherol contents, their stability against oxidation (Rancimat induction time and the fatty acid composition with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. In addition, these crude oils were stored for a period of four months at 40 ± 2°C and analyzed at monthly intervals for free fatty acids, peroxide value, and Rancimat induction time to evaluate their storage stability. The results revealed that the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction method had worse quality and stability parameters than the crude oils obtained by other extraction methods. Tocopherol content showed a drastic decrease with full-pressed extraction. Also, the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction presented a higher total trans fatty acid content than the others. On the contrary, the solvent extraction method influenced the phosphorus and iron contents more than the others. The results indicated, however, that pre-pressing the oil appeared to be better than other methods. This study suggests that it is absolutely necessary for the vegetable oil industry to reevaluate the full pressing method as well as the solvent extraction conditions used for sunflowerseeds in order to retain both nutritive value and oxidative stability.La influencia de los métodos industriales de extracción de semillas oleaginosas sobre la calidad y la estabilidad de aceites crudos de girasol (pre-prensado, extraídos con disolventes, prensado completo y mezclas de aceites se ha estudiado mediante la determinación de los ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxidos, valor del color, hierro, fósforo, contenido de tocoferoles totales e individuales, así como su

  1. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge Adjou


    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  2. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania


    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage (United States)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char removed arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from 10,000 mL of water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going through a multitude of freeze and melt processes with little to no degradation if the appropriate preservative is used. Finally in chapter 9 the PCM is incorporated into a simulated 100 th scale house. A traditional freon based evaporator is used to freeze

  4. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lowry, Gregory V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO2 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  5. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lowry, Gregorgy V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO22 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  6. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks. (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza


    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  7. Energy Storage. (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  8. Proximate composition, phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of the seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Fucus vesiculosus. Effect of addition of the extracts on the oxidative stability of canola oil under accelerated storage conditions. (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel; Lorenzo, José M


    Extracts from three macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE)) were tested for proximate composition (total solid, protein and total carbohydrate contents), total phenols content (TPC), and for their antioxidant activities in vitro in comparison to that of BHT compound by using four different assays (ABTS radical cation decolouration, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). The inclusion of the extracts as oil stabilizers in canola oil in substitution of the synthetic antioxidant (BHT) was also evaluated by assessing lipid oxidation parameters (peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), TBARS value, conjugated dienes (CD) and TOTOX index) under accelerated storage conditions (16days, 60°C). There was an inverse relationship between total solid content and total polyphenols content in the seaweed extracts. FVE showed an intermediate TPC (1.15g PGE/100g extract), but it presented the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP tests. BBE, that displayed the highest TPC (1.99g PGE/100g extract), only showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ORAC test. ANE showed the lowest TPC and the lowest antioxidant activity in all the tests performed. The seaweed extracts added in a 500ppm concentration significantly reduced the oxidation during canola oil storage at 60°C, being this antioxidant effect significantly higher than that of BHT added at 50ppm. Results indicate that seaweed extracts can effectively inhibit the oxidation of canola oil and they can be a healthier alternative to the synthetic antioxidants in the oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.


    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  10. Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf essential oil as herbal preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, and antiochratoxin activities and in vivo efficacy during storage. (United States)

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N


    Thirty-five randomly collected samples of stored table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from different markets of Gorakhpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India, revealed occurrence of 11 types of fungi. Of which, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus were dominant causing severe decay of grapes with 58%, 52%, and 67% incidence, respectively. On screening of 15 essential oils at 0.33 μL/mL, Cymbopogon citratus oil caused 100% mycelial inhibition against aforesaid dominant fungi. Oil was fungistatic at 0.29 μL/mL and exhibited broad fungitoxicity against other fruit rotting fungi associated with collected samples. C. citratus oil completely inhibited the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of A. flavus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus at 0.8 μL/mL. E-Citral (52.9%) and Z-Citral (39.38%) were the major components of C. citratus oil during gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Application of 200 and 300 μL of C. citratus oil on 1 kg of stored grapes showed enhancement of shelf life up to 10 d. The oil did not exhibit any phytotoxic effect on fruits. These results confirm that C. citratus oil could be a natural alternative to commercial fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  12. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia (United States)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.


    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  13. Partial replacement of pork back-fat by vegetable oils in burger patties: effect on oxidative stability and texture and color changes during cooking and chilled storage. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M


    The present study was aimed to examine the impact of partial back-fat replacement (50%) by avocado (A), sunflower (S), and olive (O) oil on the chemical composition, oxidative stability, color, and texture of porcine burger patties (10% fat) subjected to oven cooking (170 °C/18 min) and chilling (+ 4 °C/15 d). The addition of vegetable oils caused a significant reduction of saturated fatty acids and a concomitant enrichment in unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of vegetable oils to porcine patties caused a significant reduction of TBARS formed as a result of cooking and the subsequent chilling. The usage of vegetable oils as back-fat replacers had no impact on the formation of protein carbonyls. Porcine patties with A- and O-patties displayed a more favorable ratio between volatiles contributing to rancidity and those contributing pleasant odor notes. Treated and control patties underwent similar discoloration during processing. The usage of vegetable oils and particularly, avocado and olive oils, as back-fat replacers, could be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and technological properties of porcine patties. The present study highlights the potential nutritional and technological benefits of replacing animal fat by vegetable oils in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chilling. The industrial application of vegetable oils in processed meat products would meet the current consumers' interest towards healthier food products. In addition, the usage of avocado oil would contribute to boost the avocado industry by providing an additional value to a by-product of great biological significance. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice. (United States)

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn


    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  15. Biodiesel of palm oil in tractor agricultural: opacity of smoke in the light of storage time; Biodiesel de dende em trator agricola: opacidade da fumaca em funcao do tempo de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Leomar P. [Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)], email:; Lopes, Afonso; Oliveira, Melina C.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Camara, Felipe T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Cariri, CE (Brazil)


    The scenario of atmospheric emissions world characterized-if, in recent years, due to a series of technical factors, economic and political, by the need to reduce the consumption of petroleum. The objective of this work was to evaluate the opacity of smoke of a motor of a tractor agricultural operating with biodiesel of palm oil with different periods of storage. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of machinery and agricultural mechanization of Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. In this study,-if a tractor Valtra BM 110 4x2 TDA 73,6 kW (100 cv) in engine 2.350 rpm. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 5x3, with 3 repetitions. The combinations of factors were five proportions of mixing biodiesel for diesel (B0, B5, B25, B 50 and B100, that the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel for diesel) and three storage times in condition environment (0, 3 and 6 months). The results showed that in relation to B0, when used biodiesel in the proportion of B100, the opacity of smoke reduced in 50.4% and the time of storage of biodiesel not committed the opacity of smoke from combustion of the engine. (author)

  16. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  17. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride. (United States)

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping


    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi.

  18. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw; Uso de oxidos de aluminio, titanio e cerio na producao de compositos ceramicos para revestimento protetor de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias


    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  19. Melting, crystallization and storage stability of virgin coconut oil and its blends by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Sharma, G K


    The blends were prepared of virgin coconut oil with refined soyabean oil (VCO-RSOY) and refined safflower oil (VCO-RSAFF). Blending with VCO improved the fatty acid composition which increased the shelf stability of 20:80 VCO-RSOY and VCO-RSAFF up to 12 months in different packaging systems such as low density polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene, metalized polyester pouches, polyethylene teteraphthalate, high density polyethylene (HDPE), Amber HDPE bottle. The specific spectral regions of FTIR proved to be very useful for the determination of adulteration as well as for the study of oxidation process. Band shifts observed at 3008, 1652, 1397, 1097, 912 and 845 cm(-1) have been used to differentiate RSAFF from VCO. VCO spectrums did not have these chemical shifts. Further the spectrum of RSOY showed same band shifts as RSAFF except 1652, 1397, 869.6 and 845 cm(-1). Differential Scanning Calorimetry provided useful information regarding the nature of thermodynamic changes related to physical state of vegetable oil. The physical state changes included melting and crystallization events which require the intake and release of energy.

  20. Effect of the clove (Eugenia caryophyllus L. ethanol extract and essential oil on the quality of pre-cooked rainbow trout fillet during storage at -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shabani


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus L. extract and essential oil (EO on oxidative stability and sensory properties of pre-cooked trout fillet during frozen storage period. Trout fillets (treated with clove EO (0.1%, extract (2%, BHT (0.02% and the control were fried, oven baked and steamed and stored at -18 ºC for 4 months. By the end of storage period, the highest value peroxide value was obtained from fried fillets contained EO and extract (4.48 and 5.45 meq/kg, respectively and the lowest was observed in oven-baked samples contained EO and extract (2.63 and 3.47 meq/kg, respectively. TBA values did not increase in pre-cooked fillets with EO and extract except control steamed samples (0.58 mg MA/kg. Samples treated with clove EO showed slower PV and TBA increse than those of extract-treated samples or control. However, the additions of clove EO and extract have positive effect on sensory quality of baked fillets.

