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Sample records for su-8 microcontainer lid

  1. Polymeric microcontainers improve oral bioavailability of furosemide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Melero, Ana; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2016-01-01

    Microcontainers with an inner diameter of 223μm are fabricated using the polymer SU-8, and evaluated in vitro, in situ and in vivo for their application as an advanced oral drug delivery system for the poorly water soluble drug furosemide. An amorphous sodium salt of furosemide (ASSF) is filled...... into the microcontainers followed by applying a lid using Eudragit L100. It is possible to control the drug release in vitro, and in vitro absorption studies show that the microcontainers are not a hindrance for absorption of ASSF. In situ perfusion studies in rats are performed with ASSF-filled microcontainers coated...

  2. Microcontainers - an oral drug delivery system for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Petersen, Ritika Singh; Marizza, Paolo

    In oral delivery, it can sometimes be necessary to employ drug delivery systems to achieve targeted delivery to the intestine. Microcontainers are polymeric, cylindrical devices in the micrometer size range (Figure 1), and are suggested as a promising oral drug delivery system [1],[2]. The purpose...... of these studies was to fabricate microcontainers in either SU-8 or biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and fill the microcontainers with poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, the application of the microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system was investigated in terms of release, in situ intestinal perfusion...... medium at pH 6.5 was observed. In situ intestinal perfusions were performed in rats of the Eudragit-coated ASSF-filled microcontainers and compared to a furosemide solution. At the end of the study, the small intestine was harvested from the rat and imaged under a light microscope. The absorption rate...

  3. Biodegradable microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To fabricate microcontainers in biodegradable polylactic acid (PLLA) polymer films using hot embossing, and investigate the application of fabricated microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system for a poorly soluble drug. METHODS: For fabrication of the PLLA microcontainers, a film...... (produced by spray drying) using a simplified version of a screen printing technique. An enteric-resistant lid of Eudragit L-100 was subsequently spray coated onto the cavity of the microcontainers. Release of amorphous furosemide salt from the coated microcontainers was investigated using a μ-Diss profiler...... release from microcontainers in gastric medium, and facilitated an immediate release in the intestinal medium. The fabricated microcontainers therefore show considerable future potential as oral drug delivery systems....

  4. In vitro characterization of microcontainers as an oral drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jacobsen, J.

    We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide.......We here present in vitro studies showing the promise of microcontainers (fabricated in either SU-8 or Poly(lactic acid) (PLLA)) as an oral drug delivery system for the poorly watersoluble drug, furosemide....

  5. Spray coating of microcontainers with eudragit using ferromagnetic shadow masks for controlled oral release of poorly water soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    (weak acid). The cavity of the drug-filled microcontainers were spray coated with a 2 wt% solution of either Eudragit S-100 (soluble below pH 5) or Eudragit L-100 (soluble above pH 6) in isopropanol. The spray coating process was performed using ferromagnetic shadow masks (380 μm) allowing for magnetic...... clamping to the substrate and therefore precise deposition of the polymer on the microcontainers to form a lid. The release of cinnarizine and amorphous furosemide salt from the coated microcontainers was performed in fasted biorelevant gastric (pH 1.6) and intestinal media (pH 6.5), respectively. RESULTS......: By use of the ferromagnetic shadow masks it was possible to deposit the Eudragit precisely and therefore possible to form a lid of the cavity of the microcontainers. The thickness of the Eudragit layer on the cavity of the microcontainers was approximately 8-10 μm for both types of Eudragit...

  6. Chemical synthesis on SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Taveras, Kennedy; Thastrup, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a highly effective surface modification of SU-8 microparticles, the attachment of appropriate linkers for solid-supported synthesis, and the successful chemical modification of these particles via controlled multi-step organic synthesis leading to molecules attached...

  7. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The polymer SU-8 is becoming widely used for all kinds of micromechanical and microfluidic devices, not only as a photoresist but also as the constitutional material of the devices. Many of these polymeric devices need to include a microfluidic system as well as electrical connection from the ele...

  8. Synthesis of magnetic thermosensitive microcontainers for enzyme immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianzhi; Zhao, Guanghui; Wang, Xinyu; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for the fabrication of magnetic thermoresponsive polymer microcapsules with mobile magnetic spherical cores. The microcontainers form fried-egg-like structures with a polymer shell layer of 50 nm due to the existence of hollow cavities. The microcontainers undergo a temperature-induced volume phase transition upon changing the temperature and present an impressive magnetic response. The magnetic saturation of these smart microcontainers (42 emu/g) is high enough to meet most requirements of bioapplications. To further investigate the potential application of these smart microcontainers in biotechnology, Candida rugosa lipase was selected for the enzyme immobilization process. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with the free enzyme. The adsorption/release of the lipase from the microcontainers can be controlled by the environmental temperature and magnetic force, thus, offering new potential applications such as in controlled drug delivery, bioseparation, and catalysis

  9. Synthesis of magnetic thermosensitive microcontainers for enzyme immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianzhi; Zhao, Guanghui, E-mail: zhaogh@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Xinyu, E-mail: wangxy08@lzu.cn; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: liyf@lzu.edu.cn [Lanzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Institute of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-05-15

    We present a new approach for the fabrication of magnetic thermoresponsive polymer microcapsules with mobile magnetic spherical cores. The microcontainers form fried-egg-like structures with a polymer shell layer of 50 nm due to the existence of hollow cavities. The microcontainers undergo a temperature-induced volume phase transition upon changing the temperature and present an impressive magnetic response. The magnetic saturation of these smart microcontainers (42 emu/g) is high enough to meet most requirements of bioapplications. To further investigate the potential application of these smart microcontainers in biotechnology, Candida rugosa lipase was selected for the enzyme immobilization process. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with the free enzyme. The adsorption/release of the lipase from the microcontainers can be controlled by the environmental temperature and magnetic force, thus, offering new potential applications such as in controlled drug delivery, bioseparation, and catalysis.

  10. Micromechanical testing of SU-8 cantilevers

    OpenAIRE

    Hopcroft, M; Kramer, T; Kim, G; Takashima, K; Higo, Y; Moore, D; Brugger, J

    2005-01-01

    SU-8 is a photoplastic polymer with a wide range of possible applications in microtechnology. Cantilevers designed for atomic force microscopes were fabricated in SU-8. The mechanical properties of these cantilevers were investigated using two microscale testing techniques: contact surface profilometer beam deflection and static load deflection at a point on the beam using a specially designed test machine. The SU-8 Young's modulus value from the microscale test methods is approximately 2-3 GPa.

  11. Lid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condliffe, J.; Dismore, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    A double-lidded posting port to allow transfer of material between an enclosure and a drum includes a rotary catch mechanism to secure the drum's lid to the door of the enclosure, with a multi-tooth dog clutch to drive simultaneously another rotary catch mechanism to release the lid from the drum, operation of both mechanisms involving a rotation of about 45 0 . By means of a cam, interlocks are provided to prevent opening of the door until the lid is secured to the door, and to prevent operation of the rotary mechanism when the door is open, or when the door is closed but no lid is adjacent to it. (author)

  12. SU-8 Based Piezoresistive Mechanical Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vestergaard, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first SU-8 based piezoresistive mechanical sensor. Conventionally, silicon has been used as a piezoresistive material due to its high gauge factor and thereby high sensitivity to strain changes in a sensor. By using the fact that SU-8 is much softer than silicon and that a gold...

  13. Diffusion of water into SU-8 microcantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, C.J.; Liu, Y.; Sokuler, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to monitor the diffusion of liquid molecules in polymers. A microdrop of water is deposited by a piezoelectric drop generator onto the upper surface of a cantilever made of SU-8 based photoresist. In response, the cantilever bends in the opposite direction. We find...... sophisticated finite element model the diffusion coefficient of water in the SU-8 polymer can be determined quantitatively from the dynamics of cantilever bending....... that this bending is mainly caused by the diffusion of water into the cantilever and the consequent swelling of SU-8. Using a one-dimensional diffusion model and assuming a simple swelling law, we qualitatively model the bending of the cantilever during in and out diffusion of water in SU-8. With a more...

  14. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  15. On SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) grand unified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Yu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A set of general propositions is considered which ground the choice of the SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) group as a unified symmetry group. According to these propositions the group SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) is the most natural unified group, it is the maximal symmetry group of the kinetic term of the lagrangian single family which conserves the fermion number. A new principle is introduced. According to this principle, the mirror doubling of the fermion spectrum, necessary for renormalizability of the given unified model is, on the other hand, a manifestation of the extended conformal invariance at short distances [ru

  16. SU-8 micro Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monge, Rosa; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Fernandez, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This work presents the modelling, design, fabrication and test of the first micro Coriolis mass flow sensor fully fabricated in SU-8 by photolithography processes. The sensor consists of a channel with rectangular cross-section with inner opening of 100 μm × 100 μm and is actuated at

  17. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  18. Fabrication of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcontainers using solvent evaporation with polydimethylsiloxane stencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Min; Byul Lee, Han; Kim, Jong Uk; Kim, Gyu Man

    2017-12-01

    We present a fabrication method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils and solvent evaporation to prepare microcontainers with a desired shape made from a biodegradable polymer. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used for preparing microcontainers, but most polymers are applicable in the proposed method in which solvent evaporation is used to construct microstructures in confined spaces in the stencil. Microcontainers with various shapes were fabricated by controlling the stencil geometry. Furthermore, a porous structure could be prepared in a micromembrane using water porogen. The porous structure was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and mass transfer across the porous membrane was examined using a fluorescent dye. The flexibility of the PDMS stencil allowed the fabrication of microcontainers on a curved surface. Finally, it was demonstrated that microcontainers can be used to contain a localized cell culture. The viability and morphology of cultured cells were observed using confocal microscopy over a period of 3 weeks.

  19. On grand unified SU(8)sub(L) x SU(8)sub(R) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Yu.F.

    1980-01-01

    In the model of early chiral grand unification SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) with intermediate symmetry hierarchies the radiation corrections for sinsup(2)thetasub(W)(μ) and α(μ) are calculated and unification mass M 8 is found in the one loop approximation with Higgs fields contribution being neglected. It is shown that there exists a natural hierarchy, leading to the decrease of sinsup(2)thetasub(W)(Msub(W)) down to the value sinsup(2)thetasub(W)=1/5-1/4 and simultaneous decrease of M 8 down to M 8 =(10 6 -10 7 ) GeV as compared with the values when there is no hierarchy [ru

  20. SU-8 photoresist and SU-8 based nanocomposites for broadband acoustical matching at 1 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndieguene, A; Campistron, P; Carlier, J; Wang, S; Callens-Debavelaere, D; Nongaillard, B, E-mail: Assane.Ndieguene@meletu.univ-valenciennes.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2009-11-01

    So as to integrate acoustic functions in BioMEMS using 1 GHz ZnO transducers deposited on silicon substrates, acoustic waves propagation through the silicon substrate and its transmission in water needs to be maximized (the insertion losses at the Si / water interface are about 6dB). In the context of integration, it is interesting for mechanical impedance matching to use photosensitive materials such as SU-8 so that patterns may be obtained. Nanocomposite materials based on SU-8 mixed with nanoparticles having adequate impedances were fabricated. These new materials are characterized in terms of their acoustic velocity, impedance and attenuation. For this, the nanocomposite layers are deposited on the substrate by spin coating to obtain a thickness of about 10 {mu}m, in order to separate acoustic echoes from the material (even if {lambda}/4 layer thickness is lower than 1 {mu}m). The insertion losses of the device immersed in water can be simulated as a function of frequency for a given reflection coefficient between the silicon substrate and the photoresist. The characteristics of some nanocomposites made with SU-8 and various concentrations of nanoparticles like Ti0{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3} or W have been determined.

  1. Broken SU(8) symmetry and the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schiller, D.H.

    1976-05-01

    We study the mass spectra and wave functions for vector and pseudoscalar mesons in broken SU(8) (SU(8) is contained in SU(4)F * SU(2)J), where F stands for flavour and J for usual spin. The connection with the standard mass breaking in SU(4)F is worked out. We find that even in the presence of strong SU(8) breaking the ideal mixing scheme for the vector mesons can be approximately retained. For the pseudoscalar mesons the mixing of the singlet with the 63-plet representation of SU(8) turns out to be essential and stongly nonideal. (orig.) [de

  2. Fabrication and loading of oral drug delivery microcontainers using hot punching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Borre, Mads T.; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) solution is spin coated to achieve a PLLA layer of 55 μm thickness. Hot punching with a Ni stamp is optimized to fabricate microcontainers in PLLA. Process optimization of thermal bonding of the microcontainers to a poly acrylic acid (PAA) layer is perform...... by modifying sample preparation and varying temperature. The fabricated microcontainers are loaded by hot punching in a spin coated drug polymer film of furosemide and poly-e-caprolactone (PCL)....

  3. Photochemical modification and patterning of SU-8 using Anthraquinone photolinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Persson, Karl Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional patterns on a Novolac A derivative polymer (SU-8) and, subsequently, their functionalization with biomolecules. Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives are used to chemically modify and pattern SU-8 surfaces. Features as small as 20 μm are obtained when using uncollimated light. The X−Y spatial resolution...

  4. Hot embossing and mechanical punching of biodegradable microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Mahshid, Rasoul; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    A process has been developed to fabricate discrete three-dimensional microcontainers for oral drug delivery application in Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) polymer. The method combines hot embossing for the definition of holes in a PLLA film and mechanical punching to penetrate the polymer layer around...... and shapes of microcontainers. Finally, the process is compatible with roll-to-roll processing that could lead to low cost high volume production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Fabrication of raised and inverted SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Austin, Mike W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer films with high optical transmission have been investigated for making optical devices for several years. SU8 photoresist and optical adhesives have been investigated for use as thin films for optical devices, not what they were originally designed for. Optical adhesives are typically a one component thermoset polymer and are convenient to use for making thin film optical devices such as waveguides. They are prepared in minutes as thin films unlike SU8, which has to be carefully thermally cured over several hours for optimum results. However SU8 can be accurately patterned to form the geometry of structures required for single mode optical waveguides. SU8 in combination with the lower refractive index optical adhesive films such as UV15 from Master Bond are used to form single and multi mode waveguides. SU8 is photopatternable but we have also used dry etching of the SU8 layer or the other polymer layers e.g. UV15 to form the ribs, ridges or trenches required to guide single modes of light. Optical waveguides were also fabricated using only optical adhesives of different refractive indices. The resolution obtainable is poorer than with SU8 and hence multi mode waveguides are obtained. Loss measurements have been obtained for waveguides of different geometries and material combinations. The process for making polymer waveguides is demonstrated for making large multi mode waveguides and microfluidic channels by scaling the process up in size.

  6. Supercritical impregnation of polymer matrices spatially confined in microcontainers for oral drug delivery: Effect of temperature, pressure and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Pontoni, L.; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    sol-ubility in water. In a previous study we introduced a novel technique for drug loading of microcontainers,based on inkjet printing and supercritical impregnation (SCI). We showed that SCI produces accurate andreproducible drug loading for large arrays of microcontainers. In the attempt...... of enhancing the throughputof the loading methods, we propose the replacement of polymer inkjet printing with an easier man-ual compression of the PVP powder into the microcontainers. As the second step, the polymer powderfilled-microcontainers were submitted to SCI. The separate role of different impregnation...

  7. Functionalized SU-8 patterned with X-ray Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Romanato, F.

    2005-01-01

    spontaneous emission light source that couples out light normal to the chip plane. In addition we examine the influence of the x-ray irradiation on the fluorescence of thin films of dye doped SU-8. The dye embedded in the SU-8 is optically excited during, characterization by an external light source tuned......In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of x-ray lithography on SU-8 photoresist doped with the laser dye Rhodamine 6G, while retaining the photoactive properties of the embedded dye. Two kinds of structures are fabricated via soft x-ray lithography and characterized: a laser and in amplified...

  8. Innovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Bong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters high-aspect-ratio (up to 100:1 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro- and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so.

  9. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sánchez Noguerón, E.

    2005-01-01

    adhesion promotors between the SU-8 and Au; (ii) the influence of the processing sequence, keeping either Au or SU-8 as the bottom layer; (iii) the importance of the UV exposure dosage of the SU-8. For comparison, also the bond strength between SU-8 and other materials was measured. For SU-8 and Au without...

  10. Development of untethered SU-8 polymer scratch drive microrobots

    KAUST Repository

    Valencia Garcia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and testing of novel, untethered SU-8 polymer microrobots based on scratch drive actuators (SDAs). The design consists of two 100×120×10μm linked SDAs, individually operated close to their resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency and deflection behavior of an individual SDA can be controlled by its shape, thickness, and stiffening design features. As a result, paired SDAs can be actuated individually or simultaneously by a multifrequency driving signal, allowing for two-dimensional displacement. The fabrication process uses SU-8 as structural material and PMGI as sacrificial material. The SU-8 provides a flexible material for the SDA\\'s plates as well as the bushing. Finally, a Cr/Au layer is blanket deposited to provide electrical conductivity.

  11. Development of untethered SU-8 polymer scratch drive microrobots

    KAUST Repository

    Valencia Garcia, Manuel; Atallah, Tarek Nabil; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Al Dosari, Mishari Ibraheem; Hammad, Rafat; Al Rawashdeh, Ehab Jamal; Zaher, Amir Omar; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and testing of novel, untethered SU-8 polymer microrobots based on scratch drive actuators (SDAs). The design consists of two 100×120×10μm linked SDAs, individually operated close to their resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency and deflection behavior of an individual SDA can be controlled by its shape, thickness, and stiffening design features. As a result, paired SDAs can be actuated individually or simultaneously by a multifrequency driving signal, allowing for two-dimensional displacement. The fabrication process uses SU-8 as structural material and PMGI as sacrificial material. The SU-8 provides a flexible material for the SDA's plates as well as the bushing. Finally, a Cr/Au layer is blanket deposited to provide electrical conductivity.

  12. Fabricating microfluidic valve master molds in SU-8 photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Aaron J.; Cosmanescu, Alin; Sluka, James; Glazier, James A.; Stupack, Dwayne; Amarie, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    Multilayer soft lithography has become a powerful tool in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, material and life sciences, and medical research. Complex fluidic micro-circuits require reliable components that integrate easily into microchips. We introduce two novel approaches to master mold fabrication for constructing in-line micro-valves using SU-8. Our fabrication techniques enable robust and versatile integration of many lab-on-a-chip functions including filters, mixers, pumps, stream focusing and cell-culture chambers, with in-line valves. SU-8 created more robust valve master molds than the conventional positive photoresists used in multilayer soft lithography, but maintained the advantages of biocompatibility and rapid prototyping. As an example, we used valve master molds made of SU-8 to fabricate PDMS chips capable of precisely controlling beads or cells in solution.

  13. SU-8 as a Material for Microfabricated Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Jiguet, Sebastien; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Several recent detector te chnologies developed for particle physics applications are based on microfabricated structures. Dete ctors built with this approach generally exhibit the overall best performance in te rms of spatial and time resolution. Many properties of the SU-8 photoepoxy make it suitable for the manufacturing of microstructured particle detectors. This arti cle aims to review some emerging detector technologies making use of SU-8 microstructu ring, namely micropatte rn gaseous detectors and microfluidic scintillation detectors. Th e general working principle and main process steps for the fabrication of each device are reported, with a focus on the advantages brought to the device functionality by the us e of SU-8. A novel process based on multiple bonding steps for the fabrication of thin multila yer microfluidic scin tillation detectors developed by the authors is presented. Finally, a brief overview of the applications for the discussed devices is given.

  14. Fabricating microfluidic valve master molds in SU-8 photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dy, Aaron J; Cosmanescu, Alin; Sluka, James; Glazier, James A; Amarie, Dragos; Stupack, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    Multilayer soft lithography has become a powerful tool in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, material and life sciences, and medical research. Complex fluidic micro-circuits require reliable components that integrate easily into microchips. We introduce two novel approaches to master mold fabrication for constructing in-line micro-valves using SU-8. Our fabrication techniques enable robust and versatile integration of many lab-on-a-chip functions including filters, mixers, pumps, stream focusing and cell-culture chambers, with in-line valves. SU-8 created more robust valve master molds than the conventional positive photoresists used in multilayer soft lithography, but maintained the advantages of biocompatibility and rapid prototyping. As an example, we used valve master molds made of SU-8 to fabricate PDMS chips capable of precisely controlling beads or cells in solution. (technical note)

  15. Effects of design geometry on SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.; Kostovski, Gorgi

    2005-02-01

    The spin-on photoresist SU8 from MicroChem has a relatively high refractive index (n=1.57 at 1550nm) compared with other polymers. It is stable and has high optical transmission at optical communication wavelengths. In this paper we study rib waveguides fabricated using SU8 as the core layer and thermoset polymers UV15 (n=1.50 at 1550nm) from Master Bond and NOA61 (n=1.54 at 1550nm) from Gentec as the cladding layers. The rib height is varied from 0.3 to 1.7μm high. This is part of the SU8 layer sandwiched between the cladding layers. The waveguides are tested to determine the effects of varying this geometry for single mode optical transmission. The lengths of the waveguides were 1.5 cm to 5 cm.

  16. SU-8 Photolithography as a Toolbox for Carbon MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of SU-8 as precursor for glass-like carbon, or glassy carbon, is presented here. SU-8 carbonizes when subject to high temperature under inert atmosphere. Although epoxy-based precursors can be patterned in a variety of ways, photolithography is chosen due to its resolution and reproducibility. Here, a number of improvements to traditional photolithography are introduced to increase the versatility of the process. The shrinkage of SU-8 during carbonization is then detailed as one of the guidelines necessary to design carbon patterns. A couple of applications—(1 carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis for bioparticle manipulation; and (2 the use of carbon structures as micro-molds are also presented.

  17. SU-8 micropatterning for microfluidic droplet and microparticle focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuisson, Damien; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate micropatterned surfaces consisting of concentric circles and spirals which can focus an evaporating sessile droplet to a specific location on a surface. We also study the micropattern geometry to focus microparticles contained within the droplet. The micropatterned surfaces are fabricated using the photoresist SU-8. Our process enables the modification of the surface wetting via the formation of smooth trench-like defects in the SU-8 which define the micropatterns; the geometry of these micropatterns determines the droplet/microparticle focusing. It is clearly shown that the introduction of small gaps into the micropatterns promotes microparticle centring due to the modification of the depinning angle of the droplet. We also show that the use of spiral micropatterns promotes microparticle centring. Finally, microparticle focusing can be enhanced by modification of surface wetting via the addition of a thin fluorocarbon hydrophobic layer onto the SU-8

  18. Improved anti-stiction coating of SU-8 molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jacob Moresco; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2010-01-01

    of the epoxy groups by oxygen plasma or sulfuric acid improves the deposition of FDTS. The deposition of FDTS on acid-activated and untreated SU-8 gave an identical well performing anti-stiction coating, as opposed to oxygen plasma activated surface which resulted in a poor FDTS coverage. In this paper...

  19. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI S KAUSHIK A SAINI C S SHARMA. Volume 40 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 435-439 ...

  20. Combined electron beam and UV lithography in SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Mironov, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    We present combined electron beam and UV lithography (CEUL) in SU-8 as a fast and flexible lithographic technique for prototyping of functional polymer devices and pattern transfer applications. CEUL is a lithographic technique suitable for defining both micrometer and nanometer scale features...

  1. Special Issue: 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertsch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the first paper using SU-8 as a material for microfabrication was published [1], demonstrating the interest of this negative photoresist for the near-UV structuration of thick layers and the manufacturing of high aspect-ratio components.[...

  2. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs

  3. Polymer-filled microcontainers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    with a quasi-no-waste performance. Then ketoprofen is impregnated in the polymer matrix by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as loading medium. The amount of polymer is controlled by the volume and the number of droplets of dispensed polymer and drug loading is tuned by varying the impregnation...... procedures. This work proposes an effective loading technique for a poorly soluble model drug in microcontainers, by combining inkjet printing and supercritical fluid impregnation. Well defined quantities of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solutions are dispensed into microcontainers by inkjet printing...

  4. SU-8 negative photoresist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexei L.

    2000-06-01

    The requirements for better control, linearity, and uniformity of critical dimension (CD) on photomasks in fabrication of 180 and 150 nm generation devices result in increasing demand for thinner, more etching durable, and more sensitive e-beam resists. Novolac based resists with chemical amplification have been a choice for their sensitivity and stability during etching. However, difficult CD control due to the acid catalyzer diffusion and quite narrow post exposure bake (PEB) process window are some of the major drawbacks of these resists. SU-8 is recently introduced to the market negative photoresist. High sensitivity, fairly good adhesion properties, and relatively simple processing of SU-8 make it a good substitution for novolac based chemically amplified negative e-beam resists in optical mask manufacturing. The replacement of traditional chemically amplified resists by SU- 8 can increase the process latitude and reduce resist costs. Among the obvious drawbacks of SU-8 are the use of solvent- based developer and demand of oxygen plasma for resist removal. In this paper the use of SU-8 for optical mask manufacturing is reported. All steps of resist film preparation, exposure and development are paid a share of attention. Possibilities to use reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen in order to increase resist mask contrast are discussed. Special exposure strategy (pattern outlining) was employed to further improve the edge definition. The resist PEB temperature and time were studied to estimate their weight in overall CD control performance. Specially designed test patterns with 0.25 micrometer design rule could be firmly transferred into a chromium layer both by wet etching and ion milling. Influence of exposure dose variation on the pattern CD change was studied.

  5. Bi cluster-assembled interconnects produced using SU8 templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J G; Matthewson, T; Brown, S A

    2007-01-01

    Bi clusters with an average diameter of 25 nm have been deposited from an inert gas aggregation source and assembled into thin-film interconnects which are formed between planar electrical contacts and supported on Si substrates passivated with Si 3 N 4 or thermally grown oxide. A layer of SU8 (a negative photoresist based on EPON SU-8 epoxy resin) is patterned using optical or electron-beam lithography, and it defines the position and dimensions of the cluster film. The conduction between the contacts is monitored throughout the deposition/assembly process, and subsequent I(V) characterization is performed in situ. Bi cluster-assembled interconnects have been fabricated with nanoscale widths and with up to 1:1 thickness:width aspect ratios. The conductivity of these interconnects has been increased, post-deposition, using a simple thermal annealing process

  6. SU-8-based microneedles for in vitro neural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altuna, Ane; Tijero, María; Berganzo, Javier; Salido, Rafa; Fernández, Luis J; Gabriel, Gemma; Guimerá, Anton; Villa, Rosa; Menéndez de la Prida, Liset

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents novel design, fabrication, packaging and the first in vitro neural activity recordings of SU-8-based microneedles. The polymer SU-8 was chosen because it provides excellent features for the fabrication of flexible and thin probes. A microprobe was designed in order to allow a clean insertion and to minimize the damage caused to neural tissue during in vitro applications. In addition, a tetrode is patterned at the tip of the needle to obtain fine-scale measurements of small neuronal populations within a radius of 100 µm. Impedance characterization of the electrodes has been carried out to demonstrate their viability for neural recording. Finally, probes are inserted into 400 µm thick hippocampal slices, and simultaneous action potentials with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 200–250 µV are detected.

  7. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and Au

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrom, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sanches-Noguerón, E.

    2004-01-01

    promotors between the SU-8 and Au (ii) the effect of the processing sequence, either keeping SU-8 as bottum layer or Au (iii) varying the UV exposure dosage of the SU-8. For comparison, also the bond strength between SU-8 and other materials was measured. We report on bond strength of 4.8 +/- 1.2 MPa...

  8. Pressure vessel lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.; Elter, C.; Becker, G.; Pertiller, S.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a lid for closing openings in reactor pressure vessels containing helium, which is made as a circular casting with hollow spaces and a flat floor and is set on the opening and kept down. It consists of helium-tight metal cast material with sufficient temperature resistance. There are at least two concentric heat resistant seals let into the bottom of the lid. The bottom is in immediate contact with the container atmosphere and has hollow spaces in its inside in the area opposite to the opening. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Carbonization of SU-8 Based Electrode for MEMS Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors are more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources than traditional ones. To achieve the supercapacitors with both energy density and power density that mainly depend on the effective surface area of theelectrodes, SU-8 can be used for electrode material to fabricate 3D microstructures as the electrodes that increase the effective surface area significantly. The objective of this project is to fabricate the reliable electrodes of large surface area for supercapac...

  10. Fabrication of SU-8 microstructures for analytical microfluidic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomikoski, Santeri

    2007-01-01

    Miniaturization of analytical devices has been an ongoing trend to improve performance of analytical tools. These systems have been microfabricated originally of silicon and glass, but polymers have become increasingly popular as alternative materials. Polymers are mostly used because the material costs are lower and fabrication processes are easier. However, those facts depend heavily on the fabrication method and particular polymer. In this thesis the usability of epoxy-polymer SU-8 has bee...

  11. SU-8 Guiding Layer for Love Wave Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Newton

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available SU-8 is a technologically important photoresist used extensively for thefabrication of microfluidics and MEMS, allowing high aspect ratio structures to beproduced. In this work we report the use of SU-8 as a Love wave sensor guiding layerwhich allows the possibility of integrating a guiding layer with flow cell during fabrication.Devices were fabricated on ST-cut quartz substrates with a single-single finger design suchthat a surface skimming bulk wave (SSBW at 97.4 MHz was excited. SU-8 polymer layerswere successively built up by spin coating and spectra recorded at each stage; showing afrequency decrease with increasing guiding layer thickness. The insertion loss andfrequency dependence as a function of guiding layer thickness was investigated over thefirst Love wave mode. Mass loading sensitivity of the resultant Love wave devices wasinvestigated by deposition of multiple gold layers. Liquid sensing using these devices wasalso demonstrated; water-glycerol mixtures were used to demonstrate sensing of density-viscosity and the physical adsorption and removal of protein was also assessed usingalbumin and fibrinogen as model proteins.

  12. Plasma etching of polymers like SU8 and BCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Helge; Gruetzner, Gabi; Shaw, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Polymers with high viscosity, like SU8 and BCB, play a dominant role in MEMS application. Their behavior in a well defined etching plasma environment in a RIE mode was investigated. The 40.68 MHz driven bottom electrode generates higher etch rates combined with much lower bias voltages by a factor of ten or a higher efficiency of the plasma with lower damaging of the probe material. The goal was to obtain a well-defined process for the removal and structuring of SU8 and BCB using fluorine/oxygen chemistry, defined using variables like electron density and collision rate. The plasma parameters are measured and varied using a production proven technology called SEERS (Self Excited Electron Resonance Spectroscopy). Depending on application and on Polymer several metals are possible (e.g., gold, aluminum). The characteristic of SU8 and BCB was examined in the case of patterning by dry etching in a CF4/O2 chemistry. Etch profile and etch rate correlate surprisingly well with plasma parameters like electron density and electron collision rate, thus allowing to define to adjust etch structure in situ with the help of plasma parameters.

  13. From concept to in vivo testing: Microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Chiara; Tentor, Fabio; Andersen, Sophie Strindberg

    2017-01-01

    , ketoprofen, was loaded into the microcontainers using supercritical CO2 impregnation, followed by deposition of an enteric coating to protect the drug from the harsh gastric environment and to provide a fast release in the intestine. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies were performed to assess...

  14. Symmetry hierarchies and radiative corrections in the grand unified model SU(8)/sub L/ x SU(8)/sub R/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Y.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the SU(8)/sub L/ x SU(8)/sub R/ model of precocious chiral unification, radiative corrections for the effective parameters sin 2 theta/sub W/(μ) and α(μ) are calculated in the one-loop approximation, neglecting contributions of the Higgs fields, and the unification mass M 8 is determined in the presence of a hierarchy of intermediate symmetries. It is shown that a natural hierarchy exists which leads to a decrease in sin 2 theta/sub W/(M/sub W/L) down to the value sin 2 theta/sub W/ = (1/5)--(1/4) together with a decrease in M 8 down to M 8 = 10 6 --10 7 GeV in comparison with the values in the absence of a hierarchy

  15. Functionalization of SU-8 Photoresist Surfaces with IgG Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Johansson, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    immunoassays were employed to characterize the binding efficiency of model proteins to bare SU-8 surface, SU-8 treated with cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) etchant and CAN treated surfaces modified by aminosilanization. The highest binding capacity of antibodies was observed on bare SU-8. This explains why bare...... SU-8 in a functional fluorescent sandwich immunoassay detecting C-reactive protein (CRP) gave twice as high signal as compared with the other two surfaces. Immunoassays performed on bare SU-8 and CAN treated SU-8 resulted in detection limits of CRP of 30 and 80 ng/ml respectively which is sufficient...... for detecting CRP in clinical samples, where concentrations of 3–10 μg/ml are normal for healthy individuals. In conclusion, bare SU-8 and etched SU-8 can be modified with antibodies by a simple adsorption procedure which simplifies building lab-on-a-chip systems in SU-8. Additionally, we report the fabrication...

  16. Functionalization of SU-8 photoresist surfaces with IgG proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja; Dufva, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The negative epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has a variety of applications within microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and lab-on-a-chip systems. Here, several methods to functionalize SU-8 surfaces with IgG proteins were investigated. Fluorescent labeled proteins and fluorescent sandwich immunoassays were employed to characterize the binding efficiency of model proteins to bare SU-8 surface, SU-8 treated with cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) etchant and CAN treated surfaces modified by aminosilanization. The highest binding capacity of antibodies was observed on bare SU-8. This explains why bare SU-8 in a functional fluorescent sandwich immunoassay detecting C-reactive protein (CRP) gave twice as high signal as compared with the other two surfaces. Immunoassays performed on bare SU-8 and CAN treated SU-8 resulted in detection limits of CRP of 30 and 80 ng/ml respectively which is sufficient for detecting CRP in clinical samples, where concentrations of 3-10 μg/ml are normal for healthy individuals. In conclusion, bare SU-8 and etched SU-8 can be modified with antibodies by a simple adsorption procedure which simplifies building lab-on-a-chip systems in SU-8. Additionally, we report the fabrication process and use of microwells created in a SU-8 layer with the same dimensions as a standard microscope glass slide that could fit into fluorescent scanners. The SU-8 microwells minimize the reagent consumption and are straightforward to handle compared to SU-8 coated microscope slides

  17. Fabrication of high-aspect ratio SU-8 micropillar arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Keller, Stephan S.; Heiskanen, Arto

    2012-01-01

    to the resolution limit of photolithography. This paper describes process optimization for the fabrication of dense SU-8 micropillar arrays (2.5μm spacing) with nominal height ⩾20μm and nominal diameter ⩽2.5μm (AR ⩾8). Two approaches, differing in temperature, ramping rate and duration of the baking steps were...... compared as part of the photolithographic processing, in order to evaluate the effect of baking on the pattern resolution. Additionally, during the post-processing, supercritical point drying and hard baking were introduced yielding pillars with diameter 1.8μm, AR=11 and an improved temporal stability....

  18. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  19. SU-8 etching in inductively coupled oxygen plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jensen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Structuring or removal of the epoxy based, photo sensitive polymer SU-8 by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was investigated as a function of plasma chemistry, bias power, temperature, and pressure. In a pure oxygen plasma, surface accumulation of antimony from the photo......-initiator introduced severe roughness and reduced etch rate significantly. Addition of SF6 to the plasma chemistry reduced the antimony surface concentration with lower roughness and higher etch rate as an outcome. Furthermore the etch anisotropy could be tuned by controlling the bias power. Etch rates up to 800 nm...

  20. SU-8 hollow cantilevers for AFM cell adhesion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Vincent; Behr, Pascal; Drechsler, Ute; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Potthoff, Eva; Vörös, Janos; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2016-05-01

    A novel fabrication method was established to produce flexible, transparent, and robust tipless hollow atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers made entirely from SU-8. Channels of 3 μm thickness and several millimeters length were integrated into 12 μm thick and 40 μm wide cantilevers. Connected to a pressure controller, the devices showed high sealing performance with no leakage up to 6 bars. Changing the cantilever lengths from 100 μm to 500 μm among the same wafer allowed the targeting of various spring constants ranging from 0.5 to 80 N m-1 within a single fabrication run. These hollow polymeric AFM cantilevers were operated in the optical beam deflection configuration. To demonstrate the performance of the device, single-cell force spectroscopy experiments were performed with a single probe detaching in a serial protocol more than 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells from plain glass and glass coated with polydopamine while measuring adhesion forces in the sub-nanoNewton range. SU-8 now offers a new alternative to conventional silicon-based hollow cantilevers with more flexibility in terms of complex geometric design and surface chemistry modification.

  1. SU-8 hollow cantilevers for AFM cell adhesion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Vincent; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, Janos; Zambelli, Tomaso; Drechsler, Ute; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Potthoff, Eva

    2016-01-01

    A novel fabrication method was established to produce flexible, transparent, and robust tipless hollow atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers made entirely from SU-8. Channels of 3 μm thickness and several millimeters length were integrated into 12 μm thick and 40 μm wide cantilevers. Connected to a pressure controller, the devices showed high sealing performance with no leakage up to 6 bars. Changing the cantilever lengths from 100 μm to 500 μm among the same wafer allowed the targeting of various spring constants ranging from 0.5 to 80 N m −1 within a single fabrication run. These hollow polymeric AFM cantilevers were operated in the optical beam deflection configuration. To demonstrate the performance of the device, single-cell force spectroscopy experiments were performed with a single probe detaching in a serial protocol more than 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells from plain glass and glass coated with polydopamine while measuring adhesion forces in the sub-nanoNewton range. SU-8 now offers a new alternative to conventional silicon-based hollow cantilevers with more flexibility in terms of complex geometric design and surface chemistry modification. (paper)

  2. Tailoring the mechanical properties of SU-8/clay nanocomposites: polymer microcantilever fabrication perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SU-8/Clay nanocomposite is considered as a candidate material for microcantilever sensor fabrication. Organically modified montmorillonite clay nanoparticles are dispersed in the universally used negative photoresist polymer SU-8, for a low cost...

  3. A proof of concept of a BioMEMS glucose biosensor using microfabricated SU-8 films

    OpenAIRE

    Psoma, Sotiria D.

    2009-01-01

    The present project investigated and proved the concept of developing a novel BioMEMS glucose micro-biosensor using a simple one-step microfabrication process of the widely used SU-8 polymer. More specifically, the study focused on the investigation of the suitability of the SU-8 polymer as a matrix for enzyme immobilisation that is carried out during the microfabrication process. A comparative study between commercially available SU-8 and “customised” SU-8 solutions showed tha...

  4. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...

  5. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2011-11-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs. Different harvesters were designed to harvest at 50, 75 and 110 Hz. At 110 Hz, Simulations show that with an input vibration of 10 μm amplitude at the frequency of resonance of the structure, the energy harvester should generate an average output power density of 0.032μW/mm3. This is the most area-efficient low-frequency electrostatic harvester to-date. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Microcontainers as an oral delivery system for spray dried cubosomes containing ovalbumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric...... microcontainers intended as an oral drug delivery system. The cubosomes consisted of commercial glyceryl monooleate, Dimodan®, containing OVA and were surrounded with a dextran shell prepared by spray drying. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm that cubosomes were formed after hydration of the spray dried precursor...... the cubosomes and microcontainers occurred at pH 6.8, releasing 44.1±5.6% of the OVA in 96h. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the 'dry' particles possessed an internal ordered lipid structure (lamellar and inverse micellar phase) by virtue of a small amount of residual water, and after...

  7. Gold Nanoparticles-Coated SU-8 for Sensitive Fluorescence-Based Detections of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Birtwell, Sam W.; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    SU-8 epoxy-based negative photoresist has been extensively employed as a structural material for fabrication of numerous biological microelectro-mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, SU-8 has a high autofluorescence level that limits sensitivity of microdevices...... for various Bio-MEMs and LOC devices that use SU-8 as a structural material....

  8. MICROSTRUCTURING OF SU-8 RESIST FOR MEMS AND BIO-APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, P.K.; Pramanick, B.; RaviShankar, A.; Ganguly, P.; Das, S.

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on the fabrication of micro-needles, micro-pillers, and micro-channels using SU-8 negative photoresist for MEMS and bio-applications are reported. The SU-8 processing technology was standardized for the purpose. Micro-pillars were fabricated on SU-8 polymer by soft lithographic technique. Micro-needles were realized on SU-8 film utilizing lensing effect of the etched groove structure of the glass substrate. Micro-channel was fabricated by molding of PDMS polymer on patterned SU-8...

  9. SU(8) family unification with boson-fermion balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Grand unification has been intensively investigated for over forty years, and many different approaches have been tried. In this talk I propose a model that involves three ingredients that do not appear in the usual constructions: (1) boson--fermion balance without full supersymmetry, (2) canceling the spin 1/2 fermion gauge anomalies against the anomaly from a gauged spin 3/2 gravitino, and (3) using a scalar field representation with non-zero U(1) generator to break the SU(8) gauge symmetry through a ground state which, before dynamical symmetry breaking, has a periodic U(1) generator structure. The model has a number of promising features: (1) natural incorporation of three families, (2) incorporation of the experimentally viable flipped SU(5) model, (3) a symmetry breaking pathway to the standard model using the scalar field required by boson-fermion balance, together with a stage of most attractive channel dynamical symmetry breaking, without postulating additional Higgs fields, (4) vanishing of bare Yuk...

  10. Surface modification of SU-8 for metal/SU-8 adhesion using RF plasma treatment for application in thermopile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, Shakeel; Mattsson, Claes G; Thungström, Göran; Fondell, Mattis; Lindblad, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on plasma treatment of SU-8 epoxy in order to enhance adhesive strength for metals. Its samples were fabricated on standard silicon wafers and treated with (O 2 and Ar) RF plasma at a power of 25 W at a low pressure of (3 × 10 −3 Torr) for different time spans (10–70 s). The sample surfaces were characterized in terms of contact angle, surface (roughness and chemistry) and using a tape test. During the contact angle measurement, it was observed that the contact angle was reduced from 73° to 5° (almost wet) and 23° for (O 2 and Ar) treated samples, respectively. The root mean square surface roughness was significantly increased by 21.5% and 37.2% for (O 2 and Ar) treatment, respectively. A pattern of metal squares was formed on the samples using photolithography for a tape test. An adhesive tape was applied to the samples and peeled off at 180°. The maximum adhesion results, more than 90%, were achieved for the O 2 -treated samples, whereas the Ar-treated samples showed no change. The XPS study shows the formation of new species in the O 2 -treated sample compared to the Ar-treated samples. The high adhesive results were due to the formation of hydrophilic groups and new O 2 species in the O 2 -treated samples, which were absent in Ar-treated samples. (paper)

  11. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture........ The contact angle of SU-8 surface was significantly reduced from 90° to 25° after the surface modification. The treated SU-8 surfaces provided a cell culture environment that was comparable with cell culture flask surface in terms of generation time and morphology....

  12. SU-8 doped and encapsulated n-type graphene nanomesh with high air stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mumen, Haider [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon (Iraq); Dong, Lixin; Li, Wen, E-mail: wenli@egr.msu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    N-type doping of graphene with long-term chemical stability in air represents a significant challenge for practical application of graphene electronics. This paper reports a reversible doping method to achieve highly stable n-type graphene nanomeshes, in which the SU-8 photoresist simultaneously serves as an effective electron dopant and an excellent encapsulating layer. The chemically stable n-type characteristics of the SU-8 doped graphene were evaluated in air using their Raman spectra, electrical transport properties, and electronic band structures. The SU-8 doping does minimum damage to the hexagonal carbon lattice of graphene and is completely reversible by removing the uncrosslinked SU-8 resist.

  13. Surface Modification of Photoresist SU-8 for Low Autofluorescence and Bioanalytical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Birtwell, Sam W.; Høgberg, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a surface modification of epoxy-based negative photoresist SU-8 for reducing its autofluorescence while enhancing its biofunctionality. By covalently depositing a thin layer of 20 nm Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the SU-8 surface, we found that the AuNPs-coated SU-8 surface...... is much less fluorescent than the untreated SU-8. Moreover, DNA probes can easily be immobilized on the Au surface and are thermally stable over a wide range of temperature. These improvements will benefit bioanalytical applications such as DNA hybridization and solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR)....

  14. Novel SU-8 based vacuum wafer-level packaging for MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Davis, Zachary James; Keller, Stephan Urs

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability and versa......This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability...