  1. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery


    Razman M. Tahar; Waleed K. Abduljabbar


    Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which...

  2. Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage (United States)

    Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.


    When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.

  3. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.


    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  4. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat


    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari


    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR, CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1, and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2. Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days. At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  6. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage. (United States)

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio


    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  7. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage (United States)

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio


    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage. PMID:27800420

  8. Uporaba niomola 490 K za gradnjo varjenih jeklenih rezervoarjev: The use of niomol 490 K for the construction of welded steel tanks for oil storage:


    Vojvodič-Tuma, Jelena


    Instalacija Sermin near Koper will build a storage reservoir for gasoline with volume of 60000 ?$m^3$?, a height of 21,8 m, and internal diameter of 61,1 m, a height of the double tank shell of 17,5 m and the diameter of the double shell of 67,0 m. The reservoir will have a double bottom, double shell and self-load-carrying aluminium roof in the shape of a cupola. The load-carrying structure of the reservoir and the capture tank will be made of niomal 490 K. The paper presents with the bases ...

  9. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage. (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami


    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.


    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  11. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves


    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  12. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Nigeria: fundamental science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is a novel global technology encompassing the isolation and transportation of CO2 from emission points followed by storage in appropriate geological formations. Although the process had been projected to play a great role in enhancing oil recovery from partly depleted oil and ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (United States)


    ... injectant expense that is a qualified enhanced oil recovery cost. The storage tanks X acquires to store the... storage tanks that Z will use solely to store the crude oil that is produced from the enhanced oil... steam to be injected in connection with the cyclic steam project, and purchases storage tanks to store...

  14. Atomic storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Ricadela, A


    IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

  15. Study on the use of the hydrogenase test to detect H sub 2 S production in oil storage and processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costerton, J.W.


    Many oilfields that initially have low H{sub 2}S levels in their oil, gas, and water phases gradually develop higher levels of this dangerous and corrosive gas. After secondary recovery operations are initiated, and as production facilities become contaminated with H{sub 2}S-producing microorganisms, sour production can result and can eventually lead to the need for costly replacement of corroded steel tubing and surface facilities. The detection of H{sub 2}S-producing (sulfate-reducing) bacteria is conventionally performed by culturing, a method that is complicated, lengthy, and cumbersome. A sampling device has been invented that facilitates collection of the bacterial population associated with pipe walls and other surfaces. In addition, an enzyme-based (hydrogenase) test has been developed which detects sulfate-reducing bacteria in 2-4 hours. Field tests have shown that the sampling device is ideally suited to sample H{sub 2}S-producing populations and the hydrogenase test is very accurate and very sensitive in the detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The test is convenient and rapid for field use and yields negative results when the sulfate-reducing bacteria have been controlled by cleaning and/or biocide application. 3 tabs.

  16. Design of a local managerial cockpit for oil movement and storage in a refinery; Concepcao integrada de painel de bordo interno para o setor de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, Mariana; Versiani, Bernardo; Spiegel, Thais; Proenca, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Lima, Mario Jorge; Paschoal, Luiz Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    With the increasing competition between companies it is becoming harder to maintain coherent cohesion among strategies within the organization's sectors. As a way to solve these problems, this paper devises a cockpit to a specific organization's sector - respecting the BSC (Balanced Scorecard) logic. For this method each key performance indicator (KPI) that belongs to the organization's cockpit is analyzed through each specific sector's point of view. With that the possible logical contributions of the KPIS are analyzed. After the list of contributions are developed, it is possible to draw up a list of indicators, called 'verification items'. These are related to the contributions to enable the performance measures and the 'compliance levels' about the specific sector's contributions, and consequently about the organization strategy. Through a filter of relevant indicators, contributions thoughts for each KPI and verification items able to measure the contributions scope, it is already possible to set up the sector internal Cockpit. This paper describes its solution for the Movement and Storage sector of the PETROBRAS refineries (author)

  17. Kinetic Characteristics of Oil Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzievska, I.G.


    Full Text Available Parameters of oxidability of sunflower, corn, walnut, palm and palm kernel oils are defined with Tsepalov`s graphical and DPPH methods. The influence of oil natural antioxidants and the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids on the rate of oxidation is shown. The methods can be used to predict oil oxidation stability during storage.

  18. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia (United States)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.


    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  19. Effect of storage conditions on the degradation of roselle (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of edible oil toward rancidity is wasteful and/or health challenging. In this study, oil extracted from Roselle seeds was analyzed for elemental and microbial content. The oil under different conditions of storage (lightened L, dark air-free AF and dark air-tight/covered ATD conditions) were progressively studied for ...

  20. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils. (United States)

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K


    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  1. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  2. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)


    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  3. Palm Oil (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  4. Diesel oil (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  5. Oil Spills (United States)

    ... approach evaluating oil spill conditions. You are here Home | Oil and Chemical Spills | Oil Spills On Our Radar ... US Department of Commerce | Main menu Home Oil and Chemical Spills Environmental Restoration Marine Debris Training ...

  6. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.


    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  7. Effects of Storage Methods and Lenght of Storage on some Quality Parameters of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudusola, IO.


    Full Text Available Quality parameters of Japanese quail eggs, as affected by storage method and length in 21days, were assessed using 140 eggs collected from 7-week old birds. Eggs were stored using refrigeration, oiling, black polythene bag or on a tray at room temperature (30 oc as a control. This study determines the best storage condition and optimum storage length storage for quail eggs. Egg quality parameters measured included egg weight, shell weight, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, haugh unit and egg weight loss. Effects on the chemical composition of eggs were determined with proximate analysis. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with storage method and duration as the two main effects. There were progressive increases in weight losses with increased length of storage for all storage methods. Haugh units decreased progressively per storage method as length of storage increased (P< 0.05. Control and refrigeration methods do not differ significantly in all proximate composition except for protein. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in length of storage for all proximate composition. Eggs maintained desired internal quality when stored for 4 days at room temperature. Refrigeration could be used for storage of eggs up to 7 days; where it is unavailable oiling could be used.

  8. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  10. Oil Spills (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  11. Coconut Oil (United States)

    ... it by mouth to lose weight and lower cholesterol. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a ... coconut oil by mouth as a medicine. High cholesterol: Coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase ...

  12. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  13. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.


    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  14. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil. (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R


    Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis

  15. Evaluation of the problematic of corrosion in bottoms of tanks of crude oil storage; Evaluacion de la problematica de corrosion en fondos de tanques de almacenamiento de petroleo crudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo T, Jose M; Uruchurtu C, Jorge; Meza, Beatriz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez C, Luis F [Region Marina Suroeste, Pemex (Mexico)


    In this article the results related to the corrosive aggressiveness of the water fluids of crude oil of the Marine Terminal of Dos Bocas (TMDB), on the effectiveness of the anticorrosive control methods and on the control measures that could be adopted are presented. Also, this article comprises a work made by personnel of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) during year 2002. The corrosion in tanks is of electrochemical nature and has its origin in the watery phase that accompanies the crude oil on being extracted from underground. In the case of the storage tanks, the watery phase separates at the bottom, causing the wetness of the bottom steel plates and its degradation. Due to the limited access to the interior of the tank during its operation, a testing device was designed that was connected to a drain valve of a tank of the terminal. The experimental work looked for the evaluation of the aggressiveness of the fluids, the type of corrosion products formed and the effectiveness of the cathodic protection and of the coatings. Additionally, fluid samples were collected, for analyzing the natural aggressiveness level that presents the water contained in the three types of crude: Mayan, Olmeca and Istmo handled in the terminal, studying steel samples and of plant fluids under controlled laboratory conditions. The aggressiveness was obtained from measurements of corrosion rates and analysis of microbial activity. The feasibility of applying the method of cathodic protection was analyzed, observing its effectiveness, as well as particular corrosion forms as the ones that occur in the pontoons. The results of the study lead to propose a monitoring scheme to pursuit the integrity of the coatings, the operation of the cathodic protection and the corrosion in tanks, with which a better control of the operation of the anticorrosive methods and of the degradation that occurs with the corrosion, could be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan

  16. enhancing the potency of vegetable oils by combining with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after treated seeds had been stor for (i days. Presumably, with storage the oils were absorbed by grains» therey reducing its availability for pick up by the beetles (Temho and Merritt, i95); Furthermore, the oils could also act as antifeedants or modify the storage micro-environment thereby discouraging insect penetration and ...

  17. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira


    of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  18. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  19. Oil Spill! (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily


    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  20. variation studies on the volatile oil of eugenia uniflora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological part of the plant, stage of growth, time and season of collection of the leaves were found to be important factors that determine the amount of the oil produced. Also conditions for storage of the oil and its commercial exploitation were studied. Keywords: Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae, volatile oil, variation

  1. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the stability of traditionally processed palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and sesame oil (SSO) and their blends as function of storage conditions by analysing their physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and ...