  15. SU-8 Composite Based “Lube-tape” for a Wide Range of Tribological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Saravanan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we have developed a perflouropolyether (PFPE lubricant droplet-filled SU-8 composite which promotes bonding between the molecules of SU-8 and PFPE and provides excellent boundary lubrication. The SU-8 + PFPE composite has enhanced the wear durability of SU-8 by more than four orders of magnitude. In this work, the same SU-8 + PFPE composite was used to fabricate a stand-alone laminate film called “Lube-tape”. It has integrated two layers of approximately 90 microns thickness each; the top layer is made of SU-8 + PFPE composite and the bottom layer of pristine SU-8. Thus, a single tape can have drastically contrasting high friction and low friction properties on its two surfaces. The composite side has the initial coefficient of friction ~7 times lower and the wear life more than four orders of magnitude than those of the pristine SU-8 side. This lube tape can be used on any load bearing surface to improve the tribological performance by simply pasting the pristine SU-8 side onto the substrate.

  16. The SoLid experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousis, L. N.; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SoLid experiment is a short-baseline project, probing the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos using a novel detector design. Installed at a very short distance of ˜ 5.5 - 10 m from the BR2 research reactor at SCK·CEN in Mol (Belgium) it will be able to search for active-to-sterile neutrino oscillations, exploring most of the allowed parameter region. SoLid will make use of a highly segmented detector, built from 5 cm PVT cubes, interleaved with 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) screens, and read out by optical fibers and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The detector granularity allows for the localization of the positron and neutron signals from antineutrino interactions and the robust neutron identification capabilities, offered by the 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) inorganic scintillator, provide background suppression to an unparalleled level. This paper reviews the experimental layout and current status of SoLid. Emphasis is put on the challenges one faces towards this measurement, focusing on the decisions and strategy adapted by the SoLid collaboration. The analysis scheme and the details of the oscillation framework are also presented, highlighting the sensitivity contour and physics potential of SoLid. Finally, other physics topics, such as, reactor monitoring or measurement of the 235U spectrum are also covered.

  17. Surface modification of SU8 photoresist for shrinkage improvement in a monolithic MEMS microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C. K.; Hong, Y. Z.

    2007-02-01

    The effect of O2 plasma treatment on the surface property of exposed and unexposed SU8 photoresist has been investigated for the fabrication of a monolithic MEMS microstructure. It can solve the non-uniformity problem of second resist coating on the SU8 with high intrinsic shrinkage after exposure and post-exposure baking (PEB) in the fabrication of the stacked polymer-metal or polymer-polymer structure, which was used in the application of microfluid, bio and chemistry. The thickness difference of untreated SU8 before PEB between the exposed and unexposed SU8 was about 0.3% while that after PEB increased to about 6%. It could result in large non-uniformity of about 18 µm thickness difference for the following second resist coating on the hydrophobic surface without plasma treatment. The surface property of SU8 in terms of the contact angle and surface energy can be adjusted by O2 plasma treatment for enhancing the coating uniformity of the following resist. The measured contact angles of the exposed and unexposed SU8 decrease with O2 plasma time, corresponding to the increased surface energy determined by the Lifshitz-van der Waals/Lewis acid-base approach. It displayed that the similar hydrophilic surface property can minimize the thickness difference of second resist coating on the first shrunken SU8. A monolithic nozzle plate with a physical resolution of 600 dpi in a single column was demonstrated for an inkjet application based on the improved uniformity.

  18. A Review on Surface Stress-Based Miniaturized Piezoresistive SU-8 Polymeric Cantilever Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Ribu; Ravi Sankar, A.

    2018-06-01

    In the last decade, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) SU-8 polymeric cantilevers with piezoresistive readout combined with the advances in molecular recognition techniques have found versatile applications, especially in the field of chemical and biological sensing. Compared to conventional solid-state semiconductor-based piezoresistive cantilever sensors, SU-8 polymeric cantilevers have advantages in terms of better sensitivity along with reduced material and fabrication cost. In recent times, numerous researchers have investigated their potential as a sensing platform due to high performance-to-cost ratio of SU-8 polymer-based cantilever sensors. In this article, we critically review the design, fabrication, and performance aspects of surface stress-based piezoresistive SU-8 polymeric cantilever sensors. The evolution of surface stress-based piezoresistive cantilever sensors from solid-state semiconductor materials to polymers, especially SU-8 polymer, is discussed in detail. Theoretical principles of surface stress generation and their application in cantilever sensing technology are also devised. Variants of SU-8 polymeric cantilevers with different composition of materials in cantilever stacks are explained. Furthermore, the interdependence of the material selection, geometrical design parameters, and fabrication process of piezoresistive SU-8 polymeric cantilever sensors and their cumulative impact on the sensor response are also explained in detail. In addition to the design-, fabrication-, and performance-related factors, this article also describes various challenges in engineering SU-8 polymeric cantilevers as a universal sensing platform such as temperature and moisture vulnerability. This review article would serve as a guideline for researchers to understand specifics and functionality of surface stress-based piezoresistive SU-8 cantilever sensors.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combined...... can fabricate waveguides with an index difference in the order of 10−3, where both the core material and the cladding material are based on SU-8. The refractive index measurements are performed on thin polymeric films, while further optical characterizations are performed on waveguides with a height...

  20. Analysis list: lid [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lid Adult,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/lid.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/lid.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu...-u/dm3/target/lid.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/lid.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/lid.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Adult.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  1. Fabrication of thin SU-8 cantilevers: initial bending, release and time stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Haefliger, D.; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    SU-8 cantilevers with a thickness of 2 mu m were fabricated using a dry release method and two steps of SU-8 photolithography. The processing of the thin SU-8 film defining the cantilevers was experimentally optimized to achieve low initial bending due to residual stress gradients. In parallel......, the rotational deformation at the clamping point allowed a qualitative assessment of the device release from the fluorocarbon-coated substrate. The change of these parameters during several months of storage at ambient temperature was investigated in detail. The introduction of a long hard bake in an oven after...... development of the thin SU-8 film resulted in reduced cantilever bending due to removal of residual stress gradients. Further, improved time-stability of the devices was achieved due to the enhanced cross-linking of the polymer. A post-exposure bake at a temperature T-PEB = 50 degrees C followed by a hard...

  2. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Diekhans, Justin; Steward, Malia; Bakr, Osman; Choi, Seungkeun

    2016-01-01

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-04-17

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja; Hübner, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combined with the conventional fabrication method UV lithography to facilitate the integration of different types of optical detection methods on lab-on-a-chip systems. We analyze the behavior of the refrac...

  5. PDMS as a sacrificial substrate for SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena; Gray, Bonnie L; Gates, Byron D

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new fabrication process utilizing polydimethylesiloxane (PDMS) as a sacrificial substrate layer for fabricating free-standing SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic devices. The PDMS-on-glass substrate permits SU-8 photo patterning and layer-to-layer bonding. We have developed a novel PDMS-based process which allows the SU-8 structures to be easily peeled off from the substrate after complete fabrication. As an example, a fully enclosed microfluidic chip has been successfully fabricated utilizing the presented new process. The enclosed microfluidic chip uses adhesive bonding technology and the SU-8 layers from 10 µm to 450 µm thick for fully enclosed microchannels. SU-8 layers as large as the glass substrate are successfully fabricated and peeled off from the PDMS layer as single continuous sheets. The fabrication results are supported by optical microscopy and profilometry. The peel-off force for the 120 µm thick SU-8-based chips is measured using a voice coil actuator (VCA). As an additional benefit the release step leaves the input and the output of the microchannels accessible to the outside world facilitating interconnecting to the external devices

  6. Investigation on the mechanism of nitrogen plasma modified PDMS bonding with SU-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chengxin; Yuan, Yong J., E-mail: yongyuan@swjtu.edu.cn

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different nitrogen plasma processes modified PDMS bonding with SU-8 had been studied. • The effect of nitrogen plasma modification would produce the best result and the recovery of PDMS hydrophobicity could be delayed. - Abstract: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SU-8 are both widely used for microfluidic system. However, it is difficult to permanently seal SU-8 microfluidic channels using PDMS with conventional methods. Previous efforts of combining these two materials mainly employed oxygen plasma modified PDMS. The nitrogen plasma modification of PDMS bonding with SU-8 is rarely studied in recent years. In this work, the mechanism of nitrogen plasma modified PDMS bonding with SU-8 was investigated. The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle of a water droplet were used to analyze the nitrogen plasma modified surface and the hydrophilic stability of PDMS samples. Pull-off tests were used for estimating the bonding effect of interface between nitrogen plasma modified PDMS and SU-8.

  7. Effects of post exposure bake temperature and exposure time on SU-8 nanopattern obtained by electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Manabu; Kazawa, Elito; Kaneko, Satoru; Takahashi, Ryo; Kurouchi, Masahito; Ozawa, Takeshi; Arai, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    SU-8 is a photoresist imaged using UV rays. However, we investigated the characteristics of an SU-8 nanopattern obtained by electron beam lithography (EBL). In particular, we studied the relationship between post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature and exposure time on an SU-8 nanopattern with a focus on phase transition temperature. SU-8 residue was formed by increasing both PEB temperature and exposure time. To prevent the formation of this, Monte Carlo simulation was performed; the results of such simulation showed that decreasing the thickness of SU-8 can reduce the amount of residue from the SU-8 nanopattern. We confirmed that decreasing the thickness of SU-8 can also prevent the formation of residue from the SU-8 nanopattern with EBL.

  8. On symmetry hierarchy and radiative corrections in the grand unified model SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Yu.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the model of precocious chiral unification SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) radiative corrections are calculated for the effective parameters sin 2 thetaw(μ) and α(μ) and the unification mass M 8 is determifed in presence of a hierarchy of intermediate symmetries. The one-loop approximation is used and contributions from the Higgs fields are neglected. It is shown that a natural hierarchy exists leading to a decrease of sinsup(2)thetasub(w)(Msub(wsub(L))) up to sinsup(2)thetasub(w)=1/5-1/4 together with a decrease of M 8 up to M 8 =10 6 -10 7 GeV, as compared with the magnitudes without the hierarchy [ru

  9. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  10. Effects of temperature on mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soon Wan; Park, Seung Bae [State University of New York, New York (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A representative fabrication processing of SU-8 photoresist, Ultraviolet (UV) lithography is usually composed of spin coat, soft bake, UV exposure, post exposure bake (PEB), development and optional hard bake, etc. The exposed region of SU-8 is crosslinked during the PEB process and its physical properties highly depend on UV exposure and PEB condition. This work was initiated to investigate if thermal baking after fabrication can affect the mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material because SU-8 is trying to be used as a structural material for MEMS operated at high temperature. Since a temperature of 95 .deg. C is normally recommended for PEB process, elevated temperatures up to 200 .deg. C were considered for the optional hard bake process. The viscoelastic material properties were measured by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA). Also, pulling tests were performed to obtain Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as a function of strain rate in a wide temperature range. From this study, the effects of temperature on the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of SU-8 were obtained.

  11. Effects of temperature on mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soon Wan; Park, Seung Bae

    2013-01-01

    A representative fabrication processing of SU-8 photoresist, Ultraviolet (UV) lithography is usually composed of spin coat, soft bake, UV exposure, post exposure bake (PEB), development and optional hard bake, etc. The exposed region of SU-8 is crosslinked during the PEB process and its physical properties highly depend on UV exposure and PEB condition. This work was initiated to investigate if thermal baking after fabrication can affect the mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material because SU-8 is trying to be used as a structural material for MEMS operated at high temperature. Since a temperature of 95 .deg. C is normally recommended for PEB process, elevated temperatures up to 200 .deg. C were considered for the optional hard bake process. The viscoelastic material properties were measured by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA). Also, pulling tests were performed to obtain Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as a function of strain rate in a wide temperature range. From this study, the effects of temperature on the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of SU-8 were obtained.

  12. Novel SU-8/Ionic Liquid Composite for Tribological Coatings and MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Batooli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribology of SU-8 polymer is increasingly relevant due to bursting use of this material in a variety of applications. This study is directed towards introduction and investigation of a novel self-lubricating composite of an ionic liquid (IL in SU-8. The new material can be utilized for fabrication of lubricating polymer coating with tunable surface properties or SU8-made elements for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS with enhanced tribological performance. It is shown that addition of IL drastically alters water affinity of the composite while UV patternability remains unmodified. A lower coefficient of friction and wear has been obtained for two investigated compositions with 4 and 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  13. Low Cost SU8 Based Above IC Process for High Q RF Power Inductors Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannam, A.; Bourrier, D.; Viallon, Ch.; Parra, Th.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new process for integration of high-Q RF power inductors above low resistivity silicon substrates. The process uses the SU8 resin as a dielectric layer. The aim of using the SU8 is to form thick dielectric layer that can enhance the performance of the inductors. The flexibility of the process enables the possibility to realize complex shaped planar inductors with various dielectric and metal thicknesses to meet the requirements of the application. Q values of 55 at 5 GHz has been demonstrated for an inductance value of 0.8 nH using a 60 μm thick SU8 layer and 30 μm thick copper ribbons. (author)

  14. Immunosensing by luminescence reduction in surface-modified microstructured SU-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eravuchira, Pinkie Jacob; Baranowska, Malgorzata; Eckstein, Chris [Departament d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Elèctrica i Automàtica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans 26, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Díaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelí Domingo s/n, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Llobet, Eduard; Marsal, Lluis F. [Departament d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Elèctrica i Automàtica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans 26, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Ferré-Borrull, Josep, E-mail: josep.ferre@urv.cat [Departament d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Elèctrica i Automàtica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans 26, Tarragona 43007 (Spain)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The reduction of photoluminescence of SU-8 upon surface modification is reported. • Micropillar structuring of SU-8 surface results in an increased photoluminescence reduction rate (10% glass, 15% silicon). • Photoluminescence reduction rate can be a transduction parameter for the detection of antibody-antigen binding events. • The proposed sensing mechanism can be used to quantify small concentrations of antibody. • Lower limit of detection (LOD) of 28 μg/ml on silicon substrates and 42 μg/ml on glass substrates was achieved. - Abstract: SU-8, an epoxy based negative photoresist is extensively used as a structural material for the fabrication of microelectro-mechanical systems and in microelectronics technology. However, the possible applications of SU-8 for biosensing have not been explored much, mainly because of the photoluminescence SU-8 possesses in the near-UV and visible wavelength ranges which hinders fluorescent labelling of biorecognition events. In this study we demonstrate that photoluminescence of SU-8 can be employed itself as a sensing transduction parameter to produce a tool for immunosensing: the photoluminescence shows a systematic reduction upon modification of its surface chemistry, and in particular upon attachment of an antigen-antibody (aIgG-IgG) pair. We investigate the relation of the amount of reduction of photoluminescence on planar and microstructured surfaces, and we show that microstructuring leads to a higher reduction than a planar surface. Furthermore, we evaluated the dependence of photoluminescence reduction as a function of analyte concentration to prove that this magnitude can be applied to immunosensing.

  15. Polymer SU-8 Based Microprobes for Neural Recording and Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Ane; Fernandez, Luis; Berganzo, Javier

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript makes a reflection about SU-8 based microprobes for neural activity recording and drug delivery. By taking advantage of improvements in microfabrication technologies and using polymer SU-8 as the only structural material, we developed several microprobe prototypes aimed to: a) minimize injury in neural tissue, b) obtain high-quality electrical signals and c) deliver drugs at a micrometer precision scale. Dedicated packaging tools have been developed in parallel to fulfill requirements concerning electric and fluidic connections, size and handling. After these advances have been experimentally proven in brain using in vivo preparation, the technological concepts developed during consecutive prototypes are discussed in depth now.

  16. POLYMER SU-8 BASED MICROPROBES FOR NEURAL RECORDING AND DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane eAltuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript makes a reflection about SU-8 based microprobes for neural activity recording and drug delivery. By taking advantage of improvements in microfabrication technologies and using polymer SU-8 as the only structural material, we developed several microprobe prototypes aimed to: a minimize injury in neural tissue, b obtain high-quality electrical signals and c deliver drugs at a micrometer precision scale. Dedicated packaging tools have been developed in parallel to fulfill requirements concerning electric and fluidic connections, size and handling. After these advances have been experimentally proven in brain using in vivo preparation, the technological concepts developed during consecutive prototypes are discussed in depth now.

  17. Dense vertical SU-8 microneedles drawn from a heated mold with precisely controlled volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Chengkuo; Murugappan, Suresh Kanna; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Drawing lithography technology has recently become a popular technique to fabricate (3D) microneedles. The conventional drawing process shows some limitations in fabricating dense, scale-up and small microneedles. In this study, we demonstrate a new drawing lithography process from a self-loading mold which is able to overcome these challenges. Different from the conventional molds which have difficult alignment and loading issues, a released SU-8 membrane is attached onto a SU-8 coated wafer to generate an innovative self-loading mold. The physically distinct SU-8 colloid in this mold successfully avoids the merging of the microneedle tips in the drawing process. Meanwhile, the same SU-8 colloid in mold can provide microneedles with uniform lengths on a large surface area. Furthermore, a low temperature drawing process with this improved technique prevents sharp tips from bending during the solidification stage. Remarkably, this new drawing lithography technology can fabricate microneedles with various lengths and they are strong enough to penetrate the outermost skin layer, namely the stratum corneum. The spacing between two adjacent microneedles is optimized to maximize the penetration rate through the skin. Histology images and drug diffusion testing demonstrate that microchannels are successfully created and the drugs can permeate the tissue under the skin. The fabricated microneedles are demonstrated to deliver insulin in vivo and lower blood glucose levels, suggesting future possible applications for minimally invasive transdermal delivery of macromolecules. (paper)

  18. Using an SU-8 Photoresist Structure and Cytochrome C Thin Film Sensing Material for a Microbolometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dung John Su

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two critical parameters for microbolometers: the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR of the sensing material, and the thermal conductance of the insulation structure. Cytochrome c protein, having a high TCR, is a good candidate for infrared detection. We can use SU-8 photoresist for the thermal insulation structure, given its low thermal conductance. In this study, we designed a platform structure based on a SU-8 photoresist. We fabricated an infrared sensing pixel and recorded a high TCR for this new structure. The SU-8 photoresist insulation structure was fabricated using the exposure dose method. We experimentally demonstrated high values of TCR from 22%/K to 25.7%/K, and the measured noise was 1.2 × 10–8 V2/Hz at 60 Hz. When the bias current was 2 μA, the calculated voltage responsivity was 1.16 × 105 V/W. This study presents a new kind of microbolometer based on cytochrome c protein on top of an SU-8 photoresist platform that does not require expensive vacuum deposition equipment.

  19. Use of SU8 as a stable and biocompatible adhesion layer for gold bioelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarèse, Bruno F E; Feyen, Paul L C; Falco, Aniello; Benfenati, Fabio; Lugli, Paolo; deMello, John C

    2018-04-03

    Gold is the most widely used electrode material for bioelectronic applications due to its high electrical conductivity, good chemical stability and proven biocompatibility. However, it adheres only weakly to widely used substrate materials such as glass and silicon oxide, typically requiring the use of a thin layer of chromium between the substrate and the metal to achieve adequate adhesion. Unfortunately, this approach can reduce biocompatibility relative to pure gold films due to the risk of the underlying layer of chromium becoming exposed. Here we report on an alternative adhesion layer for gold and other metals formed from a thin layer of the negative-tone photoresist SU-8, which we find to be significantly less cytotoxic than chromium, being broadly comparable to bare glass in terms of its biocompatibility. Various treatment protocols for SU-8 were investigated, with a view to attaining high transparency and good mechanical and biochemical stability. Thermal annealing to induce partial cross-linking of the SU-8 film prior to gold deposition, with further annealing after deposition to complete cross-linking, was found to yield the best electrode properties. The optimized glass/SU8-Au electrodes were highly transparent, resilient to delamination, stable in biological culture medium, and exhibited similar biocompatibility to glass.

  20. Novel method for chemical modification and patterning of the SU-8 photoresist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    the wetting behaviour of SU-8. The resolution limit of the AQ photopatterning method was 20 μm when using an uncollimated light source. AQ modification followed by a reaction with amino groups of Alexa-647 cadaverine and a Biotin-amino derivative proved possible modification and patterning of polymeric...

  1. Micro-particle filter made in SU-8 for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Urs; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We have integrated a micro-particle filter in a polymer cantilever to filter micro-particles from a fluid while simultaneously measuring the amount of filtered particles. In a 3,8 mum thick SU-8 cantilever a filter was integrated with pore sizes between 3 and 30 mum. The chip was inserted in a mi...

  2. Humidity influence on the adhesion of SU-8 polymer from MEMS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birleanu Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adhesion behaviors of SU-8 polymer thin film from MEMS application were investigated as a function of relative humidity. The adhesion test between the AFM tip and SU-8 polymer have been extensively studied using the atomic force microscope (AFM, for a relative humidity (RH varying between 20 and 90%. The samples for tests are SU-8 polymers hard baked at different temperatures. The hard bake temperature changes the tribo-mechanical properties of polymers. The paper reports the measurements and the modeling of adhesion forces versus humidity in controlled ranges between 20 to 90%RH. To investigate the effect of relative humidity on adhesion for SU-8 polymer hard baked we used an analytical method which encompasses the effect of capillarity as well as the solid-to-solid interaction. While the capillary force expression is considered to be the sum of the superficial tension and the Laplace force for the solid-solid interaction is expressed by the Derjagin, Muller and Toropov (DMT model of solids adhesion. The analytical results obtained are in accordance with those obtained experimentally.

  3. MWP phase shifters integrated in PbS-SU8 waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Javier; Suárez, Isaac; Pérez, Joaquín; Cantó, Pedro J Rodríguez; Abargues, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We present new kind of microwave phase shifters (MPS) based on dispersion of PbS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in commercially available photoresist SU8 after a ligand exchange process. Ridge PbS-SU8 waveguides are implemented by integration of the nanocomposite in a silicon platform. When these waveguides are pumped at wavelengths below the band-gap of the PbS QDs, a phase shift in an optically conveyed (at 1550 nm) microwave signal is produced. The strong light confinement produced in the ridge waveguides allows an improvement of the phase shift as compared to the case of planar structures. Moreover, a novel ridge bilayer waveguide composed by a PbS-SU8 nanocomposite and a SU8 passive layer is proposed to decrease the propagation losses of the pump beam and in consequence to improve the microwave phase shift up to 36.5° at 25 GHz. Experimental results are reproduced by a theoretical model based on the slow light effect produced in a semiconductor waveguide due to the coherent population oscillations. The resulting device shows potential benefits respect to the current MPS technologies since it allows a fast tunability of the phase shift and a high level of integration due to its small size.

  4. Temperature effects in Au piezoresistors integrated in SU-8 cantilever chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia; Hansen, Ole; Hales, Jan Harry

    2006-01-01

    We present a cantilever-based biosensor chip made for the detection of biochemical molecules. The device is fabricated entirely in the photosensitive polymer SU-8 except for integrated piezoresistors made of Au. The integrated piezoresistors are used to monitor the surface stress changes due to b...

  5. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  6. SU-8 Lenses: Simple Methods of Fabrication and Application in Optical Interconnection Between Fiber/LED and Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hang; Nguyen, Hai-Binh; Nguyen, Tuan-Hung; Vu, Xuan-Manh; Lai, Jain-Ren; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Te-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents two facile methods to fabricate off-plane lenses made of SU-8, an epoxy-based negative photoresist from MicroChem, on glass for optical interconnection. The methods allow the fabrication of lenses with flexible spot size and focal length depending on SU-8 well size and SU-8 drop volume and viscosity. In the first method, SU-8 drops were applied directly into patterned SU-8 wells with Teflon-coated micropipettes, and were baked to become (a)-spherical lenses. The lens shape and size were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity, ratio of drop volume to well volume, and baking temperature and time. In the second method, a glass substrate with SU-8 patterned wells was emerged in diluted SU-8, then drawn up and baked to form lenses. The lens shapes and sizes were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity and well volume. By the two methods, SU-8 lenses were successfully fabricated with spot sizes varying in range from micrometers to hundred micrometers, and focal lengths varying in range of several millimeters, depending on the lens rim diameters and aspheric sag height. Besides, on-plane SU-8 lenses were fabricated by photolithography to work in conjunction with the off-plane SU-8 lenses. The cascaded lenses produced light spots reduced to several micrometers, and they can be applied as a coupler for light coupling from fiber/Light-emitting diode (LED) to microstructures and nanostructures. The results open up the path for fabricating novel optical microsystems for optical communication and optical sensing applications.

  7. Simulation and experimental validation of a SU-8 based PCR thermocycler chip with integrated heaters and temperature sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Poulsen, Claus Riber

    2004-01-01

    We present a SU-8 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with integrated platinum thin film heaters and temperature sensor. The device is fabricated in SU-8 on a glass substrate. The use of SU-8 provides a simple microfabrication process for the PCR chamber, controllable surface properties......C/s, respectively, the performance of the chip is comparable with the best silicon micromachined PCR chips presented in the literature. The SU-8 chamber surface was found to be PCR compatible by amplification of yeast gene ribosomal protein S3 and Campylobacter gene cadF. The PCR compatibility of the chamber...

  8. pH- and thermo-responsive microcontainers as potential drug delivery systems: Morphological characteristic, release and cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Tapeinos, Christos; Tziveleka, Leto-Aikaterini; Boukos, Nikos; Kordas, George

    2014-04-01

    Polymeric pH- and thermo-sensitive microcontainers (MCs) were developed as a potential drug delivery system for cancer therapy. It is well known that cancer cells exhibit notable characteristics such as acidic pH due to glycolytic cycle and higher temperature due to their higher proliferation rate. Based on these characteristics, we constructed a dual pH- and thermo-sensitive material for specific drug release on the pathological tissue. The MC's fabrication is based on a two-step procedure, in which, the first step involves the core synthesis and the second one is related to the shell formation. The core consists of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA), while the shell consists of PMMA, poly(isopropylacrylamide), poly(acrylic acid) and poly(divinylbenzene). Three different types of MCs were synthesized based on the seed polymerization method. The synthesized MCs were characterized structurally by Fourier transform infrared and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic light scattering was also used to study their behavior in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions. For the loading and release study, the anthracycline drug daunorubicin (DNR) was used as a model drug, and its release properties were evaluated under different pH and thermo-conditions. Cytotoxicity studies were also carried out against MCF-7 breast cancer and 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. According to our results, the synthesized microcontainers present desired pH and thermo behavior and can be applied in drug delivery systems. It is worth mentioning that the synthesized microcontainers which incorporated the drug DNR exhibit higher toxicity than the free drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lid heater for glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures

  10. Biofriendly bonding processes for nanoporous implantable SU-8 microcapsules for encapsulated cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy; Kwon, Joonbum; Trivedi, Krutarth; Hu, Walter; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Gimi, Barjor

    2011-01-01

    Mechanically robust, cell encapsulating microdevices fabricated using photolithographic methods can lead to more efficient immunoisolation in comparison to cell encapsulating hydrogels. There is a need to develop adhesive bonding methods which can seal such microdevices under physiologically friendly conditions. We report the bonding of SU-8 based substrates through (i) magnetic self assembly, (ii) using medical grade photocured adhesive and (iii) moisture and photochemical cured polymerization. Magnetic self-assembly, carried out in biofriendly aqueous buffers, provides weak bonding not suitable for long term applications. Moisture cured bonding of covalently modified SU-8 substrates, based on silanol condensation, resulted in weak and inconsistent bonding. Photocured bonding using a medical grade adhesive and of acrylate modified substrates provided stable bonding. Of the methods evaluated, photocured adhesion provided the strongest and most stable adhesion.

  11. Optimized plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coating for dry release and passivation of thin SU-8 cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    during fluorocarbon deposition, the surface free energy of the coating can be tuned to allow for uniform wetting during spin coating of arbitrary thin SU-8 films. Further, they define an optimal pressure regime for the release of thin polymer structures at high yield. They demonstrate the successful......Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings are introduced as a convenient method for the dry release of polymer structures. In this method, the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etch reactor was used to deposit hydrophobic fluorocarbon films. Standard photolithography with the negative epoxy......-based photoresist SU-8 was used to fabricate polymer structures such as cantilevers and membranes on top of the nonadhesive release layer. The authors identify the plasma density as the main parameter determining the surface properties of the deposited fluorocarbon films. They show that by modifying the pressure...

  12. Mode-locked fiber laser using SU8 resist incorporating carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Romano, Ivan; Mandridis, Dimitrios; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.; Sanchez-Mondragon, Jose J.; Delfyett, Peter J.

    2011-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a saturable absorber made of a novel polymer SU8 doped with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). A passive mode-locked ring cavity fiber laser was built with a 100 μm thick SU8/SWCNT film inserted between two FC/APC connectors. Self-starting passively mode-locked lasing operation was observed at 1572.04 nm, with a FWHM of 3.26 nm. The autocorrelation trace was 1.536 ps corresponding to a pulse-width of 871 fs. The time-bandwidth product was 0.344, which is close enough to transform-limited sech squared pulses. The repetition rate was 21.27 MHz, and a maximum average output power of 1 mW was also measured.

  13. Electromagnetic characterization of strontium ferrite powders in series 2000, SU8 polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    In this article, electromagnetic characterization of strontium hexaferrite powders and composites with SU8 was carried out to determine their compatibility with micro and millimeter wave fabrications. The structures of both powders and their composites were scanned with electron microscope to produce the SEM images. Two powder sizes (0.8–1.0 μm and 3–6 μm), were mixed with SU8, spin cast and patterned on wafer, and then characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry. In this investigation, FMRs of the samples were determined at 60 GHz while their complex permittivity and permeability were determined using rectangular waveguide method of characterization between 26.5 and 40 GHz frequency range. The results obtained show no adverse effects on the electromagnetic properties of the composites except some slight shift in the resonant frequencies due to anisotropic field of the samples. (paper)

  14. Drift study of SU8 cantilevers in liquid and gaseous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Dohn, Søren; Davis, Zachary J; Boisen, Anja

    2010-05-01

    We present a study of the drift, in terms of cantilever deflections without probe/target interactions, of polymeric SU8 cantilevers. The drift is measured in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) and under vacuum (1mbar) conditions. We see that the cantilevers display a large drift in both environments. We believe this is because the polymer matrix absorbs liquid in one situation whereas it is being degassed in the other. An inhomogeneous expansion/contraction of the cantilever is seen because one surface of the cantilever may still have remains of the release layer from the fabrication. To further study the effect, we coat the cantilevers with a hydrophobic coating, perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). Fully encapsulating the SU8 cantilever greatly reduces the drift in liquid whereas a less significant change is seen in vacuum.

  15. Drift study of SU8 cantilevers in liquid and gaseous environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenje, Maria; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Dohn, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the drift, in terms of cantilever deflections without probe/target interactions, of polymeric SU8 cantilevers. The drift is measured in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) and under vacuum (1 mbar) conditions. We see that the cantilevers display a large drift in both environments. We believe...... coat the cantilevers with a hydrophobic coating, perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). Fully encapsulating the SU8 cantilever greatly reduces the drift in liquid whereas a less significant change is seen in vacuum....... this is because the polymer matrix absorbs liquid in one situation whereas it is being degassed in the other. An inhomogeneous expansion/contraction of the cantilever is seen because one surface of the cantilever may still have remains of the release layer from the fabrication. To further study the effect, we...

  16. Electromagnetic characterization of strontium ferrite powders in series 2000, SU8 polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Williams, John

    2014-12-01

    In this article, electromagnetic characterization of strontium hexaferrite powders and composites with SU8 was carried out to determine their compatibility with micro and millimeter wave fabrications. The structures of both powders and their composites were scanned with electron microscope to produce the SEM images. Two powder sizes (0.8-1.0 μm and 3-6 μm), were mixed with SU8, spin cast and patterned on wafer, and then characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry. In this investigation, FMRs of the samples were determined at 60 GHz while their complex permittivity and permeability were determined using rectangular waveguide method of characterization between 26.5 and 40 GHz frequency range. The results obtained show no adverse effects on the electromagnetic properties of the composites except some slight shift in the resonant frequencies due to anisotropic field of the samples.

  17. Fabrication of thin SU-8 cantilevers: initial bending, release and time stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Boisen, Anja; Haefliger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    SU-8 cantilevers with a thickness of 2 µm were fabricated using a dry release method and two steps of SU-8 photolithography. The processing of the thin SU-8 film defining the cantilevers was experimentally optimized to achieve low initial bending due to residual stress gradients. In parallel, the rotational deformation at the clamping point allowed a qualitative assessment of the device release from the fluorocarbon-coated substrate. The change of these parameters during several months of storage at ambient temperature was investigated in detail. The introduction of a long hard bake in an oven after development of the thin SU-8 film resulted in reduced cantilever bending due to removal of residual stress gradients. Further, improved time-stability of the devices was achieved due to the enhanced cross-linking of the polymer. A post-exposure bake at a temperature T PEB = 50 °C followed by a hard bake at T HB = 90 °C proved to be optimal to ensure low cantilever bending and low rotational deformation due to excellent device release and low change of these properties with time. With the optimized process, the reproducible fabrication of arrays with 2 µm thick cantilevers with a length of 500 µm and an initial bending of less than 20 µm was possible. The theoretical spring constant of these cantilevers is k = 4.8 ± 2.5 mN m −1 , which is comparable to the value for Si cantilevers with identical dimensions and a thickness of 500 nm.

  18. Hydrophobic coating of microfluidic chips structured by SU-8 polymer for segmented flow operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, J T; Grodrian, A; Metze, J; Kremin, C; Hoffmann, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a hydrophobization procedure for SU-8-based microfluidic chips on borofloat substrates. Different layouts of gold electrodes passivated by the polymer have been investigated. The chips are used for segmented flow in a two-fluid mode that requires a distinct hydrophobicity of the channel walls which is generated by the use of specific silane. In this paper we describe the production and silanization of the chips and demonstrate segmented flow operation

  19. Silicon/SU8 multi-electrode micro-needle for in vivo neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Marinesco, Stéphane; Barbier, Daniel; Sabac, Andrei

    2015-10-15

    Simultaneous monitoring of glucose and lactate is an important challenge for understanding brain energetics in physiological or pathological states. We demonstrate here a versatile method based on a minimally invasive single implantation in the rat brain. A silicon/SU8-polymer multi-sensing needle-shaped biosensor, was fabricated and tested. The multi-electrode array design comprises three platinum planar microelectrodes with a surface area of 40 × 200 µm(2) and a spacing of 200 µm, which were micromachined on a single 3mm long micro-needle having a 100 × 50 µm(2) cross-section for reduced tissue damage during implantation. Platinum micro-electrodes were aligned at the bottom of micro-wells obtained by photolithography on a SU8 photoresist layer. After clean room processing, each micro-electrode was functionalized inside the micro-wells by means of a micro-dispensing device, either with glucose oxidase or with lactate oxidase, which were cross-linked on the platinum electrodes. The third electrode covered with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was used for the control of non-specific currents. The thick SU8 photoresist layer has revealed excellent electrical insulation of the micro-electrodes and between interconnection lines, and ensured a precise localization and packaging of the sensing enzymes on platinum micro-electrodes. During in vitro calibration with concentrations of analytes in the mM range, the micro-wells patterned in the SU8 photoresist proved to be highly effective in eliminating cross-talk signals, caused by H2O2 diffusion from closely spaced micro-electrodes. Moreover, our biosensor was successfully assayed in the rat cortex for simultaneous monitoring of both glucose and lactate during insulin and glucose administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Refractive index modulation of SU-8 polymer optical waveguides by means of hybrid photothermal process

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Miranda, D.; Castillón, F. F.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J. J.; Angel-Valenzuela, J. L.; Márquez, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of multimode polymer optical waveguides obtained using a SU-8-2005 polymer by means of photolithographic process. Critical information about refractive index modulation of polymer waveguides as function of fabrication parameters as pre-baked and ultraviolet exposure times is presented. Physical properties of the waveguides were determined by means prism-coupling technique, optical and SEM microscopy. Este trabajo describe la fabrica...

  1. Performance of SU-8 Membrane Suitable for Deep X-Ray Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutaka Mekaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In combination with tapered-trench-etching of Si and SU-8 photoresist, a grayscale mask for deep X-ray lithography was fabricated and passed a 10-times-exposure test. The performance of the X-ray grayscale mask was evaluated using the TERAS synchrotron radiation facility at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST. Although the SU-8 before photo-curing has been evaluated as a negative-tone photoresist for ultraviolet (UV and X-ray lithographies, the characteristic of the SU-8 after photo-curing has not been investigated. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA sheet was irradiated by a synchrotron radiation through an X-ray mask, and relationships between the dose energy and exposure depth, and between the dose energy and dimensional transition, were investigated. Using such a technique, the shape of a 26-μm-high Si absorber was transformed into the shape of a PMMA microneedle with a height of 76 μm, and done with a high contrast. Although during the fabrication process of the X-ray mask a 100-μm-pattern-pitch (by design was enlarged to 120 μm. However, with an increase in an integrated dose energy this number decreased to 99 μm. These results show that the X-ray grayscale mask has many practical applications. In this paper, the author reports on the evaluation results of SU-8 when used as a membrane material for an X-ray mask.

  2. SU-8 as a material for lab-on-a-chip-based mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arscott, Steve

    2014-10-07

    This short review focuses on the application of SU-8 for the microchip-based approach to the miniaturization of mass spectrometry. Chip-based mass spectrometry will make the technology commonplace and bring benefits such as lower costs and autonomy. The chip-based miniaturization of mass spectrometry necessitates the use of new materials which are compatible with top-down fabrication involving both planar and non-planar processes. In this context, SU-8 is a very versatile epoxy-based, negative tone resist which is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and electron beam exposure. It has a very wide thickness range, from nanometres to millimetres, enabling the formation of mechanically rigid, very high aspect ratio, vertical, narrow width structures required to form microfluidic slots and channels for laboratory-on-a-chip design. It is also relatively chemically resistant and biologically compatible in terms of the liquid solutions used for mass spectrometry. This review looks at the impact and potential of SU-8 on the different parts of chip-based mass spectrometry - pre-treatment, ionization processes, and ion sorting and detection.

  3. SU-8 based microdevices to study self-induced chemotaxis in 3D microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Jose; Monge, Rosa; Llamazares, Guillermo; Moreno, Marco; Agirregabiria, Maria; Berganzo, Javier; Doblaré, Manuel; Ochoa, Iñaki; Fernandez, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Tissues are complex three-dimensional structures in which cell behaviour is frequently guided by chemotactic signals. Although starvation and nutrient restriction induce many different chemotactic processes, the recreation of such conditions in vitro remains difficult when using standard cell culture equipment. Recently, microfluidic techniques have arisen as powerful tools to mimic such physiological conditions. In this context, microfluidic three-dimensional cell culture systems require precise control of cell/hydrogel location because samples need to be placed within a microchamber without obstruction of surrounding elements. In this article, SU-8 is studied as structural material for the fabrication of complex cell culture devices due to its good mechanical properties, low gas permeability and sensor integration capacity. In particular, this manuscript presents a SU-8 based microdevice designed to create “self-induced” medium starvation, based on the combination of nutrient restriction and natural cell metabolism. Results show a natural migratory response towards nutrient source, showing how cells adapt to their own microenvironment modifications. The presented results demonstrate the SU-8 potential for microdevice fabrication applied to cell culture.

  4. Micro-scale metallization on flexible polyimide substrate by Cu electroplating using SU-8 photoresist mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.H.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, H.M.; Nam, Y.W.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for flexible electronics have been developed to make electronic or microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices on inexpensive and flexible organic substrates. In order to fabricate the interconnect lines between device elements or layers in flexible electronic devices, metallization on the flexible substrate is essential. In this case, the width and conductivity of metallization line are very important for minimizing the size of device. Therefore, the realization of metallization process with the scale of a few micrometers on the flexible substrate is required. In this work, micro-scale metallization lines of Cu were fabricated on the flexible substrate by electroplating using the patterned mask of a negative-tone SU-8 photoresist. Polyimide surface was treated by O 2 /Ar atmospheric plasma for the improvement in adhesion between Cr layer and polyimide and in situ sputter deposition of 100-nm-thick Cu seed layers on the sputter-deposited 50-nm-thick Cr adhesion layer was followed. SU-8 photoresist was spin-coated and patterned by photolithography. Electroplating of Cu line, removal of SU-8, and selective wet etch of Cr adhesion and Cu seed layers were carried out. Gap between the Cu lines was successfully filled by spin-coating of polyimide. Micro-scale Cu metal lines with gap filling on the polyimide substrate with a thickness of 6-12 μm and an aspect ratio of 1-3 were successfully fabricated

  5. Direct injection in organic SU8 nanowires and nanotubes for waveguiding properties investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, J.; Huby, N.; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Bêche, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    We report photonic concepts related to injection and sub-wavelength propagation in nanofibers (nanowires and nanotubes). These nanostructures are fabricated by the wetting template method leading to aspect ratio of over 250. At first, injection into nanowires and nanotubes of SU8, a photoresist used for integrated photonics, was successfully achieved by using polymer microlensed fibers with sub-micronic radius of curvature. Theoret- ical simulation by finite domain time-dependent (FDTD) method was used to determine the sub-wavelength propagation for nanowires and nanotubes and corroborate this coupling phenomena. The original confinement of energy density into SU8 nanotubes is highlighted. Finally, characterisation of propagation losses is reported by using a cut-back method transposed to such nanotubes and determined to range between 1 and 2 dB/mm. Both injection and cut-back method developed here are compatible with any sub-micronic structures. This work on SU8 nanofibers suggests broader perspectives for future nanophotonics.

  6. SU-8 cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing; Fabrication, characterisation and development of novel read-out methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, M.; Keller, Stephan Urs; Lillemose, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show...

  7. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing...... of the microfluidic channels. The bonding technique is investigated with respect to bonding temperature in the range of 50 - 150 degr. C and at bonding forces of 1000 N and 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. A maximum bonding strength of 16 MPa is achieved for the PMMA to SU-8 bonding at a bonding temperature of 110 degr. C...

  8. Lower Lid Ectropion in Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a lower lid ectropion with ectodermal dysplasia and ectropion blepharoplasty surgery experience. A 14-year-old Han nationality male patient with typical characteristics of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia presented to our clinic for his right lower lid eversion. The patient was diagnosed as having hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and underwent an uneventful blepharoplasty surgery. The lower lid maintained normal position during the 10-month follow-up period. Patients with ectodermal dysplasia could firstly visit ophthalmologist for their ectropion and blepharoplasty surgery could be useful for the disease.

  9. Optimized piranha etching process for SU8-based MEMS and MOEMS construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Matthew; Keeley, Jared; Hurd, Katherine; Hawkins, Aaron; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the optimization of the concentration, temperature and cycling of a piranha (H 2 O 2 :H 2 SO 4 ) mixture that produces high yields while quickly etching hollow structures made using a highly crosslinked SU8 polymer sacrificial core. The effects of the piranha mixture on the thickness, refractive index and roughness of common micro-electromechanical systems and micro-opto-electromechanical systems fabrication materials (SiN, SiO 2 and Si) were determined. The effectiveness of the optimal piranha mixture was demonstrated in the construction of hollow anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides

  10. Optimized piranha etching process for SU8-based MEMS and MOEMS construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew; Keeley, Jared; Hurd, Katherine; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the optimization of the concentration, temperature and cycling of a piranha (H2O2:H2SO4) mixture that produces high yields while quickly etching hollow structures made using a highly crosslinked SU8 polymer sacrificial core. The effects of the piranha mixture on the thickness, refractive index and roughness of common micro-electromechanical systems and micro-opto-electromechanical systems fabrication materials (SiN, SiO2 and Si) were determined. The effectiveness of the optimal piranha mixture was demonstrated in the construction of hollow anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides.

  11. Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication technique for constructing a polymer-based large-core single-mode rib waveguide. A negative tone SU8 photoresist with a high optical transmission over a large wavelength range and stable mechanical properties was used as a waveguide material. A waveguide was constructed by using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp combined with a solvent-assisted microcontact molding technique. The effects on the final pattern's geometry of four different process conditions were investigated. Optical simulations were performed using beam propagation method software. Single-mode beam propagation was observed at the output of the simulated waveguide as well as the actual waveguide through the microscope image.

  12. Optimized piranha etching process for SU8-based MEMS and MOEMS construction

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Matthew; Keeley, Jared; Hurd, Katherine; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the optimization of the concentration, temperature and cycling of a piranha (H2O2:H2SO4) mixture that produces high yields while quickly etching hollow structures made using a highly crosslinked SU8 polymer sacrificial core. The effects of the piranha mixture on the thickness, refractive index and roughness of common micro-electromechanical systems and micro-opto-electromechanical systems fabrication materials (SiN, SiO2 and Si) were determined. The effectiveness of the optimal...