  2. Marketers weigh increased product storage proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A special study asked the monthly reporting panel to think about ways of increasing heating oil storage - both at the refiner and retail level. Concern is expressed that with refiner stocks below what they were a year ago, the same escalation in price that hurt the industry last January could occur again.

  3. Oil Analysis and Condition Monitoring (United States)

    Toms, A.; Toms, L.

    Lubricants are essential and expensive components of machine systems needing sampling, analysis and monitoring. Monitoring can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's critical failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil and machinery monitoring. Contamination occurs by water, fuel, glycol, dirt, wrong oil, metal particulate, soot, oil degradation and additive depletion. Oil test methods include in situ or laboratory FT-IR, electronic particle counting, elemental metal measurement, X-ray fluorescence, viscosity, gas chromatography, water determination and RULER®. Condition monitoring data must be managed by storage, analysis and interpretation. Status levels must be established from the database and reported upon for individual and sequential runs of samples as condition indicators.

  4. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L


    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  5. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.


    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  6. Categorization of the best practices of oil movement and storage according to its internal losses base structure, aiding to define solutions to the increase of the reliability in the area; Categorizacao das boas praticas da transferencia e estocagem do petroleo, de acordo com a estrutura de sua base de perdas interna, subsidiando a definicao de solucoes para o aumento da confiabilidade do setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, Alain Cognac; Smarcaro, Joanna; Versiani, Bernardo; Caulliraux, Heitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Lima, Mario Jorge; Warrak, Jorge Alam [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Nowadays, in the dynamic and globalized context that have been verified by petroleum and gas industry, the competitiveness behind the organizations depends on its capacity more and more. It is important to promote the company's employees creative power to set up the solutions for the problems that are found in the organization. These problems should be well defined, diagnosing recent operational routine. In ambit of the Oil Movement and Storage Sector of the refinery, it was developed a tool which turns into possible to evaluate the historic problems which have occurred along years. This tool permits also make cause-effect diagrams and temporal graphics that are stratified by occurrences standard characteristics. These diagrams and graphics structure information, matching them with the undesired events diagnostics and aiding the decision maker to understand about the problem systematic. After the needs that should be attacked are defined toward increase the level of sector reliability, it should study the possible solutions. In agreement of these solutions, there is a reference model that contemplates the best practices of this sector. This model enables the identification of possible solutions for problems that were found in this sector. The Oil Movement and Storage Sector Best Practices Manual involve a conjunct of found recommendations and solutions that can be utilized to improve the sector operational performance. (author)

  7. Physical-Chemical Properties, Storage Stability and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical-Chemical Properties, Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Pumpkin Seed Oil. ... The specific gravity of the pumpkin seed oil was 0.92; peroxide value 4.6 meq/kg; iodine value 108.4; saponification value 173.0 and acid value of 0.5 mg KOH/g. The pumpkin seed oil was organoleptically acceptable in terms of ...

  8. Variação no rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de folhas de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. inteiras e moídas sob condições de armazenamento Variation in essential oil yield and chemical composition of whole and powdered "atroveran" (Ocimum selloi Benth. leaves under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.B. Costa


    this work was to study the effect of storage time on essential oil yield and chemical composition in the dry matter of whole and powdered Ocimum selloi leaves. The experiment consisted of two fragmentation treatments (whole and powdered leaf and five storage times (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Dry leaves were packed in plastic bags, which were sealed and stored in a dry and dark place. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in modified Clevenger-type device and the chemical composition was analyzed through gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector attached to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS-FID. There was an accentuated reduction in the essential oil yield of powdered and whole leaves stored over one year, but the essential oil yield of whole leaves was significantly higher than that of powdered ones. In general, the major compound methyl-chavicol was higher in whole leaves than in powdered ones and decreased over the storage time. The fragmentation type and the storage time decisively interfere in O. selloi essential oil yield and composition.

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck


    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck


    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  11. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.


    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  12. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai


    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  13. Quality parameters for cold pressed edible argan oils. (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand


    Argan oil belongs to the high-price vegetable oils on the market. Therefore, consumers have the right to purchase a high-quality product. The quality of edible vegetable oils is defined in food standards in which sensory quality is the most important feature. Additional parameters are defined to assess the identity of oils or to evaluate their oxidative state. The sensory quality of cold pressed argan oil is altered if the production has not been performed with reasonable care regarding raw material and extraction. Only oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press had a sufficient sensory quality over a period of 20 weeks without unacceptable sensory attributes. Under accelerated storage conditions oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press remained below the limits given by the Codex Alimentarius or the German guideline for Edible Fats and Oils for peroxide and totox value. Oil from unroasted seeds or oil from goat-digested roasted seeds and extracted by a screw-press, as well as oil from roasted seeds traditionally extracted, exceeded these limits. Initial oxidative stability of oil from unroasted seeds was significantly lower than that of the other oils. After 35 days under accelerated storage, oil from roasted seeds obtained using a screw-press showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, tocopherol and phytosterol compositions are useful features of argan oil.

  14. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried


    storage was lower in mixed mayonnaise compared to LSO mayonnaise, while in mixed oil mayonnaise the level of peroxides was constantly low. Mixed oil mayonnaise had a lower rate of oxygen consumption than mixed mayonnaise, LSO mayonnaise having the highest rate. The decay of water-soluble nitroxyl radicals...

  15. Peanut Oil (United States)

    Peanut oil is high in monounsaturated “good” fat, and low in saturated “bad” fat, which is believed to help prevent heart disease and lower cholesterol. However, in animal studies, peanut oil has been shown to ...

  16. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A


    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  17. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.


    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  18. 77 FR 25366 - Underground Storage Tank Program: Approved State Program for the State of Oregon (United States)


    ... under ORS 466.710 and also any tank used to store heating oil for consumptive use on the premises where... under ORS 466.710, and any tank used to store heating oil for consumptive use on the premises where... an underground storage tank, excluding tanks used to store heating oil for consumptive use on the...

  19. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases (United States)


    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  20. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny


    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...... that enzymatic hydrolysis of neutral lipids plays a major role in the sensory deterioration of salmon during frozen storage....

  1. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils]. (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I


    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  2. Oil Shale (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.


    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  3. Mineral oils (United States)

    Furby, N. W.


    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  4. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.


    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  5. Quality Properties of Sesame and Olive Oils Incorporated with Flaxseed Oil. (United States)

    Hashempour-Baltork, Fataneh; Torbati, Mohammadali; Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif; Savage, Geoffrey Peter


    Purpose: Suitable ratio of essential fatty acids has an important role in maintaining good health. There is no pure oil with an ideal fatty acid composition and oxidative stability. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of oil obtained by blending flaxseed oil as a rich source of ω3 fatty acids with sesame and olive oils. Methods: Three different ratios (65:30:5, 60:30:10 and 55:30:15) were prepared using olive, sesame and flaxseed oils. These mixtures were stored at 4°C and 24°C and their quality and physicochemical properties were determined by measuring the fatty acid composition, phenolic compound, peroxide, anisidine values and schaal tests. Results: Fatty acid composition indicated that adding 10% and 15% flaxseed oil into blends have suitable ratio of essential fatty acids. The sample which contained 5% flaxseed oil had the highest phenolic content among treatments and these compounds showed a significant decrease during storage. A significant increase (poil content in the blends, lead to an increase of the anisidine value. Conclusion: Blending sesame and olive oils with flaxseed oil produced oil blends with a good balance of essential fatty acids. Although peroxide and anisidine values increased during storage of the oil blends; the blends were of a good quality for home and industrial use.

  6. Oil bodies and their associated proteins, oleosin and caleosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gitte I.; Mundy, John; Tzen, Jason T. C.


    Oil bodies are lipid storage organelles which have been analyzed biochemically due to the economic importance of oil seeds. Although oil bodies are structurally simple, the mechanisms involved in their formation and degradation remain controversial. At present, only two proteins associated with oil....... (1999) Plant Cell Physiol 40: 1079-1086; Naested et al. (2000) Plant Mol Biol 44: 463-476]. Caleosin and caleosin-like proteins are not unique to oil bodies and are associated with an endoplasmatic reticulum subdomain in some cell types. Here we review the synthesis and degradation of oil bodies...

  7. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  8. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.


    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  9. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T


    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  10. Effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of coldpressed rapeseed and sunflower oils. (United States)

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Florowska, Anna; Rękas, Agnieszka


    Oxidative stability means resistance to oxidation during purchase, processing and storage and is a key quality indicator of edible fats. Oils ought to be stored in dark-glass bottles, at low temperatures  and with no access of light in order to effectively preserve their oxidative stability. Since all vegetable oils contain unsaturated fatty acids that can react with oxygen and deteriorate over time, displacement of oxygen with inert gases may result in a reduction of the rate of oxidation. In the study the effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils was determinate. Commercial samples of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils were stabilized by generating anaerobic atmosphere in the bottles by blowing through with nitrogen and generation of a "nitrogen cushion". Oils were tested in accelerated at 63°C and long-term at 20°C storage tests. After 20 days of Schaal oven test, the peroxide value in the flushing with nitrogen rapeseed and sunflower oils was, respectively, 4 and 7 times lower than in the control samples (without nitrogen). In turn, of the long-term storage test (with access of light 20°C), the peroxide value of oil flushing with nitrogen after 6 months of storage was 2.3 to 2.8-fold lower, respectively, than in the control sample. In the oil samples flushed with nitrogen peroxide formation was inhibited, however, as a result of the breakdown of the peroxides already existed in the oil, gradual decrease of the oxidative stability (determined via Rancimat test) was observed along with prolonged storage of oils. Oil flushing with nitrogen was a very effective way to reduce the changes caused by oxidation in cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oil.

  11. Bow-tie risk assessment combining causes and effects applied to gasoil storage in an abandoned salt cavern,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K; Hendriks, D.; Wildenborg, T.; Duijne, H.


    A semi-quantitative risk assessment is presented for the storage of gas oil in depleted salt caverns in the Twente region, the Netherlands. It is based on a bow-tie model, in which an incident, leakage of gas oil from the storage system (cavern and wells), is evaluated by assessing its possible


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Kolenković


    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide geological storage represents a key segment of the carbon capture and storage system (CCS expected to significantly contribute to the reduction of its emissions, primarily in the developed countries and in those that are currently being industrialised. This approach to make use of the subsurface is entirely new meaning that several aspects are still in research phase. The paper gives a summary of the most important recent results with a short overview the possibilities in the Republic of Croatia. One option is to construct underground carbon dioxide storage facilities in deep coal seams or salt caverns. Another would be to use the CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery projects relying on the retention of the carbon dioxide in the deep reservoir because a portion of the injected gas is not going be produced together with hydrocarbons. Finally, the greatest potential estimated lies in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs with significantly reduced reservoir pressure, as well as in the large regional units - layers of deep saline aquifers that extend through almost all sedimentary basins (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  14. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer. (United States)


    ....155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING...) Handler's pickup receipt number, when applicable; (g) Destination of oil for storage; (h) Name of the firm...

  15. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly soap products. The chemical analysis of seed oil was carried out using the methods reported by AOAC (1998), Akpan et al., (2006) and Bassir, (1978) which revealed that it had.

  16. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds. (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J


    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  17. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review. (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo


    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.


    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  19. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...

  20. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...... bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...

  1. Investigation of high capacity heat energy storage for building applications


    Ding, Yate


    The problems of excessive consumption of fossil resources, oil shortages and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming increasingly severe. Research and development work on new methods of thermal energy storage are imminently required. To effectively store seasonal renewable energy, a novel high capacity heat storage system has been designed and evaluated/validated through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations in this research. The system is driven by direct flow evacuated tube solar c...

  2. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies. (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H


    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  3. Thermal energy storage (United States)


    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  4. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred


    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  5. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.


    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...... emulsions, indicating that metal chelation with EDTA could inhibit the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides in these emulsions. This study showed that an oxidatively stable milk emulsion containing highly polyunsaturated tuna fish oil could be prepared without significant fishy off-flavour development upon...

  6. (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... Post harvest deterioration by microbes due to improper storage condition is considered to be the major cause of spoilage and rancidity of most oil-bearing seeds like cashew nuts through lipolytic action of lipase enzyme. Roasted cashew nuts were subjected to four different storage conditions with different.

  7. Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underground natural gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was examined with reservoir Z-16T located onshore in Nigeria. The geological information and the production history of the reservoir were gathered, which aided in the computation of the storage capacity at a given pressure as well as at various pressures. The plot ...

  8. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems. (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  9. Assessing bitumen and heavy oil viscosity in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J.; Jiang, D.; Snowdon, L.; Bennett, B.; Gates, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Log-based techniques for evaluating the in-situ viscosity of oil rely on dead oil viscosity measurements are conducted in laboratories. However, bitumen viscosity is impacted by water; sediment and gas loads; emulsion formation; and shear properties. This abstract discussed a method of assessing the in-situ viscosity of bitumen and heavy oils. The method was designed to simulate the viscosity of heavy oil fluid flow in process conditions. Measured appropriate dead oil viscosity was combined with estimates of solution gas content using mixing rules in order to establish in-situ live oil viscosity estimates. The method takes into account solid and water loads, procedures for correction of viscosity for core storage artifacts, and the impact of variable bitumen saturation pressures through oil columns on live oil reconstruction algorithms.

  10. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature. (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro


    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 μL/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 μL/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (pmeat odor even at abuse temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini


    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  12. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario. (United States)


    ... discharge scenario is the sum of the following: (1) The maximum capacity of all oil storage tanks and flow... stores, handles, transfers, processes, or transports oil does not fall into the categories listed in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the volume of oil of your worst...

  13. The effects of feed composition on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout during ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Pedersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    fishmeal and a mixture of protein from organic vegetable, while the lipid sources were fish oil and organic oil from linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed. Sensory analysis was performed after 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of storage in ice. The results showed that both protein and lipid source in the feed can...... after 14 days of storage, indicating that vegetable protein in the feed increases the self-life of organic rainbow trout....

  14. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  15. Pump storage. Requirements and comparsion with other storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Albert [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery


    The use of renewable energy sources has strongly increased in recent years. Because of the high volatility of these sources, an appropriate energy storage capacity as well as the provision of fast and flexible regulating power is necessary. Both can be supplied by pump storage power plants. The pump storage situation is Germany is discussed. The demand of energy storage is roughly estimated and the status quo of pump storage in Germany is described. Pump storage is compared to other storage technologies (compressed air storage, mobile batteries, hydrogen storage and power-to-gas storage) in terms of efficiency, response time and costs.

  16. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems. (United States)

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L


    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.

  17. Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils (United States)

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen


    When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils....

  18. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.


    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  19. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  20. morphological changes in the sperm storage tubules of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. The current investigation was an attempt to establish the effect of various doses of methyl-2- benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim®) on the morphology of the Sperm Storage Tubules (SST) in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Carbendazim® in sunflower oil base was.

  1. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant. (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R


    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  2. Seasonal heat storage in cogeneration systems; Saesongvaermelager i kraftvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu


    There is a rising interest in Sweden for the use of cogeneration power plants in district heating networks, generating both electricity and heat in a coupled operation. This type of cogeneration needs, however, the existence of suitable heat loads. In this study we investigate the use of large long-term heat storages for the cases that the DH-load is not sufficient. For this purpose, the technology of long-term storages is also reviewed based on the know-how developed for solar heating plants at the end of 20th century. Long-term storages have been developed around the 1980s and 1990s. The storages have been built as pits in the ground or as caverns for the storage of hot water or as borehole storages and aquifers for heat storages in rock or ground material. In this report, the different techniques are described and operational experiences from Sweden and Germany are summarised. Furthermore, the storage costs for the different techniques are presented. In order to be of interest for application in cogeneration systems, it is necessary that the storage allows charging and discharging with high heat capacities. The most suitable storage type for that purpose is a rock cavern, which can be constructed in volumes up to millions of m3 water with reasonable costs, as demonstrated in the 1970s with strategic oil storages. Another interesting storage type is the borehole ground storage, as used in solar heating plants. However, in the application for cogeneration, this storage type must be further developed towards higher heat transfer rates. For the analysis of storage applications in cogeneration systems, a number of operational cases from real cogeneration systems in Enkoeping and in Linkoeping have been studied. Models have been developed for calculation in Excel and operational years have been simulated and economically evaluated with different storage sizes. The following basic systems have been analysed: a) System with biofuel-fired cogeneration and biofuel top

  3. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.


    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  4. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  5. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    of thermolabile active compounds such as fish oil. Moreover, encapsulates produced present a decreased size, which allows their incorporation into food systems without affecting product sensory qualities. In this work, electrohydrodynamic processing and oxidative stability of NMS containing fish oil were...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  6. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  7. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... oil decreased the oxidative stability. Fish pâté with microencapsulated fish oil or MCT oil did not oxidize, whereas oxidation was slower in fish pâté with pre-emulsified oil compared with fish pâté with neat oil. Packaging in vacuum did not decrease oxidation. Fish pâtés with emulsified oil...

  8. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  9. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  10. Energy storage label

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian van Someren; F. Pierie


    This report describes the creation and use of a database for energy storage technologies which was developed in conjunction with Netbeheer Nederland and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. This database can be used to make comparisons between a selection of storage technologies and will

  11. Wind-energy storage (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.


    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  12. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study. (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida


    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards.