  13. Microfabrication of pre-aligned fiber bundle couplers using ultraviolet lithography of SU-8

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ren; Soper, Steven A.; Wang, Wanjun

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design, microfabrication and testing of a pre-aligned array of fiber couplers using direct UV-lithography of SU-8. The fiber coupler array includes an out-of-plane refractive microlens array and two fiberport collimator arrays. With the optical axis of the pixels parallel to the substrate, each pixel of the microlens array can be pre-aligned with the corresponding pixels of the fiberport collimator array as defined by the lithography mask design. This out-of-plane pol...

  14. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Boisen; Mogens Havsteen-Jakobsen; Gabriela Blagoi; Daniel Haefliger; Søren Dohn; Alicia Johansson; Michael Lillemose; Stephan Keller; Maria Nordström

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the bu...

  15. Effect of size and moisture on the mechanical behavior of SU-8 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. J.; Jonnalagadda, K. N.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical properties of SU-8 were investigated in conjunction with size effect, mechanical anisotropy and moisture absorption. Uniaxial tensile experiments were conducted on SU-8 films of 500 nm and 2 μm thickness. A spin coating process was used to fabricate the films with one set from a single coat (single layer) and the others containing multiple coats (multilayer) with pre-baking in between. The stress versus strain response was obtained from in situ optical experiments and a digital image correlation method. Compared to single layer films, the multilayer films showed a significant increase in mechanical properties as well as in-plane anisotropy. This anisotropy was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attributed to the spin coating process, which resulted in higher crosslinking density in the film, and molecular orientation in the radial direction. Moisture absorption studies revealed that the mechanical properties were affected by water, which exists in both the free and bonded form in the polymer and acts as a plasticizer. The effect of moisture was similar in both the single and multilayer films, but was higher for the latter due to multiple processing steps as well as the existence of higher percentage of epoxy polar groups.

  16. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O 2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O 2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively. (paper)

  17. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively.

  18. Effect of size and moisture on the mechanical behavior of SU-8 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, C J; Jonnalagadda, K N

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of SU-8 were investigated in conjunction with size effect, mechanical anisotropy and moisture absorption. Uniaxial tensile experiments were conducted on SU-8 films of 500 nm and 2 μm thickness. A spin coating process was used to fabricate the films with one set from a single coat (single layer) and the others containing multiple coats (multilayer) with pre-baking in between. The stress versus strain response was obtained from in situ optical experiments and a digital image correlation method. Compared to single layer films, the multilayer films showed a significant increase in mechanical properties as well as in-plane anisotropy. This anisotropy was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attributed to the spin coating process, which resulted in higher crosslinking density in the film, and molecular orientation in the radial direction. Moisture absorption studies revealed that the mechanical properties were affected by water, which exists in both the free and bonded form in the polymer and acts as a plasticizer. The effect of moisture was similar in both the single and multilayer films, but was higher for the latter due to multiple processing steps as well as the existence of higher percentage of epoxy polar groups. (paper)

  19. Thermal and optical properties of sol-gel and SU-8 resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Junko; Hashimoto, Toshimasa; Buividas, Ričardas; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Paipulas, Domas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2012-03-01

    We report on a combined differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman scattering study of thermal polymerization of sol-gel organic-inorganic SZ2080 and SU-8 resists. In SZ2080, endothermic peak at 95°C signify drying of the resist and justifies the required pre-bake at around 100°C for 1-2 h for the best performance during femtosecond (fs-)direct laser writing. A strong exothermic peak at 140°C (under 2 K/min heating rate) completes polymerization of the resist. It is revealed that 1wt% of photoinitiators change Raman scattering intensity of SZ2080 and can contribute efficiently to heating and cross-linking of photo-polymers. In the case of SU-8, a 65°C DSC feature related to solvent evaporation was observed. The strongest changes in Raman spectrum occurs at a narrow 895 cm-1 band which is linked to polymerization. Raman scattering taken during DSC revealed spectral changes following the polymerization; an applicability of this method for monitoring photopolymerization induced by ultra-fast laser sources and feasibility of a laser-modulated calorimetry is discussed.

  20. Inkjet Printing of High Aspect Ratio Superparamagnetic SU-8 Microstructures with Preferential Magnetic Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Jacot-Descombes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structuring SU-8 based superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by photolithography is limited in thickness due to light absorption by the nanoparticles. Hence, obtaining thicker structures requires alternative processing techniques. This paper presents a method based on inkjet printing and thermal curing for the fabrication of much thicker hemispherical microstructures of SPMPC. The microstructures are fabricated by inkjet printing the nanoparticle-doped SU-8 onto flat substrates functionalized to reduce the surface energy and thus the wetting. The thickness and the aspect ratio of the printed structures are further increased by printing the composite onto substrates with confinement pedestals. Fully crosslinked microstructures with a thickness up to 88.8 μm and edge angle of 112° ± 4° are obtained. Manipulation of the microstructures by an external field is enabled by creating lines of densely aggregated nanoparticles inside the composite. To this end, the printed microstructures are placed within an external magnetic field directly before crosslinking inducing the aggregation of dense Fe3O4 nanoparticle lines with in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  1. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticle/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, Anju, E-mail: atoor@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); So, Hongyun, E-mail: hyso@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pisano, Albert P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ligand-modified gold NP/SU-8 nanocomposites were synthesized and demonstrated. • Particle agglomeration and dispersion were characterized with different NPs concentration. • Nanocomposites showed higher average dielectric permittivity compared to SU-8 only. • Relatively lower dielectric loss (average 0.09 at 1 kHz) was achieved with 10 % w/w NPs. - Abstract: This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable polymer nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on the particle concentration, and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  2. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on-a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Nilsson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d......B/cm lower, at wavelengths between 600nm and 900 nm, than in similar structures bonded by an intermediate layer of SU-8. Furthermore 950K PMMA shows no tendency to flow into the bonded structures during bonding because of its high viscosity....

  3. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five yearswith cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interestingpolymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processingand low Young’s modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methodsand their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity tochanges in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, weshow that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptormolecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry.

  4. A two-step sealing-and-reinforcement SU8 bonding paradigm for the fabrication of shallow microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Aryan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2018-03-01

    Adhesive bonding is a key technique to create microfluidic devices when two separate substrates are used to form microchannels. Among many adhesives explored in microchannel fabrication, SU8 has been widely used as an adhesive layer for sealing the microchannel sidewalls. The majority of the available SU8-based bonding methods, however, suffer from the difficulties associated with sealing of two important types of the microchannel architecture: (1) shallow microchannels with small patterns on a large area, and (2) microchannels with ultra-low aspect ratios (e.g. 6 mm in width and 2~μ m in height). In this paper, a new bonding paradigm based upon the low-temperature and low-pressure SU8 bonding, consisting of two steps of sealing using a thin-SU8-coated PET film and bonding reinforcement using a SU8-coated glass slide, is proposed to resolve the aforementioned difficulties. Since it does not need complicated instruments such as a wafer bonding machine and a lamination device, the developed bonding paradigm is convenient and economical. We successfully demonstrate the compatibility of the proposed bonding paradigm with the two microchannel fabrication approaches based on the glass wet etching and the SU8 photo-lithography, where small microchannels with the innermost surfaces fully made of SU8 are obtained. A theoretical model is employed to better investigate the flow characteristics and the structural behavior of the microchannel including the PET film deformation, strain and von Mises stress distributions, bonding strength, etc. Moreover, we demonstrate the fabrication of the multi-height deep-shallow microchannel sidewalls and their sealing using the SU8-coated PET film. Finally, as a proof-of-concept device, a microfluidic filter consisting of the double-height deep-shallow microchannel is fabricated for separation of 3 µm and 10 µm particles.

  5. A new fabrication process for uniform SU-8 thick photoresist structures by simultaneously removing edge bead and air bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hun; Lee, Kangsun; Ahn, Byungwook; Xu, Jing; Xu, Linfeng; Oh, Kwang W

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new SU-8 fabrication process to simultaneously remove edge bead and tiny air bubbles by spraying out edge bead removal (EBR) fluid over the entire surface of photoresist. In particular, the edge bead and air bubbles can cause an air gap between a film mask and a photoresist surface during UV exposure. The diffraction effect of UV light by the air gap leads to inaccurate and non-uniform SU-8 patterns. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method using EBR treatment to simultaneously eliminate the edge bead at the edge of wafer and tiny air bubbles inside SU-8. The profiles of thickness variation of SU-8 films with/without the EBR treatment are measured. The results show that the proposed EBR treatment can successfully remove the edge bead and air bubbles over the entire SU-8 films. The average pattern uniformity of SU-8 is improved from 50.5% to 11.3% in the case of 200 µm thickness. This method is simple and inexpensive, compared to a standard EBR process, because it does not require specialized equipment and it can be applied regardless of substrate geometry (e.g. circular wafer and rectangular slide glass).

  6. Simulation of a low frequency Z-axis SU-8 accelerometer in coventorware and MEMS+

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation of a z-axis SU-8 capacitive accelerometer. The study consists of a modal analysis of the modeled accelerometer, a study relating capacitance to acceleration, capacitance to deflection, an effective spring constant calculation, and a comparison of results achieved using CoventorWare® ANALYZER™ and MEMS+®. A fabricated energy harvester design from [1] was used for modeling and simulation in this study, with a four spring attachment of a 650μm×650μm; ×110μm proof mass of 4.542×10-8 kg. At rest, the spacing between electrodes is 4μm along the z-axis, and at 1.5g acceleration, there is 1.9μm spacing between electrodes, at which point pull in occurs for a 1V voltage. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni; Accardo, Angelo; De Angelis, Francesco; Dane, Thomas; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  8. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2014-07-28

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  9. Bi-directional triplexer with butterfly MMI coupler using SU-8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, David; Jeřábek, Vítězslav; Prajzler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    We report about a design of a bi-directional planar optical multiplex/demultiplex filter (triplexer) for the optical part of planar hybrid WDM bi-directional transceiver in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) PON applications. The triplex lightwave circuit is based on the Epoxy Novolak Resin SU-8 waveguides on the silica-on-silicon substrate with Polymethylmethacrylate cladding layer. The triplexer is comprised of a linear butterfly concept of multimode interference (MMI) coupler separating downstream optical signals of 1490 nm and 1550 nm. For the upstream channel of 1310 nm, an additional directional coupler (DC) is used to add optical signal of 1310 nm propagating in opposite direction. The optical triplexer was designed and optimized using beam propagation method. The insertion losses, crosstalk attenuation, and extinction ratio for all three inputs/outputs were investigated. The intended triplexer was designed using the parameters of the separated DC and MMI filter to approximate the idealized direct connection of both devices.

  10. The Morphology of Silver Layers on SU8 polymers prepared by Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Aniruddha; Yuan, Biao; Heinrich, Helge; Grabill, Chris; Williams, Henry; Kuebler, Stephen; Bhattacharya, Aniket

    2010-03-01

    Silver was deposited onto the functionalized surface of polymeric SU-8 where gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) act as nucleation sites using electroless metallization chemistry. Here we report on the evolution of the nanoscale morphology of deposited Ag studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In TEM of sample cross sections correlations between the original gold and the silver nanoparticles were obtained while plan-view TEM results showed the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface. Scanning TEM with a high-angle annular dark field detector was used to obtain atomic number contrast. The morphology of the deposited Ag was controlled through the presence and absence of gum Arabic. The thickness and height fluctuations of the Ag layer were determined as a function of time and a statistical analysis of the growth process was conducted for the initial deposition periods.

  11. A novel and simple fabrication method of embedded SU-8 micro channels by direct UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C; Hung, C; Huang, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we presents a novel and simple method to fabricate embedded micro channels. The method based on different light absorption properties of the SU-8 thick photoresist under different incident UV wavelengths. The channel structures are defined by the ordinary I-line, while the cover layer is patterned by the deep UV. Because the deep UV is obtained directly on the same aligner with a set of filter mirrors, the embedded channel can be easily produced without other rare facilities. Besides, the relationship between the thickness of the top layer and the exposure dose of the deep UV has been measured by an ingeniously designed experiment. The specific thickness of the top layer of the embedded micro channel can then be secured by the specific deep-UV exposure dose. Further more, many meaningful mechanical structures have been realized by this method, the material property of the top layer are also measured

  12. Focusing properties of x-ray polymer refractive lenses from SU-8 resist layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Snigireva, Irina; Drakopoulos, Michael; Nazmov, Vladimir; Reznikova, Elena; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Grigoriev, Maxim; Mohr, Jurgen; Saile, Volker

    2003-12-01

    Compound refractive lenses printed in Al and Be are becoming the key X-ray focusing and imaging components of beamline optical layouts at the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources. Recently proposed planar optical elements based on Si, diamond etc. may substantially broaden the spectrum of the refractive optics applicability. Planar optics has focal distances ranging from millimeters to tens of meters offering nano- and micro-focusing lenses, as well as beam condensers and collimators. Here we promote deep X-ray lithography and LIGA-type techniques to create high aspect-ratio lens structures for different optical geometries. Planar X-ray refractive lenses were manufactured in 1 mm thick SU-8 negative resist layer by means of deep synchrotron radiation lithography. The focusing properties of lenses were studied at ID18F and BM5 beamlines at the ESRF using monochromatic radiation in the energy range of 10 - 25 keV. By optimizing lens layout, mask making and resist processing, lenses of good quality were fabricated. The resolution of about 270 nm (FWHM) with gain in the order of 300 was measured at 14 keV. In-line holography of B-fiber was realized in imaging and projection mode with a magnification of 3 and 20, respectively. Submicron features of the fiber were clearly resolved. A radiation stability test proved that the fabricated lenses don't change focusing characteristics after dose of absorbed X-ray radiation of about 2 MJ/cm3. The unique radiation stability along with the high effficiency of SU8 lenses opens wide range of their synchrotron radiation applications such as microfocusing elements, condensers and collimators.

  13. Deep proton writing of high aspect ratio SU-8 micro-pillars on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebraert, Evert, E-mail: eebraert@b-phot.org; Rwamucyo, Ben; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen

    2016-12-15

    Deep proton writing (DPW) is a fabrication technology developed for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-structures. We use SU-8, a negative resist, spincoated in a layer up to 720 μm-thick in a single step on borosilicate glass, for irradiation with a collimated 12 MeV energy proton beam. Micro-pillars with a slightly conical profile are irradiated in the SU-8 layer. We determine the optimal proton fluence to be 1.02 × 10{sup 4} μm{sup −2}, with which we are able to repeatably achieve micro-pillars with a top-diameter of 138 ± 1 μm and a bottom-diameter of 151 ± 3 μm. The smallest fabricated pillars have a top-diameter of 57 ± 5 μm. We achieved a root-mean-square sidewall surface roughness between 19 nm and 35 nm for the fabricated micro-pillars, measured over an area of 5 × 63.7 μm. We briefly discuss initial testing of two potential applications of the fabricated micro-pillars. Using ∼100 μm-diameter pillars as waveguides for gigascale integration optical interconnect applications, has shown a 4.7 dB improvement in optical multimode fiber-to-fiber coupling as compared to the case where an air–gap is present between the fibers at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. The ∼140 μm-diameter pillars were used for mold fabrication with silicone casting. The resulting mold can be used for hydrogel casting, to obtain hydrogel replicas mimicking human tissue for in vitro bio-chemical applications.

  14. SU-8 Based MEMS Process with Two Metal Layers using α-Si as a Sacrificial Material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromachining is finding more interest in research and applications. This is due to its low cost and less time processing compared with silicon MEMS. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic devices. In addition to being processed with low cost, it is a biocompatible material with good mechanical properties. Also, amorphous silicon (α-Si) has found use as a sacrificial layer in silicon MEMS applications. α-Si can be deposited at large thicknesses for MEMS applications and also can be released in a dry method using XeF2 which can solve stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this thesis, an SU-8 MEMS process is developed using amorphous silicon (α-Si) as a sacrificial layer. Electrostatic actuation and sensing is used in many MEMS applications. SU-8 is a dielectric material which limits its direct use in electrostatic actuation. This thesis provides a MEMS process with two conductive metal electrodes that can be used for out-of-plane electrostatic applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. The process provides the fabrication of dimples that can be conductive or non-conductive to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers. This SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were tuned for two sets of thicknesses which are thin (5-10μm) and thick (130μm). Chevron bent-beam structures and different suspended beams (cantilevers and bridges) were fabricated to characterize the SU-8 process through extracting the density, Young’s Modulus and the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of SU-8. Also, the process was tested and used as an educational tool through which different MEMS structures were fabricated including MEMS switches, variable capacitors and thermal actuators.

  15. Development of an SU-8 MEMS process with two metal electrodes using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2013-02-08

    This work presents an SU-8 surface micromachining process using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material, which also incorporates two metal layers for electrical excitation. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic applications due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and low cost. Amorphous silicon is used as a sacrificial layer in MEMS applications because it can be deposited in large thicknesses, and can be released in a dry method using XeF2, which alleviates release-based stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this work, an SU-8 MEMS process was developed using ;-Si as a sacrificial layer. Two conductive metal electrodes were integrated in this process to allow out-of-plane electrostatic actuation for applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. In order to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers, the process can fabricate dimples that can be conductive or nonconductive. Additionally, this SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were optimized for two sets of thicknesses: thin (5-10 m) and thick (130 m). The process was tested fabricating MEMS switches, capacitors and thermal actuators. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Distortion of 3D SU8 photonic structures fabricated by four-beam holographic lithography withumbrella configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuelian; Xu, Yongan; Yang, Shu

    2007-12-10

    We present a quantitative study of the distortion from a threeterm diamond-like structure fabricated in SU8 polymer by four-beam holographic lithography. In the study of the refraction effect, theory suggests that the lattice in SU8 should be elongated in the [111] direction but have no distortion in the (111) plane, and each triangular-like hole array in the (111) plane would rotate by ~30 degrees away from that in air. Our experiments agree with the prediction on the periodicity in the (111) plane and the rotation due to refraction effect, however, we find that the film shrinkage during lithographic process has nearly compensated the predicted elongation in the [111] direction. In study of photonic bandgap (PBG) properties of silicon photonic crystals templated by the SU8 structure, we find that the distortion has decreased quality of PBG.

  17. Development of floating lid constructions for warm water pit storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesenberg, Carsten; Nielsen, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    The report describes four lid designs and a number of demands to a proper lid design. One design is based on a previosly tested lid (Ottrupgaard pilot project) which is considered to be a "low risk" design but with high costs. It is based on a stainless steel - PU-foam - mild steel sandwich...

  18. Development of 3D out-of-plane SU-8 microlenses using modified micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, A.; Wilke, R.; Johnson, D. W.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a modification of the standard MIMIC technology, solving its main drawbacks, to define arrays of spherical or ellipsoidal microlenses. Perfectly symmetrical meniscuses have been obtained by using a XP SU-8 NO-2 layer beneath the PDMS mold. Moreover, the photostructurable properties of this polymer allow obtaining self-alignment structures for adequate fiber optics positioning. Microchannels ended with these meniscuses have been filled with standard SU-8 to obtain 3D microlenses. Agreement between theory and experimental results allows confirming the validity of the proposed technology.

  19. An SU-8-based microprobe with a nanostructured surface enhances neuronal cell attachment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jin-Young; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-12-01

    Microprobes are used to repair neuronal injury by recording electrical signals from neuronal cells around the surface of the device. Following implantation into the brain, the immune response results in formation of scar tissue around the microprobe. However, neurons must be in close proximity to the microprobe to enable signal recording. A common reason for failure of microprobes is impaired signal recording due to scar tissue, which is not related to the microprobe itself. Therefore, the device-cell interface must be improved to increase the number of neurons in contact with the surface. In this study, we developed nanostructured SU-8 microprobes to support neuronal growth. Nanostructures of 200 nm diameter and depth were applied to the surface of microprobes, and the attachment and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells on the microprobes were evaluated. Neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes were significantly greater than those on non-nanostructured microprobes. The enhanced neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes occurred in the absence of an adhesive coating, such as poly- l-lysine, and so may be useful for implantable devices for long-term use. Therefore, nanostructured microprobes can be implanted without adhesive coating, which can cause problems in vivo over the long term.

  20. Fermion unification model based on the intrinsic SU(8 symmetry of a generalized Dirac equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eMarsch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A natural generalization of the original Dirac spinor into a multi-component spinor is achieved, which corresponds to the single lepton and the three quarks of the first family of the standard model of elementary particle physics. Different fermions result from similarity transformations of the Dirac equation, but apparently there can be no more fermions according to the maximal multiplicity revealed in this study. Rotations in the fermion state space are achieved by the unitary generators of the U(1 and the SU(3 groups, corresponding to quantum electrodynamics (QED based on electric charge and chromodynamics (QCD based on colour charge. In addition to hypercharge the dual degree of freedom of hyperspin emerges, which occurs due to the duplicity implied by the two related (Weyl and Dirac representations of the Dirac equation. This yields the SU(2 symmetry of the weak interaction, which can be married to U(1 to generate the unified electroweak interaction as in the standard model. Therefore, the symmetry group encompassing all the three groups mentioned above is SU(8, which can accommodate and unify the observed eight basic stable fermions.

  1. MEMS flexible artificial basilar membrane fabricated from piezoelectric aluminum nitride on an SU-8 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jongmoon; Choi, Hongsoo; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible artificial basilar membrane (FABM) that mimics the passive mechanical frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane. The FABM is composed of a cantilever array made of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) on an SU-8 substrate. We analyzed the orientations of the AlN crystals using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The AIN crystals are oriented in the c -axis (0 0 2) plane and effective piezoelectric coefficient was measured as 3.52 pm V −1 . To characterize the frequency selectivity of the FABM, mechanical displacements were measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. When electrical and acoustic stimuli were applied, the measured resonance frequencies were in the ranges of 663.0–2369 Hz and 659.4–2375 Hz, respectively. These results demonstrate that the mechanical frequency selectivity of this piezoelectric FABM is close to the human communication frequency range (300–3000 Hz), which is a vital feature of potential auditory prostheses. (paper)

  2. Single Mode SU8 Polymer Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bio-Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Kundu, Sushanta; Makkar, Roshan; Chalapathi, Krishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    This paper explains the influence of different parameters to the sensitivity of an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for real time detection of biomolecules. The sensing principle is based on the interaction of evanescence field with the biomolecules that get immobilized on sensing arm. The sensitivity has been calculated by varying the sensing window length, wavelength and concentration of bio-analyte. The maximum attainable sensitivity for the preferred design is the order of 10-8 RIU at 840 nm wavelength with a sensing window length of 1cm. All the simulation work has been carried out with Opti-BPMCAD for the optimization of MZI device parameters. The SU8 polymers are used as a core and clad material to fabricate the waveguide. The refractive index of cladding layer is optimized by varying the curing temperature for a fixed time period and the achieved index difference between core and clad is Δn = 0.0151. The fabricated MZI device has been characterized with LASER beam profiler at 840 nm wavelength. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the different parameter to the sensitivity of a single mode optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for bio-sensing application.

  3. Thin film free-standing PEDOT:PSS/SU8 bilayer microactuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccola, S; Greco, F; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Jager, E W H

    2013-01-01

    Several smart active materials have been proposed and tested for the development of microactuators. Among these, conjugated polymers are of great interest because miniaturization improves their electrochemical properties, such as increasing the speed and stress output of microactuators, with respect to large-scale actuators. Recently we developed a novel fabrication process to obtain robust free-standing conductive ultra-thin films made of the conjugated polymer poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the polyanion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). These conductive free-standing nanofilms, with thicknesses ranging between a few tens to several hundreds of nm, allow the realisation of new all polymer microactuators using facile microfabrication methods. Here, we report a novel processing method for manufacturing all polymer electrochemical microactuators. We fabricated and patterned free-standing PEDOT:PSS/SU8 bilayer microactuators in the form of microfingers of a variety of lengths using adapted microfabrication procedures. By imposing electrochemical oxidation/reduction cycles on the PEDOT:PSS we were able to demonstrate reversible actuation of the microactuators resulting in bending of the microfingers. A number of possible applications can be envisaged for these small, soft actuators, such as microrobotics and cell manipulation. (technical note)

  4. Study of functional viability of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Luis J; Altuna, Ane; Tijero, Maria; Vilares, Roman; Berganzo, Javier; Blanco, F J; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Rodríguez, Manuel J; Batlle, Montse

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, packaging and first test results of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications. By the use of photolithography, sputtering and bonding techniques, polymer needles with integrated microchannels and electrodes have been successfully fabricated. The use of photolithography for the patterning of the fluidic channel integrated in the needle allows the design of multiple outlet ports at the needle tip, minimizing the possibility of being blocked by the tissue. Furthermore, the flexibility of the polymer reduces the risk of fracture and tissue damage once the needle is inserted, while it is still rigid enough to allow a perfect insertion into the neural tissue. Fluidic and electric characterization of the microneedles has shown their viability for drug delivery and monitoring in neural applications. First drug delivery tests in ex vivo tissue demonstrated the functional viability of the needle to deliver drugs to precise points. Furthermore, in vivo experiments have demonstrated lower associated damages during insertion than those by stereotaxic standard needles

  5. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  6. Multiple soft fibromas of the lid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas are benign tumors that are composed of fibrous or connective tissue. They can grow in all organs, arising from mesenchymal tissue (a type of loose connective tissue. The term "fibroblastic" or "fibromatous" is used to describe tumors like the fibroma. This 69-year-old male presented to us with giant, multiple, very slowly progressive, painless, noninflammatory, soft, trans-illuminant, pedunculated lid swellings with a two decade history. There were no other swellings on the body. He was clinically normal on systemic examination except for the immature cataracts in both eyes. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. Simple excision removed all the soft fibromas virtually leaving no scar. A review of literature world-wide using Medline Plus/PubMed revealed this to be the only reported case of multiple giant soft fibromas of the lid.

  7. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Tomoyuki Kashima,2 Mariko Itakura,1 Hideo Akiyama,2 Shoji Kishi2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan Abstract: Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye sym...

  8. Development of an SU-8 MEMS process with two metal electrodes using amorphous silicon as a sacrificial material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.; Nasr, Tarek Adel Hosny; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    method using XeF2, which alleviates release-based stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this work, an SU-8 MEMS process was developed using ;-Si as a sacrificial layer. Two conductive metal electrodes were integrated in this process to allow

  9. SU-8 Based MEMS Process with Two Metal Layers using α-Si as a Sacrificial Material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2012-01-01

    MEMS applications. α-Si can be deposited at large thicknesses for MEMS applications and also can be released in a dry method using XeF2 which can solve stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this thesis, an SU-8 MEMS process is developed

  10. Radiation therapy for malignant lid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuka, Seiichi; Itsuno, Hajime

    1991-01-01

    The case of a 42-year-old man with Meibomian gland carcinoma in his right lower lid is reported. The tumor found in the nasal part of the lower lid, was 12 mm x 13 mm in size. First, surgical resection was performed. The pathological diagnosis of the frozen section was 'undifferentiated basal cell epithelioma'. Second, cryotherapy was performed all over the cut surface. Later, the permanent section was pathologically diagnosed as 'undifferentiated Meibomian gland carcinoma'. Total 50 Gy irradiation therapy was therefore performed using a 9 Mev Linac electron beam, 25 x 20 mm field, with a lead protector for the cornea and lens. A lead contact lens did not afford good results because it was too easily shifted on the cornea, owing to its weight. Therefore, we made a racket-shaped lead protector. Fixed well with tape, this protector afforded good protective effect. Three years after treatment, the patient has good visual function, with no recurrence. This racket-shaped lead protector is thought to be useful in radiation therapy for malignant lid tumors. (author)

  11. Requirement of lid2 for interfacial activation of a family I.3 lipase with unique two lid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Maria; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2012-10-01

    A family I.3 lipase from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 (PML) is characterized by the presence of two lids (lid1 and lid2) that greatly change conformation upon substrate binding. While lid1 represents the commonly known lid in lipases, lid2 is unique to PML and other family I.3 lipases. To clarify the role of lid2 in PML, a lid2 deletion mutant (ΔL2-PML) was constructed by deleting residues 35-64 of PML. ΔL2-PML requires calcium ions for both lipase and esterase activities as does PML, suggesting that it exhibits activity only when lid1 is fully open and anchored by the catalytically essential calcium ion, as does PML. However, when the enzymatic activity was determined using triacetin, the activity of PML exponentially increased as the substrate concentration reached and increased beyond the critical micellar concentration, while that of ΔL2-PML did not. These results indicate that PML undergoes interfacial activation, while ΔL2-PML does not. The activities of ΔL2-PML for long-chain triglycerides significantly decreased while its activity for fatty acid ethyl esters increased, compared with those of PML. Comparison of the tertiary models of ΔL2-PML in a closed and open conformation, which are optimized by molecular dynamics simulation, with the crystal structures of PML suggests that the hydrophobic surface area provided by lid1 and lid2 in an open conformation is considerably decreased by the deletion of lid2. We propose that the hydrophobic surface area provided by these lids is necessary to hold the micellar substrates firmly to the active site and therefore lid2 is required for interfacial activation of PML. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  12. Development of wireless vehicle remote control for fuel lid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, N.; Jadin, M. S.; Najib, M. S.; Mustafa, M.; Azmi, S. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of the vehicle technology had made the vehicle especially car to be equipped with a remote control to control the operation of the locking and unlocking system of the car’s door and rear’s bonnet. However, for the fuel or petrol lid, it merely can be opened from inside the car’s cabin by handling the fuel level inside the car’s cabin to open the fuel lid. The petrol lid can be closed by pushing the lid by hand. Due to the high usage of using fuel lever to open the fuel lid when refilling the fuel, the car driver might encounter the malfunction of fuel lid (fail to open) when pushing or pulling the fuel lever. Thus, the main aim of the research is to enhance the operation of an existing car remote control where the car fuel lid can be controlled using two techniques; remote control-based and smartphone-based. The remote control is constructed using Arduino microcontroller, wireless sensors and XCTU software to set the transmitting and receiving parameters. Meanwhile, the smartphone can control the operation of the fuel lid by communicating with Arduino microcontroller which is attached to the fuel lid using Bluetooth sensor to open the petrol lid. In order to avoid the conflict of instruction between wireless systems with the existing mechanical-based system, the servo motor will be employed to release the fuel lid merely after receiving the instruction from Arduino microcontroller and smartphone. As a conclusion, the prototype of the multipurpose vehicle remote control is successfully invented, constructed and tested. The car fuel lid can be opened either using remote control or smartphone in a sequential manner. Therefore, the outcome of the project can be used to serve as an alternative solution to solve the car fuel lid problem even though the problem rarely occurred.

  13. Order of multiphoton excitation of sulfonium photo-acid generators used in photoresists based on SU-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry E.; Diaz, Carlos; Padilla, Gabriel; Hernandez, Florencio E.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL), Z-scan spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations were employed to investigate the order of multiphoton excitation that occurs when femtosecond laser pulses are used to excite two sulfonium photo-acid generators (PAGs) commonly used in photoresists based on the cross-linkable epoxide SU-8. The mole-fractions of the mono- and bis-sulfonium forms of these PAGs were determined for the commercially available photoresist SU-8 2075 and for the PAGs alone from a separate source. Both were found to contain similar fractions of the mono- and bis-forms, with the mono form present in the majority. Reichert's method was used to determine the solvatochromic strength of the SU-8 matrix, so that results obtained for the PAGs in SU-8 and in solution could be reliably compared. The PAGs were found to exhibit a minimal solvatochromic shift for a series of solvents that span across the solvatochromic strength of SU-8 itself. Sub-micron-sized features were fabricated in SU-8 2075 by MPL using amplified and continuous-wave mode-locked laser pulses. Analysis of the features as a function of average laser power, scan speed, and excitation wavelength shows that the PAGs can be activated by both two- and three-photon absorption (2PA and 3PA). Which activation mode dominates depends principally upon the excitation wavelength because the average laser powers that can be used with the photoresist are limited by practical considerations. The power must be high enough to effect sufficient cross-linking, yet not so high as to exceed the damage threshold of the material. When the laser pulses have a duration on the order of 100 fs, 3PA dominates at wavelengths near 800 nm, whereas 2PA becomes dominant at wavelengths below 700 nm. These findings are corroborated by open-aperture Z-scan measurements and quantum chemical calculations of the cross-sections for 2PA and 3PA as a function of wavelength.

  14. Comparison of three different scales techniques for the dynamic mechanical characterization of two polymers (PDMS and SU8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzic, J.; Delobelle, P.; Vairac, P.; Cretin, B.

    2009-10-01

    In this article the dynamic mechanical characterization of PDMS and SU8 resin using dynamic mechanical analysis, nanoindentation and the scanning microdeformation microscope have been presented. The methods are hereby explained, extended for viscoelastic behaviours, and their compatibility underlined. The storage and loss moduli of these polymers over a wide range of frequencies (from 0.01 Hz to somekHz) have been measured. These techniques are shown fairly matching and the two different viscoelastic behaviours of these two polymers have been exhibited. Indeed, PDMS shows moduli which still increase at 5kHz whereas SU8 ones decrease much sooner. From a material point of view, the Havriliak and Negami model to estimate instantaneous, relaxed moduli and time constant of these materials has been identified.

  15. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  16. Injection and waveguiding properties in SU8 nanotubes for sub-wavelength regime propagation and nanophotonics integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, John; Huby, Nolwenn; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Bêche, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    We report photonic concepts related to injection and sub-wavelength propagation in nanotubes, an unusual but promising geometry for highly integrated photonic devices. Theoretical simulation by the finite domain time-dependent (FDTD) method was first used to determine the features of the direct light injection and sub-wavelength propagation regime within nanotubes. Then, the injection into nanotubes of SU8, a photoresist used for integrated photonics, was successfully achieved by using polymer microlensed fibers with a sub-micronic radius of curvature, as theoretically expected from FDTD simulations. The propagation losses in a single SU8 nanotube were determined by using a comprehensive set-up and a protocol for optical characterization. The attenuation coefficient has been evaluated at 1.25 dB mm-1 by a cut-back method transposed to such nanostructures. The mechanisms responsible for losses in nanotubes were identified with FDTD theoretical support. Both injection and cut-back methods developed here are compatible with any sub-micronic structures. This work on SU8 nanotubes suggests broader perspectives for future nanophotonics.

  17. Uniform fabrication of thick SU-8 patterns on small-sized wafers for micro-optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, S.; Reig, B.; Daran, E.; Doucet, JB; Camps, T.; Charlot, S.; Bardinal, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports on an alternative method for precise and uniform fabrication of 100μm-thick SU-8 microstructures on small-sized or non-circular samples. Standard spin-coating of high-viscosity resists is indeed known to induce large edge beads, leading to an air gap between the mask and the SU-8 photo-resist surface during UV photolithography. This results in a non uniform thickness deposition and in a poor pattern definition. This problem becomes highly critical in the case of small-sized samples. To overcome it, we have developed a soft thermal imprint method based on the use of a nano-imprint equipment and applicable whatever sample fragility, shape and size (from 2cm to 6 inches). After final photolithography, the SU8 pattern thickness variation profile is measured. Thickness uniformity is improved from 30% to 5% with a 5μm maximal deviation to the target value over 2cm-long samples.

  18. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  19. A case of primary lid tuberculosis - an unusual finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case ofprimary lid tuberculosis left eye occurring in a 46 year old female. She had a white creamy discharge from the upper lid close to the lateral canthus since 9 months. She was managed with systemic antibiotics many times during this period but with no response. Complete systemic examination revealed no signs of tuberculosis. All haematological investigations were WNL Montoux was positive. Pus culture did not show any growth. USG and CECT orbit revealed a subcutaneous collection in left upper lid An incision biopsy of the involved area of the lid was done. Histopathology did not reveal any signs of tuberculosis. However the PCR test of the pus confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The patient was given anti tubercular treatment and is responding well with no discharge from the upper lid.

  20. A high aspect ratio SU-8 fabrication technique for hollow microneedles for transdermal drug delivery and blood extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Buddhadev Paul; Ceyssens, Frederik; De Moor, Piet; Van Hoof, Chris; Puers, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Protein drugs, e.g. hormonal drugs, cannot be delivered orally to a patient as they get digested in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Thus, it is imperative that these kinds of drugs are delivered transdermally through the skin. To provide for real-time feedback as well as to test independently for various substances in the blood, we also need a blood sampling system. Microneedles can perform both these functions. Further, microneedles made of silicon or metal have the risk of breaking inside the skin thereby leading to complications. SU-8, being approved of as being biocompatible by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) of the United States, is an attractive alternative because firstly it is a polymer material, thereby reducing the chances of breakages inside the skin, and secondly it is a negative photoresist, thereby leading to ease of fabrication. Thus, here we present very tall (around 1600 µm) SU-8 polymer-based hollow microneedles fabricated by a simple and repeatable process, which are a very good candidate for transdermal drug delivery as well as blood extraction. The paper elaborates on the details that allow the fabrication of such extreme aspect ratios (>100).

  1. 3-dimensional free standing micro-structures by proton beam writing of Su 8-silver nanoParticle polymeric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbenehi, H.; Jiguet, S.

    2012-09-01

    Proton beam lithography a maskless direct-write lithographic technique (well suited for producing 3-Dimensional microstructures in a range of resist and semiconductor materials) is demonstrated as an effective tool in the creation of electrically conductive freestanding micro-structures in an Su 8 + Nano Silver polymer composite. The structures produced show non-ohmic conductivity and fit the percolation theory conduction model of tunneling of separated nanoparticles. Measurements show threshold switching and a change in conductivity of at least 4 orders of magnitude. The predictable range of protons in materials at a given energy is exploited in the creation of high aspect ratio, free standing micro-structures, made from a commercially available SU8 Silver nano-composite (GMC3060 form Gersteltec Inc. a negative tone photo-epoxy with added metallic nano-particles(Silver)) to create films with enhanced electrical properties when exposed and cured. Nano-composite films are directly written on with a finely focused MeV accelerated Proton particle beam. The energy loss of the incident proton beams in the target polymer nano- composite film is concentrated at the end of its range, where damage occurs; changing the chemistry of the nano-composite film via an acid initiated polymerization - creating conduction paths. Changing the energy of the incident beams provide exposed regions with different penetration and damage depth - exploited in the demonstrated cantilever microstructure.

  2. A high aspect ratio SU-8 fabrication technique for hollow microneedles for transdermal drug delivery and blood extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, Buddhadev Paul; Ceyssens, Frederik; Van Hoof, Chris; Puers, Robert; De Moor, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Protein drugs, e.g. hormonal drugs, cannot be delivered orally to a patient as they get digested in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Thus, it is imperative that these kinds of drugs are delivered transdermally through the skin. To provide for real-time feedback as well as to test independently for various substances in the blood, we also need a blood sampling system. Microneedles can perform both these functions. Further, microneedles made of silicon or metal have the risk of breaking inside the skin thereby leading to complications. SU-8, being approved of as being biocompatible by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) of the United States, is an attractive alternative because firstly it is a polymer material, thereby reducing the chances of breakages inside the skin, and secondly it is a negative photoresist, thereby leading to ease of fabrication. Thus, here we present very tall (around 1600 µm) SU-8 polymer-based hollow microneedles fabricated by a simple and repeatable process, which are a very good candidate for transdermal drug delivery as well as blood extraction. The paper elaborates on the details that allow the fabrication of such extreme aspect ratios (>100).

  3. Microchannel-connected SU-8 honeycombs by single-step projection photolithography for positioning cells on silicon oxide nanopillar arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larramendy, Florian; Paul, Oliver; Blatche, Marie Charline; Mazenq, Laurent; Laborde, Adrian; Temple-Boyer, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, functionalization and testing of SU-8 microstructures for cell culture and positioning over large areas. The microstructure consists of a honeycomb arrangement of cell containers interconnected by microchannels and centered on nanopillar arrays designed for promoting cell positioning. The containers have been dimensioned to trap single cells and, with a height of 50 µm, prevent cells from escaping. The structures are fabricated using a single ultraviolet photolithography exposure with focus depth in the lower part of the SU-8 resist. With optimized process parameters, microchannels of various aspect ratios are thus produced. The cell containers and microchannels serve for the organization of axonal growth between neurons. The roughly 2 µm-high and 500 nm-wide nanopillars are made of silicon oxide structured by deep reactive ion etching. In future work, beyond their cell positioning purpose, the nanopillars could be functionalized as sensors. The proof of concept of the novel microstructure for organized cell culture is given by the successful growth of interconnected PC12 cells. Promoted by the honeycomb geometry, a dense network of interconnections between the cells has formed and the intended intimate contact of cells with the nanopillar arrays was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This proves the potential of these new devices as tools for the controlled cell growth in an interconnected container system with well-defined 3D geometry. (paper)

  4. Nonlinear numerical analysis and experimental testing for an electrothermal SU-8 microgripper with reduced out-of-plane displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina; Zandi, Muaiyd Al; Müller, Raluca; Wang, Changhai

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of numerical nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical analysis and experimental testing of a polymeric microgripper designed using electrothermal actuators. The simulation work was carried out using a finite element method (FEM) and a commercial software (Coventorware 2014). The biocompatible SU-8 polymer was used as structural material for the fabrication of the microgripper. The metallic micro-heater was encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgripper to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the microgripper tips, and to electrically isolate the micro-heater, and to reduce the mechanical stress as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. The electro- thermo-mechanical analysis of the actuator considers the nonlinear temperature-dependent properties of the SU-8 polymer and the gold thin film layers used for the micro-heater fabrication. An optical characterisation of the microgripper based on an image tracking approach shows the thermal response and the good repeatability. The average deflection is ~11 µm for an actuation current of ~17 mA. The experimentally obtained tip deflection and the heater temperature at different currents are both shown to be in good agreement with the nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical simulation results. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the microgripper by capture and manipulation of cotton fibres.

  5. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R.; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor. PMID:28788243

  6. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelius Tetzner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  7. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-10-29

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  8. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2016-01-01

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  9. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  10. Heterogeneous integration of thin film compound semiconductor lasers and SU8 waveguides on SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Sabarni; Kirch, Jeremy; Mawst, Luke; Kuech, Thomas; Jokerst, Nan Marie

    2010-02-01

    We present the heterogeneous integration of a 3.8 μm thick InGaAs/GaAs edge emitting laser that was metal-metal bonded to SiO2/Si and end-fire coupled into a 2.8 μm thick tapered SU8 polymer waveguide integrated on the same substrate. The system was driven in pulsed mode and the waveguide output was captured on an IR imaging array to characterize the mode. The waveguide output was also coupled into a multimode fiber, and into an optical head and spectrum analyzer, indicating lasing at ~997 nm and a threshold current density of 250 A/cm2.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of microcavity lasers in rhodamine B doped SU8 using high energy proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal Rao, S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Vishnubhatla, K. C.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Narayana Rao, D.; Watt, F.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present their results on the characterization of individual dye-doped microcavity polymer lasers fabricated using a high energy proton beam. The lasers were fabricated in rhodamine B doped SU8 resist with a single exposure step followed by chemical processing. The resulting trapezoidal shaped cavities had dimensions of ˜250×250μm2. Physical characterization of these structures was performed using a scanning electron microscope while the optical characterization was carried out by recording the emission subsequent to pumping the lasers with 532nm, 6 nanosecond pulses. The authors observed intense, narrow emission near 624nm with the best emission linewidth full width at half maximum of ˜9nm and a threshold ˜150μJ/mm2.

  12. The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta; Hauptman, Nina; Maček, Marijan; Kunaver, Matjaž

    2009-06-01

    SU8, the near-UV photosensitive epoxy-based polymer was used as a sensor layer in the capacitive chemical sensor, ready for integration with a generic double-metal CMOS technology. It was observed that the response of the sensor slowly increases with the temperature applied in hard-baking process as long as it remains below 300°C. At this temperature the response of the sensor abruptly increases and becomes almost threefold. It was shown that fully crosslinked structure of the sensor layer becomes opened and disordered when the sensor is hard-baked at temperatures between 300°C and 320°C, that is, still well below the degradation temperature of the polymer. These changes in chemical structure were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent changes of the sensor layer structure enable one to prepare a combination of capacitive chemical sensors with good discrimination between some volatile organic compounds.

  13. Characterization of channel waveguides and tunable microlasers in SU8 doped with rhodamine B fabricated using proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S Venugopal; Bettiol, A A; Watt, F

    2008-01-01

    We present our results on the fabrication and characterization of buried channel waveguides and tunable microlasers in SU8 doped with rhodamine B achieved using direct writing with a 2.0 MeV proton beam. The channel waveguides, fabricated in single exposure, had an optical propagation loss of -1 at 532 nm measured using the scattering technique while the microlasers with dimensions of 250 x 250 μm 2 had a threshold of ∼150 μJ mm -2 when pumped with 532 nm nanosecond pulses. The emitted wavelength from the microlasers was tunable to an extent of ∼15 nm with increasing pump intensity and different pumping angles. The advantages of such micro-photonic components for the realization of a lab-on-a-chip device are discussed briefly. (fast track communication)

  14. Closable container with a self-locking lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paressant, Michel; Faucond, Jean; Tellier, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a closable container with a self-locking lid. The invention applies in particular in automated installations, for instance for the transport of dangerous substances and notably in the nuclear area for removing radioactive waste. The purpose of the invention is therefore to propose a closable container with a lid that can close and lock automatically on the receptacle whilst allowing for easy unlocking and opening by remote means. Under the invention the container comprises a receptacle and a self-locking lid closing it, the said container being such that the edge of the lid is shut down so as to cover that of the receptacle, these two edges cooperating by means of a hooking ramp and catch fitted respectively to each of them, this gear retracting when moving over the ramp in the lid closing direction and butting against it in the reverse direction. The container has unlocking gear to clear the catch from the ramp to free its passage in the lid opening direction [fr

  15. Paper Microzone Plates as Analytical Tools for Studying Enzyme Stability: A Case Study on the Stabilization of Horseradish Peroxidase Using Trehalose and SU-8 Epoxy Novolac Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaja, Kirsten A; Chaplan, Cory A; Zhang, Jingyi; Martinez, Nathaniel W; Martinez, Andres W

    2017-05-16

    Paper microzone plates in combination with a noncontact liquid handling robot were demonstrated as tools for studying the stability of enzymes stored on paper. The effect of trehalose and SU-8 epoxy novolac resin (SU-8) on the stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied in both a short-term experiment, where the activity of various concentrations of HRP dried on paper were measured after 1 h, and a long-term experiment, where the activity of a single concentration of HRP dried and stored on paper was monitored for 61 days. SU-8 was found to stabilize HRP up to 35 times more than trehalose in the short-term experiment for comparable concentrations of the two reagents, and a 1% SU-8 solution was found to stabilize HRP approximately 2 times more than a 34% trehalose solution in both short- and long-term experiments. The results suggest that SU-8 is a promising candidate for use as an enzyme-stabilizing reagent for paper-based diagnostic devices and that the short-term experiment could be used to quickly evaluate the capacity of various reagents for stabilizing enzymes to identify and characterize new enzyme-stabilizing reagents.

  16. A welding system for spent fuel canister lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Wendelin, T.

    2008-06-01

    The report presents a proposed welding system for spent fuel canister lids. The system is used for welding the copper lid to the copper overpack. The apparatus will be installed in the encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the welding system, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components is not included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. Closing of the copper cylinder's lid is carried out by electron beam welding, which must be performed in vacuum. The welding system for spent fuel canister lid consists of two welding chambers, a canister docking system, an EB-welding machine with its accessories, a vacuum apparatus, as well as necessary auxiliary equipment. The system's equipment is housed in a welding room, an auxiliary system room, an operation control room, as well as mounted on the ceiling of a transfer corridor. One of the welding chambers is intended for carrying out test welding procedures and for calibration of welding parameters. The actual spent fuel canister lid welding chamber has a weldingready canister docked thereto in an airtight manner. The chamber is pumped for a vacuum, followed by closing the canister's copper lid and carrying out the lid welding process. The lid is brought into the chamber prior to docking the canister by means of a canister transfer trolley lifting gear. Lifting of the canister and rotating it during a welding process are also handled by means of the transfer trolley. The lid welding chamber houses equipment for the alignment and installation of the lid, as well as heating means for the top side of a copper overpack for ensuring a sufficient installation clearance between the lid and the overpack. The equipment not needed in the immediate vicinity of welding chambers, is

  17. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  18. Edge plasma control using an LID configuration on CHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Morisaki, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    A Local Island Divertor (LID) has been proposed to enhance energy confinement through neutral particle control. For the case of the Large Helical Device (LHD), the separatrix of an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island, formed at the edge region, will be utilized as a divertor configuration. The divertor head is inserted in the island, and the island separatrix provides connection between the edge plasma region surrounding the core plasma and the back plate of the divertor head through the field lines. The particle flux and associated heat flux from the core plasma strike the back plate of the divertor head, and thus particle recycling is localized in this region. A pumping duct covers the divertor head to form a closed divertor system for efficient particle exhaust. The advantages of the LID are ease of hydrogen pumping because of the localized particle recycling and avoidance of the high heat load that would be localized on the leading edge of the divertor head. With efficient pumping, the neutral pressure in the edge plasma region will be reduced, and hence the edge plasma temperature will be higher, hopefully leading to a better core confinement region. A LID configuration experiment was done on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to confirm the effect of the LID. The typical effects of the LID configuration on the core plasma are reduction of the line averaged density to a half, and small or no reduction of the stored energy. In this contribution, the experimental results which were obtained in edge plasma control experiments with the LID configuration in the CHS are presented.

  19. Mechanical Integrity of Copper Canister Lid and Cylinder. Sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Marianne

    2002-08-01

    This report is part of a study of the mechanical integrity of canisters used for disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to determine and ensure the static and long-term strength of the copper canister lid and cylinder casing. The canisters used for disposal nuclear fuel waste of type BWR consists of an inner part (insert) of ductile cast iron and an outer part of copper. The copper canister is to provide a sealed barrier between the contents of the canister and the surroundings. The study in this report complements the finite element analyses performed in an earlier study. The analyses aim to evaluate the sensitivity of the canister to tolerances regarding the gap between the copper cylinder and the cast iron insert. Since great uncertainties regarding the material's long term creep properties prevail, analyses are also performed to evaluate the effect of different creep data on the resulting strain and stress state. The report analyses the mechanical response of the lid and flange of the copper canister when subjected to loads caused by pressure from swelling bentonite and from groundwater at a depth of 500 meter. The loads acting on the canister are somewhat uncertain and the cases investigated in this report are possible cases. Load cases analysed are: Pressure 15 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and 5 MPa uniformly distributed on cylinder; Pressure 5 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and 15 MPa uniformly distributed on cylinder; Pressure 20 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and cylinder; and Side pressures 10 MPa and 20 MPa uniformly distributed on part of the cylinder. Creep analyses are performed for two of the load cases. For all considered designs high principal stresses appear on the outside of the copper cylinder in the region from the weld down to the level of the lid lower edge. Altering the gap between lid and cylinder and/or between cylinder and insert only marginally affects the resulting stress state. Fitting the lid in the cylinder

  20. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  1. Correction of Severe Traditional Medication-induced Lower Lid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The correction of the lower lid tarsal ectropion was carried out at the Rachel Eye Center in Abuja, Nigeria. Result: After conservative intervention failed, a free preauricular skin graft of the floppy ectropion, led to a stable correction. Conclusions: Harmful traditional eye medication continues to be a problem in the ...

  2. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    metallic covers. The elements are joint in situ by special steel profiles. A two-step sealing with silicone mass and bitumen-tape is applied to tighten the construction.To ensure a proper lid design, two test lids of 1.5x1.5 metres were tested at the Department of Buildings and Energy under ambient...... on the colder side of the construction where it does no harm. Anyway the worst case of hot water lying at the bottom of the insulation is examined by experiments. The experiments proof that the water will penetrate into the PUR-foam in time. It is not to say from the experiments if the PUR-foam cells...... and damp in highly insulated constructions plus conductive heat transport are to be found.Although there is no applicable lid design after this first project phase, the project has brought the lid design a step ahead. The project has disclosed a finite number of ways to go on and find final solutions....

  3. Evidence of a double-lid movement in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbulakshmi Latha Cherukuvada

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase is a 29-kDa protein that, following the determination of its crystal structure, was postulated to have a lid that stretched between residues 125 and 148. In this paper, using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that there exists, in addition to the above-mentioned lid, a novel second lid in this lipase. We further show that the second lid, covering residues 210-222, acts as a triggering lid for the movement of the first. We also investigate the role of hydrophobicity in the movement of the lids and show that two residues, Phe214 and Ala217, play important roles in lid movement. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a double-lid movement of the type described in our manuscript has been presented to the scientific community. This work also elucidates the interplay of hydrophobic interactions in the dynamics, and hence the function, of an enzyme.

  4. Do cratons preserve evidence of stagnant lid tectonics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for episodic crustal growth extending back to the Hadean has recently prompted a number of numerically based geodynamic models that incorporate cyclic changes from stagnant lid to mobile lid tectonics. A large part of the geologic record is missing for the times at which several of these cycles are inferred to have taken place. The cratons, however, are likely to retain important clues relating to similar cycles developed in the Mesoarchean and Neoarchean. Widespread acceptance of a form of plate tectonics by ∼3.2 Ga is not at odds with the sporadic occurrence of stagnant lid tectonics after this time. The concept of scale as applied to cratons, mantle plumes and Neoarchean volcanic arcs are likely to provide important constraints on future models of Earth's geodynamic evolution. The Superior Province will provide some of the most concrete evidence in this regard given that its constituent blocks may have been locked into a stagnant lid relatively soon after their formation and then assembled in the next global plate tectonic interval. Perceived complexities associated with inferred mantle plume – volcanic arc associations in the Superior Province and other cratons may be related to an over estimation of plume size. A possible stagnant lid episode between ∼2.9 Ga and ∼2.8 Ga is identified by previously unexplained lapses in volcanism on cratons, including the Kaapvaal, Yilgarn and Superior Province cratons. If real, then mantle dynamics associated with this episode likely eliminated any contemporaneous mantle plume incubation sites, which has important implications for widespread plumes developed at ∼2.7 Ga and favours a shallow mantle source in the transition zone. The Superior Province provides a uniquely preserved local proxy for this global event and could serve as the basis for detailed numerical models in the future.

  5. Micro-Lid For Sealing Sample Reservoirs of micro-Extraction Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a proof-of-concept micro-LidLid) to tightly seal a micro-sampler or micro-extraction system. Fabrication of µLid would be conducted in the...

  6. Mechanical Integrity of Copper Canister Lid and Cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles finite element analyses performed to ensure the structural integrity of canisters used for storing of nuclear fuel waste of type BWR. The report comprises analyses performed on the canister lid and cylinder casing in order to determine static and long-term strength of the structure. The report analyses the mechanical response of the lid and flange of the copper canister when subjected to loads caused by pressure from swelling bentonite and from ground water at a depth of 500 meter. The loads acting on the canister are somewhat uncertain and the cases investigated in this report are possible cases. Load cases analysed are: Pressure 15 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and 5 MPa uniformly distributed on cylinder; Pressure 5 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and 15 MPa uniformly distributed on cylinder; Pressure 20 MPa uniformly distributed on lid and cylinder; Side pressures 10 MPa and 20 MPa uniformly distributed on part of the cylinder. Creep analyses are also performed in order to estimate the stresses that will arise when the canister is placed in the repository. The analyses in this report are recreated from the original analyses but the models differ in geometry. Also, there is no information in the original reports on material data, time-independent as well as creep data, and analysis procedure. The data used in the recreated analyses are based on information from References 2, 3, 6 and 7. The results presented in this report are based on the supplementary analyses. These results differ from the original results. Most likely this is due to differences in model geometry. The original results are appended to the report and are summarised for comparison with results from the supplementary analyses. Otherwise, these results are not further discussed. For all load cases, high tensile stresses are found in the lid fillet between the planar part and the flange. High tensile stresses are also found in the weld surface and on the outer side of the

  7. Development of a novel disposable lid speculum with a drape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Toru; Kasaoka, Masataka; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Yukihikotamai; Nakamura, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical use of a newly-developed disposable lid speculum with a drape. LiDrape® is a cylindrical device that consists of two flexible rings of polyacetal resin with a transparent elastic silicone sheet attached to the rings. The novel device holds the eyelids between the rings, and a hole in the center of the device provides a surgical field. We used the novel device in cataract surgery (75 eyes), glaucoma surgery (eleven eyes), vitrectomy (ten eyes), and intravitreal injection (six eyes) and evaluated its clinical efficacy. The LiDrape was easy to attach and detach. The novel device was not detached from the eye during surgery. No eyelashes or secretions from the meibomian glands were seen in the surgical field, and the drape provided a sufficient surgical field. The LiDrape functions as a lid speculum as well as a drape. Our results showed that the novel device is useful for ocular surgeries.

  8. Seal for turnable lids on nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansing, W; Roehrs, H; Rothfuss, H

    1977-08-04

    This seal guarantees greatest leak-proofness even when turning the turn-lid and keeps off abrasion and dirt from the interior of the reactor vessel. This is caused by various individual seals in the space above the horizontal flange which closes the vessel at the top. An outer ring is removably supported on an outer diameter of this flange with the narrow side of its polygonal cross-section. An inner ring turns within this body with its narrow side on spheres of a support. The turn-lid is centred with its largest diameter in this inner ring and is supported by a part of the same body protruding it by means of screws. The vertical ring gap between the two ring bodies is sealed by two inflatable hollow seals; they are coated with PTE.

  9. Loading of Drug-Polymer Matrices in Microreservoirs for Oral Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2017-01-01

    loading in microfabricated DDS. The microfabricated DDS are microcontainers fabricated in photoresist SU-8 and biopolymer poly-L-lactic-acid (PLLA). Furosemide (F) drug is embedded in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) polymer matrix. This F-PCL drug polymer matrix is loaded in SU-8 and PLLA microcontainers using...

  10. Investigation of a novel approach for the cross-linking characterization of SU-8 photoresist materials by means of optical dispersion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudt, Ch.; Baselt, T.; Koch, E.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-03-01

    The increase in efficiency and precision in the production of semiconductor structures under the use of polymeric materials like SU-8 is crucial in securing the technological innovation within this industry. The manufacturing of structures on wafers demands a high quality of materials, tools and production processes. In particular, deviations in the materials' parameters (e.g. cross-linking state, density or mechanical properties) could lead to subsequent problems such as a reduced lifetime of structures and systems. In particular problems during the soft and post-exposure bake process can lead to an inhomogeneous distribution of material properties. This paper describes a novel approach for the characterization of SU-8 material properties in relation to a second epoxy-based material of different cross-linking by the measurement of optical dispersion within the material. A white-light interferometer was used. In particular the setup consisted of a white-light source, a Michelson-type interferometer and a spectrometer. The investigation of the dispersion characteristics was carried out by the detection of the equalization wavelength for different positions of the reference arm in a range from 400 to 900 nm. The measured time delay due to dispersion ranges from 850 to 1050 ps/m. For evaluation purposes a 200μm SU-8 sample was characterized in the described setup regarding its dispersion characteristics in relation to bulk epoxy material. The novel measurement approach allowed a fast and high-resolution material characterization for SU-8 micro structures which was suitable for integration in production lines. The outlook takes modifications of the experimental setup regarding on-wafer measurements into account.

  11. Estimation of Stormwater Interception Rate for various LID Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Lee, O.; Choi, J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the stormwater interception rate is proposed to apply in the design of LID facilities. For this purpose, EPA-SWMM is built with some areas of Noksan National Industrial Complex where long-term observed stormwater data were monitored and stormwater interception rates for various design capacities of various LID facilities are estimated. While the sensitivity of stormwater interception rate according to design specifications of bio-retention and infiltration trench facilities is not large, the sensitivity of stormwater interception rate according to local rainfall characteristics is relatively big. As a result of comparing the present rainfall interception rate estimation method which is officially operated in Korea with the one proposed in this study, it will be presented that the present method is highly likely to overestimate the performance of the bio-retention and infiltration trench facilities. Finally, a new stormwater interception rate formulas for the bio-retention and infiltration trench LID facilities will be proposed. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (2016000200002) from Public Welfare Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Environment of Korean government.

  12. Development of a novel disposable lid speculum with a drape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urano T

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Toru Urano,1 Masataka Kasaoka,1 Ryoji Yamakawa,1 YukihikoTamai,2 Shoichiro Nakamura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan; 2Hakko Co, Ltd, Nagano, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a newly-developed disposable lid speculum with a drape.Methods: LiDrape® is a cylindrical device that consists of two flexible rings of polyacetal resin with a transparent elastic silicone sheet attached to the rings. The novel device holds the eyelids between the rings, and a hole in the center of the device provides a surgical field. We used the novel device in cataract surgery (75 eyes, glaucoma surgery (eleven eyes, vitrectomy (ten eyes, and intravitreal injection (six eyes and evaluated its clinical efficacy.Results: The LiDrape was easy to attach and detach. The novel device was not detached from the eye during surgery. No eyelashes or secretions from the meibomian glands were seen in the surgical field, and the drape provided a sufficient surgical field.Conclusions: The LiDrape functions as a lid speculum as well as a drape. Our results showed that the novel device is useful for ocular surgeries.Keywords: LiDrape, lid speculum, drape, endophthalmitis

  13. Development of a novel disposable lid speculum with a drape

    OpenAIRE

    Urano, Toru; Kasaoka, Masataka; Yamakawa, Ryoji; YukihikoTamai,; Nakamura, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Toru Urano,1 Masataka Kasaoka,1 Ryoji Yamakawa,1 YukihikoTamai,2 Shoichiro Nakamura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan; 2Hakko Co, Ltd, Nagano, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a newly-developed disposable lid speculum with a drape.Methods: LiDrape® is a cylindrical device that consists of two flexible rings of polyacetal resin with a transparent elastic silicone sheet attached to the rings. The novel device holds the eyelids...

  14. Encephalocele presenting as lower lid swelling: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Kumar Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by abnormal protrusion of brain and meninges through an opening in the skull. We report an 8-year-old girl who presented with a swelling in the right lower lid for the last 6 years. In her infancy, she had undergone surgery for a very small swelling located in the right nasolacrimal area. On further clinicoradiological evaluation, anterior encephalocele was diagnosed. This case highlights the uncommon site of anterior encephalocele; misdiagnosis and mismanagement of which could result in dreaded complications such as meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid leaking fistula formation.

  15. Nuclear reactor lid cooling which can work by natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.

    1985-01-01

    The well-known air cooling of the lid of liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors is improved by the start of natural convection flow ensuring removal of heat in a sufficiently short time, if the blower fails. Go and return branches of the individual cooling circuits are arranged at different heights for this purpose. The circulation is supported by opening valves, which provide a direct path into the reactor building for the cooling air. The draught can be increased by setting up special chimneys. The start of circulation is aided by the temporary opening of another valve. (orig.) [de

  16. With a flick of the lid: a novel trapping mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bauer

    Full Text Available Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers, using diverse mechanisms such as 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to 'flick' insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated 'rain', wet after 'rain', or dry, insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid.

  17. [Autogenous tarsus transplant as spacer for treatment of lower lid retraction in Grave's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittkowski, M P; Fichter, N; Guthoff, R F

    2008-08-01

    Lower lid retraction in dysthyroid orbitopathy is of less functional concern than optic neuropathy or diplopia in central positions of gaze. However, it may lead to incomplete lid closure resulting in corneal exposure. Patients often suffer from aesthetic impairment. A retrospective analysis of 13 consecutive patients treated for lower lid retraction due to Grave's Disease between 2005 and 2007 was undertaken. In spite of regular ophthalmological examinations, specific attention was directed to measurement of the lid fissure width and scleral show for quantification of lower lid retraction. OPERATION: The lower lid is everted and the conjunctiva is opened horizontally underneath the tarsal edge. Lower lid retractors are disinserted and dissected until the lower lid might be elevated in symmetry to the fellow eye. This procedure is continued until 1 mm overcorrection is gained. A free tarsal transplant is harvested from the ipsilateral upper lid tarsus. At least 4 mm vertical tarsus have to be left. Tarsus is sutured with absorbable material. In the 13 patients operated upon (9 women, 4 men) aged 23 - 67 years, scleral show was preoperative 2.7 mm (mean) and postoperative 0.1 mm. Lid fissure width was preoperative 13 mm (10 - 16 mm) and immediately postoperative 10.3 mm (7 - 13). 6 months postoperative the lid-elevating effect was reduced by 0.5 mm in maximum in the 9 patients available for control. The lid closure deficit, which was present in 7 patients before, could be corrected completely in 5 and diminished to 1 mm in 2 patients. Using this particular technique, functional and aesthetical satisfying results are obtained. The main advantages are renunciation of allogen, xenogeny or synthetic material with its possible risks of slow-virus infection and/or extrusion. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long-term results.

  18. Development and Application of a Low Impact Development (LID-Based District Unit Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hee Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a low impact development-based district unit planning (LID-DP model and to verify the model by applying it to a test site. To develop the model, we identified various barriers to the urban planning process and examined the advantages of various LID-related techniques to determine where in the urban development process LID would provide the greatest benefit. The resulting model provides (1 a set of district unit planning processes that consider LID standards and (2 a set of evaluation methods that measure the benefits of the LID-DP model over standard urban development practices. The developed LID-DP process is composed of status analysis, comprehensive analysis, basic plan, and sectoral plans. To determine whether the LID-DP model met the proposed LID targets, we applied the model to a test site in Cheongju City, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Republic of Korea. The test simulation showed that the LID-DP plan reduced nonpoint source pollutants (total nitrogen, 113%; total phosphorous, 193%; and biological oxygen demand, 199%; reduced rainfall runoff (infiltration volume, 102%; surface runoff, 101%; and improved the conservation rate of the natural environment area (132%. The successful application of this model also lent support for the greater importance of non-structural techniques over structural techniques in urban planning when taking ecological factors into account.

  19. Neutron emission from impacted solid LiD samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, T.C.; Shyam, A.; Kulkarni, L.V.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Nylon projectiles with 0.1 g to 0.3 g mass, accelerated to velocities of 0.2-1 km/s using a 60 cm long electromagnetic accelerator (railgun), have been impacted upon solid lithium deuteride (LiD) samples of 3 proportional counters. The output from the BF 3 set-up is monitored in several ways to characterize the possible neutron emission from the target. This includes a simple technique of counting the single channel analyser (SCA) output through a dead-time unit to identify bursts of < 100 μs duration. Counting is started after a delay of ∼ 1 ms to avoid the initial interference from the capacitor bank discharge. The signal is also recorded in a storage oscilloscope from the start of projectile acceleration along with a time marker just before the impact. From a number of shots taken with and without the samples, a significant evidence of neutron emission from the LiD samples appears to emerge. The experiments suggest that approximately 100 neutrons might be generated during every such impact in a duration of < 4 ms. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  20. Measurement of tritium production in 6LiD irradiated with neutrons from a critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaojie

    1998-03-01

    The tritium production rate and its distribution, in a 6 LiD semisphere on a critical assembly neutron source are measured with a 6 Li sandwich gold-silicon surface barrier detector. Then tritium production rate and the average tritium production length of the neutrons in the whole 6 LiD sphere are derived from approximate sphere symmetry

  1. Experimental Test for Benchmark 1--Deck Lid Inner Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Siguang; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    The Benchmark 1 deck lid inner is designed for both aluminum and steel based on a General Motor Corporation's current vehicle product. The die is constructed with a soft tool material. The die successfully produced aluminum and steel panels without splits and wrinkles. Detailed surface strains and thickness measurement were made at selected sections to include a wide range of deformation patterns from uniaxial tension mode to bi-axial tension mode. The springback measurements were done by using CMM machine along the part's hem edge which is critical to correct dimensional accuracy. It is expected that the data obtained will provide a useful source for forming and springback study on future automotive panels

  2. Design and fabrication of an ac-electro-osmosis micropump with 3D high-aspect-ratio electrodes using only SU-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouabah, Hamza A; Morgan, Hywel; Green, Nicolas G; Park, Benjamin Y; Zaouk, Rabih B; Madou, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices require integrated pumping and fluid control in microchannels. A recently developed mechanism that can produce fluid flow is an integrated ac-electro-osmosis micropump. However, like most electrokinetic pumps, ac-electro-osmotic pumps are incapable of handling backpressure as the pumping force mechanism acts on the surface of the fluid rather than the bulk. This paper presents a novel 3D electrode structure designed to overcome this limitation. The electrodes are fabricated using carbon-MEMS technology based on the pyrolysis of the photo-patternable polymer SU-8. The novel ac-electro-osmosis micropump shows an increase in the flow velocity compared to planar electrodes.

  3. Optical Amplification at 1525 nm in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ Nanocrystals Doped SU-8 Polymer Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated optical amplification in BaYF5: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+ (BYF nanocrystals doped polymer waveguide. BYF nanocrystals with an average size of ∼13 nm were synthesized by a high-boiling solvent process. Intense 1.53 μm fluorescence was obtained in the nanocrystals under excitation at 980 nm. An optical polymer waveguide was fabricated by using BYF nanocrystals doped SU-8 polymer as the core material. A relative optical gain of ∼10.4 dB at 1525 nm was achieved in a 1.1 cm long waveguide for an input signal power of ∼0.09 mW and a pump power of ∼212 mW.

  4. Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking in SU(8) induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field II: the fermion spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2017-07-01

    We continue our study of Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar, in the context of the SU(8) model (Adler 2014 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29 1450130) we proposed earlier. We focus in this paper on qualitative features that will determine whether the model can make contact with the observed particle spectrum. We discuss the mechanism for giving the spin \\frac{3}{2} field a mass by the BEH mechanism, and analyze the remaining massless spin \\frac{1}{2} fermions, the global chiral symmetries, and the running couplings after symmetry breaking. We note that the smallest gluon mass matrix eigenvalue has an eigenvector suggestive of U(1) B-L , and conjecture that the theory runs to an infrared fixed point at which there is a massless gluon with 3 to  -1 ratios in generator components. Assuming this, we discuss a mechanism for making contact with the standard model, based on a conjectured asymmetric breaking of Sp(4) to SU(2) subgroups, one of which is the electroweak SU(2), and the other of which is a ‘technicolor’ group that binds the original SU(8) model fermions, which play the role of ‘preons’, into composites. Quarks can emerge as 5 preon composites and leptons as 3 preon composites, with consequent stability of the proton against decay to a single lepton plus a meson. A composite Higgs boson can emerge as a two preon composite. Since anomaly matching for the relevant conserved global symmetry current is not obeyed by three fermion families, emergence of three composite families requires formation of a Goldstone boson with quantum numbers matching this current, which can be a light dark matter candidate.

  5. Maintaining Microclimates during Nanoliter Chemical Dispensations Using Custom-Designed Source Plate Lids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Bryan J; Drozd, Ashley M; Bollard, Mary T; Laspina, Denise; Podobedov, Nikita; Zeniou, Nicholas; Rao, Anjali S; Andi, Babak; Jackimowicz, Rick; Sweet, Robert M; McSweeney, Sean; Soares, Alexei S

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for using custom snap-on lids to protect chemicals in microtiter plates from evaporation and contamination. The lids contain apertures (diameter 1.5, 1.0, or 0.5 mm) through which the chemical building blocks can be transferred. The lid with 0.5 mm apertures was tested using a noncontact acoustic liquid handler; the 1.0 and 1.5 mm lids were tested using two tip-based liquid handlers. All of the lids reduced the rate at which solvents evaporated to room air, and greatly reduced the rate of contamination by water and oxygen from room air. In steady-state measurements, the lids reduced the rate of evaporation of methanol, 1-hexene, and water by 33% to 248%. In cycled experiments, the contamination of aqueous solvent with oxygen was reduced below detectability and the rate at which DMSO engorged atmospheric water was reduced by 81%. Our results demonstrate that the lids preserve the integrity of air-sensitive reagents during the time needed for different types of liquid handlers to perform dispensations. Controlling degradation and evaporation of chemical building blocks exposed to the atmosphere is increasingly useful as the reagent volume is reduced by advances in liquid handling technology, such as acoustic droplet ejection. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Construction for holding together a cylindrical high pressure reactor vessel with hemispherical bottom and lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmarchais, W.E.; Braun, H.E.

    1972-01-01

    The construction shall prevent that in case of ruptures of the vessel rupture pieces may damage the secondary shielding system. The construction consists of two yokes fitting to the bottom and the lid of the vessel and held together by means of pull rods. The yokes are designed as truncated conshaped shells. The smaller end of the cone shells supports the hemispherical bottom and the lid of the vessel. The larger cone shell ends are tied together by the pull rods. As further improvements there may be arranged hemispherical protective shields between the hemispherical bottom and the lid of the vessel and the smaller end of the cone shells. (P.K.)

  7. Local field in LiD polarized target material

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, Yu V; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Horikawa, N; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the first and the second moments of D, **6Li and **7Li (I greater than 1/2) NMR lines in a granulated LiD- target material as a function of nuclear polarizations and the data has been compared with a theory elaborated by Abragam, Roinel and Bouffard for monocrystalline samples. The experiments were carried out in the large COMPASS twin-target at CERN. The static local magnetic field of the polarized nuclei was measured by frequency shift between the NMR-signals in the two oppositely polarized cells and lead to the first moment, whereas the investigation of the second moment was done through Gaussian approximation. The average field magnitude in granulated material was estimated 20% larger than the value given by the calculations for monocrystalline samples of cylindrical shape. The second moment shows a qualitative agreement with the theory but it is slightly larger at the negative than at the positive polarization. In a polarized mode, the moments depend on the saturated microw...

  8. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  9. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact

  10. Double-diffusive mixed convection in a lid-driven cavity with non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S SIVASANKARAN

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... transfer are solved using the finite-volume method. The numerical ... Keywords. Mixed convection; double diffusion; non-uniform heating; lid-driven cavity. 1. ... exhaustive research due to its importance in various engi- neering ...

  11. Investigation of the air effect on the resonance frequency and damping of three small assembled structures using different adhesive materials (SU8 epoxy resin and compressed gold)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, H; Foltête, E; Hirsinger, L; Ballandras, S

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in the understanding of microsystems and the mechanical properties essential for their design. In this context, an experimental technique is proposed to characterize the structures of small dimensions composed of both silicon and lithium niobate and assembled using three different adhesive materials (SU8 (5 and 1 µm) and compressed gold) surrounded by various ambient air pressure levels. Dynamic tests were performed on three different structures used for the manufacturing of a harvesting energy microconverter. The assembled structure is mounted on a support and excited by a white noise signal via an electromagnetic shaker. The dynamic responses are recorded by a Doppler laser vibrometer and the modal parameters (obtained from the dynamic response) are identified in order to determine their evolution when the ambient air pressure inside the vacuum chamber is changed. A nonlinear modal identification is then performed. It is based on the logarithmic decrement method applied in the time–frequency domain using a wavelet transform of the time responses. The evolution of the equivalent modal frequencies and damping of the assembled structure versus time and vibration magnitude are identified for several pressure values ranging from a secondary vacuum to atmospheric pressure

  12. Proton beam writing on PMMA and SU-8 films as a tool for development of micro-structures for organic electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mihir, E-mail: mihirs@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Shukla, Neeraj; Banerji, Nobin [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mohapatra, Y.N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Samtel Center for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Proton beam writing is a maskless lithographic technique for the fabrication of 3D micro and nano structures in polymers. The fabricated structures find application in micro fluidics, optics, biosensors, etc. We use proton beam writing for micro-patterning in polymers which will facilitate fabrication of test structures for micro-components of micro-fluidic devices, organic thin film transistors (OTFT) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). In this paper we report fabrication of varying width micro channels in PMMA and SU-8 films used as positive and negative resists respectively. The patterns were written using 2 MeV proton beam focused down to around 1 micron. We have achieved clean periodic micro-channels of width varying from few micrometers to wider ones in both the resists. Being a mask less lithography it provides an efficient way of reducing turnaround time for test structures with several channel widths and patterns being conveniently written at the same development cycle. Possible applications of the patterned structures in OLED/TFT are discussed. Additional structures like checkered board are also fabricated. Optimized fluence for both the resist has been determined.

  13. Structure of Human Pancreatic Lipase-Related Protein 2 with the Lid in an Open Conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eydoux, Cecilia; Spinelli, Silvia; Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Seitova, Alma; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; De Caro, Alain; Cambillau, Christian; Carriere, Frederic (CNRS-UMR); (Toronto)

    2008-10-02

    Access to the active site of pancreatic lipase (PL) is controlled by a surface loop, the lid, which normally undergoes conformational changes only upon addition of lipids or amphiphiles. Structures of PL with their lids in the open and functional conformation have required cocrystallization with amphiphiles. Here we report two crystal structures of wild-type and unglycosylated human pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (HPLRP2) with the lid in an open conformation in the absence of amphiphiles. These structures solved independently are strikingly similar, with some residues of the lid being poorly defined in the electron-density map. The open conformation of the lid is however different from that previously observed in classical liganded PL, suggesting different kinetic properties for HPLRP2. Here we show that the HPLRP2 is directly inhibited by E600, does not present interfacial activation, and acts preferentially on substrates forming monomers or small aggregates (micelles) dispersed in solution like monoglycerides, phospholipids and galactolipids, whereas classical PL displays reverse properties and a high specificity for unsoluble substrates like triglycerides and diglycerides forming oil-in-water interfaces. These biochemical properties imply that the lid of HPLRP2 is likely to spontaneously adopt in solution the open conformation observed in the crystal structure. This open conformation generates a large cavity capable of accommodating the digalactose polar head of galactolipids, similar to that previously observed in the active site of the guinea pig PLRP2, but absent from the classical PL. Most of the structural and kinetic properties of HPLRP2 were found to be different from those of rat PLRP2, the structure of which was previously obtained with the lid in a closed conformation. Our findings illustrate the essential role of the lid in determining the substrate specificity and the mechanism of action of lipases.

  14. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-01-01

    A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations. PMID:25484231

  15. Tribo-functionalizing Si and SU8 materials by surface modification for application in MEMS/NEMS actuator-based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R A; Satyanarayana, N; Sinha, S K; Kustandi, T S

    2011-01-01

    Micro/nano-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS/NEMS) are miniaturized devices built at micro/nanoscales. At these scales, the surface/interfacial forces are extremely strong and they adversely affect the smooth operation and the useful operating lifetimes of such devices. When these forces manifest in severe forms, they lead to material removal and thereby reduce the wear durability of the devices. In this paper, we present a simple, yet robust, two-step surface modification method to significantly enhance the tribological performance of MEMS/NEMS materials. The two-step method involves oxygen plasma treatment of polymeric films and the application of a nanolubricant, namely perfluoropolyether. We apply the two-step method to the two most important MEMS/NEMS structural materials, namely silicon and SU8 polymer. On applying surface modification to these materials, their initial coefficient of friction reduces by ∼4-7 times and the steady-state coefficient of friction reduces by ∼2.5-3.5 times. Simultaneously, the wear durability of both the materials increases by >1000 times. The two-step method is time effective as each of the steps takes the time duration of approximately 1 min. It is also cost effective as the oxygen plasma treatment is a part of the MEMS/NEMS fabrication process. The two-step method can be readily and easily integrated into MEMS/NEMS fabrication processes. It is anticipated that this method will work for any kind of structural material from which MEMS/NEMS are or can be made.

  16. Tribo-functionalizing Si and SU8 materials by surface modification for application in MEMS/NEMS actuator-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. A.; Satyanarayana, N.; Kustandi, T. S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Micro/nano-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS/NEMS) are miniaturized devices built at micro/nanoscales. At these scales, the surface/interfacial forces are extremely strong and they adversely affect the smooth operation and the useful operating lifetimes of such devices. When these forces manifest in severe forms, they lead to material removal and thereby reduce the wear durability of the devices. In this paper, we present a simple, yet robust, two-step surface modification method to significantly enhance the tribological performance of MEMS/NEMS materials. The two-step method involves oxygen plasma treatment of polymeric films and the application of a nanolubricant, namely perfluoropolyether. We apply the two-step method to the two most important MEMS/NEMS structural materials, namely silicon and SU8 polymer. On applying surface modification to these materials, their initial coefficient of friction reduces by ~4-7 times and the steady-state coefficient of friction reduces by ~2.5-3.5 times. Simultaneously, the wear durability of both the materials increases by >1000 times. The two-step method is time effective as each of the steps takes the time duration of approximately 1 min. It is also cost effective as the oxygen plasma treatment is a part of the MEMS/NEMS fabrication process. The two-step method can be readily and easily integrated into MEMS/NEMS fabrication processes. It is anticipated that this method will work for any kind of structural material from which MEMS/NEMS are or can be made.

  17. Thermo-mechanical finite element analyses of bolted cask lid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao Linan; Eberle, A.; Voelzke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of complex bolted cask lid structures under mechanical or thermal accident conditions is important for the evaluation of cask integrity and leak-tightness in package design assessment according to the Transport Regulations or in aircraft crash scenarios. In this context BAM is developing methods based on Finite Elements to calculate the effects of mechanical impacts onto the bolted lid structures as well as effects caused by severe fire scenarios. I n case of fire it might be not enough to perform only a thermal heat transfer analysis. The complex cask design in connection with a severe hypothetical time-temperature-curve representing an accident fire scenario will create a strong transient heating up of the cask body and its lid system. This causes relative displacements between the seals and its counterparts that can be analyzed by a so-called thermo-mechanical calculation. Although it is currently not possible to correlate leakage rates with results from deformation analyses directly an appropriate Finite Element model of the considered type of metallic lid seal has been developed. For the present it is possible to estimate the behaviour of the seal based on the calculated relative displacements at its seating and the behaviour of the lid bolts under the impact load or the temperature field respectively. Except of the lid bolts the geometry of the cask and the mechanical loading is axial-symmetric which simplifies the analysis considerably and a two-dimensional Finite Element model with substitute lid bolts may be used. The substitute bolts are modelled as one-dimensional truss or beam elements. An advanced two-dimensional bolt submodel represents the bolts with plane stress continuum elements. This paper discusses the influence of different bolt modelling on the relative displacements at the seating of the seals. Besides this, the influence of bolt modelling, thermal properties and detail in geometry of the two-dimensional Finite Element models on

  18. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipper, Lauren E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Vestal, NY 13902 (United States); Aristide, Xavier [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); North Babylon High School, 1 Phelps Lane North, Babylon, NY 11703 (United States); Bishop, Dylan P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Northport High School, 154 Laurel Hill Road, Northport, NY 11768 (United States); Joshi, Ishita [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); St Augustine Catholic High School, 2188 Rodick Road, Markham, ON L6C 1S3 (Canada); Kharzeev, Julia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Earl L. Vandermeulen High School, 350 Old Post Road, Port Jefferson, NY 11777 (United States); Patel, Krishna B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); John P. Stevens High School, 855 Grove Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820 (United States); Santiago, Brianna M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Connetquot High School, 190 7th Street, Bohemia, NY 11716 (United States); Joshi, Karan [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Dorsinvil, Kahille [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  19. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  20. Deuterium release from Li-D films exposed to atmospheric gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M., E-mail: YMGasparyan@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S.; Krat, S.A.; Pisarev, A.A.; Vasina, Ya. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.V. [JSC “Red Star”, Electrolitniy proezd 1a, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The major part of deuterium desorbs from Li-D films in a very sharp peak at 670–710 K. • Exposure on air leads to intensive deuterium release from the Li-D film at room temperature. • Interaction with water vapor plays a major role in deuterium release from lithium films in the air. - Abstract: Deuterium release from Li-D films co-deposited on a Mo substrate at room temperature in magnetron discharge was investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. The deuterium concentration in the films was estimated to be D/Li = (14 ± 4)%. TDS from Li-D films just after co-deposition had a sharp peak at 670–710 K. Exposure of deposited Li-D films in the air at room temperature led to deuterium release. Comparison of release in air, water vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen demonstrated that water plays a major role in deuterium release in the air at low temperatures.

  1. Enhancing a rainfall-runoff model to assess the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on storm runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Ahiablame, Laurent M; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices are increasingly being used as stormwater management techniques to reduce the impacts of urban development on hydrology and water quality. To assist planners and decision-makers at various stages of development projects (planning, implementation, and evaluation), user-friendly tools are needed to assess the effectiveness of BMPs and LID practices. This study describes a simple tool, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-LID (L-THIA-LID), which is enhanced with additional BMPs and LID practices, improved approaches to estimate hydrology and water quality, and representation of practices in series (meaning combined implementation). The tool was used to evaluate the performance of BMPs and LID practices individually and in series with 30 years of daily rainfall data in four types of idealized land use units and watersheds (low density residential, high density residential, industrial, and commercial). Simulation results were compared with the results of other published studies. The simulated results showed that reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads after implementing BMPs and LID practices, both individually and in series, were comparable with the observed impacts of these practices. The L-THIA-LID 2.0 model is capable of assisting decision makers in evaluating environmental impacts of BMPs and LID practices, thereby improving the effectiveness of stormwater management decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of vortex breakdown in a closed cylinder with a rotating lid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Aubry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    The flow within a closed cylinder with a rotating lid is considered as a prototype for fundamental studies of vortex breakdown. Numerical simulations for various parameter values have been carried out to reproduce the known effect of a thin rotating rod positioned along the center axis as well...... as analyze the influence of local vorticity sources. As expected, the results show that the breakdown bubbles in the steady axisymmetric flow can be affected dramatically, i.e., fully suppressed or significantly enhanced, by rotating the rod. The main contribution of this article is to show that the observed...... behavior can be explained by the vorticity generated by the rod locally near the rotating lid and near the fixed lid, as analogous behavior is caused by the introduction of local vorticity sources in the flow without a rod. Moreover, we describe the influence on the breakdown bubbles of the vorticity...

  3. Reaction of LiD with water vapor: thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balooch, M; Dinh, L N; LeMay, J D

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of hydroxide film growth on LiD have been studied by the thermogravimetric method in nitrogen saturated with water vapor and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples that have been exposed to air with 50% relative humidity. The reaction probability is estimated to be 4 x 10 -7 for LiD exposed to ambient air with 50% relative humidity, suggesting that the diffusion through the hydroxide film is not the limiting step on the overall process at high moisture levels. The rate of growth is drastically reduced when the temperature is increased to 60 C

  4. Entropic algorithms and the lid method as exploration tools for complex landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    to a single valley, are key to understand the dynamical properties of such systems. In this paper we combine the lid algorithm, a tool for landscape exploration previously applied to a range of models, with the Wang-Swendsen algorithm. To test this improved exploration tool, we consider a paradigmatic complex...... system, the Edwards-Andersom model in two and three spatial dimension. We find a striking difference between the energy dependence of the local density of states in the two cases: nearly flat in the first case, and nearly exponential in the second. The lid dependence of the data is analyzed to estimate...

  5. The devil is in the details: comparison between COP9 signalosome (CSN) and the LID of the 26S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Cindy; Gulko, Miriam Kolog; Köhler, Anna M; Braus, Gerhard H

    2016-02-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) and the proteasomal LID are conserved macromolecular complexes composed of at least eight subunits with molecular weights of approximately 350 kDa. CSN and LID are part of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and cleave isopeptide linkages of lysine side chains on target proteins. CSN cleaves the isopeptide bond of ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from cullins, whereas the LID cleaves ubiquitin from target proteins sentenced for degradation. CSN and LID are structurally and functionally similar but the order of the assembly pathway seems to be different. The assembly differs in at least the last subunit joining the pre-assembled subcomplex. This review addresses the similarities and differences in structure, function and assembly of CSN and LID.

  6. Variations in Nutrient Cycling and Meltwater Composition Between Ice-Lidded and Open System Cryoconites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cryoconites are small melt pools on the ablation surface of glaciers created by the accumulation of aeolian sediment with a lower albedo than the surrounding ice. While many cryoconites remain open to the surrounding atmosphere, environmental conditions in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica often lead to the formation of dense ice lids due to advection from cold winds. These lidded cryoconites are isolated from atmospheric exchange while maintaining subsurface melt in a solid-state greenhouse. The varying conditions for the formation and freeze-thaw cycle of cryoconites lead to a range of biogeochemical processes occurring within the pools. This study analyzed the biochemistry of both open and lidded cryoconite water from six glaciers in the Dry Valleys throughout the initial pulse melt, equilibrium, and refreezing periods in 2013- 2015. Many of the spatial gradients in carbon cycling, solute concentrations, and pH identified for lidded cryoconites exhibited opposite trends for pools in equilibrium with the atmosphere, while temporal gradients were less diverse for open pools.