  13. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)


    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  14. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)


    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    from waste marble. The barium enhanced waste m methods and showed high performance to methyl activity of the solid oxide catalyst resulted from th with high dispersion of .... RANSESTERIFICATION OF CRUDE JATROPHA OIL USING WASTE MARBLE CATALYST ..... methanol will interfere with the glycerin separation.

  16. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme (United States)

    White, Alexander


    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  17. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume....... In addition, preliminary investigation of the oxidative and hydrolytic stability was carried out through determination of Peroxide Value and Free Fatty Acids Value after 32 days storage at room temperature and 2ºC, respectively. Oxidative stability of MPL emulsions were also investigated through measurement...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Mixing and Separation Mechanisms of Oil-Water System


    Srisan, Kanchana


    The behaviour of oil-water mixtures/emulsions is of great importance for a variety of industries and sciences. Specially in oil and gas industry, it can be encountered at different stages while drilling, production, storage, transportation and processing of crude oil. The purpose of this thesis is to improve the understanding of oil-water mixtures/emulsions through laboratory experiments. Two mineral oils Bayol 35 and Exxsol D60 and tap water were used as the test materials. Oil - water sampl...

  19. Compressed air energy storage in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.; Meibom, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S. (KBB Underground Technologies, Hanover (Germany))


    Fluctuating renewable energy sources can be rendered more reliable by massive international grid extensions and by energy storages. The latter ones are partially discussed as offshore grids to combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with international power trading. This paper gives a first assessment of offshore energy storage possibilities. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that has been used successfully onshore for decades and is the most economic large-scale storage option after pumped hydro. More efficient adiabatic CAES is under development. At the same time, the oil and gas offshore industry provides enough experience to state that a CAES power plant could be installed and operated offshore even though at considerable higher costs. Suitable salt formations for the salt caverns exist in and around the North Sea and to a lower extent the Baltic Sea. Offshore energy storage can facilitate several issues in an offshore grid: firstly, it can delay or even replace the necessity for building interconnectors due to additional wind or wave power. Secondly, it can balance generation deviations due to forecast errors. Depending on market design, these have a negative effect on offshore generation or interconnector operation. Balancing forecast errors could allow operating the interconnectors in a more reliable and thus, more profitable way. If the offshore grid is considered a single price zone between countries, a storage has a lowering effect on electricity price volatility. The WILMAR planning tool is used to estimate these effects. Comparing onshore and offshore CAES, it is concluded that an an offshore adiabatic CAES can participate in several markets, but that this advantage is outweighed by an onshore unit's ability to provide spinning reserves. (Author)

  20. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich


    . The objective of this study was to investigate the specific methane yield during the ensiling process of three different catch crops, namely oil seed radish (OSR), Italian ryegrass (IR) and grass-clover mixture (GC). The quality of the different silages was evaluated by composition analysis and visual...... and proper chopping of the biomass before ensiling is recommended for a better handling and to avoid sand precipitation in the biogas reactor. The methane yield analysis revealed no signs of inhibition in the anaerobic digestion process and no effect of storage time on specific methane yield was found...

  1. Contamination of grape seed oil with mineral oil paraffins. (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann, Maurus; Ballini, Roberto; Coni, Ettore; Grob, Konrad


    The contamination of 11 commercial grape seed oils with paraffins of mineral oil origin was analyzed by online-coupled HPLC-HPLC-GC-FID and ranged from 43 to 247 mg kg(-1). The analysis of the marc and seeds indicated that the contamination is primarily from the peels. Since superficial extraction of the seeds with hexane removed most of the mineral paraffins, the contamination of the seeds is largely on the surface, perhaps transferred from the peels during storage of the marc. Mechanical purification of the seeds combined with washing with hexane reduced the contamination of the oil by a factor of about 10. The refining process removed 30% of the mineral paraffins, primarily the more volatile components. Oil obtained from the seeds of fresh grapes, including grapes not having undergone any phytochemical treatment, contained clearly less mineral paraffins (up to 14 mg kg(-1)), and the peels were less contaminated, suggesting an environmental background contamination. To this an additional contamination might be added by a treatment of the grapes used for wine making.

  2. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector Ricardo.


    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  3. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim


    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  4. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew


    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw


    storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...

  6. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to... (United States)


    ... Far West; Change to Administrative Rules Regarding the Transfer and Storage of Excess Spearmint Oil... Committee (Committee). This rule changes the date by which a producer must transfer excess spearmint oil to... December 1. This rule also changes the date that the Committee must pool identified excess oil as reserve...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of storage duration on fungal population, moisture content, lipid and free fatty acid contents, lipase activity, viability and vigor of physic nut seeds was investigated. Physic nut seeds with initial moisture content of 7.9% were stored in plastic bags under warehouse conditions. Samples of physic nut were collected before storage, and subsequently after one to six months of storage. The results showed that the moisture contents increased after one month of storage, and became relatively constant up to six months of storage. The range of moisture contents (7.9 – 8.4% was safe for storage of physic nut seeds. Sixteen fungal species were isolated from physic nut seeds during six months of storage. Fungal population decreased with the increase of storage duration. At the beginning of storage, most of the fungi that infected the seeds were classified as field fungi, such as Colletotrichum sp., Cladosporium spp., and Fusarium spp.. Their populations decreased with the increase of storage duration. After three months of storage, the existence of field fungi was generally replaced by storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp . dominate the population. Lipid contents, viabilities and vigors decreased with the increase of storage duration, while free fatty acids and lipase activities increased. Under uncontrolled condi -tions, physic nut seeds packed in plastic material can be stored up to one month for seeds to be planted, while it can be stored up to five months for producing oil.

  8. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da

  9. Opportunities to utilize plant-based oils as industrial feedstocks of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.C. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Biological Sciences


    This presentation demonstrated how seed oils can be modified for use as a renewable chemical feedstock of the future. Plant-based oils have many advantages. They are biodegradable, renewable, and can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The quantity and quality of seed storage oil accumulated by plants varies. The conventional oil profile of many oilseed crops can be changed using biotechnology, plant breeding, or a combination of both. Seed oils are composed mostly of triacylglycerols (TAGs). A graph demonstrating fatty acid biosynthesis and TAG bioassembly was presented along with a chart depicting seed oil improvements via traditional/mutation-induced breeding. The objective of fatty-acid modification is to develop plant varieties with better quality seed storage oils to help sustain commodity prices or to provide access to new value-added and niche markets. 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases (United States)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.


    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  11. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo


    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  12. Cryptography from noisy storage. (United States)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M


    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  13. Center for Hydrogen Storage. (United States)


    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  14. Valuing Reversible Energy Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John R. Miller


    The development of new materials that provide the capability of high-performance energy storage combined with flexibility of fabrication opens up the possibility of a wide range of technological applications...

  15. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  16. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen


    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  17. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)


    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  18. Annual Report: Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  19. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule (United States)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.


    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  20. Cold storage of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' mill olives from super-high density orchards. (United States)

    Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez, Ana G; Casanova, Laura; García, José M


    The suitability of the cold storage (2°C) of fruit to maintain the quality of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' intended for virgin olive oil extraction was investigated. This temperature was effective in keeping the best commercial category of oil quality in both manually harvested olives and in mechanically harvested 'Manzanilla Cacereña' fruits for 11days. Mechanical harvesting induced significant decreases in oxidative stability and in the main phenolic compounds contents in the oils during cold storage and, only initially, in the total volatiles, regardless of the cultivar considered. However, the contents of volatile esters, associated to fruity flavor, were always higher in the oils from mechanically harvested fruits. 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' oils exhibited higher total volatiles during fruit cold storage, regardless of the harvesting system used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  2. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL


    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  3. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal


    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  4. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs. (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika


    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  5. Joint Inversion of Fracture Model Properties for CO2 Storage Monitoring or Oil Recovery History Matching Inversion conjointe des propriétés d’un modèle de fractures pour le monitoring d’un stockage de CO2 ou le calage d’un historique de production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verscheure M.