  7. Unveiling the nucleon tensor charge at Jefferson Lab: A study of the SoLID case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong; Sato, Nobuo; Allada, Kalyan; Liu, Tianbo; Chen, Jian-Ping; Gao, Haiyan; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Sun, Peng; Yuan, Feng

    2017-04-01

    © 2017 The Authors Future experiments at the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade, in particular, the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID), aim at a very precise data set in the region where the partonic structure of the nucleon is dominated by the valence quarks. One of the main goals is to constrain the quark transversity distributions. We apply recent theoretical advances of the global QCD extraction of the transversity distributions to study the impact of future experimental data from the SoLID experiments. Especially, we develop a simple strategy based on the Hessian matrix analysis that allows one to estimate the uncertainties of the transversity quark distributions and their tensor charges extracted from SoLID data simulation. We find that the SoLID measurements with the proton and the effective neutron targets can improve the precision of the u- and d-quark transversity distributions up to one order of magnitude in the range 0.05 < x < 0.6.

  8. Dilated examination of patients referred with minor lid complaints--is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, P J; Benskin, S; Tahhan, M; Tyagi, A K

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate whether dilated fundus examination is necessary on patients presenting to clinic with lid complaints and normal vision. Patients with lid complaints were recruited from general and emergency clinics. Patients with visual symptoms or previous ophthalmic history were excluded. Subjects were examined by a junior ophthalmologist with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and Goldmann tonometry. Dilated posterior segment examination was performed with a Volk lens and the peripheral retina was examined with a three-mirror contact lens. A total of 100 patients (200 eyes) were recruited, 63 females and 37 males with an average age of 45 years (SD of 19 years). The majority of lid abnormalities were chalazia (66) and papilloma (21). Posterior segment findings were early cataracts in five cases (eight eyes), macular drusen in three cases (five eyes), peripheral retinal lattice degeneration in two cases (three eyes), retinal pigment epithelial changes in one case (two eyes), a choroidal naevus in one eye, choroidal atrophy in one eye, and one case with asymmetric disc cupping. Six patients were seen by senior ophthalmologists and all were discharged after the first visit. In our sample of 100 patients presenting with lid complaints and normal visual acuity, dilated examination revealed no sight-threatening conditions that required further treatment or regular follow-up. Therefore, a single episode of screening for nonspecified retinal disease in a group with no particular risk factors is an inefficient screening method.

  9. Anti-natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) antibodies as indicators of leprosy reactions and neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coll, Héctor; Muñoz, Mónica; Camilo Beltrán, Juan; Duthie, Malcolm S; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. We hypothesized that natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) would be helpful as an indicator of LRs and neuritis. To assess the utility of NDO-LID in indicating reactions, ELISA were used to detect specific antibodies in serum samples from 80 Colombian leprosy patients (40 with and 40 without history of LRs). Responses were detected using a range of detection reagents detecting IgG, IgM or both isotypes. Patients with a history of LRs had an increased seropositivity rate for anti-NDO-LID antibodies compared to patients without (anti-NDO-LID protein A [p=0.02], IgG anti-NDO-LID [p=0.01] and IgM anti-NDO-LID [p=0.01]). Further analyses of patients with a history of LRs indicated that both seropositivity rate and magnitude of responses were elevated among patients with neuritis versus those without neuritis (anti-NDO-LID protein A [p=0.03], IgG anti-NDO-LID [p=0.001] and IgM anti-NDO-LID [p=0.06]). Our data indicate that testing for serum anti-NDO-LID antibodies can be a useful screen to identify patients at risk of developing LRs and neuritis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimal capacity design of LID facility for conserving natural water cycle and its sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O.; Choi, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 20th century, urbanization has resulted in increased impermeable land surface and reduced infiltration capacity in catchment scale. Especially, when agriculture area or forest area would be developed into urban area, it can cause more runoff in the same climate condition. Such urbanization causes problems such as changes in hydrological cycle and ecosystem disturbance. Various methods have been proposed worldwide to reduce the impact of such urbanization. Among the various strategies, the low-impact development is a development strategy that aims to return to pre-development state by minimizing the change of the hydrological cycle due to urbanization. In this strategy, the infiltration and/or surface storage of stormwater runoff can be increased through the installation of various facilities. In this study, a facility capacity design strategy is proposed to return into the natural water cycle through the installation of various LID facilities. This is accomplished by determining the optimal LID facility design capacity through which flow duration curves remain the same before and after urban development. For this purpose, EPA-SWMM is constructed with a part of Busan Metropolitan City Noksan Industrial Complex as a virtual processing area. Under the various land-use scenarios, the optimum design capacity of various LID facilities capable of retaining the flow duration curve before and after development is determined. In addition, the sensitivity of the optimal design capacity of LID facilities is analyzed according to the design specifications of various LID facilities, the local rainfall characteristics, and the size of the treatment area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (2016000200002) from Public Welfare Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Environment of Korean government.

  11. Hydrological simulation approaches for BMPs and LID practices in highly urbanized area and development of hydrological performance indicator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-wei Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes hydrological change and increases stormwater runoff volumes, leading to flooding, erosion, and the degradation of instream ecosystem health. Best management practices (BMPs, like detention ponds and infiltration trenches, have been widely used to control flood runoff events for the past decade. However, low impact development (LID options have been proposed as an alternative approach to better mimic the natural flow regime by using decentralized designs to control stormwater runoff at the source, rather than at a centralized location in the watershed. For highly urbanized areas, LID stormwater management practices such as bioretention cells and porous pavements can be used to retrofit existing infrastructure and reduce runoff volumes and peak flows. This paper describes a modeling approach to incorporate these LID practices and the two BMPs of detention ponds and infiltration trenches in an existing hydrological model to estimate the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the surface runoff. The modeling approach has been used in a parking lot located in Lenexa, Kansas, USA, to predict hydrological performance of BMPs and LID practices. A performance indicator system including the flow duration curve, peak flow frequency exceedance curve, and runoff coefficient have been developed in an attempt to represent impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the entire spectrum of the runoff regime. Results demonstrate that use of these BMPs and LID practices leads to significant stormwater control for small rainfall events and less control for flood events.

  12. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    Low impact development (LID) practices have become more important in urban stormwater management worldwide. However, most research on design optimization focuses on relatively large scale, and there is very limited information or guideline regarding individual LID practice designs (i.e., optimal depth, width and length). The objective of this study is to identify the optimal design by assessing the hydrological performance and the cost-effectiveness of different designs of LID practices at a household or business scale, and to analyze the sensitivity of the hydrological performance and the cost of the optimal design to different model and design parameters. First, EPA SWMM, automatically controlled by MATLAB, is used to obtain the peak runoff of different designs of three specific LID practices (i.e., green roof, bioretention and porous pavement) under different design storms (i.e., 2 yr and 50 yr design storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, U.S.). Then, life cycle cost is estimated for the different designs, and the optimal design, defined as the design with the lowest cost and at least 20% peak runoff reduction, is identified. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters is examined. The optimal design of green roof tends to be larger in area but thinner, while the optimal designs of bioretention and porous pavement tend to be smaller in area. To handle larger storms, however, it is more effective to increase the green roof depth, and to increase the area of the bioretention and porous pavement. Porous pavement is the most cost-effective for peak flow reduction, followed by bioretention and then green roof. The cost-effectiveness, measured as the peak runoff reduction/thousand Dollars of LID practices in Hong Kong (e.g., 0.02 L/103 US s, 0.15 L/103 US s and 0.93 L/103 US s for green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm) is lower than that in Seattle (e.g., 0.03 L/103 US s, 0.29 L/103 US s and 1.58 L/103 US s for

  13. Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity with partial slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismael, Muneer A.; Pop, Ioan; Chamkha, Ali J.

    2014-01-01

    Steady laminar mixed convection inside a lid-driven square cavity filled with water is studied numerically. The lid is due to the movement of the isothermal top and bottom walls which are maintained at T c and T h , respectively, with T h is higher than T c . A partial slip condition was imposed in these two moving walls. The vertical walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic. The appliance of the numerical analysis was USR finite difference method with upwind scheme treatments of the convective terms included in the momentum and energy equations. The studied relevant parameters were: the partial slip parameter S (0-∞); Richardson number Ri (0.01-100) and the direction of the moving walls (λ t = 1, λ b = ±1). The results have showed that there are critical values for the partial slip parameter at which the convection is declined. (authors)

  14. La digestion chez les camélidés ; comparaison avec les ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Jouany, J Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Les études sur la digestion et le métabolisme des camélidés ont bénéficié au cours des quinze dernières années des progrès techniques et méthodologiques issus des travaux conduits chez les ruminants. On dispose aujourd’hui d’éléments scientifiques fiables qui permettent de comparer les aptitudes digestives et métaboliques respectives de ces deux types d’animaux. L’anatomie des pré-estomacs ainsi que le comportement alimentaire des animaux sont très différents entre camélidés et ruminants. De ...

  15. Investigation of Gas Piston Actuated Opening-Closing Trunk Lid Mechanisms Used in Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the gas piston actuated opening-closing trunk lid mechanisms used in passenger cars are investigated theoretically and experimentally. First, the position analysis of the mechanism which is a four-bar linkage has been carried out. Then the quasi-static analyzes according to the principle of virtual work have been made, and so the hand force, one of the most important parameters in terms of ergonomics, required for opening and closing the trunk lid has been calculated. In order to verify this developed model, the hand force has been determined also experimentally, performing the physical tests on an existing vehicle at Turkish Automobile Factory Inc. (TOFAŞ. Eventually, it is observed that the results obtained from mathematical model and the experimental measurements are compatible each other. This established model will provide convenience for manufacturers to determine the hand force for different model of vehicles. 

  16. Intermittency and transition to chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiseau, J-Ch [Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Robinet, J-Ch [Laboratoire DynFluid, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, F-75013 Paris (France); Leriche, E, E-mail: loiseau@mech.kth.se [Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, Université Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-12-15

    Transition from steady state to intermittent chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow is investigated numerically. Fully three-dimensional stability analyses have revealed that the flow experiences an Andronov–Poincaré–Hopf bifurcation at a critical Reynolds number Re {sub c} = 1914. As for the 2D-periodic lid-driven cavity flows, the unstable mode originates from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. A Reynolds–Orr analysis reveals that the unstable perturbation relies on a combination of the lift-up and anti lift-up mechanisms to extract its energy from the base flow. Once linearly unstable, direct numerical simulations show that the flow is driven toward a primary limit cycle before eventually exhibiting intermittent chaotic dynamics. Though only one eigenpair of the linearized Navier–Stokes operator is unstable, the dynamics during the intermittencies are surprisingly well characterized by one of the stable eigenpairs. (paper)

  17. A study on cross-talk nerve stimulation: electrode placement and current leakage lid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Julémont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk phenomena should be avoided when stimulating nerves. One option to limit the current spread is to use tripolar electrodes, but at the cost of increasing the number of wires connection. This should be avoided since cables must be thin and compliant. We investigated the impact of the central electrode position and of current spread due to a gap between book and lid on cross-talk, in a set of tripolar or quasi-tripolar configurations.

  18. Testing of the melter lid refractory for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Jain, V.; Mahoney, J.L.; Holman, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Monofrax H and Mulfrax 202 refractory were tested for potential application as the melter lid refractory for the WVDP. Resistance to spalling and corrosion by the slurry and offgas salts were primary criteria for selection. Test specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 450 and 1,100C for five weeks. Visual examination indicated some corrosion but no spalling. SEM/EDS analysis was performed to determine the glass/refractory interface corrosion mechanism. The refractory selection basis will be discussed

  19. Fusion spectrum neutron source computation in "6LiD convertor for HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shouhua; Hu Yifei; Ye Bin

    2014-01-01

    A computation model of 14 MeV neutron from the "6LiD convertor has been established, the 14 MeV neutron sources and flux in the irradiation samples from the "6LiD convertor and the core have been computed separately, the neutron spectrum in the irradiation samples have been computed, too. The results show that the neutron sources that over 13 MeV account for 1 MeV above in the "6LiD convertor is 25.7%, 24.6% respectively, 14 MeV neutron sources get 4.31 × 10"1"3 n_T·s"-"1, 3.34 × 10"1"3 n_T·s"-"1, 14 MeV neutron flux get 2.66 × 10"1"0 n_T·cm"-"2·s"-"1, 3.53 × 10"1"0 n_T·cm"-"2·s"-"1, as He and H_2O charged in the irradiation capsule. (authors)

  20. Irradiation cryostat for LiH and LiD polarized solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized nucleon targets are an important tool to understand the nuclear spin structure. Pion photoproduction experiments on polarized protrons and neutrons as well as measurements of the neutron and deuteron formfactors will be performed at ELSA. 7 LiH and 6 LiD seem to be attractive target materials for these experiments, because they offer high proton and deuteron polarisation, respectively. Expecially 6 LiD has further very important advantages compared to the common deuteron target materials as d-Butanol and ND 3 . This work describes the mechanism of DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) in LiH and LiD and gives a view on the nature of the so-called paramagnetic impurities in these materials. In order to maximize the nuclear polarization, the production of these radicals have to take place under well defined temperature conditions. Therefore the first version of an irradiation cryostat was built and tested in regard to its cooling power and temperature adjustment. (orig.)

  1. Radiation therapy for malignant lid tumor; Effectiveness of racket-shaped lead protector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuka, Seiichi; Itsuno, Hajime (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    The case of a 42-year-old man with Meibomian gland carcinoma in his right lower lid is reported. The tumor found in the nasal part of the lower lid, was 12 mm x 13 mm in size. First, surgical resection was performed. The pathological diagnosis of the frozen section was 'undifferentiated basal cell epithelioma'. Second, cryotherapy was performed all over the cut surface. Later, the permanent section was pathologically diagnosed as 'undifferentiated Meibomian gland carcinoma'. Total 50 Gy irradiation therapy was therefore performed using a 9 Mev Linac electron beam, 25 x 20 mm field, with a lead protector for the cornea and lens. A lead contact lens did not afford good results because it was too easily shifted on the cornea, owing to its weight. Therefore, we made a racket-shaped lead protector. Fixed well with tape, this protector afforded good protective effect. Three years after treatment, the patient has good visual function, with no recurrence. This racket-shaped lead protector is thought to be useful in radiation therapy for malignant lid tumors. (author).

  2. Lower lid entropion secondary to treatment with alpha-1a receptor antagonist: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simcock Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of alpha-1a receptor antagonists (tamsulosin is widely accepted in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH. It has previously been implicated as a causative agent in intra-operative floppy iris syndrome due to its effects on the smooth muscle. We report a case of lower lid entropion that may be related to a patient commencing treatment of tamsulosin. Case presentation A 74-year-old Caucasian man was started on alpha 1-a receptor antagonist (Tamsulosin treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Eight days later, he presented to the ophthalmology unit with a right lower lid entropion which was successfully treated surgically with a Weiss procedure. Conclusion We report a case of lower lid entropion that may be secondary to the recent use of an alpha-1a blocker (tamsulosin. This can be explained by considering the effect of autonomic blockade on alpha-1 receptors in the Muller's muscle on a patient that may already have an anatomical predisposition to entropion formation due to a further reduction in muscle tone.

  3. Potential advantages and disadvantages of an endgame strategy: a 'sinking lid' on tobacco supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George W; Edwards, Richard; Blakely, Tony

    2013-05-01

    One possible supply-side strategy for the tobacco endgame is a government-mandated 'sinking lid' on tobacco supply (tradeable but decreasing quotas on sales or imports). We considered literature on quota systems and from a tobacco endgame workshop at the University of Michigan. Likely strengths of the sinking lid strategy include: (1) that it can provide a clear timetable and an unambiguous signal of a tobacco end-date; (2) that supply reduction is likely to increase product price levels, and there is very strong evidence that increasing price is a highly effective tobacco control intervention. Its feasibility is also supported by the growing international experience with, and political acceptability of, using quota and auction systems in other domains (eg, greenhouse gases, other air pollutants and for fisheries). However, the main disadvantages of this strategy are probably the need for strong political will and high public support (to pass a new law), potential legal challenges by industry (eg, under trade agreements), and vulnerability to problems from illegal supplies of tobacco and from corruption. The sinking lid strategy is a plausible option that is worth considering when investigating possible tobacco endgame strategies, though it may be most applicable in well-organised jurisdictions with low (<15%) adult smoking prevalence. This idea could benefit from further research, such as studies in virtual worlds, and real-world testing on small island jurisdictions, or closed systems, such as military bases.

  4. Controlled lid-opening in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase- An engineered switch for studying lipase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Moroz, Olga V.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a lipase mutant containing a biochemical switch allowing a controlled opening and closing of the lid independent of the environment. The closed form of the TlL mutant shows low binding to hydrophobic surfaces compared to the binding observed after activating the controlled switch...... inducing lid-opening. We directly show that lipid binding of this mutant is connected to an open lid conformation demonstrating the impact of the exposed amino acid residues and their participation in binding at the water-lipid interface. The switch was created by introducing two cysteine residues......-D measurements revealed a seven-fold increase in binding rate for the unlocked lipase. The TlL_locked mutant shows structural changes across the protein important for understanding the mechanism of lid-opening and closing. Our experimental results reveal sites of interest for future mutagenesis studies aimed...

  5. Modeling the effects of LID practices on streams health at watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannak, S.; Jaber, F. H.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing impervious covers due to urbanization will lead to an increase in runoff volumes, and eventually increase flooding. Stream channels adjust by widening and eroding stream bank which would impact downstream property negatively (Chin and Gregory, 2001). Also, urban runoff drains in sediment bank areas in what's known as riparian zones and constricts stream channels (Walsh, 2009). Both physical and chemical factors associated with urbanization such as high peak flows and low water quality further stress aquatic life and contribute to overall biological condition of urban streams (Maxted et al., 1995). While LID practices have been mentioned and studied in literature for stormwater management, they have not been studied in respect to reducing potential impact on stream health. To evaluate the performance and the effectiveness of LID practices at a watershed scale, sustainable detention pond, bioretention, and permeable pavement will be modeled at watershed scale. These measures affect the storm peak flows and base flow patterns over long periods, and there is a need to characterize their effect on stream bank and bed erosion, and aquatic life. These measures will create a linkage between urban watershed development and stream conditions specifically biological health. The first phase of this study is to design and construct LID practices at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center-Dallas, TX to collect field data about the performance of these practices on a smaller scale. The second phase consists of simulating the performance of LID practices on a watershed scale. This simulation presents a long term model (23 years) using SWAT to evaluate the potential impacts of these practices on; potential stream bank and bed erosion, and potential impact on aquatic life in the Blunn Watershed located in Austin, TX. Sub-daily time step model simulations will be developed to simulate the effectiveness of the three LID practices with respect to reducing

  6. Simulating molecular mechanisms of the MDM2-mediated regulatory interactions: a conformational selection model of the MDM2 lid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady M Verkhivker

    Full Text Available Diversity and complexity of MDM2 mechanisms govern its principal function as the cellular antagonist of the p53 tumor suppressor. Structural and biophysical studies have demonstrated that MDM2 binding could be regulated by the dynamics of a pseudo-substrate lid motif. However, these experiments and subsequent computational studies have produced conflicting mechanistic models of MDM2 function and dynamics. We propose a unifying conformational selection model that can reconcile experimental findings and reveal a fundamental role of the lid as a dynamic regulator of MDM2-mediated binding. In this work, structure, dynamics and energetics of apo-MDM2 are studied as a function of posttranslational modifications and length of the lid. We found that the dynamic equilibrium between "closed" and "semi-closed" lid forms may be a fundamental characteristic of MDM2 regulatory interactions, which can be modulated by phosphorylation, phosphomimetic mutation as well as by the lid size. Our results revealed that these factors may regulate p53-MDM2 binding by fine-tuning the thermodynamic equilibrium between preexisting conformational states of apo-MDM2. In agreement with NMR studies, the effect of phosphorylation on MDM2 interactions was more pronounced with the truncated lid variant that favored the thermodynamically dominant closed form. The phosphomimetic mutation S17D may alter the lid dynamics by shifting the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the ensemble of "semi-closed" conformations. The dominant "semi-closed" lid form and weakened dependence on the phosphorylation seen in simulations with the complete lid can provide a rationale for binding of small p53-based mimetics and inhibitors without a direct competition with the lid dynamics. The results suggested that a conformational selection model of preexisting MDM2 states may provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding MDM2 dynamics. Probing biological functions and mechanisms of MDM2

  7. Scale-down of vinegar production into microtiter plates using a custom-made lid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    As an important food preservative and condiment, vinegar is widely produced in industry by submerged acetic acid bacteria cultures. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, up to now suitable microscale cultivation methods, e.g. using microtiter plates, are missing to enable high-throughput cultivation and to optimize fermentation conditions. In order to minimize evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid in a 48-well microtiter plate during vinegar production a new custom-made lid was developed. A diffusion model was used to calculate the dimensions of a hole in the lid to guarantee a suitable oxygen supply and level of ventilation. Reference fermentation was conducted in a 9-L bioreactor to enable the calculation of the proper cultivation conditions in the microtiter plate. The minimum dissolved oxygen tensions in the microtiter plate were between 7.5% and 23% of air saturation and in the same range as in the 9-L bioreactor. Evaporation losses of ethanol and acetic acid were less than 5% after 47 h and considerably reduced compared to those of microtiter plate fermentations with a conventional gas-permeable seal. Furthermore, cultivation times in the microtiter plate were with about 40 h as long as in the 9-L bioreactor. In conclusion, microtiter plate cultivations with the new custom-made lid provide a platform for high-throughput studies on vinegar production. Results are comparable to those in the 9-L bioreactor. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of moisture on LiD single crystals studied by temperature-programmed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L.N.; Cecala, C.M.; Leckey, J.H.; Balooch, M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process is rate-limited by an inward moving reaction front mechanism with an activation energy barrier of ∼122-149 kJ/mol. The LiOH structure is stable even if kept at 320 K. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD single crystals during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 122 kJ/mol. The rate-limiting mechanism for the decomposition of LiOH structures with reduced activation energy barriers is consistent with a unimolecular nucleation model. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of sub-stoichiometric Li(OH) x with x 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH · H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 48-69 kJ/mol and follows a unimolecular nucleation process. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH · H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth rate of LiOH and LiOH · H 2 O significantly

  9. Reaction of LiD with moisture by temperature programmed reaction (TPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L N; Balooch, M; Cecala, C M; Leckey, J H

    2000-01-01

    The temperature programmed reaction technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process has an activation energy barrier of 30 to 33.1 kcal/mol. The LiOH structure is stable at 320 K for 100 years. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 30 kcal/mol. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of dangling bonds, cracks, and other long range disorders in the LiOH structures formed at low levels of moisture exposure. These defective LiOH structures may decompose significantly over the next 100 years of storage even at room temperature. At high moisture exposure levels, LiOH.H 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH.H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 13.8 kcal/mol to 16.0 kcal/mol. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH.H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth of LiOH and LiOH.H 2 O significantly

  10. 16O resonances near 4α threshold through 12C(6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Faria, P. Neto de; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; Napoli, M. di; Ukita, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Several narrow alpha resonant 16 O states were detected through the 12 C( 6 Li,d) reaction, in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 MeV of excitation energy. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Experimental angular distributions associated with natural parity quasi-bound states around the 4α threshold are presented and compared to DWBA predictions. The upper limit for the resonance widths obtained is near the energy resolution (15 keV)

  11. 16O resonances near 4α threshold through 12C (6Li,d ) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; de Faria, P. Neto; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; di Napoli, M.; Ukita, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Several narrow alpha resonant 16O states were detected through the 12C (6Li,d ) reaction, in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 MeV of excitation energy. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Experimental angular distributions associated with natural parity quasi-bound states around the 4α threshold are presented and compared to DWBA predictions. The upper limit for the resonance widths obtained is near the energy resolution (15 keV).

  12. Numisheet2005 Benchmark Analysis on Forming of an Automotive Deck Lid Inner Panel: Benchmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations in sheet metal forming processes have been a very challenging topic in industry. There are many computer codes and modeling techniques existing today. However, there are many unknowns affecting the prediction accuracy. Systematic benchmark tests are needed to accelerate the future implementations and to provide as a reference. This report presents an international cooperative benchmark effort for an automotive deck lid inner panel. Predictions from simulations are analyzed and discussed against the corresponding experimental results. The correlations between accuracy of each parameter of interest are discussed in this report

  13. Ideal shocks in 2-layer flow Part I: Under a rigid lid

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qingfang; Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on the classical problem of shocks in a 2-layer density-stratified fluid used eithera parameterized momentum exchange or an assumed Bernoulli loss. We propose a new theorybased on a set of viscous model equations. We define an idealized shock in two-layer densitystratified flow under a rigid lid as a jump or drop of the interface in which (1) the force balanceremains nearly hydrostatic in the shock, (2) there is no exchange of momentum between thetwo layers except by pressure fo...

  14. Minimizing Lid Overstows in Master Stowage Plans for Container Vessels is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai Lise; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    Container vessel stowage is a particularly hard combinatorial problem within the shipping industry. The currently most successful approaches decompose the problem hierarchically and first generate a master plan that handle highlevel constraints and objectives such as balance and stress moments...... that it is an NP -complete problem to generate master plans that minimize the number of these lid overstows. Since any efficient approach to container vessel stowage most likely must include a master plan, the implication of this result is that future research must focus and developing good heuristics...

  15. Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand Earth's present tectonic style–plate tectonics–and how it may have evolved from single plate (stagnant lid tectonics, it is instructive to consider how common it is among similar bodies in the Solar System. Plate tectonics is a style of convection for an active planetoid where lid fragment (plate motions reflect sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones, causing upwelling of asthenosphere at divergent plate boundaries and accompanied by focused upwellings, or mantle plumes; any other tectonic style is usefully called “stagnant lid” or “fragmented lid”. In 2015 humanity completed a 50+ year effort to survey the 30 largest planets, asteroids, satellites, and inner Kuiper Belt objects, which we informally call “planetoids” and use especially images of these bodies to infer their tectonic activity. The four largest planetoids are enveloped in gas and ice (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are not considered. The other 26 planetoids range in mass over 5 orders of magnitude and in diameter over 2 orders of magnitude, from massive Earth down to tiny Proteus; these bodies also range widely in density, from 1000 to 5500 kg/m3. A gap separates 8 silicate planetoids with ρ = 3000 kg/m3 or greater from 20 icy planetoids (including the gaseous and icy giant planets with ρ = 2200 kg/m3 or less. We define the “Tectonic Activity Index” (TAI, scoring each body from 0 to 3 based on evidence for recent volcanism, deformation, and resurfacing (inferred from impact crater density. Nine planetoids with TAI = 2 or greater are interpreted to be tectonically and convectively active whereas 17 with TAI <2 are inferred to be tectonically dead. We further infer that active planetoids have lithospheres or icy shells overlying asthenosphere or water/weak ice. TAI of silicate (rocky planetoids positively correlates with their inferred Rayleigh number. We conclude that some type of stagnant lid tectonics is

  16. Protein expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of LidA from Legionella pneumophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenzhuang; Meng, Geng; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Feiyun; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of recombinant lidA, a translocated substrate of the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, is reported. Crystals were obtained and diffracted to 2.75 Å in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . LidA, a translocated substrate of the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, is associated with maintenance of bacterial integrity and interferes with the early secretory pathway. However, the precise mechanism of LidA in these processes remains elusive. To further investigate the structure and function of LidA, the full-length protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. LidA was crystallized using sitting-drop vapour diffusion and diffracted to a resolution of 2.75 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5, b = 64.5, c = 167.3 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit

  17. Efficient sample preparation from complex biological samples using a sliding lid for immobilized droplet extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavant, Benjamin P; Guckenberger, David J; Beebe, David J; Berry, Scott M

    2014-07-01

    Sample preparation is a major bottleneck in many biological processes. Paramagnetic particles (PMPs) are a ubiquitous method for isolating analytes of interest from biological samples and are used for their ability to thoroughly sample a solution and be easily collected with a magnet. There are three main methods by which PMPs are used for sample preparation: (1) removal of fluid from the analyte-bound PMPs, (2) removal of analyte-bound PMPs from the solution, and (3) removal of the substrate (with immobilized analyte-bound PMPs). In this paper, we explore the third and least studied method for PMP-based sample preparation using a platform termed Sliding Lid for Immobilized Droplet Extractions (SLIDE). SLIDE leverages principles of surface tension and patterned hydrophobicity to create a simple-to-operate platform for sample isolation (cells, DNA, RNA, protein) and preparation (cell staining) without the need for time-intensive wash steps, use of immiscible fluids, or precise pinning geometries. Compared to other standard isolation protocols using PMPs, SLIDE is able to perform rapid sample preparation with low (0.6%) carryover of contaminants from the original sample. The natural recirculation occurring within the pinned droplets of SLIDE make possible the performance of multistep cell staining protocols within the SLIDE by simply resting the lid over the various sample droplets. SLIDE demonstrates a simple easy to use platform for sample preparation on a range of complex biological samples.

  18. Flange surface detection device for upper lid of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Teruo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provide a device for detecting a flatness of an O-ring groove formed on a flange surface simply and at a high accuracy in a state where the upper lid of a reactor pressure vessel is removed as it is. Namely, a running truck provided with magnetic wheels is caused to run while being adsorbed along the outer circumferential surface of a downward flange surface and the lower surface of the flange in a state where the upper lid is removed. A sensor attaching stand equipped with spring-biased wheels is mounted to the running truck. The sensor attaching stand is provided with a flange surface sensor for measuring the distance to the lower surface of the flange and a groove sensor for measuring the distance to the bottom surface of an O-ring groove. Relative displacement of the groove sensor is determined by a calculator based on the measured value on the flange surface sensor. A flatness is obtained from the maximum value and the minimum value. In addition, presence of flaws on the bottom surface of the groove is detected based on the relative change of both measured values at the same time. As a result, all of the errors caused by the running are off-set thereby capable of performing a measurement at high accuracy. (I.S.)

  19. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borello-Lewin, Thereza; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, Gilberto Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (xα) and(xα+ν) nuclei through the ( 6 Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (xα) and (xα+ν) thresholds. Measurements of the 12 , 13 C( 6 Li,d) 16 , 17 O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4α) breakup threshold in 16 O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important α + 12 C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0 + state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4α condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of α + 12 C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the α + 12 C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  20. Turbulent mixed buoyancy driven flow and heat transfer in lid driven enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent mixed buoyancy driven flow and heat transfer of air in lid driven rectangular enclosure has been investigated for Grashof number in the range of 10 8 to 10 11 and for Richardson number 0.1, 1 and 10. Steady two dimensional Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations and conservation equations of mass and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved. The spatial derivatives in the equations are discretized using the finite-element method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used to resolve pressure-velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled with the k-ω closure model with physical boundary conditions along with the Boussinesq approximation, for the flow and heat transfer. The predicted results are validated against benchmark solutions reported in literature. The results include stream lines and temperature fields are presented to understand flow and heat transfer characteristics. There is a marked reduction in mean Nusselt number (about 58%) as the Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 10 for the case of Ra=10 10 signifying the effect of reduction of top lid velocity resulting in reduction of turbulent mixing. (author)

  1. Reynolds number and end-wall effects on a lid-driven cavity flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.K.; Koseff, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in a lid-driven cavity of square cross section (depth = width = 150 mm) for Reynolds numbers (Re, based on lid speed and cavity width) between 3200 and 10 000, and spanwise aspect ratios (SAR) between 0.25:1 and 1:1. Flow visualization using polystyrene beads and two-dimensional laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements have shed new light on the momentum transfer processes within the cavity. This paper focuses on the variation, with Re and SAR, of the mean and the rms velocities profiles, as well as the /similar to/(U'V') profile, along the horizontal and vertical centerlines in the symmetry plane. In addition, the contribution of the large-scale ''organized structures,'' and the high-frequency ''turbulent'' velocity fluctuations to the total rms is examined. At low Re, the organized structures account for most of the energy contained in the flow irrespective of SAR. As the Re increases, however, so does the energy content of the higher frequency fluctuations. This trend is not independent of SAR; a reduction in the SAR causes the ''organized structures'' to again become more evident

  2. An optimized prototype of electromagnetic calorimeter for the SoLID project at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, D.; Han, D.; Zou, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.

    2018-02-01

    A shashlik-type electromagnetic calorimeter will be produced in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory for the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID). Wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers and clear fibers will be used as the light guide part of the calorimeter. The blue light from scintillators is converted into green light by WLS fibers and is carried out to the back of the calorimeters for readout. Since the magnetic field of SoLID reaches about 1.5 T behind the calorimeters, the design is to use clear fibers to further guide the light out of the solenoid for readout by PMTs. Therefore, it is important to study the perfomance of WLS and clear fibers. This paper describes a comparative test of two different WLS fibers and a light attenuation test for a clear fiber. The results show that the performance of the two WLS fibers is the same under large curvature bending, and that the bending has no effect on the light transmission through the clear fiber. In addition, a comparison test for two fiber end-face reflective materials is also reported. It reveals that the use of silver ink as a reflective material can increase the light yield by 30%. Thereby, an optimized prototype based on the above experimental results was built and the basic performance was tested.

  3. ELECTRODE SELECTION FOR RECOVERY OF THE CYLINDER LIDS OF THE TGM8K LOCOMITIVE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Oñoz Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the best-suited electrode to carry out the recovery of cylinder lids (cylinders heads of the TGM8K locomotives, by applying manual welding for electric arc. The test specimens of nodular cast iron, obtained from a discarded head, which were welded with two types electrodes, ENi-CI (UTP8 and ENiFe-CI ( UTP86FN following a technology of appropriate welding were prepared. The specimens were subject of thermic fatigue tests in an experimental installation created with this purpose, in which a process of heating and more severe cooling than in the head working conditions was simulated. During the thermic fatigue tests, in the specimens welded with electrodes ENi-CI appeared cracks at the thermic influence zone after 145 cycles, while in the specimens welded with electrodes ENiFe-CI, appeared at the 585 cycles on average. Based on the study results, the authors conclude that ENiFe-CI electrodes are the best-suited for the recovery of the cylinder lids.

  4. Parity Violation in DIS region with SoLID at the upgraded 12 GeV JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; SoLID Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In this talk, an overview of PVDIS future experiment by using a Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab (JLab) Hall A with the 12 GeV upgrade, along with a brief description of the proposed SoLID spectrometer is discussed. We will obtain data with high statistic and large kinematic coverage for Bjorken 0.3 physics of searching for charge asymmetry violation in PDF's and higher-twist effects with quark-quark correlations. In addition, the proton target experiment can be a powerful probe of the d / u ratio at high x without any nuclear correction. The designed SoLID spectrometer with its unique feature of high luminosity and large acceptance provides an opportunity to probe physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Prediction and experimental verification of performance of box type solar cooker. Part II: Cooking vessel with depressed lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Avala Raji; Rao, A.V. Narasimha

    2008-01-01

    Our previous article (Part I) discussed the theoretical and experimental study of the performance boost obtained by a cooking vessel with central cylindrical cavity on lugs when compared to that of a conventional cylindrical vessel on floor/lugs. This article compares the performance of the cooking vessel with depressed lid on lugs with that of the conventional vessel on lugs. A mathematical model is presented to understand the heat flow process to the cooking vessel and, thereby, to the food material. It is found from the experiments that the cooking vessel with depressed lid results in higher temperature of the thermic fluid loaded in the cooking vessel compared to that of the thermic fluid kept in the conventional vessel when both are placed on lugs. Similar results were obtained by modeling the process mathematically. The average improvement of performance of the vessel with depressed lid is found to be 8.4% better than the conventional cylindrical vessel

  6. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  7. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level

  8. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  9. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Søren Vang; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to...

  10. Loading of microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo

    The pharmaceutical research is facing several obstacles in the development of drug products for the oral delivery. The main problem deals with the intrinsic chemical nature of the new drug candidates, which are often poorly soluble and barely absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. Furthermore......, they are usually degraded before they are absorbed. These combined factors considerably reduce the bioavailability of many active ingredients. Several strategies have been developed to overcome these challenges. One of them are microfabricated drug delivery devices. Microreservoir based-systems are characterized...... of UV photolithography was developed. The fabrication of polymer patterns was optimized and loading with both small hydrophobic drugs and proteins was demonstrated. Finally, structural properties of hydrogels were elucidated by rheology and NMR with the perspective of controlling the drug release...

  11. Case note: ABRvS 25 mei 2011, Gst. 2011/121 (VNG is geen bestuursorgaan noch werkzaam onder verantwoordelijkheid van een bestuursorgaan (art. 3 lid 1 Wob))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, N.

    2011-01-01

    De Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten (VNG) is geen bestuursorgaan in de zin van art. 1:1 lid 1 aanhef en onderdeel b Awb. Ook is de VNG geen onder verantwoordelijkheid van een bestuursorgaan werkzame instelling in de zin van art. 3 lid 1 WOB.

  12. A microfluidic-based lid device for conventional cell culture dishes to automatically control oxygen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Yang, Sung

    2018-04-25

    Most conventional hypoxic cell culture systems undergo reoxygenation during experimental manipulations, resulting in undesirable effects including the reduction of cell viability. A lid device was developed herein for conventional cell culture dishes to resolve this limitation. The integration of multilayered microfluidic channels inside a thin membrane was designed to prevent the reoxygenation caused by reagent infusion and automatically control the oxygen level. The experimental data clearly show the reducibility of the dissolved oxygen in the infusing reagent and the controllability of the oxygen level inside the dish. The feasibility of the device for hypoxia studies was confirmed by HIF-1α experiments. Therefore, the device could be used as a compact and convenient hypoxic cell culture system to prevent reoxygenation-related issues.

  13. Investigation of α-cluster states in 13C via the (6Li,d) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, M R D; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Cunsolo, A; Cappuzzello, F; Duarte, J L M; Rodrigues, C L; Ukita, G M; Souza, M A; Miyake, H

    2010-01-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C reaction was used to investigate possible α-cluster states in 13C. The reaction was measured at 25.5 MeV incident energy, employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. Ten out of sixteen known levels of 13C, up to 11 MeV of excitation, were observed and, due to the much improved energy resolution of 50 keV, at least three doublets could be resolved. This work presents a preliminary analysis of five of the most intensely populated states, also in comparison with the results of former transfer studies.

  14. Mixed convection of nanofluids in a lid-driven rough cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhimeng; Wang, Jinyu; Mozumder, Aloke K.; Das, Prodip K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow of air, water or oil in enclosures have been studied extensively using experimental and numerical means for many years due to their ever-increasing applications in many engineering fields. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of mixed convection of nanofluids in spite of several applications in solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing, and nuclear reactors. Mixed convection of nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the complex interactions among inertia, viscous, and buoyancy forces. In this study, mixed convection of nanofluids in a lid-driven square cavity with sinusoidal roughness elements at the bottom is studied numerically using the Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. The numerical model is developed using commercial finite volume software ANSYS-FLUENT for Al2O3-water and CuO-water nanofluids inside a square cavity with various roughness elements. The effects of number and amplitude of roughness elements on the heat transfer and fluid flow are analysed for various volume concentrations of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles. The flow fields, temperature fields, and heat transfer rates are examined for different values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. The outcome of this study provides some important insight into the heat transfer behaviour of Al2O3-water and CuO-water nanofluids inside a lid-driven rough cavity. This knowledge can be further used in developing novel geometries with enhanced and controlled heat transfer for solar collectors, electronic cooling, and food processing industries.

  15. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello-Lewin, Thereza; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F. [Universita di Catania (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Lab. Nazionali del Sud; Ukita, Gilberto Mitsuo [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Psicologia

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (x{alpha}) and(x{alpha}+{nu}) nuclei through the ({sup 6}Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (x{alpha}) and (x{alpha}+{nu}) thresholds. Measurements of the {sup 12},{sup 13}C({sup 6}Li,d) {sup 16},{sup 17}O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4{alpha}) breakup threshold in {sup 16}O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0{sup +} state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4{alpha} condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of {alpha} + {sup 12}C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  16. SoLID-SIDIS: Future Measurements of Transversity, TMDs and more

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Duke University, Durham, NC

    2015-09-01

    Over the past few decades, investigations of the nucleon structure mainly focused on the one-dimensional study of parton distributions and structure functions. New theoretical developments, including both transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), provide a new way to understand the 3-dimensional structure of the nucleon. TMDs give access to the nucleon tomography in the momentum space, and also provide an opportunity to evaluate the contribution of quarks’ and gluons’ orbital angular momenta to the nucleon spin. The experimental study of TMDs requires a device with high luminosity, large kinematic coverage and great detection resolutions. With the Jefferson Lab (JLab) 12 GeV electron beam, we have proposed a Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) in Hall A which is capable of performing such measurements. Several newly approved experiments will perform measurements of both the single and double spin asymmetries via semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) from polarized 3He ("neutron") and proton targets. The new data will provide important information to extract TMDs with unprecedented precision. Besides, we are also able to use SoLID to explore many more important physics topics. Several experiments for the measurements of PVDIS and J=y production have been approved, and new proposals are under development. For example, with the similar SIDIS configuration, we are actively developing new measurements to study GPDs via deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) with polarized targets, doubly-DVCS, deep virtual meson production, time-like Compton scattering, and so on. Our collaboration has submitted the pre-conceptual design report to JLab and successfully passed the Director’s Review in early 2015. Our collaborators are focusing on optimizing the detector system, finalizing the detector designs and proceeding on the detector R&D. We are looking forward to having the DOE Science Review in the near

  17. Ending appreciable tobacco use in a nation: using a sinking lid on supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony; Edwards, Richard

    2010-10-01

    We discuss some of the practical and ethical questions that may arise for a jurisdiction where a sinking lid endgame strategy for tobacco supply is implemented. Such a strategy would involve regular required reductions in the amount of tobacco released to the market for sale, sufficient to achieve the desired level of commercial sales by a target date. Tobacco manufacturers would periodically bid to the government for a residual quota. Prices would increase as supply reduced. The price level would be influenced by demand, which in turn would reflect the impact of other interventions to reduce demand and the changing normality of smoking. Higher priced tobacco could result in increased smuggling, theft, illegal sales and short-to-medium-term aggravation of some social inequalities. We suggest that the strategy be introduced in conjunction with a range of complementary interventions that would help reduce demand, and thus help ensure that the possible adverse effects are minimised. These complementary interventions include: providing comprehensive best practice smoking cessation support, better information to smokers and the public, strengthened regulation of tobacco retailing and supply, further controlling the pack and product design, measures to restrict supplies that bypass the increases in product price, strengthened enforcement and combating industry attacks. General prerequisites for a sinking lid strategy include public support for the goal of a tobacco-free society, and strong political leadership. The likely context for initial success in jurisdictions includes geographical isolation and/or strong border controls, absence of significant tobacco production and/or manufacturing and low government corruption.

  18. The relief of dry eye signs and symptoms using a combination of lubricants, lid hygiene and ocular nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, William; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Houtman, Diane; Jones, Lyndon

    To determine the combined effect of TheraTears ® Lubricant Eye Drops, TheraTears ® SteriLid Eyelid Cleanser, and TheraTears ® Nutrition on dry eye signs and symptoms. This prospective study enrolled 28 dry eye participants. Participants were instructed to use the Lubricant Eye Drops at least 2-4× a day, SteriLid 1-2× a day, and Nutrition 3 gel caps once a day. Participants were followed up at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Outcome variables were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaire, non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), osmolarity, number of meibomian glands blocked (#MG blocked), meibum quality, eyelid margin features, Schirmer's test, tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT), meniscus height, corneal and conjunctival staining. Twenty participants (mean age=43, from 23 to 66, 17F, 3M) completed the study. Participants reported having used, on average, the Lubricant Eye Drop 2.4×/day, the SteriLid 1.1×/day, and the Nutrition 3 gel caps 1×/day. There was a significant change over time (pEye Drop, SteriLid, and Nutrition, patients experience significant relief in both dry eye symptoms and signs. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Upper Limits of the Fission Cross-Sections of Lead and Bismuth for Li-D Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1945-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in April 1945 and is about the upper limits of the fission cross sections of lead and bismuth for Li-D neutrons. This report includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  20. Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid using time-resolved stereo PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    variations. The flow in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid of a height of three radii and a Reynolds number of about 3500 is used as example. The reconstruction identifies a series of flow structures including axisymmetric vortex breakdown and distinct vortex structures along the cylinder wall....

  1. A new tool for quantifying the hydrological effects of LID retrofit designs – the power of simplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    We developed a new tool to address the needs of utility companies in the early planning and design phase of LID for retrofitting in existing urban areas, where a high degree of collaboration among stakeholders with different professional backgrounds is needed. The tool uses simplified methods...

  2. Endogenic Origin of Ceres' Surface as an Outcome of Mobile-Lid Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. C.; Choukroun, M.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Raymond, C. A.; Rivkin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Until recently, the interest generated by large wet asteroids was primarily due to their status of protoplanets, i.e., their intermediate stage between planetesimals and fully-developed planets [1]. This picture changed a few years ago, when it was suggested that these objects contain a lot of free water [2]. Such an idea was recently substantiated by the detection of ice and organics at the surface of large outer main belt asteroids (24 Themis and 65 Cybele) [3, 4]. This discovery sheds a new light on these asteroids, which now represent astrobiological targets accessible within NASA's Discovery program. Ceres' place in this picture is especially compelling as ground-based observations have shown that that object bears on its surface materials that are formed in alkaline hydrothermal environments [5], and it is the third planetary body on which carbonates have been detected. Large wet asteroids are akin to medium-sized outer planet satellites in terms of global internal structure and geophysical processes, but they benefit from far more heat [6]. Icy satellites are subject to tidal heating, supplied in the deep interior (in most cases), with an intensity function of the time-dependent dynamical state of these objects. The main heat source available at asteroids is solar energy, a permanent source that has been increasing with time. The contrast in surface temperature between the two classes of objects implies very different settings for endogenic and geological activity. Indeed the contrast in viscosity across icy satellite icy shells is at least ten orders of magnitude, while that contrast is only three to five orders of magnitude in the case of asteroids. This results preferentially in stagnant-lid convection in the former situation. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that Ceres could be subject to mobile-lid convection for at least part of its history [7]. Whether this regime is occurring nowadays depends on a number of unconstrained parameters. However

  3. Electron beam welding of copper lids. Status report up to 2001-12-31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, Soeren; Ronneteg, Ulf

    2003-10-01

    The report describes a summary of achieved results from 21 lid welds and numerous test block welds, performed at SKB Canister Laboratory in Oskarshamn for the period 1999-02-12 to 2001-12-31. Good weld quality has been achieved and some welds fulfilled the preliminary interpretation criteria, but the weld process need to be further developed before process qualification. Many different parameter settings have been tested and the influence on the weld profile has been mapped and documented. Deformations of the canister after welding have been measured and found to be very small. The preliminary inspection methods of the weld quality works satisfactory for the need of the development of the weld process. The welding machine is a new design developed for welding of thick copper in reduced pressure and performs well, but suffers from teething problems, which has delayed the work with development of the weld process. The welding system needs to be further developed and improved to work more reliably in a production plant

  4. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

  5. Mixed convection of ferrofluids in a lid driven cavity with two rotating cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Selimefendigil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed convection of ferrofluid filled lid driven cavity in the presence of two rotating cylinders were numerically investigated by using the finite element method. The cavity is heated from below, cooled from driven wall and rotating cylinder surfaces and side vertical walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. A magnetic dipole source is placed below the bottom wall of the cavity. The study is performed for various values of Reynolds numbers (100 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, angular rotational speed of the cylinders (−400 ≤ Ω ≤ 400, magnetic dipole strengths (0 ≤ γ ≤ 500, angular velocity ratios of the cylinders (0.25≤Ωi/Ωj≤4 and diameter ratios of the cylinders (0.5≤Di/Dj≤2. It is observed that flow patterns and thermal transport within the cavity are affected by variation in Reynolds number and magnetic dipole strength. The results of this investigation revealed that cylinder angular velocities, ratio of the angular velocities and diameter ratios have profound effect on heat transfer enhancement within the cavity. Averaged heat transfer enhancements of 181.5 % is achieved for clockwise rotation of the cylinder at Ω = −400 compared to motionless cylinder case. Increasing the angular velocity ratio from Ω2/Ω1=0.25 to Ω2/Ω1=4 brings about 91.7 % of heat transfer enhancement.

  6. Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherifi, Mohammed, E-mail: production1998@yahoo.fr; Benbrik, Abderrahmane, E-mail: abenbrik@umbb.dz; Laouar-Meftah, Siham, E-mail: laouarmeftah@gmail.com [M’Hamed Bougara University, Faculty of Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Lemonnier, Denis, E-mail: denis.lemonnier@ensma.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS, ENSMA, University of Poitiers, Poitiers Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-02

    A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure–velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson’s number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).

  7. How do rigid-lid assumption affect LES simulation results at high Reynolds flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Farhadzadeh, Ali; SBU Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    This research is motivated by the work of Kara et al., JHE, 2015. They employed LES to model flow around a model of abutment at a Re number of 27,000. They showed that first-order turbulence characteristics obtained by rigid-lid (RL) assumption compares fairly well with those of level-set (LS) method. Concerning the second-order statistics, however, their simulation results showed a significant dependence on the method used to describe the free surface. This finding can have important implications for open channel flow modeling. The Reynolds number for typical open channel flows, however, could be much larger than that of Kara et al.'s test case. Herein, we replicate the reported study by augmenting the geometric and hydraulic scales to reach a Re number of one order of magnitude larger ( 200,000). The Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Geophysics) model in its LES mode is used to simulate the test case using both RL and LS methods. The computational results are validated using measured flow and free-surface data from our laboratory experiments. Our goal is to investigate the effects of RL assumption on both first-order and second order statistics at high Reynolds numbers that occur in natural waterways. Acknowledgment: Computational resources are provided by the Center of Excellence in Wireless & Information Technology (CEWIT) of Stony Brook University.

  8. Differentiated heated lid driven cavity interacting with tube: A lattice Boltzmann study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennacer Rachid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-relaxation-time (MRT lattice-Boltzmann method is implemented to investigate combined natural and forced convection occurring in a two-dimensional square cavity. The top wall slides to the right at constant speed, while the other three remain stationary. The solution is performed for a left vertical wall at a constant temperature, which is higher than of the right wall. This yields a “cooperating” case, in which dynamic and buoyancy forces are added together. The enclosure is filled with air and contains a heat conducting circular cylinder, which is placed at various positions. The double distribution model used in lattice Boltzmann methods has been adopted to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal fields, with the D2Q9 and D2Q5 lattices selected to perform the corresponding computations. Simulations have been conducted over a wide range of Rayleigh (Ra and Reynolds (Re numbers, and the features of dynamic and thermal fields are presented for the spectra of this mixed convection phenomenon. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the cylinder position are described and analyzed in terms of the average Nusselt number (Nu. The computed results show the influence of the cylinder on the corresponding heat transfer in the enclosure. It has been found that the power (i.e. shear stress needed to lid the upper surface will depend on the governing parameters.

  9. Numerical simulation of double-diffusive mixed convective flow in rectangular enclosure with insulated moving lid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teamah, M.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Mech. Eng. Dept, Alexandria (Egypt); El-Maghlany, W.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    The present study is concerned with the mixed convection in a rectangular lid-driven cavity under the combined buoyancy effects of thermal and mass diffusion. Double-diffusive convective flow in a rectangular enclosure with moving upper surface is studied numerically. Both upper and lower surfaces are being insulated and impermeable. Constant different temperatures and concentration are imposed along the vertical walls of the enclosure, steady state laminar regime is considered. The transport equations for continuity, momentum, energy and spices transfer are solved. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Richardson number, Lewis number, and buoyancy ratio on the iso-contours of stream line, temperature, and concentration. In addition, the predicted results for both local and average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented and discussed for various parametric conditions. This study was done for 0.1 <= Le <= 50 and Prandtl number Pr = 0.7. Through out the study the Grashof number and aspect ratio are kept constant at 10{sup 4} and 2 respectively and -10 <= N <= 10, while Richardson number has been varied from 0.01 to 10 to simulate forced convection dominated flow, mixed convection and natural convection dominated flow. (authors)

  10. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  11. (6Li,d) reaction on sd-, fp- and g-shell nuclei in ZR- and FR-DWBA formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.A.; Mecking, M.; Strohbusch, U.

    1991-06-01

    ( 6 Li,d) reaction angular distributions on target nuclei 16 ≤ A ≤ 90 have been analyzed using both ZR- and FR-DWBA formalisms. The most prevalent method of analysis of alpha-transfer reactions such as( 6 Li,d) and its reverse (d, 6 Li) (where the wave function at zero distance in the p-state of relative cluster motion in the A = 6 nuclei will not have node) is the ZR-DWBA calculations due to the relatively short time of computation. It is of particular interest to verify whether FR-DWBA calculations result in similar S α - values to those of ZR-DWBA or not. It is found that to derive similar S α -values as in FR-DWBA calculations, one requires relatively large real well depth in ZR-DWBA calculations. Qualitative discussions have been made in this direction. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Removal of a Dental Implant Displaced into the Maxillary Sinus by Means of the Bone Lid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Fusari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rehabilitation of edentulous jaws with implant-supported prosthesis has become a common practice among oral surgeons in the last three decades. This therapy presents a very low incidence of complications. One of them is the displacement of dental implants into the maxillary sinus. Dental implants, such as any other foreign body into the maxillary sinus, should be removed in order to prevent sinusitis. Methods. In this paper, we report a case of dental implant migrated in the maxillary sinus and removed by means of the bone lid technique. Results and Conclusion. The migration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus is rarely reported. Migrated implants should be considered for removal in order to prevent possible sinusal diseases. The implant has been removed without any complications, confirming the bone lid technique to be safe and reliable.

  13. Solution of the square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic using the finite volume method

    OpenAIRE

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Georgiou, Georgios C.; Alexandrou, Andreas N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the performance of the finite volume method in solving viscoplastic flows. The creeping square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic is chosen as the test case and the constitutive equation is regularised as proposed by Papanastasiou [J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385-404]. It is shown that the convergence rate of the standard SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm, which is used to solve the algebraic equation system that is produced by the finite volume discretisation, severely det...

  14. Lower Lid Laxity is Negatively Correlated with Improvement of the Ocular Surface Disease Index in Dry Eye Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Lyu, Byul; Yim, Hye Bin; Lee, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    To compare the responses to dry eye treatment of patients sorted by the degree of lower lid laxity. Sixty patients were grouped into three groups according to the degree of lower lid laxity. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test (ST) scores, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and changes in OSDI score in each group were compared, before and at 3 months after treatment. TBUT, ST, and OSDI scores were not different among the three groups at baseline. TBUT improved in each group at 3 months after treatment, and no differences between groups were found. ST scores were not increased after treatment, while OSDI were improved to 22.57 ± 5.243, 31.16 ± 11.353, and 37.85 ± 13.342 in the no, moderate, and high laxity groups, respectively; these improvements were statistically significant (p = 0.003, dry eye treatment, as assessed by change in OSDI score (p = 0.005 versus moderate laxity group, p = 0.005 versus no laxity group). Lower lid laxity is one of the factors contributing to the responses to dry eye treatment assessed by change in OSDI score, independent of TBUT and ST scores.

  15. Vertical-to-Horizontal Rotational Myocutaneous Flap for Repairing Cicatricial Lower Lid Ectropion: A Novel Surgical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fan Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and complications of a novel surgical technique for cicatricial lower lid ectropion that uses a vertical-to-horizontal (V-to-H rotational myocutaneous flap procedure (Tsai procedure. Methods. We performed the V-to-H rotational myocutaneous flap procedure on 20 eyelids in 20 patients with mild to moderate cicatricial lower lid ectropion. A vertical myocutaneous flap was created from the anterior lamella of the vertical pedicle in the lateral third of the lower eyelid. Following a horizontal relaxing incision from the base of the flap, a vertical myocutaneous flap was created and rotated to horizontal. Two patients with combined cicatricial ectropion and paralytic lagophthalmos simultaneously underwent additional lateral tarsorrhaphy. Results. After a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, all patients showed good anatomical and functional improvement with decreased dependence on topical lubricants and a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Two patients with combined cicatricial and paralytic ectropion had mild residual asymptomatic lagophthalmos. No patients required further revision surgery and there were no complications or recurrence. Conclusion. The V-to-H rotational myocutaneous flap technique was an effective and simple one-stage procedure for correcting cicatricial lower lid ectropion. It lengthened the anterior lamella and tightened horizontal eyelid laxity without the need for a free skin graft.

  16. On grand unified SU(8)sub(L)xSU(8)sub(R) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Yu.F.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general prjnciples justifying the choice of the group SU(N)sub(L)xSU(N)sub(R) with N=8 as the grand unified symmetry group is considered. Accordjng to these principles the group SU(N)sub(L)xSU(N)sub(R) is one of the most natural unified groups. Namely this group is maximum symmetry group of kinetic term of the Lagrangian of one family, which conserves fermion number. A new principle has been introduced according to which one of the manifestations of extended conformal invariance at small distances is mirror doubling of set of fermions, which is necessary on the other hand for renormalizability of the given unified model

  17. Blink patterns and lid-contact times in dry-eye and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler GW 3rd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available George W Ousler 3rd,1 Mark B Abelson,1,2 Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith Lane,1 Lisa M Smith11Ora, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: To classify blinks in dry eye and normal subjects into six subtypes, and to define the blink rate and duration within each type of blink, as well as the total lid-contact time/minute.Materials and methods: This was a single-centered, prospective, double-blind study of eleven dry-eye and ten normal subjects. Predefined subjects watched a video while blinks were recorded for 10 minutes. Partial blinks were classified by percentage closure of maximal palpebral fissure opening: 25%, 50%, 75%. Complete blinks were characterized as full (>0 seconds, extended (>0.1 seconds, or superextended (>0.5 seconds. The mean duration of each type of blink was determined and standardized per minute as total lid-contact time.Results: Total blinks observed were 4,990 (1,414 normal, 3,756 dry eye: 1,809 (50.59% partial and 1,767 (49.41% complete blinks among dry-eye subjects versus 741 (52.90% partial and 673 (47.60% complete blinks among normal subjects. Only superextended blinks of ≥0.5-second duration were significantly more frequent in dry-eye subjects than normals (2.3% versus 0.2%, respectively; P=0.023. Total contact time was seven times higher in dry-eye subjects than normals (0.565 versus 0.080 seconds, respectively; P<0.001. Isolating only extended blinks (>0.1 second, the average contact time (seconds was four times longer in dry-eye versus normal subjects (2.459 in dry eye, 0.575 in normals; P=0.003. Isolating only superextended blinks (>0.5 seconds, average contact time was also significantly different (7.134 in dry eye, 1.589 in normals; P<0.001. The contact rate for all full closures was 6.4 times longer in dry-eye (0.045 versus 0.007, P<0.001 than normal subjects.Conclusion: Dry-eye subjects spent 4.5% of a

  18. Effect of Lid Debridement-Scaling in Sjögren Syndrome Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, William; Caffery, Barbara; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon W

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of lid debridement-scaling (LDS) on dry eye signs and symptoms in subjects with Sjögren syndrome (SS). This prospective randomized controlled study enrolled 14 female subjects with SS. Seven subjects were randomized into the treatment group where they were selected to receive LDS; the remainder did not receive LDS and served as control subjects. Lid debridement-scaling was conducted using a stainless steel golf club spud (Hilco Wilson Ophthalmics, Plainville, MA) on both the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes. Outcome variables were assessed before LDS and again 1 month later. The outcome variables were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) visual analog scores, ocular staining (SICCA OSS [Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Ocular Staining Score]), fluorescein tear breakup time (FLBUT), meibomian gland score (MGS), meibomian gland yielding liquid secretions (MGYLS) score, and line of Marx's (LOM) position. Thirteen subjects completed the study. Data from only the right eye were analyzed. For the control group (n = 6; mean [± SD] age, 62.3 [± 11.6] years), the pre-LDS, post-LDS, and significance level (pre-LDS mean [± SD] vs. post-LDS mean [± SD]; p value) were as follows: OSDI (58.3 [± 22.1] vs. 48.3 [± 29.0]; p = 0.051), SANDE (77.4 [± 22.1] vs. 89.6 [± 32.6]; p = 0.20), SICCA OSS (7.0 [± 4.5] vs. 8.2 [± 3.5]; p = 0.25), MGS (1.3 [± 1.5] vs. 1.0 [± 0.9]; p = 0.75), MGYLS (0.3 [± 0.5] vs. 0.0 [± 0.0]; p = 0.50), FLBUT (2.99 [± 1.54] vs. 2.85 [± 1.79]; p = 0.63), and LOM (2.0 [± 0.0] vs. 2.0 [± 0.0]; p = n/a). For the treatment group (n = 7; mean [± SD] age, 58.0 [± 8.1] years), the pre-LDS, post-LDS, and significance level were as follows: OSDI (63.2 [± 13.3] vs. 46.9 [± 19.4]; p = 0.04), SANDE (72.6 [± 17.1] vs. 77.0 [± 28.0]; p = 0.54), SICCA OSS (6.6 [± 2.9] vs. 5.0 [± 3.9]; p = 0.02), MGS (1.0 [± 1.2] vs. 3.1 [± 1.7]; p = 0.01), MGYLS (0.0 [± 0

  19. Thermodynamic measurement after cooling the cornea with intact epithelium and lid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ortueta, Diego; Magnago, Thomas; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the rate of change of ocular surface temperature (OST) under lid manipulation after cooling the intact cornea with balanced salt solution (BSS). In a patient for refractive surgery, prior to the ablation, the temperature of the cornea was continuously recorded with a high speed infrared (350Hz) camera. Two millilitre of chilled BSS with a temperature of 8.6°Celsius (°C) was instilled for about 3s. Using exponential functions, the three contributions have been determined, subjacent corneal layers, environment, and chilled BSS. The mean temperature of the cornea preoperatively was 34.5°C. After applying the chilled BSS the temperature decreased about 14°C down to an OST of 20°C and the time needed afterwards to get the normal (OST) temperature of about 30°C was 40s. Due to the inserted speculum and missing blink, OST did not reach the original OST of 34.5°C and faded at about 32.5°C. According to our best fitted model, absolute value of each contributing component was 31.4°C (subjacent corneal layers), 26.8°C (environment) and 8.6°C (BSS). Applying chilled BSS to the cornea quickly reduces the temperature of the cornea with a thermal relaxation time of 3s and a amplitude decrease of 8.6°C. This together with a relaxation time of 7s for subjacent corneal layers, and 184s for environment after instillation of BSS combined with a well-controlled environment provides a period of 40s of corneal temperature below baseline, which may be of clinical benefit when applying chilled BSS immediately before or immediately after ablation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  1. SoLid: Search for Oscillations with Lithium-6 Detector at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Buhour, J. M.; Coupé, B.; Cucoanes, A. S.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Fresneau, S.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Guilloux, G.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Moortgat, C.; Pronost, G.; Raes, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Shitov, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2016-04-01

    Sterile neutrinos have been considered as a possible explanation for the recent reactor and Gallium anomalies arising from reanalysis of reactor flux and calibration data of previous neutrino experiments. A way to test this hypothesis is to look for distortions of the anti-neutrino energy caused by oscillation from active to sterile neutrino at close stand-off (˜ 6- 8m) of a compact reactor core. Due to the low rate of anti-neutrino interactions the main challenge in such measurement is to control the high level of gamma rays and neutron background. The SoLid experiment is a proposal to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillation at very short baseline of the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor. This experiment uses a novel approach to detect anti-neutrino with a highly segmented detector based on Lithium-6. With the combination of high granularity, high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localization of the Inverse Beta Decay products, a better experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other state-of-the-art technology. This compact system requires minimum passive shielding allowing for very close stand off to the reactor. The experimental set up of the SoLid experiment and the BR2 reactor will be presented. The new principle of neutrino detection and the detector design with expected performance will be described. The expected sensitivity to new oscillations of the SoLid detector as well as the first measurements made with the 8 kg prototype detector deployed at the BR2 reactor in 2013-2014 will be reported.

  2. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.W.M.; Chan, C.S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum (~10 −4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al 2 O 3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films. (author)

  3. 'Thin walled' concept and a new top lid applied to the Scandinavian PCRV for a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotto, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    This research is carried out in the frame of an agreement between AB ATOMENERGI of Sweden and ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica) of Italy, for an exchange of information in the field of PCPV for BWR, and takes as a reference the Scandinavian solution as far as the thermal insulation system and the geometry are concerned, proposing new solutions for the prestressed concrete structure (namely the Author's concept of thin walls and a new concept of top lid). The proposed top lid sealing system solution is in line with the one adopted for the conventional steel pressure vessel enclosures; furthermore the prestressed concrete lid is restricted to the prestressed concrete structure to form a continuous contrete structure, in line with th PCPV conventional solutions for gas reactors. The paper describes in detail the selected design philosophy that is slightly different from the one defined by the Scandinavian project. In fact, as far as the design limits are concerned, it refers mainly to steel pressure vessel philosophy and, as to the concrete behaviour, to the design philosophy proposed by the author for the PCPV 'thin walled' structures for gas-cooled power reactors. Rheological, mathematical and physical models had been suitably devised in order to check the reliability of the proposed assumption. This paper therefore, will also give a brief description of said tools and the main results acquired at the time of the conference, and technical and economical considerations made to support the interest of the research, showing the relevant cut down of the costs. The comparative reference steel pressure vessel belongs to Mark III ENEL VI and VIII BW plant to which design and construction the author gives his contribution

  4. {sup 16}O resonances near 4α threshold through {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li,d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Faria, P. Neto de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Napoli, M. di; Ukita, G. M. [Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Santo Amaro, R. Prof. Eneas da Siqueira Neto, 340, CEP 04829-300, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Several narrow alpha resonant {sup 16}O states were detected through the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li,d) reaction, in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 MeV of excitation energy. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Experimental angular distributions associated with natural parity quasi-bound states around the 4α threshold are presented and compared to DWBA predictions. The upper limit for the resonance widths obtained is near the energy resolution (15 keV)

  5. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-21

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  6. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnumnoi, Ravee; Keorochana, Narumon; Sontisombat, Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctival and lid margin swabs were obtained from patients before they underwent cataract surgery. These swabs were used to inoculate blood agar and chocolate agar plates for culturing. After growth of the normal flora, the antibiotic sensitivity method using tobramycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefazolin was applied. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, along with its antibiotic sensitivity, from patients who underwent cataract surgery was assessed. A total of 120 eyes were included in this study, and bacterial isolation rates were identified. Five bacteria from the lid margin were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (58.33%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%), Corynebacterium (1.67%), Micrococcus spp. (1.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.83%). Two bacteria from the conjunctiva were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30%) and Streptococcus spp. (0.83%). Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolated bacteria are sensitive to cefazolin 100%, tobramycin 98.67%, levofloxacin 100%, and moxifloxacin 100%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common bacteria isolated from conjunctiva and lid margin.

  7. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Yamiel; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  8. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. SoLid: An innovative anti-neutrino detector for searching oscillations at the SCK• CEN BR2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Yamiel, E-mail: yamiel.abreu@uantwerpen.be

    2017-02-11

    The SoLid experiment intends to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline from the SCK• CEN BR2 research reactor (Mol, Belgium). A novel detector approach to measure reactor anti-neutrinos was developed based on an innovative sandwich of composite polyvinyl-toluene and {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillators. The system is highly segmented and read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibers and SiPM. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other standard technologies thanks to the combination of high granularity, good neutron–gamma discrimination using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator and precise localisation of the Inverse Beta Decay products. This technology can be considered as a new generation of an anti-neutrino detector. This compact system requires limited passive shielding and relies on spatial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. We will describe the principle of detection and the detector design. Particular focus on the neutron discrimination will be made, as well as on the capability to use cosmic muons for channel equalisation and energy calibration. The performance of the first 288 kg SoLid module (SM1), based on the data taken at BR2 from February to September 2015, will be presented. We will conclude with the next phase, which will start in 2016, and the future plans of the experiment.

  10. Understanding the lid movements of LolA in Escherichia coli using molecular dynamics simulation and in silico point mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahari, Priyadarshini; Anishetty, Sharmila; Pennathur, Gautam

    2013-12-01

    The Lol system in Escherichia coli is involved in localization of lipoproteins and hence is essential for growth of the organism. LolA is a periplasmic chaperone that binds to outer-membrane specific lipoproteins and transports them from inner membrane to outer membrane through LolB. The hydrophobic lipid-binding cavity of LolA consists of α-helices which act as a lid in regulating the transfer of lipoproteins from LolA to LolB. The current study aims to investigate the structural changes observed in LolA during the transition from open to closed conformation in the absence of lipoprotein. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for two LolA crystal structures; LolA(R43L), and in silico mutated MsL43R for a simulation time of 50 ns in water environment. We have performed an in silico point mutation of leucine to arginine in MsL43R to evaluate the importance of arginine to induce structural changes and impact the stability of protein structure. A complete dynamic analysis of open to closed conformation reveals the existence of two distinct levels; closing of lid and closing of entrance of hydrophobic cavity. Our analysis reveals that the structural flexibility of LolA is an important factor for its role as a periplasmic chaperone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD OF LIDS USED IN CYLINDRICAL VESSEL IN HORIZONTAL POSITION SUBJECT TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study of the cylindrical vessels in horizontal position and subject to internal pressure is carried out, where lids are one of the main components of this equipment. The Autodesk Inventor pro. 2016 is used to make the geometrical characterization of these elements: parametric solid modeler, assembles and surfaces for the mechanical design of complex parts. The different geometric forms of the lids and bottoms analyzed in this work are: flat-circular with or without flange, elliptical with different values of the K factor, torispherical with different values of the M factor and the hemispherical bottoms. Using the Finate Element Method (FEM, a comparative study is made about the behavior of the stress and strain in the different geometrical forms mentioned before, being demonstrated that although the best resistance and rigidity values are presented by the hemispherical bottoms and the best options of production by the flat-circulars, they are not the bottoms used the most in this vessels, being the elliptic bottoms those of more use. The results obtained allow optimizing the design and knowing the thickness limit in the most requested areas.

  12. Hybrid lattice Boltzmann finite difference simulation of mixed convection flows in a lid-driven square cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettaibi, Soufiene, E-mail: Bettaibisoufiene@gmail.com [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kuznik, Frédéric [INSA-Lyon, CETHIL, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5008, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sediki, Ezeddine [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Mixed convection heat transfer in 2D lid-driven cavity is studied numerically. • Hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method is used to obtain the velocity field. • Finite difference method is used to compute the temperature. • Effect of both Richardson and Reynolds numbers for mixed convection is studied. - Abstract: Mixed convection heat transfer in two-dimensional lid-driven rectangular cavity filled with air (Pr=0.71) is studied numerically. A hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is used to obtain the velocity field while the temperature field is deduced from energy balance equation by using the finite difference method (FDM). The main objective of this work is to investigate the model effectiveness for mixed convection flow simulation. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers. Excellent agreement is obtained between our results and previous works. The different comparisons demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of our proposed approach.

  13. Welding of the lid and the bottom of the disposal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuronen, I.; Salonen, T.

    2010-10-01

    The seal welding of the lid and bottom of a copper disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel using ordinary electron beam welding (EBW) made in a vacuum and the results gained in the development work are presented in this report. As an alternative method, the friction stir welding (FSW) is also presented in an overview. Welding of copper is very challenging mainly due to the high thermal conductivity of the copper material. The EBW method is based on so-called deep penetration welding which does not use additional welding material. The convenience of the method is that the weld is the same material as the base material. When compared to other fusion welding methods, the material transitions in the material caused by EBW are slight. The EBW process typically has a high number of welding parameters but, in practice, only a few parameters are adjusted during copper welding to maintain weld quality and the stability of the process. The high vacuum required by the method prevents the material from oxidising but, on the other hand, it narrows the application of the method. The requirements presented for the weld and welding process can be divided in two classes. The first class contains the requirements intended to ensure the long-term safety of the canister. Corrosion resistance and adequate creep ductility are such requirements. The second class requirements correspond to welding process requirements for component manufacture, the components themselves and the other processes of the encapsulation plant. The welding process, including the personnel, equipment and process validation, shall also fulfil the special requirements concerning all nuclear plants in general. The quality assurance and control (QA/QC) for welding is presented as a separate section. The welding quality assurance contains the personnel, equipment and the welding process. For EBW process validation there are available norms and acceptation procedures. In these, the essential component is the

  14. Bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for the 6Li(d, α)4He and 7Li(p, α)4He reactions at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.; Cherubini, S.; Figuera, P.; Miljanic, D.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.; Castellani, V.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Imperio, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method has been applied to study the 7 Li(p, α) 4 He and 6 (Li(d, α) 4 He reactions through the 7 Li(d, αα)n and 6 Li( 6 Li, αα) 4 He three body processes, respectively. The electron screening potential deduced from these experiments is much larger than the adiabatic approximation prediction for both cases; the systematic discrepancy between data and theoretical predictions is thus confirmed. Astrophysical implications of these measurements are also discussed

  15. Effective antimicrobial stewardship in a long-term care facility through an infectious disease consultation service: keeping a LID on antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Robin L P; Olds, Danielle M; Seifi, Nasim; Kypriotakis, Georgios; Jury, Lucy A; Peron, Emily P; Hirsch, Amy A; Drawz, Paul E; Watts, Brook; Bonomo, Robert A; Donskey, Curtis J

    2012-12-01

    We introduced a long-term care facility (LTCF) infectious disease (ID) consultation service (LID service) that provides on-site consultations to residents of a Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCF. We determined the impact of the LID service on antimicrobial use and Clostridium difficile infections at the LTCF. A 160-bed VA LTCF. Systemic antimicrobial use and positive C. difficile tests at the LTCF were compared for the 36 months before and the 18 months after the initiation of the ID consultation service through segmented regression analysis of an interrupted time series. Relative to that in the preintervention period, total systemic antibiotic administration decreased by 30% (Peffective means to achieve antimicrobial stewardship.

  16. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  17. Effect of compound nuclear reaction mechanism in 12C(6Li,d) reaction at sub-Coulomb energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Adhikari, S.; Basu, C.

    2017-09-01

    The angular distribution of the 12C(6Li,d) reaction populating the 6.92 and 7.12 MeV states of 16O at sub-Coulomb energy (Ecm=3 MeV) are analysed in the framework of the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Recent results on excitation function measurements and backward angle angular distributions derive ANC for both the states on the basis of an alpha transfer mechanism. In the present work, we show that considering both forward and backward angle data in the analysis, the 7.12 MeV state at sub-Coulomb energy is populated from Compound nuclear process rather than transfer process. The 6.92 MeV state is however produced from direct reaction mechanism.

  18. Safety analysis report, packages. Drath and Schrader Double Lidded Drum (packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalfant, G.G.

    1985-07-01

    The preceding Safety Analysis Report - Packages qualifies the Drath and Schrader Double Lidded Drum (see appendix E) as a Department of Transportation DOT 7A Type A packaging and/or ''Type A'' foreign made packaging. The allowable contents shall be: in solid form; non-fissile or exempt fissile material (as defined by 49 CFR 173.453); less than 700 pounds (318 kg) in weight; equal to or less than the A 1 or A 2 quantities of radioactive material as appropriate (see 49 CFR 173.435 for tables of A 1 /A 2 values); and hydrogen gas generation in radioactive waste shall be limited to a maximum of 2-1/2% and total gas pressure limited to 5 psig. Package marking shall be as specified in 49 CFR 178.350-3 or as specified by the foreign country of origin

  19. És la morfometria geométrica una bona eina per a classificar fèlids?

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz Bueno, Sara

    2014-01-01

    La morfometria geomètrica (MG) és una tècnica matemàtica que permet l’estudi de la grandària i de la forma en cossos i peces, biològiques o no. Al basar-se en el tractament digital de la imatge, és molt conservadora, i altament repetible. En aquest treball, es pretén saber si amb la MG es pot classificar fèlids salvatges en base a la morfologia (grandària i forma) del crani. Amb aquest objectiu, es va prendre una mostra de 42 cranis adults de diversos gèneres pertanyents a la família Felidae,...

  20. The "7Li(d, p)"8Li reaction in inverse kinematics at 5.44 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Keeley, N.; Cappuzzello, F.; Acosta, L.; Agodi, C.; Calabrese, S.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Rusek, K.; Zagatto, V.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    New data are presented for the "7Li(d, p)"8Li stripping reaction which, together with previously reported elastic scattering data taken in the same experiment, provide a coherent set. These data, plus existing measurements of the elastic scattering and stripping at 6 MeV/u were analysed within the same coupled reaction channels scheme. Good descriptions of the stripping data to the 0.0 MeV 2"+ and 0.98 MeV 1"+ states of "8Li were obtained using a set of left angle "8Li vertical stroke "7Li + n right angle overlaps taken from the literature, provided that the elastic scattering was also well described. Multi-step reaction paths made significant contributions to the description of the larger angle data. The asymptotic normalisation coefficients are compared with previous determinations. (orig.)

  1. New Aspects of a Lid-Removal Mechanism in the Onset of a SEP-Producing Eruption Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Knox, Javon M

    2014-06-01

    We examine a sequence of two ejective eruptions from a single active region on 2012 January 23, using magnetograms and EUV images from SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA, and EUV images from STEREO. Cheng et al. (2013) showed that the first eruption's (``Eruption 1'') flux rope was apparent only in ``hotter'' AIA channels, and that it removed overlying field that allowed the second eruption (``Eruption 2'') to begin via ideal MHD instability; here we say Eruption 2 began via a ``lid removal'' mechanism. We show that during Eruption-1's onset, its flux rope underwent ``tether weakening'' (TW) reconnection with the field of an adjacent active region. Standard flare loops from Eruption 1 developed over Eruption-2's flux rope and enclosed filament, but these overarching new loops were unable to confine that flux rope/filament. Eruption-1's flare loops, from both TW reconnection and standard-flare-model internal reconnection, were much cooler than Eruption-2's flare loops (GOES thermal temperatures of ~9 MK compared to ~14 MK). This eruption sequence produced a strong solar energetic particle (SEP) event (10 MeV protons, >10^3 pfu for 43 hrs), apparently starting when Eruption-2's CME blasted through Eruption-1's CME at 5---10 R_s. This occurred because the two CMEs originated in close proximity and in close time sequence: Eruption-1's fast rise started soon after the TW reconnection; the lid removal by Eruption-1's ejection triggered the slow onset of Eruption 2; and Eruption-2's CME, which started ~1 hr later, was three times faster than Eruption-1's CME.

  2. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the package with the lid bolted for subsurface disposal by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    2011-01-01

    The structural analysis of the disposal package for low-level radioactive wastes with relatively high activities (called L1 waste in Japan) were performed against normal and hypothetical conditions. As a normal condition the external load due to lifting, stacking of the package and filling the space of disposal pit with mortar or something were considered. Drop incident during handling and pressure due to some external force were taken up as hypothetical conditions. Using finite element code ABAQUS and three dimensional finite element model, structural analyses were carried out for the normal conditions. The results show that the maximum stresses occurred at the package due to the loads above mentioned were far less than the yield strength for all conditions. Therefore, it is confirmed that the disposal package keeps its integrity against the normal conditions. Analyses for load cases of 8 m drop onto the reinforced concrete slab were performed by using finite element code LS-DYNA. The results show that the strains at the impact zone of the package exceeded the fracture strain of the material and the opening of the lid at the vicinity on the impact zone was observed but the damaged area was limited in the vicinity of impact zone. As a maximum external pressure, 4 MPa was applied to the surface of the packages which were piled up in four layered in the disposal tunnel. According to the results of analyses by ABAQUS code the maximum strain occurred at the contact surfaces between lid and body of the top package. However, the package stays in sound because the plastic zone was so small and the value of the maximum strain was less than the fracture strain of the materials. (author)

  3. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 748-748 ISSN 0967-3849. [19th International Colloquium on animal cytogenetics and gene mapping. 06.06.-09.06.2010, Krakow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sex chromosomes * karyotypic evolution * eye-lid geckos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Lid opening and conformational stability of T1 Lipase is mediated by increasing chain length polar solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maiangwa

    2017-05-01

    systems, which could lead to weaknesses in the catalytic H-bond network and most likely a drop in catalytic activity. The conformational variation of the lid domain caused by the solvent molecules influenced its gradual opening. Formation of additional hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions indicates that the contribution of the cooperative network of interactions could retain the stability of the protein in some solvent systems. Time-correlated atomic motions were used to characterize the correlations between the motions of the atoms from atomic coordinates. The resulting cross-correlation map revealed that the organic solvent mixtures performed functional, concerted, correlated motions in regions of residues of the lid domain to other residues. These observations suggest that varying lengths of polar organic solvents play a significant role in introducing dynamic conformational diversity in proteins in a decreasing order of polarity.

  5. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  6. First results of the deployment of a SoLid detector module at the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N.

    The SoLid experiment aims to resolve the reactor neutrino anomaly by searching for electron-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations. The search will be performed between 5.5 and 10 m from the highly enriched uranium core of the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The experiment utilises a novel approach to anti-neutrino detection based on a highly segmented, composite scintillator detector design. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved using a combination of high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6 LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localisation of the inverse beta decay products. This compact detector system requires limited passive shielding as it relies on spacial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. The first full scale, 288 kg, detector module was deployed at the BR2 reactor in November 2014. A phased three tonne experimental deployment will begin in the second half of 2016, allowing a precise search for oscillations that will resolve the reactor anomaly using a three tonne detector running for three years. In this talk the novel detector design is explained and initial detector performance results from the module level deployment are presented along with an estimation of the physics reach of the next phase.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of three-dimensional incompressible flows in a four-sided lid driven cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng Gong [National Engineering Laboratory for MTO, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Maa, Jerome P-Y, E-mail: chenggongli@dicp.ac.cn [Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Numerical study on three-dimensional (3D), incompressible, four-sided lid (FSL) driven cavity flows has been conducted to show the effects of the transverse aspect ratio, K , on the flow field by using a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation. The top wall is driven from left to right, the left wall is moved downward, whereas the right wall is driven upward, and the bottom wall is moved from right to left, all the four moving walls have the same speed and the others boundaries are fixed. Numerical computations are performed for several Reynolds numbers for laminar flows, up to 1000, with various transverse aspect ratios. The flow can reach a steady state and the flow pattern is symmetric with respect to the two cavity diagonals (i.e., the center of the cavity). At Reynolds number = 300, the flow structures of the 3D FSL cavity flow at steady state with various transverse aspect ratio, i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 only show the unstable symmetrical flow pattern. The stable asymmetrical flow pattern could be reproduced only by increasing the Reynolds number that is above a critical value which is dependent on the aspect ratio. It is found that an aspect ratio of more than 5 is needed to reproduce flow patterns, both symmetric and asymmetric flows, simulated by using 2D numerical models. (paper)

  8. Meshless Lagrangian SPH method applied to isothermal lid-driven cavity flow at low-Re numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga Filho, C. A. D.; Chacaltana, J. T. A.; Pinto, W. J. N.

    2018-01-01

    SPH is a recent particle method applied in the cavities study, without many results available in the literature. The lid-driven cavity flow is a classic problem of the fluid mechanics, extensively explored in the literature and presenting a considerable complexity. The aim of this paper is to present a solution from the Lagrangian viewpoint for this problem. The discretization of the continuum domain is performed using the Lagrangian particles. The physical laws of mass, momentum and energy conservation are presented by the Navier-Stokes equations. A serial numerical code, written in Fortran programming language, has been used to perform the numerical simulations. The application of the SPH and comparison with the literature (mesh methods and a meshless collocation method) have been done. The positions of the primary vortex centre and the non-dimensional velocity profiles passing through the geometric centre of the cavity have been analysed. The numerical Lagrangian results showed a good agreement when compared to the results found in the literature, specifically for { Re} < 100.00 . Suggestions for improvements in the SPH model presented are listed, in the search for better results for flows with higher Reynolds numbers.

  9. 16O resonances near the 4α threshold through the 12C(6Li,d) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Foti, A.

    2014-02-01

    Background: Resonances around xα thresholds in light nuclei are recognized to be important in basic aspects of nuclear structure. However, there is scarce experimental information associated with them. Purpose: We study the α-clustering phenomenon in resonant states around the 4α threshold (14.44 MeV) in the 16O nucleus. Method: The 12C(6Li,d )16O reaction was investigated with an unprecedented resolution at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV by employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Results: Several narrow resonances were populated and the energy resolution of 15 keV allows for the separation of doublet states that were not resolved previously. The upper limits for the resonance widths in this region were extracted. The angular distributions of the absolute differential cross section associated with four natural parity quasibound states are presented and compared to distorted wave Born approximation predictions. Conclusions: Narrow resonances not previously reported in the literature were observed. This indicates that the α-cluster structure information in this region should be revised.

  10. Dominant Lid Tectonics behaviour of continental lithosphere in Precambrian times: Palaeomagnetism confirms prolonged quasi-integrity and absence of supercontinent cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plate Tectonics cannot be effectively tested by palaeomagnetism in the Precambrian aeon due to the paucity of high precision poles spanning such a long time period, the possibility of Lid Tectonics is eminently testable because it seeks accordance of the wider dataset over prolonged intervals of time; deficiencies and complexities in the data merely contribute to dispersion. Accordance of palaeomagnetic poles across a quasi-integral continental crust for time periods of up to thousands of millions of years, together with recognition of very long intervals characterised by minimal polar motions (∼2.6–2.0, ∼1.5–1.25 and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga has been used to demonstrate that Lid Tectonics dominated this aeon. The new PALEOMAGIA database is used to refine a model for the Precambrian lid incorporating a large quasi-integral crescentric core running from South-Central Africa through Laurentia to Siberia with peripheral cratons subject to reorganisation at ∼2.1, ∼1.6 and ∼1.1 Ga. The model explains low levels of tidal friction, reduced heat balance, unique petrologic and isotopic signatures, and the prolonged crustal stability of Earth's “Middle Age”, whilst density concentrations of the palaeomagnetic poles show that the centre of the continental lid was persistently focussed near Earth's rotation axis from ∼2.8 to 0.6 Ga. The exception was the ∼2.7–2.2 Ga interval defined by ∼90° polar movements which translated the periphery of the lid to the rotation pole for this quasi-static period, a time characterised by glaciation and low levels of magmatic activity; the ∼2.7 Ga shift correlates with key interval of mid-Archaean crustal growth to some 60–70% of the present volume and REE signatures whilst the ∼2.2 Ga shift correlates with the Lomagundi δ13 C and Great Oxygenation events. The palaeomagnetic signature of breakup of the lid at ∼0.6 Ga is recorded by the world-wide Ediacaran development of passive

  11. Mössbauer spectra obtained using β - γ coincidence method after 57Mn implantation into LiH and LiD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Kubo, M. K.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Sato, W.; Miyazaki, J.; Tanigawa, S.; Natori, D.; Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Highly energetic 57Mn ( T 1/2 = 1.45 m) was generated by nuclear projectile fragmentation in a heavy-ion accelerator, and implanted into lithium hydride (LiH) and lithium deuteride (LiD) at 578 K. Mössbauer spectroscopy with β - γ coincidence detection was then carried out on the 57Fe obtained from β -decay of the 57Mn to study the time dependence of the site distributions and coordination environments of dilute Fe atoms implanted in the LiH and LiD. The results suggest that the Fe atoms can substitute for either the Li and H or D atoms within 100 ns. Additionally, the displacement behavior of the substitutional 57Fe atoms on the lattice sites is discussed.

  12. Analysis of tritium production in concentric spheres of oralloy and 6LiD irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, L.R. Jr.; Roberts, R.R. II; Hunter, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Tritium production and activation of radiochemical detector foils in a sphere of 6 LiD with an oralloy core irradiated by a central source of 14-MeV neutrons have been calculated and compared with experimental measurements. The experimental assembly consisted of an oralloy sphere surrounded by three solid 6 LiD concentric shells with ampules of 6 LiH and 7 LiH and activation foils located in several positions throughout the assembly. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo Neutron Photon Transport Code (MCNP) was used to calculate neutron transport throughout the system, tritium production in the ampules, and foil activation. The overall experimentally observed-to-calculated ratios of tritium production were 0.996 +- 2.5% in 6 Li ampules and 0.903 +- 5.2% in 7 Li ampules. Observed-to-calculated ratios for foil activation are also presented. 11 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Mössbauer spectra obtained using β − γ coincidence method after {sup 57}Mn implantation into LiH and LiD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y.; Kobayashi, Y., E-mail: kyoshio@pc.uec.ac.jp [University of Electro-Communication, Graduate School of Engineering and Science (Japan); Yamada, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Kubo, M. K. [International Christian University, Division of Arts Science (Japan); Mihara, M. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center Accelerator Based Science (Japan); Sato, W. [Kanazawa University, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Miyazaki, J. [Tokyo University Agri. Technology, Department of Chemistry and Engineering (Japan); Tanigawa, S.; Natori, D. [University of Electro-Communication, Graduate School of Engineering and Science (Japan); Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute Radiological Sciences (NIRS) (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highly energetic {sup 57}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 1.45 m) was generated by nuclear projectile fragmentation in a heavy-ion accelerator, and implanted into lithium hydride (LiH) and lithium deuteride (LiD) at 578 K. Mössbauer spectroscopy with β − γ coincidence detection was then carried out on the {sup 57}Fe obtained from β{sup −}decay of the {sup 57}Mn to study the time dependence of the site distributions and coordination environments of dilute Fe atoms implanted in the LiH and LiD. The results suggest that the Fe atoms can substitute for either the Li and H or D atoms within 100 ns. Additionally, the displacement behavior of the substitutional {sup 57}Fe atoms on the lattice sites is discussed.