    Full Text Available For oil recovery or CO2 storage, “reservoirs” are commonly used to designate geological structures where oil can be found or CO2 can be stored. All reservoirs present a heterogeneity in terms of rock type and properties (such as porosity and permeability. In addition, some of these reservoirs present fractures and faults. Fractured reservoirs are an important part of the oil reserves in the world (Middle East, Gulf of Mexico, etc. and some of them are important reservoirs in terms of oil volume and productivity in spite of the fractures. In addition, studies of reservoirs for geologic storage of CO2 have shown the existence of diffuse fractures and faults and their strong impacts on flow. A key point in fractured reservoirs is to understand the geometry and hydraulic conductivity of the network formed by the fractures. This requires the construction of a reservoir model that integrates all available conceptual knowledge and quantitative data. The topic of the present paper deals with a new methodology able to perform the history matching of a fractured reservoir model by adapting the sub-seismic fault properties and positions. The main difficulty of this work is to generate a sub-seismic fault network whose fault positions can be easily modified while respecting the statistical fault model. The sub-seismic fault model we have chosen allows us to obtain a sub-seismic fault network that is consistent with the seismic fault network and that succeeds in capturing the specific spatial organization of the faults. In a first step, the geometry of the seismic fault network is characterized using fractal methods. Sub-seismic faults are then generated according to a stochastic algorithm. Finally, the geometry of this discrete fracture network is optimized in order to match the hydrodynamic data about the reservoir. The optimization algorithm modifies the sub-seismic fault positions, leading to the history matching of the reservoir model. Fractal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kręcidło


    Full Text Available Storage of raw materials is one of steps in food production chain. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of selected essential oils on the growth of four fungal strains: Trichoderma viride, Rhizomucor miehei, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium janthinellum. Strains were isolated from warehouses of the food production facility. Selected essential oils: thyme oil, rosewood oil and rosemary oil were used to assess antifungal activity. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Antifungal activity of essential oils was estimated in relative to peracetic acid (PAA and sterile water with Tween 80 (0,5%. The influence of essential oils on fungal growth was carried by medium poisoning method. Increment of fungal mycelium was measured every day by 10 days. The thyme essential oils totally inhibited fungal growth in the lowest concentration of 1 mm3·cm-3. The most resistant strain was Penicillium janthinellum.

  7. Seasonal energy-storage requirements. Final report for Project 8982, June 30, 1976--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report quantifies the residential heating and cooling markets by census region and type of fuel. It also makes projections of residential heating and cooling demand to the year 2000 and estimates the effect of electrification scenarios on reducing the end-use consumption of fuels for heating and cooling purposes. Oil and natural gas storage capacity and costs are also reviewed for the residential sector to determine what price electric seasonal storage must reach to be competitive with its alternatives. Possible electric storage technologies are reviewed for their applicability to seasonal storage, and areas for further research are suggested.

  8. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  9. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.


    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  10. 76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... included waste removal, water treatment, oil/water separation, and sludge stabilization. Approximately 250... the wastewater aboveground storage tank (AST), boiler house ASTs, open top slop tanks area, horizontal...), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. Several samples...

  11. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  12. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)


    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  13. Cedar leaf oil poisoning (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  14. Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimanis, M.P.; Breault, R.W. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)); Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States))


    This project investigated the properties and behavior with regard to handling, storage, and atomization in small-scale applications of different CWFs (coal water fuels) prepared from different parent coals and various beneficiation techniques as well as consideration for bulk storage and distribution. The CWFs that were prepared included Upper Elkhorn No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Upper Wyodak coal cleaned by heavy media separation. Also, several CWFs were prepared with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal cleaned by heavy media separation with filtration, chemical cleaning, oil agglomeration, and froth flotation.

  15. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)


    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  16. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.


    Long-time varying-daily, weekly, and seasonal-power demands require the electric utility industry to have installed generating capacity in excess of the average load. Energy storage can reduce the requirement for less efficient excess generating capacity used to meet peak load demands. Short-time fluctuations in electric power can occur as negatively damped oscillations in complex power systems with generators connected by long transmission lines. Superconducting inductors with their associated converter systems are under development for both load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is based upon the phenomenon of the nearly lossless behavior of superconductors. Application is, in principal, efficient since the electromagnetic energy can be transferred to and from the storage coils without any intermediate conversion to other energy forms. Results from a reference design for a 10-GWh SMES unit for load leveling are presented. The conceptual engineering design of a 30-MJ, 10-MW energy storage coil is discussed with regard to system stabilization, and tests of a small scale, 100-KJ SMES system are presented. Some results of experiments are provided from a related technology based program which uses superconducting inductive energy storage to drive fusion plasmas.

  17. Energy storage connection system (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.


    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  18. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  19. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.


    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  20. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System


    Liu Miao; Mancang Yuan; Guodong Li


    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is propos...

  1. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications (United States)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  2. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre


    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  3. Effects of calf diet, antioxidants, packaging type and storage time on beef steak storage. (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; González, Laura; Bispo, Esperanza; Latorre, Alicia; Moreno, Teresa; Sineiro, Jorge; Sánchez, Marivel; Núñez, María José


    The effect of basal dietary supplemented with vegetable oils plus vitamin E (sunflower, soybean, linseed and a basal diet control), type of packaging (MAP or vacuum), addition of natural antioxidant (grape seed, rosemary) and storage time (0, 7, 14 and 21 days) on lipid oxidation, color stability, vitamin E content, and total aerobic bacterial counts in steaks of Longissimus thoracis was studied. The triple interaction diet × time × packaging affected oxidative stability, redness and yellowness of the meat. TBARS values did not increase with time in vacuum-packaged samples for all dietary treatments. However, samples from MAP and control showed the highest TBARS values after 21 days of storage (0.72 mg MDA/kg of meat, Pmeat. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie


    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  5. Integrated Thermal Energy Storage


    Kopko, William L.


    Integrated Thermal Energy Storage (ITES) is a novel concept in improving cooling performance of air-conditioning systems at peak-load conditions. In contrast to conventional chilled-water or ice storage, it uses stored chilled water to subcool condenser refrigerant liquid instead of supplying cooling directly to a cooling load. For typical R-134a and R-410A systems, subcooling increases capacity by approximately .5 to .7%/°F (~.9 to 1.3 %/K) without increasing compressor input power. Even l...

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.


    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  7. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD


    Full Text Available In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules, castor (Ricinus communis, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove (Syzygium aromaticum and mustard (Brassica rapa against B. incarnatus adults. The treatments which contained essential oils at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and acetone (control were applied. All essential oils with 4% concentration repelled the B. incarnatus adult except castor oil. The percentage of repellence was higher when used essential oil of cinnamon with 2 and 4% concentration compared with other essential oils and concentrations. In residual film experiment, the cinnamon oil had the highest toxicity rate on B. incarnatus adult fallowed by clove, camphor, mustard and the lowest effect was by castor oil. Based on our results, I can conclude that essential oils of camphor, cinnamon, clove and mustard have potential for use in the integrated management of B. incarnatus adult.

  8. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.


    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  9. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P


    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  10. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS]. (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua


    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  11. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.


    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  12. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Storage Agreements (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  13. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2


    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  14. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans. (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen


    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technological development in this cen tury has been characterized not only by the increasing consumption of energy but also by the emergence of hydrocarbons as the primary source. The process of development is threatened by the limited reserves of coal and oil. In addition, the deleterious effects of excessive ...

  16. Fish oil for use as hydraulic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery


    A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)

  17. Investigating the Use of Crude Atili Oil for Maintenance of Stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    an actively growing fungus from a pure culture of each of the isolates of Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida albicans, ... morphological changes (Santos et al, 2005). Prolonged storage in, and the quality of the ... olive oil (The Olive oil Source, 2008). Preservation of cultures on agar medium at 4 – 5ºC ...

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature T, by an equation analogous to the ideal gas law: π V=iRT. (1). R is the gas .... vehicular applications. Nanomaterials are a ... development of materials for hydrogen storage are the low rate of bulk hydride sorption and the high temperatures required for gas release. 3.0. Bulk material. <100 nm. Nanoparticles.

  20. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semertzidis Yannis K.


    Full Text Available Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  1. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage - The van't Hoff Connection. C S Sunandana. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 31-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath. General Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 61-68 ...

  3. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo


    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  4. The Open Storage Dilemma (United States)

    Orcutt, Kimberly


    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.


    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  6. Solar Energy: Heat Storage. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  7. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig


    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  8. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko


    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  9. Too much oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.


    Fear for oil exhaustion and its consequences for economic growth has been a driver of a rich literature on exhaustible resources. But our view on oil has remarkably changed. We now also worry about too much oil because of climate change damages associated with oil and other fossil fuel use. In this

  10. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.


    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation. (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L


    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  12. Waxy crude oil production in the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, W.R.; Gerber, E.J.; Simek, L.A.


    The Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia (PPICA) Xijiang Field Development Project is a unique project resulting in the production of a waxy crude oil. The crude oil is produced on two platforms feeding a final production unit located on an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Off-loading) vessel located between the platforms. The crude from these two fields contains a high concentration of wax and has a relatively high pour point temperature. The crude composition and oil properties are listed in two tables. Special consideration was needed with respect to operating temperatures, start-up and shutdown procedures.