  14. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnumnoi,Ravee; Keorochana,Narumon; Sonthisombat,Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    Ravee Ratnumnoi, Narumon Keorochana, Chavalit Sontisombat Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. Design: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctiva...

  15. Case note: HR (zaaknr. 13/04255: interregionaal recht; art. 38 lid 3 Statuut; interregionale bevoegdheid rechter i.g.v. verzoek tot nihilstelling alimentatie; overeenkomstige toepassing IPR-bevoegdheidsrecht; voorrang verdragen en EU-verordeningen in interregionale gevallen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Th.M.

    2014-01-01

    Interregionaal recht; art. 38 lid 3 Statuut; interregionale bevoegdheid rechter i.g.v. verzoek tot nihilstelling alimentatie; overeenkomstige toepassing IPR-bevoegdheidsrecht; voorrang verdragen en EU-verordeningen in interregionale gevallen. Overeenkomstige toepassing Verordening (EG) nr. 4/2009

  16. UV-laser-based longitudinal illuminated diffuser (LID) incorporating diffractive and Lambertian reflectance for the disinfection of beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    A novel laser beam shaping system was designed to demonstrate the potential of using high power UV laser sources for large scale disinfection of liquids used in the production of food products, such as juices, beer, milk and other beverage types. The design incorporates a patented assembly of optical components including a diffractive beam splitting/shaping element and a faceted pyramidal or conically shaped Lambertian diffuser made from a compression molded PTFE compounds. When properly sintered to an appropriate density, as an example between 1.10 and 1.40 grams per cubic centimeter, the compressed PTFE compounds show a ~99% reflectance at wavelengths ranging from 300 nm to 1500 nm, and a ~98.5% refection of wavelengths from 250 nm to 2000 nm [1]. The unique diffuser configuration also benefits from the fact that the PTFE compounds do not degrade when exposed to ultraviolet radiation as do barium sulfate materials and silver or aluminized mirror coatings [2]. These components are contained within a hermetically sealed quartz tube. Once assembled a laser beam is directed through one end of the tube. This window takes the form of a computer generated diffractive splitter or other diffractive shaper element to split the laser beam into a series of spot beamlets, circular rings or other geometric shapes. As each of the split beamlets or rings cascade downward, they illuminate various points along the tapered PTFE cone or faceted pyramidal form. As they strike the surface they each diffuse in a Lambertian reflectance pattern creating a pseudo-uniform circumferential illuminator along the length of the quartz tube enclosing the assembly. The compact tubular structure termed Longitudinal Illuminated Diffuser (LID) provides a unique UV disinfection source that can be placed within a centrifugal reactor or a pipe based reactor chamber. This paper will review the overall design principle, key component design parameters, preliminary analytic and bench operational testing

  17. Simulation of SU-8 frequency-driven scratch drive actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation of Scratch Drive Actuators (SDAs) for micro-robotic applications. SDAs use electrostatic forces to generate motion on top of an interdigitated electrode array. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate several design geometries and micro-actuator configurations using ConventorWare®\\'s finite element analysis module. The study performed investigates the SDAs modal and electrostatic behavior and the effects of linking two or more SDAs together in a microrobot device. In addition, the interdigitated electrode array performance, used for power delivery, was studied by changing the thickness of its dielectric layer. We present our observations based on these studies, which will aid in the understanding and development of future SDA designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Simulation of SU-8 frequency-driven scratch drive actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Al Rawashdeh, Ehab Jamal; Valencia Garcia, Manuel; Zaher, Amir Omar; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of Scratch Drive Actuators (SDAs) for micro-robotic applications. SDAs use electrostatic forces to generate motion on top of an interdigitated electrode array. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate several design geometries and micro-actuator configurations using ConventorWare®'s finite element analysis module. The study performed investigates the SDAs modal and electrostatic behavior and the effects of linking two or more SDAs together in a microrobot device. In addition, the interdigitated electrode array performance, used for power delivery, was studied by changing the thickness of its dielectric layer. We present our observations based on these studies, which will aid in the understanding and development of future SDA designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. SU-8 photoresist-derived electrospun carbon nanofibres as high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... as high-capacity anode material for lithium ion battery. M KAKUNURI, S KAUSHIK, A SAINI and C S SHARMA. ∗. Creative and Advanced Research Based On Nanomaterials (CARBON) Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Kandi 502285, India. ∗.

  20. SU-8 Cantilever Sensor with Integrated Read-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Cantilever baserede biosensorer kan bruges til så kaldet label-free detektion af små koncentrationer af molekyler i en opløsning. Når et specifikt molekyle binder til overfladen af en cantilever induceres et overfladestress som resulterer i en udbøjning af cantileveren. Cantileverens udbøjningen ...

  1. Fabrication and loading of microcontainers for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh

    is an important loop diuretic drug with low solubility and permeability is used as a model drug and embedded in a PCL matrix. The crystallinity of the drug is tailored by the process parameters of spin coating. Release profiles ranging from rapid burst release to sustained zero-order release are obtained......Oral drug delivery is considered as the most patient compliant delivery route. However, it faces many obstacles, especially due to the ever-increasing number of drugs that are poorly soluble and barely absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. Moreover, drugs can degrade in the harsh acidic...... in this project. This process utilizes a stamp in connection with the ability to apply heat and pressure to transfer the stamp pattern to a film. Processes have been optimized for fabrication of nickel stamps with two layered, high aspect ratio microstructures. Bosch deep reactive ion etching of Silicon producing...

  2. Start-up flow in a three-dimensional lid-driven cavity by means of a massively parallel direction splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2011-05-04

    The purpose of this paper is to validate a new highly parallelizable direction splitting algorithm. The parallelization capabilities of this algorithm are illustrated by providing a highly accurate solution for the start-up flow in a three-dimensional impulsively started lid-driven cavity of aspect ratio 1×1×2 at Reynolds numbers 1000 and 5000. The computations are done in parallel (up to 1024 processors) on adapted grids of up to 2 billion nodes in three space dimensions. Velocity profiles are given at dimensionless times t=4, 8, and 12; at least four digits are expected to be correct at Re=1000. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Measurements of neutron emission spectra and 7Be production in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for 25 and 40 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Baba, Mamoru; Aoki, Takao; Kawata, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Naoya; Itoga, Toshiro

    2003-01-01

    The neutron spectra in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for Ed = 25, 40 MeV were measured from ∼1 MeV to highest energy of secondary neutrons at ten laboratory angles between 0- and 110-deg with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. In addition, the number of 7 Be accumulated in the targets was also measured by counting the γ-rays from 7 Be using a pure Ge detector to obtain 7 Be production cross-section and yields. (author)

  4. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  5. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  6. Crystallization and X-ray data analysis of the 10 kDa C-terminal lid subdomain from Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Liam; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D., E-mail: m.walkinshaw@ed.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa lid subdomain from the C. elegans chaperone Hsp70 have been obtained that diffract X-rays to ∼3.5 Å and belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Analysis of X-ray data and initial heavy-atom phasing reveals 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit related by 432 non-crystallographic symmetry. Hsp70 is an important molecular chaperone involved in the regulation of protein folding. Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa helical lid domain (residues 542–640) from a Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70 homologue have been produced that diffract X-rays to ∼3.4 Å. Crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 197, c = 200 Å. The Matthews coefficient, self-rotation function and Patterson map indicate 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit, showing non-crystallographic 432 symmetry. Molecular-replacement studies using the corresponding domain from rat, the only eukaryotic homologue with a known structure, failed and a mercury derivative was obtained. Preliminary MAD phasing using SHELXD and SHARP for location and refinement of the heavy-atom substructure and SOLOMON for density modification produced interpretable maps with a clear protein–solvent boundary. Further density-modification, model-building and refinement are currently under way.

  7. Structural safety test and analysis of type IP-2 transport packages with bolted lid type and thick steel plate for radioactive waste drums in a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jeong Mook

    2007-01-01

    If a type IP-2 transport package were to be subjected to a free drop test and a penetration test under the normal conditions of transport, it should prevent a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a more than 20% increase in the maximum radiation level at any external surface of the package. In this paper, we suggested the analytic method to evaluate the structural safety of a type IP-2 transport package using a thick steel plate for a structure part and a bolt for tying a bolt. Using an analysis a loss or disposal of the radioactive contents and a loss of shielding integrity were confirmed for two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages to transport radioactive waste drums from a waste facility to a temporary storage site in a nuclear power plant. Under the free drop condition the maximum average stress at the bolts and the maximum opening displacement of a lid were compared with the tensile stress of a bolt and the steps in a lid, which were made to avoid a streaming radiation in the shielding path, to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive waste contents. Also a loss of shielding integrity was evaluated using the maximum decrease in a shielding thickness. To verify the impact dynamic analysis for free drop test condition and evaluate experimentally the safety of two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages, free drop tests were conducted with various drop directions

  8. Effects of selected low-impact-development (LID) techniques on water quality and quantity in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-Field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2010-01-01

    During the months of August and September, flows in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, dramatically decrease largely due to groundwater withdrawals needed to meet increased residential and commercial water demands. In the summer, rates of groundwater recharge are lower than during the rest of the year, and water demands are higher. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of low-impact-development (LID) enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of (1) replacing an impervious parking lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, (2) installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and (3) installing a 3,000-square foot (ft2) green roof on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In addition, the effects of broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water withdrawals, and water-conservation measures on streamflow in large areas of the basin were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model. From June 2005 to 2007, groundwater quality was monitored at the Silver Lake town beach parking lot in Wilmington, MA, prior to and following the replacement of the conventional, impervious-asphalt surface with a porous surface consisting primarily of porous asphalt and porous pavers. Changes in the concentrations of the water-quality constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were monitored

  9. Efficacy of intra-meibomian gland injection of the anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction with lid-margin vascularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaodan Jiang,* Yuexin Wang,* Huibin Lv, Yan Liu, Mingzhou Zhang, Xuemin Li Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a novel treatment – intra-meibomian gland (MG injection of the anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab – for MG dysfunction (MGD with eyelid-margin vascularity. Methods: A total of 26 eyes from 13 patients diagnosed with MGD and eyelid-margin vascularity were included in our study. Patients received intra-meibomian gland injections of bevacizumab (150 µL, 2.5 mg/0.1 mL at multiple sites with a 29 G needle where telangiectasia was severe. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI, tear film, tear-breakup time (TBUT, eyelid-margin features, MG features, conjunctiva, and corneal staining were assessed at 1 day before injection and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Blood pressure, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and slit lamp examinations were performed to assure the safety of patients at 1 day before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Results: Lid-margin vascularity, conjunctival injection, expressed secretion quality, expressivity of the MG, TBUT, corneal staining, and OSDI were significantly improved 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection compared to baseline values. Lid-margin vascularity, conjunctival injection, meibomian gland expressivity, TBUT, and OSDI continued to improve; the greatest improvements were observed at 1 month and sustained for 3 months. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that age and sex significantly influenced TBUT improvement. Females and older patients tended to have shorter baseline TBUT that followed a different trend from that of males and younger patients during postinjection visits, revealed by subgroup analysis. No local or systemic side effects were observed at follow-up visits. Conclusion: This study is the first to

  10. A comparative study of mixed convection and its effect on partially active thermal zones in a two sided lid-driven cavity filled with nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a two sided lid-driven mixed convection nanofluid flow with discrete heat sources have been numerically investigated. A two dimensional computational visualization technique is used to study the flow behavior using four different cases; depending on the direction of moving vertical walls with fixed upper and lower walls. Two discrete heat sources of equal lengths are taken on the lower wall and the rest of it is kept insulated. The other walls are kept at constant low temperature. The effect of flow governing parameters such as Reynolds number 1⩽Re⩽100, Richardson number 0.1⩽Ri⩽10 and solid volume fraction 0.0⩽ϕ⩽0.2 with Prandtl number Pr=6.2 is studied to understand the fluid flow pattern and the heat transfer effect using isotherms and average Nusselt number.

  11. Epoxidized soy bean oil migrating from the gaskets of lids into food packed in glass jars. Analysis by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2005-08-05

    The migration of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) from the gasket in the lids of glass jars into foods, particularly those rich in edible oil, often far exceeds the legal limit (60 mg/kg). ESBO was determined through a methyl ester isomer of diepoxy linoleic acid. Transesterification occurred directly in the homogenized food. From the extracted methyl esters, the diepoxy components were isolated by normal-phase LC and transferred on-line to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the on-column interface in the concurrent solvent evaporation mode. The method involves verification elements to ensure the reliability of the results for every sample analyzed. The detection limit is 2-5 mg/kg, depending on the food. Uncertainty of the procedure is below 10%.

  12. The {sup 7}Li(d, p){sup 8}Li reaction in inverse kinematics at 5.44 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V. [The University of Ioannina, Department of Physics and HINP, Ioannina (Greece); Keeley, N. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Calabrese, S.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ciencias Integradas, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva (Spain); Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Rusek, K. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Zagatto, V.A.B. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-08-15

    New data are presented for the {sup 7}Li(d, p){sup 8}Li stripping reaction which, together with previously reported elastic scattering data taken in the same experiment, provide a coherent set. These data, plus existing measurements of the elastic scattering and stripping at 6 MeV/u were analysed within the same coupled reaction channels scheme. Good descriptions of the stripping data to the 0.0 MeV 2{sup +} and 0.98 MeV 1{sup +} states of {sup 8}Li were obtained using a set of left angle {sup 8}Li vertical stroke {sup 7}Li + n right angle overlaps taken from the literature, provided that the elastic scattering was also well described. Multi-step reaction paths made significant contributions to the description of the larger angle data. The asymptotic normalisation coefficients are compared with previous determinations. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of Polypropylene Sling with Combined Transconjunctival Retractor Plication and Lateral Tarsal Strip for Correction of Involutional Lower Eye Lid Ectropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ruchi; Sanoria, Abhilasha; Kumar, Sushil; Arya, Deepanjali; Nagpal, Smriti; Rathie, Neha

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to compare the effectiveness and complications of transconjunctival retractor plication (TRP) with lateral tarsal strip (LTS) and the polypropylene sling (PS) surgery for treatment of involutional lower lid ectropion. A prospective randomised pilot study was conducted on 30 eyes of 30 patients suffering from epiphora having horizontal eyelid laxity >6mm and age >50 years at a tertiary care centre from December 2014 to March 2015. They were randomly divided into two equal groups for TRP with LTS (group A) and PS (group B). Success was defined as relief in epiphora and lid laxity ≤4mm at 12 months post operatively. There were 19 male and 11 female patients with age ranging from 55-80 years. The mean grade of ectropion was 2.80±1.32 in group A and 2.87±1.60 in group B. The preoperative horizontal laxity increased with the grade of ectropion (p <0.001) while medial canthal laxity was variable. The average surgical time per procedure in group A was 66 minutes and in group B was 24 minutes. Group A had a success rate of 93.33%, while group B had a success rate of 87%. Post-operative complications occurred in 2 eyes in group B only. Both LTS with TRP and PS are effective in the management of involutional ectropion. LTS with TRP though more invasive has higher success rates and a lower incidence of complications as compared to PS. However, PS is an easy to perform out- patient procedure that is faster and better tolerated in old patients.

  14. A Page and Its Politics: Situating Kullinā Khālid Saʿīd in Egypt’s Ideological Landscape at the Time of Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, R.; Abdulla, R.; Poell, T.; Rieder, B.; Zack, L.

    2015-01-01

    In discussions concerning the importance of social media in the 25January revolution, a central role is given to the "Kullinā Khālid Saʿīd" [We’re all Khaled Said] Facebook page. Using an advanced data collection and extraction application called Netvizz, a research team consisting of Arabists and

  15. Temperature dependence of liquid lithium film formation and deuterium retention on hot W samples studied by LID-QMS. Implications for future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A.; Sepetys, A.; González, M.; Tabarés, F. L.

    2018-04-01

    Liquid metal (LM) divertor concepts explore an alternative solution to the challenging power/particle exhaust issues in future magnetic fusion reactors. Among them, lithium (Li) is the most promising material. Its use has shown important advantages in terms of improved H-mode plasma confinement and heat handling capabilities. In such scenario, a possible combination of tungsten (W) on the first wall and liquid Li on the divertor could be an acceptable solution, but several issues related to material compatibility remain open. In particular, the co-deposition of Li and hydrogen isotopes on W components could increase the associated tritium retention and represent a safety risk, especially if these co-deposits can uncontrollably grow in remote/plasma shadowed zones of the first wall. In this work, the retention of Li and deuterium (D) on tungsten at different surface temperature (200 °C-400 °C) has been studied by exposing W samples to Li evaporation under several D2 gaseous environments. Deuterium retention in the W-Li films has been quantified by using laser induced desorption-mass spectrometry (LID-QMS). Additional techniques as thermal desorption spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, profilemetry and flame atomic emission spectroscopy were implemented to corroborate the retention results and for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the films. The results showed a negligible (below LID sensibility) D uptake at T surface  =  225 °C, when the W-Li layer is exposed to simultaneous Li evaporation and D2 gas exposition (0.67 Pa). Pre-lithiated samples were also exposed to higher D2 pressures (133.3 Pa) at different temperatures (200 °C-400 °C). A non-linear drastic reduction in the D retention with increasing temperatures was found on the W-Li films, presenting a D/Li atomic ratio at 400 °C lower than 0.1 at.% on a thin film of  ≈100 nm thick. These results bode well (in terms of tritium inventory) for the potential

  16. Structure of a conserved hypothetical protein SA1388 from S. aureus reveals a capped hexameric toroid with two PII domain lids and a dinuclear metal center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybourne Matthew

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein encoded by the SA1388 gene from Staphylococcus aureus was chosen for structure determination to elucidate its domain organization and confirm our earlier remote homology based prediction that it housed a nitrogen regulatory PII protein-like domain. SA1388 was predicted to contain a central PII-like domain and two flanking regions, which together belong to the NIF3-like protein family. Proteins like SA1388 remain a poorly studied group and their structural characterization could guide future investigations aimed at understanding their function. Results The structure of SA1388 has been solved to 2.0Å resolution by single wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing method using selenium anomalous signals. It reveals a canonical NIF3-like fold containing two domains with a PII-like domain inserted in the middle of the polypeptide. The N and C terminal halves of the NIF3-like domains are involved in dimerization, while the PII domain forms trimeric contacts with symmetry related monomers. Overall, the NIF3-like domains of SA1388 are organized as a hexameric toroid similar to its homologs, E. coli ybgI and the hypothetical protein SP1609 from Streptococcus pneumoniae. The openings on either side of the toroid are partially covered by trimeric "lids" formed by the PII domains. The junction of the two NIF3 domains has two zinc ions bound at what appears to be a histidine rich active site. A well-defined electron density corresponding to an endogenously bound ligand of unknown identity is observed in close proximity to the metal site. Conclusion SA1388 is the third member of the NIF3-like family of proteins to be structurally characterized, the other two also being hypothetical proteins of unknown function. The structure of SA1388 confirms our earlier prediction that the inserted domain that separates the two NIF3 domains adopts a PII-like fold and reveals an overall capped toroidal arrangement for the protein hexamer. The

  17. A study on opening displacement of lid and decrease in shielding thickness of a type IP-2 transport package in drop events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Chan; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Heung Young

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plants shall be transported in accordance with designated regulations, which is to protect radiation workers and the public against potential radiation exposure caused by the transportations. Each transport package of radioactive waste is to be designed to have enough safety to fulfill with the regulations and technical standards in domestic and foreign regulations. In accordance with IAEA safety standard series TS-R-1 which is widely accepted by most of its member states, industrial package can be divided into IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 along with other Type A and Type B packages, a conventional clarification. IP-2 package shall be designed to meet the designated requirements in addition to those for type IP-1 package. IP-2 package is subject to the free drop and stacking tests under normal conditions of transport as regulated in the regulation. In this paper, opening displacement of lid and body and decrease in shielding thickness of an IP-2 package are analytically evaluated, which is proposed for on-site transportation in domestic nuclear power plants. The results of the analysis is compared with design requirements of the package that loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents should be prevented and total loss of shielding effect from free drop shall be less than 20%

  18. Onset of transition from laminar to chaos in MHD mixed convection of a lid-driven trapezoidal cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Mohammad, E-mail: azam09mebuet@gmail.com; Hasanuzzaman, Md., E-mail: hasanuzzaman138@gmail.com; Saha, Sumon, E-mail: sumonsaha@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    The present study investigates the thermal mixing scenarios of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection in a two-dimensional lid-driven trapezoidal cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid. The top wall of the cavity slides with a uniform velocity from left to right direction, while the other walls are fixed. The bottom wall is kept with a constant higher temperature than the top one. The governing mass, momentum and energy equations are expressed in non-dimensional forms and Galerkin finite element method has been employed to solve these equations. Special attention is paid on investigating the onset of transition from laminar to chaos at pure mixed convection case. Hence, the computations are carried out for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 0.1 − 400) and Grashof numbers (Gr = 10{sup −2} − 1.6 × 10{sup 5}) at unity Richardson number and fixed Hartmann number (Ha = 10). The variation of average Nusselt number of the bottom heated wall indicates the influence of governing parameters (Re and Gr) on heat transfer characteristics. The results are presented and explained through the visualisation of isotherms, streamlines and heatlines.

  19. Temperatures of the Ocular Surface, Lid, and Periorbital Regions of Sjögren's, Evaporative, and Aqueous-Deficient Dry Eyes Relative to Normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreau, Kerstin; Callan, Christine; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Zhang, Aizhong; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James; Hindman, Holly B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the temperatures of the ocular surface, eyelid, and periorbital skin in normal eyes with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) eyes, evaporative dry eyes (EDE), and aqueous deficient dry eyes (ADDE). 10 eyes were analyzed in each age-matched group (normal, SS, EDE, and ADDE). A noninvasive infrared thermal camera captured two-dimensional images in three regions of interest (ROI) in each of three areas: the ocular surface, the upper eyelid, and the periorbital skin within a controlled environmental chamber. Mean temperatures in each ROI were calculated from the videos. Ocular surface time-segmented cooling rates were calculated over a 5-s blink interval. Relative to normal eyes, dry eyes had lower initial central OSTs (SS -0.71°C, EDE -0.55°C, ADDE -0.95°C, KW Peyes had the lowest initial central OST (Peyes had the lowest central lid temperature and lower periorbital temperatures (Pdry eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixed convection heat transfer enhancement in a cubic lid-driven cavity containing a rotating cylinder through the introduction of artificial roughness on the heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Ali Khaleel; Gao, Shian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present numerical investigation is to comprehensively analyse and understand the heat transfer enhancement process using a roughened, heated bottom wall with two artificial rib types (R-s and R-c) due to unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure that has a central rotating cylinder, and to compare these cases with the smooth bottom wall case. These different cases (roughened and smooth bottom walls) are considered at various clockwise and anticlockwise rotational speeds, -5 ≤ Ω ≤ 5, and Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10 000. The top and bottom walls of the lid-driven cavity are differentially heated, whilst the remaining cavity walls are assumed to be stationary and adiabatic. A standard k-ɛ model for the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to deal with the turbulent flow. The heat transfer improvement is carefully considered and analysed through the detailed examinations of the flow and thermal fields, the turbulent kinetic energy, the mean velocity profiles, the wall shear stresses, and the local and average Nusselt numbers. It has been concluded that artificial roughness can strongly affect the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving the introduced artificial rips. Increasing the cylinder rotational speed or Reynolds number can enhance the heat transfer process, especially when the wall roughness exists.

  1. Ultrasonographically supported removal of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in a 13-year-old boy subjected to shot injuries in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: B-scan ultrasonography is widely used in diagnostics of head and neck pathologies. Ultrasonography can be applied intraoperatively to identify foreign materials. Case report: This case report describes the ultrasonographic identification of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in an adolescent who was injured several years ago, obviously a victim of domestic violence. B-scan ultrasonography (small part transducer, emission frequency: 7.5 MHz proved to be a reliable tool to locate the foreign bodies. Ultrasound imaging facilitated the decision-making of the surgical approach and thus reduced the surgical exploration time. Discussion: B-scan ultrasonography is a valuable tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The use of B-scan ultrasonography in the head neck region requires the capacity of the surgeon to fuse the ultrasonographic picture with the topography of the head and neck. The advantages and limitations of B-scan ultrasonography in the head and neck region concerning foreign body identification are briefly discussed.

  2. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2018-05-03

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288 kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/√E(MeV). The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibration so...

  3. Serologic follow-up of IgG responses against recombinant mycobacterial proteins ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1 in a leprosy hyperendemic area in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Rada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a slowly evolving disease that occurs mainly in adults. In this study, the Mamaría Village, state of Portuguesa was selected because it had one of the highest prevalence rates (13.25% of leprosy cases in 1997. Between 1998-2004, 20.2% of the 89 cases registered in this village were less than 15 years old and 61.8% were males. Pau-cibacillary (PB lesions were the predominant clinical forms identified, although also multibacillary (MB forms were found. Additionally, 76% of the patients were bacteriologically negative. At the time of diagnosis, 75% of the patients presented with grade 0 disabilities, 23% with grade 1 and 2% with grade 2. Serum samples were collected from 18 PB and 15 MB patients, in addition to 14 family contacts, at the beginning and end of treatment. All the groups were re-evaluated during a three-year period (2008-2011. The proteins used for evaluation were ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1. These mycobacterial proteins were highly specific for Mycobacterium leprae and the IgG responses decreased in both MB and PB patients during multidrug treatment. Our results suggest that these antigens could be used as markers for successful treatment of non-reactional lepromatous patients.

  4. Mixed Convection of Variable Properties Al2O3-EG-Water Nanofluid in a Two-Dimensional Lid-Driven Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Sheikhzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mixed convection of Al2O3-EG-Water nanofluid in a square lid-driven enclosure is investigated numerically. The focus of this study is on the effects of variable thermophysical properties of the nanofluid on the heat transfer characteristics. The top moving and the bottom stationary horizontal walls are insulated, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. The study is carried out for Richardson numbers of 0.01–1000, the solid volume fractions of 0–0.05 and the Grashof number of 104. The transport equations are solved numerically with a finite volume approach using the SIMPLER algorithm. The results show that the Nusselt number is mainly affected by the viscosity, density and conductivity variations. For low Richardson numbers, although viscosity increases by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction, due to high intensity convection of enhanced conductivity nanofluid, the average Nusselt number increases for both constant and variable cases. However, for high Richardson numbers, as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases heat transfer enhancement occurs for the constant properties cases but deterioration in heat transfer occurs for the variable properties cases. The distinction is due to underestimation of viscosity of the nanofluid by the constant viscosity model in the constant properties cases and states important effects of temperature dependency of thermophysical properties, in particular the viscosity distribution in the domain.

  5. Effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with antiseptics on upper-lid bacteria of surgical eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibele, Charles O; Kehinde, Aderemi O; Ajayi, Benedictus G K

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with povidone iodine and cetrimide/chlorhexidine gluconate (Savlon) on upper-lid bacteria. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Eighty patients attending the Eye Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eighty patients assigned to 4 groups had swabs of the upper eyelid skin taken before and after face wash with soap and water, and cleansing with Savlon and 5% povidone iodine. Specimens were cultured and Gram stained. Bacterial counts were carried out using standard techniques. Face washing with soap and water increased the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 80.0% to 87.5%. The average colony count increased from 187.1 to 318.5 colony units per mL (p = 0.02). Application of 5% povidone iodine without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 82.6% (mean count 196.5) to 28.6% (mean count 34.1)(p = 0.001); in comparison, the application of 5% povidone iodine after face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion from 71.4% (mean count 133.9) to 40.0% (mean count 69.0)(p = 0.01). Application of Savlon without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 100% (mean count 310.9) to 41.2% (mean count 19.8)(p = 0.004) compared with the application after face washing, which reduced the proportion from 89.5% (mean count 240.3) to 41.2% (mean count 82.9)(p = 0.02). Both povidone and Savlon are effective in reducing periocular bacteria in an African setting. Prior face washing with soap and water had no added benefit in reducing bacterial colony count.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to monitor ion cyclotron range of frequency wall cleaning Li/D co-deposition in EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P.; Wu, D.; Sun, L.Y.; Zhao, D.Y.; Hai, R.; Li, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Ding, H., E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Hu, Z.H.; Wang, L.; Hu, J.S.; Chen, J.L.; Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • LIBS was applied to EAST for monitoring the cleaning performance of the first wall using He-ICRF cleaning. • The cleaning performance is effective under helium ambient gas and some measurements have been obtained. • The results also indicate that the influence of magnetic field on LIBS signal is much stronger in helium ambient gas. • The effect of delay time and laser fluence on the LIBS signal has been investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) under magnetic field condition has been studied in laboratory and EAST tokamak. The experimental results reveal that in helium ambient gas, the magnetic field significantly enhances the LIBS signal intensity (∼3 times). The effect of time delay and laser fluence on the intensity of LIBS has been investigated for optimizing the signal to background ratio (S/B). The developed LIBS approach has been applied to monitor the cleaning performance of the first wall in the fusion device of EAST using the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). The experimental results demonstrate that the cleaning performance for Li/D co-deposition layer is effective under helium ambient gas. The removing rate of Li on the surface of W tile is faster than that on Mo tile in He-ICRF cleaning and the D/(D + H) ratio on Mo tile is higher by ∼1.2 times than that on W tile. This work would indicate the feasibility of using LIBS to monitor the wall cleaning processes in EAST tokamak.

  7. Structure of an odorant-binding protein from the mosquito Aedes aegypti suggests a binding pocket covered by a pH-sensitive "Lid".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Ribeiro Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission. METHODOLOGY: Previously, we isolated and cloned a major, female-enriched odorant-binding protein (OBP from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, which was later inadvertently renamed AaegOBP39. We prepared recombinant samples of AaegOBP1 by using an expression system that allows proper formation of disulfide bridges and generates functional OBPs, which are indistinguishable from native OBPs. We crystallized AaegOBP1 and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 A resolution by molecular replacement based on the structure of the malaria mosquito OBP, AgamOBP1, the only mosquito OBP structure known to date. CONCLUSION: The structure of AaegOBP1 ( = AaegOBP39 shares the common fold of insect OBPs with six alpha-helices knitted by three disulfide bonds. A long molecule of polyethylene glycol (PEG was built into the electron-density maps identified in a long tunnel formed by a crystallographic dimer of AaegOBP1. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that delipidated AaegOBP1 undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change, which may lead to release of odorant at low pH (as in the environment in the vicinity of odorant receptors. A C-terminal loop covers the binding cavity and this "lid" may be opened by disruption of an array of acid-labile hydrogen bonds thus explaining reduced or no binding affinity at low pH.

  8. Can There Ever Be Enough to Impact Water Quality? Evaluating BMPs in Elliot Ditch, Indiana Using the LTHIA-LID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. S.; Hoover, F. A.; Bowling, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Elliot Ditch is an urban/urbanizing watershed located in the city of Lafayette, IN, USA. The city continues to struggle with stormwater management and combined sewer overflow (CSO) events. Several best-management practices (BMP) such as rain gardens, green roofs, and bioswales have been implemented in the watershed, but the level of adoption needed to achieve meaningful impact is currently unknown. This study's goal is to determine what level of BMP coverage is needed to impact water quality, whether meaningful impact is determined by achieving water quality targets or statistical significance. A power analysis was performed using water quality data for total suspended solids (TSS), E.coli, total phosphorus (TP) and nitrate (NO3-N) from Elliot Ditch from 2011 to 2015. The minimum detectable difference (MDD) was calculated as the percent reduction in load needed to detect a significant change in the watershed. The water quality targets were proposed by stakeholders as part of a watershed management planning process. The water quality targets and the MDD percentages were then compared to simulated load reductions due to BMP implementation using the Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development (LTHIA-LID) model. Seven baseline model scenarios were simulated by implementing the maximum number of each of six types of BMPs (rain barrels, permeable patios, green roofs, grassed swale/bioswales, bioretention/rain gardens, and porous pavement), as well as all the practices combined in the watershed. These provide the baseline for targeted implementation scenarios designed to determine if statistically and physically meaningful load reductions can be achieved through BMP implementation alone.

  9. Are status inconsistency, work stress and work-family conflict associated with depressive symptoms? Testing prospective evidence in the lidA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Richard; March, Stefanie; du Prel, Jean-Baptist

    2016-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are common and economically relevant. Women suffer more often than men do. We analyze associations between social status inconsistency, psychosocial factors, and depressive symptoms stratified by gender. In the present study, 3340 employees of two age cohorts (1959, 1965) working in two waves (2011, 2014) of the prospective German lidA-study and who gave written consent to link register data regarding their employment histories were included. Gender-specific influences of social status inconsistency (deviation of observed income from expected average income based on acquired education) on depressive symptoms and mediation of these associations by work stress in terms of effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) and work-family-conflict (WFC) were analyzed with confirmatory cross-lagged path models. Among men, consistent status (i.e., average income in a specific educational group) increased the frequency of depressive symptoms. No association between negative SSI (i.e., income below the average income given a specific educational attainment) or positive SSI (i.e., income above the average income given a specific educational attainment) and depressive symptoms was observed among men or women. ERI and WFC were longitudinally associated with the outcome and differed slightly regarding gender, i.e., showing stronger effects of ERI for women and of WFC for men. Mediation of the association between social status and depressive symptoms was observed for men and for consistent status (path: consistent status → ERI → depressive symptoms) but not for SSI. ERI and WFC increase the risk of future episodes with depressive symptoms in men and in women irrespective of SSI, occupational position, full- or part-time work, regional factors or individual characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SWMM LID Module Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructu...

  11. Measurements of neutron emission spectra and {sup 7}Be production in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for 25 and 40 MeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Baba, Mamoru; Aoki, Takao; Kawata, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Naoya; Itoga, Toshiro [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The neutron spectra in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for Ed = 25, 40 MeV were measured from {approx}1 MeV to highest energy of secondary neutrons at ten laboratory angles between 0- and 110-deg with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. In addition, the number of {sup 7}Be accumulated in the targets was also measured by counting the {gamma}-rays from {sup 7}Be using a pure Ge detector to obtain {sup 7}Be production cross-section and yields. (author)

  12. ANC of 6.92 MeV (2"+) and 7.12 MeV (1"-) states from sub-Coulomb "1"2C("6Li,d) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Ashok; Basu, C.; Adhikari, S.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the astrophysical S-factor of the "1"2C(α,γ) reaction at 300 keV requires a R-matrix extrapolation. This is because a direct measurement of this reaction at 300 keV is almost impossible due to the very small cross-section. The R-matrix extrapolation requires as input the asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) of mainly two "1"6O states states viz. 6.92 MeV and 7.12 MeV on which the fit is most sensitive. The ANC of these two states have been determined from indirect measurements, mainly from "1"2C("6Li,d) and "1"2C("7Li,t) alpha transfer reactions. Most of these measurements are done at above barrier energies as cross-sections are larger. In this work, we determine the ANC of the 6.92 MeV and 7.12 MeV states of "1"6O using the "1"2C("6Li,d) data of Heikkinen et al measured at 4.5 to 5.0 MeV incident energies. The data spans over a larger angular span in comparison to Avila though the former data do not cover the very backward angles as in the Avila data. As the Heikkinen data has never been analyzed to extract the ANC we report the results of our analysis of the data

  13. Effects of low-impact-development (LID) practices on streamflow, runoff quantity, and runoff quality in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-A Summary of field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-impact-development (LID) approaches are intended to create, retain, or restore natural hydrologic and water-quality conditions that may be affected by human alterations. Wide-scale implementation of LID techniques may offer the possibility of improving conditions in river basins, such as the Ipswich River Basin in Massachusetts, that have run dry during the summer because of groundwater withdrawals and drought. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of LID enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of * replacing an impervious parking-lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, * installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and * installing a 3,000-ft2 (square-foot) green roof on the quantity and quality of rainfall-generated roof runoff. In addition to these small-scale installations, the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model was used to simulate the basin-wide effects on streamflow of several changes: broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water-supply withdrawals, and water-conservation measures. Water-supply and conservation scenarios for application in model simulations were developed with the assistance of two technical advisory committees that included representatives of State agencies responsible for water resources, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, water suppliers, and non-governmental organizations. From June

  14. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  15. Simulation of a low frequency Z-axis SU-8 accelerometer in coventorware and MEMS+

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Zaher, Amir Omar; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    calculation, and a comparison of results achieved using CoventorWare® ANALYZER™ and MEMS+®. A fabricated energy harvester design from [1] was used for modeling and simulation in this study, with a four spring attachment of a 650μm×650μm; ×110μm proof mass of 4.542

  16. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-04-15

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  17. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Márton

    Full Text Available Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks.

  18. Molybdenum coated SU-8 microneedle electrodes for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ramin; Afsharipour, Elnaz; Shafai, Cyrus; Anssari, Neda; Mansouri, Behzad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2017-11-21

    Electrophysiological devices are connected to the body through electrodes. In some applications, such as nerve stimulation, it is needed to minimally pierce the skin and reach the underneath layers to bypass the impedance of the first layer called stratum corneum. In this study, we have designed and fabricated surface microneedle electrodes for applications such as electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. We used molybdenum for microneedle fabrication, which is a biocompatible metal; it was used for the conductive layer of the needle array. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated electrodes, they were compared with the conventional surface electrodes in nerve conduction velocity experiment. The recorded signals showed a much lower contact resistance and higher bandwidth in low frequencies for the fabricated microneedle electrodes compared to those of the conventional electrodes. These results indicate the electrode-tissue interface capacitance and charge transfer resistance have been increased in our designed electrodes, while the contact resistance decreased. These changes will lead to less harmful Faradaic current passing through the tissue during stimulation in different frequencies. We also compared the designed microneedle electrodes with conventional ones by a 3-dimensional finite element simulation. The results demonstrated that the current density in the deep layers of the skin and the directivity toward a target nerve for microneedle electrodes were much more than those for the conventional ones. Therefore, the designed electrodes are much more efficient than the conventional electrodes for superficial transcutaneous nerve stimulation purposes.

  19. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods.Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed.The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  20. Paracoccidioidomicose crônica multifocal tendo como primeira manifestação o envolvimento palpebral: relato de caso Chronical and multifocal paracoccidioidomycosis having the lid involvement as the first sign: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nelson de Oliveira Rassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O acometimento ocular da paracoccidioidomicose é raro e quando ocorre é geralmente secundário à disseminação hematogênica. Descrição de um caso de paracococcidioidomicose multifocal em homem de 73 anos com história de trauma contuso no olho direito por pedaço de madeira e que teve como primeira manifestação clínica lesão palpebro-conjuntival. Interroga-se possível infecção primária ocular por contiguidade e alerta-se para a manifestação da doença em idade mais avançada.Ocular involvement of paracoccidioidomycosis is rare and when it occurs it is usually secondary to hematogenic dissemination. A case of multifocal paracoccidioidomycosis in a 73 year-old male after history of blunt trauma in the right eye with a stick of wood that presented as the first clinical sign a lid-conjunctival lesion is described. The possible primary ocular infection spreading by contiguity is argued and the disease manifestation in an advanced age is highlighted.

  1. [The significance of a large number of health insurance funds and fusions for health services research with statutory health insurance data in Germany - experiences of the lidA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, S; Powietzka, J; Stallmann, C; Swart, E

    2015-02-01

    Since 1970 the health insurance system in Germany has shrunk by more than 90% to 132 statutory health insurance funds (SHI) at present. For studies using data from different SHI, this development means a reduction of contacts and a higher workload when requesting data. The latter is due to the fact that fusions bind resources in the health insurance funds. In order to avoid selection in studies among the insured, all SHI must be contacted. Additionally, 15 controlling institutions on the state and national level have to agree as determined in § 75 of the German Social Code number 10. The lidA study - a German cohort study on work, age and health intends to link primary and secondary data from all SHI of those insured who have given their agreement for participation. Since the beginning of the study in 2009 the number of SHI has been reduced by 70. Of the 6 585 interviews in 2011 approximately half of the interviewees agreed in written form that their individual health insurance data can be linked. This portion of the insured is dispersed among 95 SHI. At this point, 11 contracts with SHI are realised (approximately 50% of the insured) and 8 data controlling authorities have been contacted. The problems involved in the fusion of SHI and its meaning for research are explained in this article. The fusion of SHI makes sense for the long term. It will lead to a reduction of contacts and contracts that researchers have to establish in order to analyse the data. Therefore, this article also discusses the alternative of creating a meta-data set of all the data from the different SHI combined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Vedení lidí

    OpenAIRE

    Šikolová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Diploma paper compares theoretical data of questions of leading people with established practice. The information about established practice in leading people was acquired by the help of questioning among managers. The aim of the paper is to evaluate informaion from practice of leading people and to compare them with methods, instructions and recommendations described in theory.

  3. Keeping the lid on nuclear arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhollin, G.; Weeks, J.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Brazil and Argentina agreed not to produce nuclear weapons and to allow mutual inspections of their secret nuclear sites. This exciting move towards nuclear arms control may form the basis of a model of international inspection which other countries may seek to follow. However, neither country will yet unconditionally accept the verification scale proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA seeks to ensure that civilian nuclear materials are not diverted for military use. Military authorities in both countries oppose the plan. It is anticipated that existing difficulties will be overcome. (UK)

  4. Construcció d'un model formatiu en línia vàlid des de la perspectiva de l'estudiant en el marc de la seva disciplina d'estudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Portillo Morales

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Des que la modalitat formativa virtual va començar, hi ha hagut un interès creixent a identificar els factors que determinen l'èxit d'un sistema formatiu en línia. Plantejaments tecnològics, econòmics i pedagògics han proporcionat informació sobre el que, des de cada àmbit, s'ha considerat factors clau de l'èxit.Tanmateix, i a mesura que aquesta nova modalitat formativa es va assentant, resulta imprescindible conèixer l'opinió de l'estudiant sobre el que, des del punt de vista de l'usuari, es considera eficaç o vàlid i determinant de l'èxit d'un sistema virtual d'ensenyament-aprenentatge. Si l'estudiant virtual pren el protagonisme en el procés d'aprenentatge, actuant d'acord amb pautes de funcionament basades en la maduresa i l'autonomia (Bautista et al., pàg. 34, no hauria d'intervenir també en el disseny del sistema d'ensenyament?Sense perdre de vista que cada experiència formativa és condicionada per una sèrie de factors que determinen l'estructura del que seria un model formatiu virtual concret, ens trobem amb tants tipus de models com necessitats específiques de cada estudiant. No obstant això, els esmentats models hauran de compartir necessàriament una sèrie d'elements comuns que vindrien a formar la bastida d'un sistema virtual d'ensenyament-aprenentatge, sobre el qual caldrà afegir l'element didàctic i tecnològic en la mesura exacta en què proporcionen a l'estudiant exactament el que sol·licita. Text complet (PDF Dossier complet (PDF

  5. Search for the p1/2- resonance in 7He with the 7Li(d,2He) reaction and measurement of the deuteron electrodisintegration under 180 deg at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryezayeva, N.

    2006-07-01

    The present work contains two parts, both devoted to the investigation of light nuclei. In the first part of the thesis the structure of the exotic 7 He nucleus is studied. The disappearance of the usual magic numbers in extremely neutron-rich nuclei implies a considerable modification in the spin-orbit interaction. Recent experiments yield contradictory results about a possible existence of the p 1/2 - spin-orbit partner of the 7 He ground state with a dominant p 3/2 - single-particle character. In order to clarify this question a study of the 7 Li(d, 2 He) 7 He reaction has been performed using a 171 MeV deuteron beam provided by the cyclotron at Kernfysisch Versneller Insituut (KVI) in Groningen. The experiment was carried out in April 2003. The setup at KVI offers a resolution ΔE ∼ 150 keV (FWHM) in the measured spectra, better than the line width of the ground state of 7 He. The unbound 2 He system was identified by detecting coincidences between two protons with small relative energy. The data were taken over the angular range Θ cm =0 -11.3 . A possible resonance at an excitation energy E x =(1.45 -0.5 +0.7 ) MeV with a width Γ=(2.0 -1.1 +1.0 ) MeV is suggested by a decomposition of the spectrum using known resonances, the breakup behaviour of 7 He and quasifree charge-exchange contributions, taking into account the cluster structure of 7 Li. Gamow-Teller strengths for transitions to the lowest states in 7 He are in remarkable agreement with results from ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron spectroscopic factor S n =0.64±0.09 of the 7 He ground state ( 7 He= 6 He x n) is extracted by an R-matrix analysis. In the second part of the thesis the deuteron breakup has been studied in the 2 H(e,e ' ) reaction at Θ=180 . The present measurements were performed in March and April 2006 at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC at an incident electron energy E 0 =27.8 MeV and 74 MeV. At low momentum transfer (q=0

  6. On-Chip Hardware for Cell Monitoring: Contact Imaging and Notch Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-07

    a polymer carrier. Spectrophotometer chosen and purchased for testing optical filters and materials. Characterization and comparison of fabricated...reproducibility of behavior. Multi-level SU8 process developed. Optimization of actuator for closing vial lids and development of lid sealing technology is...bending angles characterized as a function of temperature in NaDBS solution. " Photopatternable polymers are a viable interim packaging solution; through

  7. Low impact development (LID) and transportation stormwater practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The proposed project is a combination of a research/design/best practices compilation and ranking in the format of a : design decision tool that can be used by Region X transportation designers and other researchers with respect to : current, and fut...