  13. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby


    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  14. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian


    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  16. Post harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) treated with selected oil emulsions and diphenyl. (United States)

    Verma, P; Dashora, L K


    Influence of oil emulsions and diphenyl on post-harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia) was studied. During twelve days of storage, physiological loss in weight (PLW) and rotting were at a minimum in fruits treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) oil plus diphenyl; juice content was at a maximum in mustard oil + diphenyl treated fruits. With the advancement of storage period, total soluble solids were increased while ascorbic acid and acidity of fruits decreased. Mustard oil plus diphenyl supported maximum ascorbic acid (25.60 mg/100 ml juice) and minimum total soluble solids (9.03%).

  17. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in sunflower oil. (United States)

    Zaborowska, Zofia; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Bilska, Agnieszka


    Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris) were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), totox value (TxV) and fatty acids (FA) content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. High polyphenol content, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.

  18. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil. (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described previously in only 3 patients. The allergen(s) is/are unknown.

  19. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease (United States)

    ... Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the Liver Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Diseases of the Liver Glycogen Storage ... Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the Liver Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Diseases of the Liver Glycogen Storage ...

  20. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  1. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  2. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges (United States)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael


    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  4. Impact of savanna conversion to oil palm plantations on C stocks dynamics and soil fertility (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Ruegg, Johanna


    Large-scale expansion of oil palm cultivation on forested land in South-East Asia during the last decades lead to high negative environmental impacts. Because rainforests store high amount of C, their conversion to oil palm plantations results in large net CO2 emissions. Oil palm cultivation in tropical ecosystems such as savanna that store less C than forests is seen as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of future oil palm development. While this option is more and more frequently mentioned, few data are available on the effective gain in C storage. Furthermore negative impact on soil organic carbon and soil fertility could offset gains of C storage in oil palm biomass. Here, we present results on aboveground and belowground C stocks and soil nutrient dynamics over a full rotation cycle of oil palm plantations established on tropical savanna grasslands. Three natural savanna grasslands as reference sites and 9 oil palm plantations ranging from two to twenty-seven years old were selected in the Llanos in Colombia. Oxisols were sampled down to 70 cm in each management zones of oil palm plantations (weeded circle, interrow, frond piles and harvesting path). Taking advantages of a shift from C4 to C3 vegetation, we quantified savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates and how they were affected by management practices (mineral fertilization, organic amendments, etc.). Results show that, in opposite to forest conversion, C storage increases when savannas are converted to oil palm plantations. Because soil C storage was very low in natural conditions, SOC changes had little effects on overall C storage. Substitution of savanna-derived SOC by oil palm-derived SOC was very fast in the topsoil and highest under frond pile and weeded circle where C and nutrients inputs are highest. However, stabilization of oil palm-derived SOC compensated loss of savanna-derived SOC rather than increased SOC stocks

  5. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.


    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  6. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties. (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus


    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food matrices and cell conditions influence survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under heat stresses and during storage. (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Salminen, Seppo


    The present study evaluated impact of moisture content and cell conditions on survival of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, under lethal heat stresses and during long-term storage using freeze-dried cells and oils as matrices. Viable cell counts of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus GG cells suspended in oils had only 1-log-reduction after 5min at 80°C and approximately 3-log-reduction after 20min, while no or very few viable cells were recorded for freeze dried cells suspended in buffer and cultured cells in oils. Surprisingly, freeze-dried cells suspended in oils still contained 4.3 to 6.7logCFU/ml after 5min at 95°C. Long-term storage study indicated that freeze-dried cells suspended in oils kept viable conditions for 4months, and a loss of the viability was only 0.3 to 0.6logCFU/ml. Viable cell counts of cultured cells suspended in oils were not present after 3days to 3months. These results clearly indicate that moisture and cell conditions have a great impact on survival of probiotics under severe heat stress in processing and during long-term storage. Combination of freeze-dried cells and oils as carrier provides beneficial options to preserve viability of probiotics in food processes and storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Data storage as a service




    The purpose of the thesis was comparison of interfaces to network attached file systems and object storage. The thesis describes network file system and mounting procedure in Linux operating system. Object storage and distributed storage systems are explained with examples of usage. Amazon S3 is an example of object store with access trough REST interface. Ceph, a system for distributed object storage, is explained in detail, and a Ceph cluster was deployed for the purpose of this thesis. Cep...

  9. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.


    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  10. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible? (United States)

    Johansen, H.


    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  11. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre


    Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  12. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.


    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast at tempe......A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  13. Nanoencapsulation of Rose-Hip Oil Prevents Oil Oxidation and Allows Obtainment of Gel and Film Topical Formulations. (United States)

    Contri, Renata V; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene C; da Silva, Sheila Janine; Frank, Luiza A; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S


    The rose-hip oil holds skin regenerating properties with applications in the dermatological and cosmetic area. Its nanoencapsulation might favor the oil stability and its incorporation into hydrophilic formulations, besides increasing the contact with the skin and prolonging its effect. The aim of the present investigation was to develop suitable rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules, to verify the nanocapsule effect on the UV-induced oxidation of the oil and to obtain topical formulations by the incorporation of the nanocapsules into chitosan gel and film. The rose-hip oil (500 or 600 μL), polymer (Eudragit RS100®, 100 or 200 mg), and acetone (50 or 100 mL) contents were separately varied aiming to obtain an adequate size distribution. The results led to a combination of the factors acetone and oil. The developed formulation showed average diameter of 158 ± 6 nm with low polydispersity, pH of 5.8 ± 0.9, zeta potential of +9.8 ± 1.5 mV, rose-hip oil content of 54 ± 1 μL/mL and tendency to reversible creaming. No differences were observed in the nanocapsules properties after storage. The nanoencapsulation of rose-hip oil decreased the UVA and UVC oxidation of the oil. The chitosan gel and film containing rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable properties for cutaneous use. In conclusion, it was possible to successfully obtain rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules and to confirm the nanocapsules effect in protecting the oil from the UV rays. The chitosan gel and film were considered interesting alternatives for incorporating the nanoencapsulated rose-hip oil, combining the advantages of the nanoparticles to the advantages of chitosan.

  14. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  15. Energy Storage Project (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.


    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  16. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (United States)


    ... availability of storage capacity in the SPR sites, the logistics of changing delivery streams, and the availability of ships, pipelines and terminals to move and receive the oil. (3) Based on the market analysis... contained in offers. If DOE determines there is a high probability that the cost to the Government can be...

  17. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  18. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption. (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R


    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of <1 year (mean = 452 vs. 288 μg/kg, p value = 0.008), and oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  19. Soluble oil flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.W.; Knight, R.K.


    A soluble oil-polymer flooding process used in previously waterflooded reservoirs utilizes oleic, micellar solutions which, when injected as small slugs and driven by polymer thickened water, are capable of displacing all oil and water contacted. During the micellar flood, oil and water are displaced from reservoir rock by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) miscible-type displacement of oil by soluble oil; (2) miscible-type displacement of resident water by injection water and soluble oil; (3) formation of microemulsions by the intermingling of soluble oil and injected water; and (4) reduction of interfacial tension between oil and water phases where both are present. The Higgs Unit, site of a field test of soluble oil flooding, is a small pool in the Jones County Regular field near Abilene, Tex. Field data, special equipment, test evaluation, and field test conclusions are given for this operation.

  20. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin


    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  1. A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Peón Menéndez


    Full Text Available Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle or petrochemical (oil piping, with the new solar (parabolic trough collector and heat storage (molten salts technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.

  2. Wind Loads for Designing Cylindrical Storage Tanks Part 2 Wind Force Model with Consideration of the Buckling Behavior Under Wind Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jumpei YASUNAGA; Choongmo KOO; Yasushi UEMATSU


      Two series of wind tunnel experiments and a finite element analysis are carried out to investigate the buckling behavior of thin cylindrical shell structures, such as open-topped oil-storage tanks...

  3. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm. (United States)

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane


    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.


    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  5. Base Oils from Petroleum (United States)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  6. Holographic Optical Data Storage (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.



    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.


    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  9. Effect of dietary fat and vitamin E on colour stability and on lipid and protein oxidation in Turkey meat during storage. (United States)

    Mercier, Y; Gatellier, P; Viau, M; Remignon, H; Renerre, M


    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary fat (6% soya oil or rapeseed oil or tallow), together with tocopheryl acetate at either a basal (30 ppm) or a supplemented (400 ppm) level for 16 weeks on lipid and protein oxidation, including myoglobin, during refrigerated storage of turkey muscles. When turkeys were fed tallow in particular, vitamin E supplementation improved the vitamin E status of the muscles. Vitamin E supplementation significantly delayed lipid oxidation measured by TBARS, whatever the dietary fat. TBARS were highest in meat from animals fed soya oil. Vitamin E supplementation had no positive effect on colour stability of meat during refrigerated storage. Feeding soya oil induced significantly higher oxidation of proteins (carbonyl content) than rapeseed oil or tallow and vitamin E supplementation induced a slight decrease in carbonyl content at day 9 of storage for M. sartorius. SH content was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented M. sartorius and M. pectoralis than in controls.

  10. Antioxidant efficacy of soybean cake extracts in soy oil protection. (United States)

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Bashash, Moein; Khorshidi, Farideh; Serjouie, Alireza; Shirvani, Maryam Araj; Abbasi, Hajar; Sedaghatdoost, Ali


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and possibility of extracting compounds with antioxidant properties of soybean cake to extend the storage stability of soybean oil. Results showed that the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed for sample to solvent ratio 1:25 while extracting by 70% ethanol for 3 h). The most phenolic compounds equivalents (Gallic acid) was observed for sample to solvent ratio 1:25 while extracting by 70% methanol for 14 h. In addition, the soybean cake extract at concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm in soybean oil could significantly lower the peroxide, diene and p-anisidine values of soy oil during storage at 65 °C.

  11. Short Distance Standoff Raman Detection of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulterated with Canola and Grapeseed Oils. (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Bose, Nayana; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Boateng, Judith; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup


    A short distance standoff Raman technique is demonstrated for detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Using a portable Raman spectrometer operating with a 785 nm laser and a 2-in. refracting telescope, adulteration of olive oil with grapeseed oil and canola oil is detected between 1% and 100% at a minimum concentration of 2.5% from a distance of 15 cm and at a minimum concentration of 5% from a distance of 1 m. The technique involves correlating the intensity ratios of prominent Raman bands of edible oils at 1254, 1657, and 1441 cm-1 to the degree of adulteration. As a novel variation in the data analysis technique, integrated intensities over a spectral range of 100 cm-1 around the Raman line were used, making it possible to increase the sensitivity of the technique. The technique is demonstrated by detecting adulteration of EVOO with grapeseed and canola oils at 0-100%. Due to the potential of this technique for making measurements from a convenient distance, the short distance standoff Raman technique has the promise to be used for routine applications in food industry such as identifying food items and monitoring EMA at various checkpoints in the food supply chain and storage facilities.

  12. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zúñiga-Diaz


    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  13. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.


    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  14. Sassafras oil overdose (United States)

    ... oil. It is a clear or slightly yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts. ... breathing Shallow breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Dizziness Hallucinations Unconsciousness SKIN Burns (if the oil is on the skin)

  15. Oil market outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.; Kastelein, M.; Zeilstra, A.


    The price of oil has a huge impact on the profitability of many and varied industries. In this report, we explore the factors that affect that price and look at the likely future development of the oil market.

  16. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery. (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian


    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  17. Rapid Response of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Microbial Communities to Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Woo, Hannah L.; Ning, Daliang; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.


    Deep marine oil spills like the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) in the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to drastically impact marine systems. Crude oil contamination in marine systems remains a concern, especially for countries around the Mediterranean Sea with off shore oil production. The goal of this study was to investigate the response of indigenous microbial communities to crude oil in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea (E. Med.) water column and to minimize potential bias associated with storage and shifts in microbial community structure from sample storage. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was combined with GeoChip metagenomic analysis to monitor the microbial community changes to the crude oil and dispersant in on-ship microcosms set up immediately after water collection. After 3 days of incubation at 14 °C, the microbial communities from two different water depths: 824 m and 1210 m became dominated by well-known oil degrading bacteria. The archaeal population and the overall microbial community diversity drastically decreased. Similarly, GeoChip metagenomic analysis revealed a tremendous enrichment of genes related to oil biodegradation, which was consistent with the results from the DWH oil spill. These results highlight a rapid microbial adaption to oil contamination in the deep E. Med., and indicate strong oil biodegradation potentia

  18. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent


    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th





    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...


    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar


    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  1. Energy Storage System (United States)


    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  2. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.


    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  3. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  4. Crude oil desulfurization (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)


    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn


    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  6. Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils. (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena


    The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.

  7. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)


    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  8. Oil flows during White Rose test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During a test conducted this summer, the White Rose test well, with a horizontal section of approximately 1,200 metres, has produced 9,000 barrels per day from a horizontal oil producer, the maximum allowed by the testing facilities aboard the submersible drill rig Glomar Grand Bank. The test indicates that the oil well can pump between 25,000 to 30,000 barrels per day when production begins in late 2005 or early 2006. Initial development involves 7 or 8 oil production wells, 10 or 11 water injection wells, and two gas injection wells in the North Avalon pool. Husky Energy is aiming for initial production of 100,000 barrels per day from four production wells when full production begins from the Sea Rose floating production, storage and off-loading vessel. The floating production, storage and off-loading (FPSO) vessel, currently under construction at the Marystown Fabrication Facility, is expected to head to the oilfield during the fourth quarter of 2005 for final testing of various systems. First official production is expected to commence soon after final testing is completed. The White Rose project has a site-specific environmental protection plan, and environmental compliance monitoring will be conducted on a regular basis to ensure that project activities comply with environmental legislation and standards, to assess performance, and identify areas where improvements are needed.

  9. Oil Spill Cleanup (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann


    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  10. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandra Heins; Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops


    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  11. Cod Liver Oil (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin ... condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of ...

  12. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.


    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN


    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  14. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    against C. maculatus in laboratory bioassays. However Singh et al. (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or longevity of adult C. maculatus. Tikku et al. (1981) similarly showed that topical application of several vegetable oils, including groundnut and coconut oils, had no effect on ...

  15. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík


    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  16. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.


    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  17. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)


    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread. (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna


    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel


    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  20. Assessment of Thermal and Textural Characteristics and Consumer Preferences of Lemon and Strawberry Flavored Fish Oil Organogels. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan


    In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.

  1. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira


    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging ...

  2. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility (United States)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  3. Environmental and Economic Impact of Underground Storage Tanks in the United States and Territories (United States)


    Pemex ), the Mexico City based state oil company, has accepted responsibility for the gasoline leak into the sewer system and offered to provide $32.7...owned and operated by Pemex , which crossed the southeast part of the city and supplied one of the main storage and distribution plants with gasoline

  4. Storage and conservation of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusi, D.S.


    Storage of bagasse produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for operations that are carried out continuously throughout the year, such as pulp and paper production. The sugar cane tissues suffer severe mechanical treatment in the sugar mills crushers, are further damaged in depithers and in many cases degraded while in storage. The processes of degradation are examined and handling and storage procedures are discussed which will minimize the quality and material losses.

  5. Hydrogen storage in nanotubes & nanostructures


    Froudakis, George E.


    Over the last several years, a significant share of the scientific community has focused its attention on the hydrogen storage problem. Since 1997, when carbon nanotubes appeared to be a promising storage material, many theoretical and experimental groups have investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of these carbon nanostructures. These efforts were not always successful and consequently, the results obtained were often controversial. In the current review we attempt to summarize some the ...

  6. The influence of emulsifier type on lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched light mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Hyldig, Grethe


    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched light mayonnaise (40% oil) and the influence of two different emulsifiers, egg yolk and milk protein-based emulsifier, were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of different fish oil concentrations (4, 10 and 14%) and storage temperatures (2 and 20 degrees C...... analysis. Surprisingly, our hypothesis that substitution of egg yolk with a less iron-containing emulsifier (milk protein-based emulsifier) could increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaises was not confirmed. These findings suggest that the initial quality of the emulsifiers was more...

  7. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  8. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats. (United States)

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia


    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored.

  9. Oil on the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Ukert, T.


    The structure of the German mineral oil market, supply and consumption as well as the particularities of this market are investigated and explained. The authors deal in particular with the market for light fuel oil, the petrol market, the market for heavy fuel oil and the market of lubricants. As different as these markets may be - the unavoidable coupled production produces interdependences. This and the balance caused by imports and exports have the effect that the price level on the German mineral oil markets is closely connected with the development of prices on the internal mineral oil markets.

  10. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Long, Darrell [The Regents of the University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Honeyman, Peter [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kramer, William [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Roth, Philip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felix, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ward, Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  11. Advanced materials for energy storage. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming


    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  12. Pilot plant for the radioactive decontamination of spent oils; Planta piloto para la descontaminacion radiactiva de aceites gastados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.V.; Cisneros L, L.; Lopez G, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this work the operation parameters obtained in the laboratory of oil storage are presented, as well as the operations which shape the pilot plant, the design criteria and the basic design of the core equipment of the developed process. Finally, the comparative results obtained the decontamination process of oil are given as well as laboratory scale. (Author)

  13. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.


    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  14. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... In vitro derived shoots of olive cv. Moraiolo were employed in synthetic seeds preparation by alginate encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ±. 2°C) conditions in interaction with different storage intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days to evaluate the.

  15. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro derived shoots of olive cv. Moraiolo were employed in synthetic seeds preparation by alginate encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ± 2°C) conditions in interaction with different storage intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days to evaluate the comparative ...

  16. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty


    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  17. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv


    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  18. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC


    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  19. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.


    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  20. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin


    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.