  8. Control of confined vortex breakdown with partial rotating lids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mununga, L.; Lo Jacono, D.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    are amplified substantially by the use of larger control disks and higher rotation ratios. A series of numerical simulations close to the onset Reynolds number reveals that the control disk acts to generate a rotation-rate-invariant local positive or negative azimuthal vorticity source away from the immediate...

  9. Testing of SWMM Model’s LID Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance to . design and build multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970’s, EPA a...

  10. Replica-moulded polydimethylsiloxane culture vessel lids attenuate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    In general, the longevity and functional availability of cell cultures are mainly .... environment by simply sealing the culture container. However, depending on the .... rate about twice as high as that through a 1 mm PDMS membrane, while it ...

  11. Inspection of bottom and lid welds for disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of copper electron beam and friction stir welds. Both welding methods are described briefly and a more detailed description of the defects occurring in each welding methods is given. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the weld and local changes in the grain size of the base material. Four different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic and radiographic testing techniques are used for inspection of volume. Eddy current and visual testing techniques are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area. All these methods have some limitations which are related to the physics of the used method. All inspection methods need to be carried out remotely because of the radiation from the spent nuclear fuel. All methods have been described in detail and the use of the chosen inspection techniques has been justified. Phased array technology has been applied in ultrasonic testing. Ultrasonic phased array technology enables the electrical modification of the sound field during inspection so that the sound field can be adjusted dynamically for different situations and detection of different defect types. The frequency of the phased array probe has been chosen to be 3.5 MHz. It is a compromise between good sizing and defect detectability. It must be taken into account that ultrasonic testing is not suitable for detection of defect types which are in the direction of the beam. Ultrasonic and radiographic testing techniques complement each other in case of planar defects. Positioning of the indication in the radial direction is rather limited in radiographic testing. Surface inspection has been added to the inspection routine because indications from the outer surface of the canister cannot be distinguished from weld defects in the radiographic image. A 9 MeV linear accelerator has been used in the radiographic testing for this study. Other radiation sources cannot penetrate the wall thickness sufficiently. Defects detected in visual testing will be sized using eddy current testing. Special inspection techniques have been developed for sizing using low frequency (LF) eddy current testing. High frequency (HF) coils are used to evaluate the area of the surface defects. In the case of copper inspection, 30 kHz is considered a high frequency and 200 Hz a low frequency. The acceptance criteria define the defect detectability requirements of the inspection methods. The defect detectability of the methods is under further study to ascertain their viability. In the case of a single defect, the inaccuracy of the sizing method is less important. The significance of the inaccuracy in sizing is more pronounced when there are two or more defects in the corrosion path of the canister. The sizing capability will be studied and subsequently inspection techniques qualified on the basis of the recommendation of ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification). This type of qualification is applied in Europe. In the USA, the qualification in nuclear applications is based on the performance demonstration part of ASME XI. All required information (input information, inspection procedures, technical justifications, etc.) will be gathered in order to prepare for the qualification. At the moment in the NDT reliability study the defect detectability is in focus as well the inaccuracy of sizing of indications. The precise sizing is the clearly more safety-based and industrial acceptance of canisters can be carried out. Sizing will be also verified by a limited metallographic study of detected indications. The work of technical justifications will be started. By qualifying the inspectors and inspection methods, the defined quality requirements for manufacturing disposal canisters for spent nuclear fuel will be met. (orig.)

  12. Replica-moulded polydimethylsiloxane culture vessel lids attenuate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    gases, which can be up to 100 times greater than natural or ... chemical technology (New York: John Wiley) pp 69–81 ... elastomer kit (product information) (www.dowcorning.com) ... expansion of transparent elastomeric media; Rev. Sci.

  13. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  14. Fully integrated optical system for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Geschke, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We present a lab-on-a-chip device featuring a microfluidic dye laser, wave-guides, microfluidic components and photo-detectors integrated on the chip. The microsystem is designed for wavelength selective absorption measurements in the visible range on a fluidic sample, which can be prepared....../mixed on-chip. The laser structures, wave-guides and micro-fluidic handling system are defined in a single UV-lithography step on a 10 μm thick SU-8 layer on top of the substrate. The SU-8 structures are sealed by a Borofloat glass lid, using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) adhesive bonding....

  15. Design, microfabrication, and characterization of a moulded PDMS/SU-8 inkjet dispenser for a Lab-on-a-Printer platform technology with disposable microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bsoul, Anas; Pan, Sheng; Cretu, Edmond; Stoeber, Boris; Walus, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present a disposable inkjet dispenser platform technology and demonstrate the Lab-on-a-Printer concept, an extension of the ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip concept, whereby microfluidic modules are directly integrated into the printhead. The concept is demonstrated here through the integration of an inkjet dispenser and a microfluidic mixer enabling control over droplet composition from a single nozzle in real-time during printing. The inkjet dispenser is based on a modular design platform that enables the low-cost microfluidic component and the more expensive actuation unit to be easily separated, allowing for the optional disposal of the former and reuse of the latter. To limit satellite droplet formation, a hydrophobic-coated and tapered micronozzle was microfabricated and integrated with the fluidics to realize the dispenser. The microfabricated devices generated droplets with diameters ranging from 150-220 μm, depending mainly on the orifice diameter, with printing rates up to 8000 droplets per second. The inkjet dispenser is capable of dispensing materials with a viscosity up to ∼19 mPa s. As a demonstration of the inkjet dispenser function and application, we have printed type I collagen seeded with human liver carcinoma cells (cell line HepG2), to form patterned biological structures.

  16. Congenital upper lid eversion and severe chemosis in a new born

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... The purpose of this study is to report a case of bilateral congenital ... parents noticed a reddish fleshy swelling over the eyes and this made it ... Congenital upper eyelid eversion is a rare clinical entity even though it is said.

  17. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more - The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Tim D.; Shuster, William; Hunt, William F.

    2015-01-01

    The management of urban stormwater has become increasingly complex over recent decades. Consequently, terminology describing the principles and practices of urban drainage has become increasingly diverse, increasing the potential for confusion and miscommunication. This paper documents the history......, scope, application and underlying principles of terms used in urban drainage and provides recommendations for clear communication of these principles. Terminology evolves locally and thus has an important role in establishing awareness and credibility of new approaches and contains nuanced...

  18. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Shock compression experiments in the few hundred GPa (multi-Mbar) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride single crystals. This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17-32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between ˜190 and 570 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot—the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves—as well as pressure and density of reshock states up to ˜920 GPa. The experimental measurements are compared with density functional theory calculations, tabular equation of state models, and legacy nuclear driven results that have been reanalyzed using modern equations of state for the shock wave standards used in the experiments.

  19. Stochastic analysis and robust optimization for a deck lid inner panel stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wurong; Li, Shuhui; Lin, Zhongqin; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2010-01-01

    FE-simulation and optimization are widely used in the stamping process to improve design quality and shorten development cycle. However, the current simulation and optimization may lead to non-robust results due to not considering the variation of material and process parameters. In this study, a novel stochastic analysis and robust optimization approach is proposed to improve the stamping robustness, where the uncertainties are involved to reflect manufacturing reality. A meta-model based stochastic analysis method is developed, where FE-simulation, uniform design and response surface methodology (RSM) are used to construct meta-model, based on which Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to predict the influence of input parameters variation on the final product quality. By applying the stochastic analysis, uniform design and RSM, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of product quality are calculated as functions of the controllable process parameters. The robust optimization model composed of mean and SD is constructed and solved, the result of which is compared with the deterministic one to show its advantages. It is demonstrated that the product quality variations are reduced significantly, and quality targets (reject rate) are achieved under the robust optimal solution. The developed approach offers rapid and reliable results for engineers to deal with potential stamping problems during the early phase of product and tooling design, saving more time and resources.

  20. Short-time activation analysis with and without a 6LiD converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Holzner, H.; Ritschel, A.; Ismail, S.S.; Dorner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at various irradiation and measurement systems of the Institute's TRIGA mark II reactor provides a choice of sample oriented analyzing systems. This is demonstrated on the analysis of waste products, on an analysis of the phase content of a high-T c superconductor and on a fluorine analysis in a standard reference material. (author) 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Seborrheic dermatitis eye lid involment (seborrheic blepharitis in children not a rare clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a typical case of seborrheic dermatitis, with no cutaneous manifestations, rarely reported in children, frequently misdiagnosed (especially by ophthalmologists, simply confirmed by microscopic examination of scales and with wonderful therapeutic results with antifungal agents (topical and/or systemic treatments.

  2. LID: Computer code for identifying atomic and ionic lines below 3500 Angstroms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.M.; Dukart, R.J.

    1987-08-01

    An interactive computer code has been written to search a data base containing information useful for identifying lines in experimentally-observed spectra or for designing experiments. The data base was the basis for the Kelly and Palumbo critical review of well-resolved lines below 2000 Angstroms, includes lines below 3500 Angstroms for atoms and ions of hydrogen through krypton, and was obtained from R.L. Kelly. This code allows the user to search the data base for a user-specified wavelength region, with this search either limited to atoms or ions of the user's choice for all atoms and ions contained in the data base. The line information found in the search is stored in a local file for later reference. A plotting capability is provided to graphically display the lines resulting from the search. Several options are available to control the nature of these graphs. It is also possible to bring in data from another source, such as an experimental spectra, for display along with the lines from the data-base search. Options for manipulating the experimental spectra's background intensity and wavelength scale are also available to the user. The intensities for the lines from each ion found in the data-base search can be scaled by a multiplicative constant to better simulate the observed spectrum

  3. Grab for gripping open moulds and those closed with a lid with radioactive contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The grap consists of a through shaft at the top end of which the crane suspension is fastened. The lower shaft end carries a star-shaped sleeve, whose six arms have radial slots. Grab arms with grab claws alternatively directed inwards and outwards are assigned to the six arms of the sleeve. The grab arms can be actuated or held in the guides or switching curves in three different positions. (DG) [de

  4. Silence is golden : keeping a lid on noise quiets opposition to oilpatch operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, R.

    2006-01-01

    Record levels of drilling activity have led to denser well spacings that are often close to residential areas. Many oil and gas operators are now investing in noise suppression technology in order to suppress public concern over noise levels. This article reviewed some new silencing technologies available to the oil and gas industry. Issues concerning permissible sound levels for remote facilities were discussed. Silencing equipment details were presented for turbine exhaust engines, turbo inlet systems, reciprocating engines, and specialty silencers for ventilation systems. Issues concerning acoustical systems and retrofits for existing buildings were also examined. It was noted that a new muffler has been acoustically engineered to provide engine exhaust noise removal along with an internal acoustic treatment to eliminate radiated noise from the muffler shell. The loudest noise source at a compression station is often the engine exhaust of large reciprocating engines. Various computer programs are now available that analyze noise, create models to predict noise levels in decibels for nearby residents, and help to engineer noise control plans. It was concluded that many of the new sound-proofing technologies for the walls and roofs of buildings and enclosures were developed during the design of new compression units built by TransCanada Pipeline on main pipelines across Canada. 2 figs

  5. Book Review. Inger Marie Lid: Universal design. Core values​​, knowledge, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Asmervik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sigmund Asmervik, dr.ing. Professor emeritus, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB, has reviewed Inger Marie Lid’s book Universell utforming: Verdigrunnlag, kunnskap og praksis (Universal design: Core values​​, knowledge, and practices. He states that this book provides very good suggestions about topics relating to issues such as how people should be able to develop in the community with others and how to look after issues relating to dignity and bodily vulnerability. This expands and challenges the discourse around the concept of universal design, and is the book's most important contribution. As a textbook aimed at students of architecture and engineering, occupational therapy and physiotherapy studies, and otherwise to anyone who is engaged in universal design in practice, as it says on the publisher's website, it has some significant challenges.

  6. Demonstration of Low Impact Development (LID) to Mitigate Stormwater Metal Contaminants in Navy Commercial Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    perforated pipe (1/4-in holes); 7) drain cleanout; 8) backflow preventer on underdrain; 9) blood meal fertilizer by Pro-Pell-it!: soil, Bioswale Mix...several hours expected for these project sites). These metals can form soluble complexes with different inorganic and organic ligands. The complex...valence can range from -2 to +2. Organic and inorganic complexes may be treated by chemically active filtration through compost, peat, and soil. Also

  7. Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    is difficult to capture experimentally since the flow is fully three-dimensional and also varies in time. A measurement in a point or in a plane will by itself not give the full picture of the flow.Measurement with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) analyzed with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD......) and that the presence of helical vortices can be detected. However, the interpretation of the resulting flow still is done with an element of guessing on whether a specific variation is caused by an actual time variation of a structure or is caused by the rotation of a three-dimensional structure.The present work...

  8. Lesões palpebrais no lúpus eritematoso Lid lesions in lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Beckhauser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O envolvimento cutâneo do lúpus eritematoso, quando aparece de maneira isolada em pálpebra, pode ser de difícil diagnóstico. Diagnósticos errôneos são comuns, principalmente o de blefarite resistente a tratamento. Todavia o diagnóstico precoce é importante no sentido de evitar a cicatrização e possíveis seqüelas nas delicadas estruturas locais. Descrevem-se três casos de lesões palpebrais em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso, e, em cada uma das situações, essa lesão teve um significado clínico diferente. Nas duas primeiras pacientes, firmou-se o diagnóstico de lesão discóide pela biópsia. Na terceira paciente encontrou-se um carcinoma basocelular.The cutaneous involvement of lupus erythematosus is difficult to diagnose when it appears isolated in the eyelid. Misdiagnosis is common, confusions arising mainly with chronic resistant blepharitis. Yet the early diagnosis is important to avoid scarring and damage to the delicate local structures. We present three patients with lupus and eyelid cutaneous lesions, each of them with a different clinical significance. In the first two patients it was possible to diagnose discoid lesion through skin biopsy. In the third, a basocelular carcinoma was found.

  9. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow instabilities in a rotating lid-driven cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    liquid. For the first time the onset of three-dimensionality and transition are analysed by combining the high spatial resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and the temporal accuracy of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). A detailed mapping of the transition from steady and axisymmetric flow...

  10. Head-motion-controlled video goggles: preliminary concept for an interactive laparoscopic image display (i-LID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidlen, Jeremy T; Glick, Sara; Silverman, Kenneth; Silverman, Harvey F; Luks, Francois I

    2009-08-01

    Light-weight, low-profile, and high-resolution head-mounted displays (HMDs) now allow personalized viewing, of a laparoscopic image. The advantages include unobstructed viewing, regardless of position at the operating table, and the possibility to customize the image (i.e., enhanced reality, picture-in-picture, etc.). The bright image display allows use in daylight surroundings and the low profile of the HMD provides adequate peripheral vision. Theoretic disadvantages include reliance for all on the same image capture and anticues (i.e., reality disconnect) when the projected image remains static, despite changes in head position. This can lead to discomfort and even nausea. We have developed a prototype of interactive laparoscopic image display that allows hands-free control of the displayed image by changes in spatial orientation of the operator's head. The prototype consists of an HMD, a spatial orientation device, and computer software to enable hands-free panning and zooming of a video-endoscopic image display. The spatial orientation device uses magnetic fields created by a transmitter and receiver, each containing three orthogonal coils. The transmitter coils are efficiently driven, using USB power only, by a newly developed circuit, each at a unique frequency. The HMD-mounted receiver system links to a commercially available PC-interface PCI-bus sound card (M-Audiocard Delta 44; Avid Technology, Tewksbury, MA). Analog signals at the receiver are filtered, amplified, and converted to digital signals, which are processed to control the image display. The prototype uses a proprietary static fish-eye lens and software for the distortion-free reconstitution of any portion of the captured image. Left-right and up-down motions of the head (and HMD) produce real-time panning of the displayed image. Motion of the head toward, or away from, the transmitter causes real-time zooming in or out, respectively, of the displayed image. This prototype of the interactive HMD allows hands-free, intuitive control of the laparoscopic field, independent of the captured image.

  11. Afázie u dospělých a starších lidí

    OpenAIRE

    VALVODOVÁ, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis pay attention to the aphasia as a communication disorder. The thesis is divided into the theoretical and the practical part. In the theoretical part themes of the neurolinguistics, the speech, tha brain and the aphasia are analysed. The longest chapter focuses on causes of the aphasia, types of aphasia, the diagnosis and therapy of aphasia. The practical part includes single casuistry of three patients and the analysis.

  12. Globalizace z pohledu výpočetní techniky a jeji vliv na psychiku lidí

    OpenAIRE

    Jurek, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation is a natural process in the evolution of human society and greatly influences our everyday reality. Besides advantages and new possibilities that globalisation brings, it also puts new requirements on people. These are apparent for example in the area of information technologies, which are a symbol of linkage of the modern world. Problems with coping with new technologies or their abusing can cause serious complications to people living in the era of globalisation. This work is ...

  13. Vibrational Energies of LiH2+ and LiD2+in the A1sigma+ Electronic State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraemer, W. P.; Špirko, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 41 (2011), s. 11313-11320 ISSN 1089-5639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : LiH2+ molecular ion * density of states * nearest-neighbor level spacing distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2011

  14. Numerical investigation of pure mixed convection in a ferrofluid-filled lid-driven cavity for different heater configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md. Rabbi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed convection has been a center point of attraction to the heat transfer engineers for many years. Here, pure mixed convection analysis in cavity is carried out for two different geometric heater configurations under externally applied magnetic field. Ferrofluid (Fe3O4–water is considered as working fluid and modeled as single phase fluid. The heaters at the bottom wall are kept at constant high temperature while vertical side walls are adiabatic. The top wall is moving at a constant velocity in both geometric configurations and is kept at constant low temperature. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element analysis is implemented to solve the governing equations. The analysis has been carried out for a wide range of Richardson number (Ri = 0.1–10, Reynolds number (Re = 100–500, Hartmann number (Ha = 0–100 and solid volume fraction (φ = 0–0.15 of ferrofluid. The overall heat transfer performance for both the configurations is quantitatively investigated by average Nusselt number at the heated boundary wall. It is observed that higher Ri enhances the heat transfer rate, although higher Ha decreases heat transfer rate. Moreover, at higher Ri and lower Ha, semi-circular notched cavity shows significantly better (more than 30% heat transfer rate.

  15. Básník a lid. Bedřich Václavek mezi literaturou a folklorem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feinberg, Joseph Grim

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2017), s. 823-845 ISSN 0009-0468 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-23955S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Marxism * interwar literary criticism * literary criticism * folklore studies * avant-garde Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Literary theory

  16. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  17. "Boží lidé" bývali terčem četných ústrků

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altman, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2015), s. 17 ISSN 0323-1542 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : God * God ´s people * Christians * Believer * Unfairness * Christianity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Globalizační procesy v Indii a jejich vliv na psychiku a chování lidí

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitina, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with globalization process in India and its impact on people's mind and behavior. Also, this work describes the attitudes and emotions of people who are affected by this phenomenon, explains how principles of globalization were applied in the country, both in society and in the Indian national economics, particularly in the food industry, analyzes the role of mass media in globalization process and finally, clarifies specific problems which multinational companies faced when...

  19. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Rens, W.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 809-820 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P282 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : reptile cytogenetics * FISH * neo- sex hromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2010

  20. Český lid a příbuzné vědecké časopisy v 19.-21. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woitsch, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2013), s. 121-127 ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : academic journals * academic writing * history of 19th and 20th century * social science s and humanities * history of science Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.094, year: 2012

  1. Optimizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance sequences for surface coil microimaging of the eye with regard to lid, eyeball and head moving artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Takayuki; Uemura, Koji; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tamura, Mitsuru; Tanada, Shuji; Ikehira, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    To acquire high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images, we developed a new blinking artifact reduced pulse (BARP) sequence with a surface coil specialized for microscopic imaging (47 mm in diameter). To reduce eye movement, we ascertained that the subjects' eyes were kept open and fixated to the target in the 1.5-T MR gantry. To reduce motion artifacts from blinking, we inserted rest periods for blinking (1.5 s within every 5 s) during MR scanning (T2-weighted fast spin echo; repetition time, 5 s; echo time, 100 ms; echo train, 11; matrix, 256 x 128; field of view, 5 cm; 1-mm thickness x 30 slices). Three scans (100 s x 3) were performed for each normal subject, and they were added together after automatic adjustment for location to reduce quality loss caused by head motion. T2-weighted MR images were acquired with a high resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Motion artifacts were reduced with BARP, as compared with those with random blinking. Intraocular structures such as the iris and ciliary muscles were clearly visualized. Because the whole eye can be covered with a 1-mm thickness by this method, three-dimensional maps can easily be generated from the obtained images. The application of BARP with a surface coil of the human eye might become a useful and widely adopted procedure for MR microimaging.

  2. Talumatud tülid ettevõtte sees katkestasid Airbusi järsu tõusu / Peggy Hollinger, Gerrit Wiesmann ; tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hollinger, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa lennu- ja kosmosetööstus EADS pidi suutma Airbusi efektiivselt juhtida, kuid ei suutnud Airbusis lepitada vastakaid huve. Konfliktidest EADS-i juhtide hulgas, probleemidest A 380 valmimisel. Lisa: Airbus ei looda ainult A380-le

  3. Hodnoty v životě lidí žijících ekologickýcm způsobem života

    OpenAIRE

    Plajnerová, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The master thesis deals with life values of ecologically living people. It is divided into a theoretical and practical part. In its theoretical part it focuses on terms used in ecology, lifestyle and the description of values linked to the protection of environment. It deals with the concept of sustainable development and describes ecological farming. The practical part of the thesis analyses the qualitative research which was done in the form of semi-structured interviews with ecological far...

  4. Work-family conflict as a mediator in the association between work stress and depressive symptoms: cross-sectional evidence from the German lidA-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Peter, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The demographic change leads to a shrinking German work force. Depressive symptoms cause many days absent at work, loss of productivity and early retirement. Therefore, pathways for prevention of depressive symptoms are important for the maintenance of global competitiveness. We investigated the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known association between work stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 6,339 employees subject to social insurance, born in 1959 or 1965 and randomly drawn from 222 sample points in Germany participated in the first wave of the leben in der Arbeit-study. In the analysis, 5,906 study subjects working in full-time or part-time positions were included. Work stress was measured by effort-reward imbalance ratio, depressive symptoms by the applied Becks depression inventory (BDI-V) and WFC by items of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)-scale. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, education, negative affectivity (PANAS), overcommitment and number of children was performed. Mediation was defined according to the criteria of Baron and Kenny. Work stress was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (BDI-V) in all full-time [ß1female = 6.61 (95 % CI 3.95-9.27); ß1male = 8.02 (95 % CI 5.94-10.09)] and female part-time employees [ß2female = 4.87 (95 % CI 2.16-7.59)]. When controlling for WFC effect, estimates became smaller in men and were even halved in women. WFC was also significantly associated with work stress and depressive symptoms: All criteria for partial mediation between work stress and depressiveness were fulfilled. Prevention of WFC may help to reduce days absent at work and early retirement due to work stress-related depressive symptoms in middle-aged women and men.

  5. Start-up flow in a three-dimensional lid-driven cavity by means of a massively parallel direction splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Minev, P. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate a new highly parallelizable direction splitting algorithm. The parallelization capabilities of this algorithm are illustrated by providing a highly accurate solution for the start-up flow in a three

  6. Sociální rozumění u lidí a ostatních hominidů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 7 (2014), s. 591-603 ISSN 0046-385X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP401/12/P544 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Social cognition * Anthropological difference * Theory of mind * Interactive turn * Joint attention * Joint intentionality * Apes Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Gevormd door leeservaringen : De relatie tussen leesattitude, het lezen van fictie en het voornemen van adolescenten om lid te blijven van de openbare bibliotheek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Each year more than 40 percent of all people in the age of 18 to 20 years does not renew their subscription to the public library. As nearly two-third of all items borrowed at public libraries consists of fiction, it is hypothesized that the decision to remain using the public library is related to

  8. Podle čeho lidé poznají zařazení do sociální třídy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2008), s. 11-12 ISSN 1214-1720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : class * inequalities * social structure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz

  9. Lifting the lid of the "black intervention box" - the systematic development of an action competence programme for people with screen-detected dysglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandbæk Annelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence gained from effective self-management interventions is often criticised for the ambiguity of its active components, and consequently the obstruction of their implementation into daily practice. Our aim is to report how an intervention development model aids the careful selection of active components in an intervention for people with dysglycaemia. Methods The first three phases of the UK Medical Research Council's model for developing complex interventions in primary care were used to develop a self-management intervention targeting people with screen-detected dysglycaemia. In the preclinical phase, the expected needs of the target group were assessed by review of empirical literature and theories. In phase I, a preliminary intervention was modelled and in phase II, the preliminary intervention was pilot tested. Results In the preclinical phase the achievement of health-related action competence was defined as the overall intervention goal and four learning objectives were identified: motivation, informed decision-making, action experience and social involvement. In Phase I, the educational activities were defined and the pedagogical tools tested. In phase II, the intervention was tested in two different primary healthcare settings and adjusted accordingly. The 18-hour intervention "Ready to Act" ran for 3 months and consisted of two motivational one-to-one sessions conducted by nurses and eight group meetings conducted by multidisciplinary teams. Conclusions An intervention aimed at health-related action competence was successfully developed for people with screen-detected dysglycaemia. The systematic and transparent developmental process is expected to facilitate future clinical research. The MRC model provides the necessary steps to inform intervention development but should be prioritised according to existing evidence in order to save time.

  10. PUB22 and PUB23 U-BOX E3 ligases directly ubiquitinate RPN6, a 26S proteasome lid subunit, for subsequent degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Bae, Hansol; Ryu, Moonyoung

    2015-01-01

    and PUB23, two U-box E3 ligase homologs, tether ubiquitins to 19S proteasome regulatory particle (RP) subunit RPN6, leading to its degradation. RPN6 was identified as an interacting substrate of PUB22 by yeast two-hybrid screening, and in vitro pull-down assay confirmed that RPN6 interacts not only......Drought stress strongly affects plant growth and development, directly connected with crop yields, accordingly. However, related to the function of U-BOX E3 ligases, the underlying molecular mechanisms of desiccation stress response in plants are still largely unknown. Here we report that PUB22...

  11. Knock-on tail formation due to nuclear elastic scattering and its observation method using γ-ray-generating "6Li+d reaction in tokamak deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Shota; Kajimoto, Shogo; Sawada, Daisuke; Nishimura, Yosuke; Kawamoto, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    A knock-on tail formation in deuteron velocity distribution function due to nuclear elastic scattering (NES) by energetic protons and its observation method using γ-ray-generating "6Li(d,pγ)"7Li reaction are examined for proton-beam-injected deuterium plasmas. The proton velocity distribution function is obtained by means of the ion trajectory analysis in a Tokamak magnetic configuration. The knock-on tail in two-dimensional (2D) deuteron velocity distribution function due to NES by energetic protons is evaluated via Boltzmann collision integral and 2D Fokker-Planck simulation. From the 2D deuteron velocity distribution function obtained, enhancement of the emission rate of 0.48-MeV γ-rays by "6Li(d,p)"7Li*, "7Li*→"7Li+γ reaction due to NES is evaluated. It is shown that the γ-ray emission rate is significantly influenced by the magnitude of the knock-on tail, and the γ-ray-generating reaction can be a useful tool for the knock-on tail observation. (author)

  12. Digitální nomádství – management, řízení lidí na dálku

    OpenAIRE

    Ďopanová, Nela

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about teleworking, specifically the digital nomads with main focus on the details of a manager's position. The thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part mainly came from available specialized literatures on this topic. It familiarizes with today's approaches and it sets up the basic overview about this issue. The practical part of the work is based on qualitative research, which was structured by interviews with ten different nom...

  13. Psychologické aspekty přeměny genderové role u trans-lidí v českém kontextu

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the processes of gender role transition and sex reassignment from the perspectives of psychology, medicine, and sociology. Its main focus is on the various aspects influencing the psyche of a person undertaking transition. The thesis investigates why trans identity is commonly viewed as a pathology and the impact of pathologization on the self-perception of trans people. Furthemore, the traditional outline of the transition process in Czech sexology is compared to some cur...

  14. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2010-11-01

    The eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) include both species with temperature-dependent sex determination and species where genotypic sex determination (GSD) was suggested based on the observation of equal sex ratios at several incubation temperatures. In this study, we present data on karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics in 12 species (Aeluroscalabotes felinus, Coleonyx brevis, Coleonyx elegans, Coleonyx variegatus, Eublepharis angramainyu, Eublepharis macularius, Goniurosaurus araneus, Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi, Goniurosaurus luii, Goniurosaurus splendens, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, and Holodactylus africanus) covering all genera of the family, and search for the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Phylogenetic mapping of chromosomal changes showed a long evolutionary stasis of karyotypes with all acrocentric chromosomes followed by numerous chromosomal rearrangements in the ancestors of two lineages. We have found heteromorphic sex chromosomes in only one species, which suggests that sex chromosomes in most GSD species of the eyelid geckos are not morphologically differentiated. The sexual difference in karyotype was detected only in C. elegans which has a multiple sex chromosome system (X(1)X(2)Y). The metacentric Y chromosome evolved most likely via centric fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes involving loss of interstitial telomeric sequences. We conclude that the eyelid geckos exhibit diversity in sex determination ranging from the absence of any sexual differences to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which makes them an interesting system for exploring the evolutionary origin of sexually dimorphic genomes.

  15. Lifting the lid of the "black intervention box" - the systematic development of an action competence programme for people with screen-detected dysglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Kirkevold, Marit; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The evidence gained from effective self-management interventions is often criticised for the ambiguity of its active components, and consequently the obstruction of their implementation into daily practice. Our aim is to report how an intervention development model aids...... the careful selection of active components in an intervention for people with dysglycaemia. Methods: The first three phases of the UK Medical Research Council's model for developing complex interventions in primary care were used to develop a self-management intervention targeting people with screen......-detected dysglycaemia. In the preclinical phase, the expected needs of the target group were assessed by review of empirical literature and theories. In phase I, a preliminary intervention was modelled and in phase II, the preliminary intervention was pilot tested. Results: In the preclinical phase the achievement...

  16. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmuller, R.; Giselbrecht, S.; Escalante-Marun, M.; Groenendijk, M.; Papenburg, B.; Rivron, N.; Unadkat, H.; Saile, V.; Subramaniam, V.; Berg, A. van den; Blitterswijk, C. Van; Wessling, M.; Boer, J. den; Stamatialis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  17. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmüller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Groenendijk, Max; Papenburg, Bernke; Rivron, Nicolas; Unadkat, Hemant; Saile, Volker; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Albert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Wessling, Matthias; Boer, Jan de; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  18. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmüller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Groenendijk, Max; Papenburg, Bernke; Rivron, Nicolas; Unadkat, Hemant; Saile, Volker; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Albert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Wessling, Matthias; de Boer, Jan; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a micro- or nanoscale. For microthermoforming, we apply a new process on the basis of temporary back moulding of polymer films and use the novel concept of a perforated-sheet-like mould. Thermal micro- or nanoimprinting is applied for prepatterning. The novel cell container arrays are fabricated from polylactic acid (PLA) films. The thin-walled microcontainer structures have the shape of a spherical calotte merging into a hexagonal shape at their upper circumferential edges. In the arrays, the cell containers are arranged densely packed in honeycomb fashion. The inner surfaces of the highly curved container walls are provided with various topographical micro- and nanopatterns. For a first validation of the microcontainer arrays as in vitro cell culture substrates, C2C12 mouse premyoblasts are cultured in containers with microgrooved surfaces and shown to align along the grooves in the three-dimensional film substrates. In future stem-cell-biological and tissue engineering applications, microcontainers fabricated using the proposed technology may act as geometrically defined artificial microenvironments or niches.

  19. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2005-01-01

    the commercially available laser dye Rhodamine 6G, which is incorporated into the SU-8 polymer matrix. The single-mode slab waveguide is formed by three-step spin-coating deposition: a buffer layer of undoped SU-8, a core layer of SU-8 doped with Rhodamine, and a cladding layer of undoped SU-8. (c) 2005 Optical...

  20. Closure for casks containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.V.B.; Mallory, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an improved closure for covering and sealing an opening in a single cask for containing radioactive material, wherein the opening is characterized by a ledge. It comprises: an inner lid receivable within the opening and having a gasket means that is seatable over the ledge; an outer lid which is likewise receivable into the opening and securable therearound when the outer lid is rotated relative to the opening. The inner lid remaining stationary relative to the cask opening when the outer lid is rotated and having no torque applied thereto by the outer lid when the outer lid is rotated, and bolt means threadedly mounted through the outer lid for applying a compressive force between the inner and outer lids after the outer lid has been secured to the opening in order to depress the gasket means of the inner lid into sealing engagement with the ledge while avoiding the application of torsion between the gasket means and the ledge

  1. Photocleavable microcapsules built from photoreactive nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaofeng; Fischer, Karl; Schärtl, Wolfgang

    2005-09-27

    We show how photo-cross-linking of nanoparticles within the micrometer-sized thin oil shell of water-oil-water emulsion droplets leads to a new species of optically addressable microcontainers. The inner water droplet of these emulsions may contain drugs, dyes, or other water-soluble components, leading to filled containers. The thickness, mechanical stability, and light resistance of the container walls can be controlled in a simple way by the amount and adjustable photoreactivity of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the chemical bonds between the nanoparticles constituting the microcapsule shell can be cleaved photochemically by irradiation with UV light. This optically controlled destruction of our microcontainers opens up a pathway to controlled release of the enclosed components, as will be illustrated by the example of enclosed cyclodextrin molecules.

  2. Components, Assembly and Electrochemical Properties of Three-Dimensional Battery Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    developed previously were incompatible with the mechanical forces associated with polymer processing and lithographic alignment characteristics . For...reliability (Figure I 0). The flatness of the current collector substrate, SU-8 storage, amount of SU-8, soft bake time, UV exposure dose, and development...sensitive to the total thickness of SU-8 exposure. After many tests, we have found that 20 hours of soft baking at 1 00°C dries the SU-8 solvent enough for

  3. Engineering and Characterizing Light-Matter Interactions in Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    SU8 monomer has, on average, eight epoxy groups, that under go a ring-opening polymerization in the presence of an acid catalyst. SU8 falls into...copper oxide [49] into colloidal and SU8 polymer photonic crystal templates, respectively. 1.5.2 Gas-Phase Infilling Gas-phase deposition typically...resist using direct laser writing. 78 Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph of an over- polymerized woodpile structure fabricated in SU8 photo-resist

  4. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  5. Joint analysis of refraction seismic survey with multilevel hydrophone measurement (application for detecting the high velocity thin lid); Kussekiho jishin tansa data to kochu hydrophone data no fukugo kaiseki no rei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S; Harada, T; Hayashi, K [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    During a refraction seismic survey conducted at a spot where a high-speed lava layer is supposedly concealed, the distribution of lava layer was estimated, and a composite analysis involving the vibration data received via hydrophones arranged in a bore hole was accomplished using a high-speed model based on an assumed geological section. The refraction survey centered on the bore hole and was accomplished using 250m-long traverse lines extending therefrom, one to the upstream and the other to the downstream of a river, producing a total length of 500m. The hydrophones were installed in the bore hole, and the measurement was carried out in an offset VSP-like observation pattern. In the analysis, the velocities obtained by the refraction survey and velocity logging were assigned to each layer on the basis of the assumed geological section for the construction of a velocity distribution model, which served as the early model for the repetition of calculation. Calculation was repeated with help of the said model, and a geological structure, capable of explaining the travel time data collected during the refraction survey and velocity logging, was successfully estimated. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Podpora lidí s tělesným postižením. Projekt "Práce na míru šitá"

    OpenAIRE

    Brůnová, Lada

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis "The Educative Campaign for People with Psychical Disabilities. Project "Tailored Job" deals with social marketing, specifically social campaign of a non-profit organization Asistence o.s. and its various aspects with regard to the Czech non-profit environment. I devote a large part of the thesis to the communications mix which, if used cleverly, saves the non-profit organization some money. Finally, I try to evaluate the project, in particular the communications site and outline h...

  7. Naplňování spirituálních potřeb u lidí s mentálním postižením

    OpenAIRE

    Brusová, Kamila

    2009-01-01

    Man ́s behaviour is made from his needs. We all know very well saying that beeing a man means unity of body and spirit. If we speak about such unity, we must admit we are not made only from biologic items, but we have the psychic and spiritual proportion in the same time. My work discuses this splitting more exhaustively. Every man needs not only to live biologically, but also psychologically and spiritually. I devote my work especially to spiritual needs of people. I focused my attention eve...

  8. Podporované zaměstnávání a pracovní uplatnění lidí s mentálním postižením

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical part of my thesis deals with the problems connected with employment of persons with mild and moderate form of mental retardation, especially from the perspective of their psychical characters and specific education. The thesis describes the system of social services that are provided to mentally affected persons too. It contains legislative determinants of integration and determinants of labor market related to the employment of mentally affected persons. This thesis defines the t...

  9. Kostenindicatie opheffing voorrang gemotoriseerd verkeer op niet-gemotoriseerd verkeer : ruwe schatting van de kosten verbonden aan de eventuele opheffing van artikel 15 lid 2 sub c van het Reglement Verkeersregels en Verkeerstekens RVV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slop, M.

    1995-01-01

    In Europe, traffic coming from the right in principle has priority on intersections without right-of-way signs. Only in The Netherlands, an exception applies to motor vehicles. Even when coming from the left, motor vehicles have right-of-way over cyclists and moped riders. The general opinion is

  10. Moderní komunikační a sociální sítě a jejich vliv na chování lidí

    OpenAIRE

    Voroshilova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    Characteristic of social networks, description of their atributes, concept "addiction to social networks", evaluation of marketing in social networks. Analysis of social networks' influence on human behaviour.

  11. Technological aspects of gaseous pixel detectors fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Salm, Cora; Smits, Sander M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Melai, J.; Chefdeville, M.A.; van der Graaf, H.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated gaseous pixel detectors consisting of a metal punctured foil suspended in the order of 50μm over a pixel readout chip by means by SU-8 insulating pillars have been fabricated. SU-8 is used as sacrificial layer but metallization over uncrosslinked SU-8 presents adhesion and stress

  12. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  13. Food packing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  14. Disease: H01641 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ratoconjunctivitis sicca) is multifactorial disease of the tears, lids, and ocular surface which can result ...omian glands. Artificial tears of various kinds are recommended if the symptoms are mild. Lid hygiene is hel

  15. Preparation of lithium deuteride laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevender, T.S.; Lynch, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for the handling and spheroidization of LiD powders are presented. Particle inspection procedures and a description of both the mathematical and experimental aspects of LiD isotope and exchange experiments are also described

  16. Barriers to implementing low impact development approaches in Washington State roadways and highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    Low impact development (LID) is an approach to stormwater management that seeks to mimic the natural hydrologic functions of stormwater runoff prior to development. In general, LID techniques emphasize infiltration and evapotranspiration to remove po...

  17. Filter case for separating out radioactive effluents from gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannakos, K.; Zabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated change of filter in a filter case can be done with an annular or cylindrical filter insert, where the contaminated air side remains separate from the clean air side. A lid is provided which can be divided into two parts, and by which the openings of the filter insert and also in the intermediate floor can be opened or closed using the double lid technique. When closing the filter case lid, the double lid closure is always opened. (DG) [de

  18. Comparison of urine iodine/creatinine ratio between patients following stringent and less stringent low iodine diet for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jee Ho; Kim, Byung Il; Ha, Ji Su; Chang, Sei Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Do Min; Kim, Chong Soon

    2006-01-01

    A low iodine diet (LID) for 1 ∼ 2 weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine tatio (urine I/Cr). From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1 week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F = 1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID). Average of urine I/Cr ratio was 127.87 ± 78.52 μ g/g in stringent LID for 1 week, and 289.75 ± 188.24 μ g/g in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (ρ = 0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below 100 μ g/g was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable

  19. Polymorphisms of DRD2, DRD3, DRD4 and HTR2C genes in levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, S.A.; Alifirova, V.M.; Fedorenko, O.Y.; Freidin, M.B.; Bokhan, N.A.; Zhukova, I.; Al Hadithy, A.F.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Wilffert, B.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are involuntary muscle movements that occur as a consequence of chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment. LID are a substantial barrier to effective symptomatic management of Parkinson's disease (PD), up to 45% of L-DOPA users develop LID within 5 years [1]. Clinical

  20. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  1. Metal Ion Sensor with Catalytic DNA in a Nanofluidic Intelligent Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the SU8 epoxy group of polymers , but two common problems resulted from its use. First, SU8 shrinks during curing leaving cracks along channels...expands and contracts at the same CTE as the coverglass, which leads to layer misalignment. .................... 32 Figure 20. Modification of the SU8 ...tradeoff between forming a flat layer, although highly stressed on glass, or an unstressed layer but highly non-uniform on a polymer substrate. Because

  2. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Jun Shin; Min-Cheol Lim; Kisang Park; Sae-Hyung Kim; Sung-Wook Choi; Gyeongsik Ok

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm) exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transpa...

  3. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro-containers...... before single molecules are available for the formation of crystal nuclei, thus stabilizing the amorphous form....

  4. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...... nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122)....

  5. Polymer Light-Emitting Diode (PLED) Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    perature of 95°C, above the Tg (55°C) of un- polymerized SU8 . Baking at this temperature will allow the resin to reflow, which will result in a smoother... SU8 polymerization . An- terface of the SU8 layer and the OG114-4 layer results in a strong reflection of the UV light, which causes this over exposure...post-develop bake is to complete the polymerization and re-flow the coa ing surface. The chemical resistance of the SU8 layer t- depends predominately

  6. Selectively Tuning a Buckled Si/SiO2 Membrane MEMS through Joule Heating Actuation and Mechanical Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    bulk micromachining, respectively [17] . A third process, known as micromolding, builds a polymer mold with material deposition into the mold volume to...DI) developer. ο 30 sec spin at 500 rpm and spray DI H2O. ο Rinse sample and dry with nitrogen. APPLY SU8 ο Dropper SU8 over sample (do not...Apply SU8 ο Dropper SU8 over sample (do not let dropper touch edge of bottle) ο Ensure sample is completely covered to the edges o 4 sec 500 rpm ο

  7. Local island divertor experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ikeda, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kubo, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Toi, K.; Tsumori, K.; Watababe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yoshimura, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment has begun on LHD, with the aims of controlling edge recycling and improving the plasma confinement. The fundamental divertor functions of the LID have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. From the particle flux profile measurements on the LID head it was found that the particles diffusing out from the core region are well guided along the island separatrix to the LID head. Owing to the closed configuration around the LID head, evidence of the high efficient pumping was observed, together with a strong capacity to screen impurities. The first results of edge modeling using the EMC3-EIRENE code are also presented

  8. Special closure for radioactive shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otts, J.V.

    1976-03-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a special lid closure for radioactive material shipping containers, typically steel drums. Three closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to protect 1000 lb when dropped 30 ft. The three designs were (1) a 6-in. lid extension (skirt), (2) a 6-in. inner lid, and (3) c-clamps used at the container/lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the 6-in. lid extension is recommended

  9. Charging material into a container and closing the container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Oldham, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive waste material is passed from a cell through a port into a storage drum which has a mouth with a removable lid. A port door includes an electromagnet to hold the lid to the door and both are moved into the cell by a pneumatic cylinder to allow loading of the drum and after re-closure of door and lid swaging tools operate to deform the lid to form one or more lips which engage under the margin around mouth to resist separation of the lid from the drum. Seals are provided. The swaging tools, or a single swaging tool, can be rotatably mounted on the port door. (author)

  10. Low Impact Development Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project creates a Low Impact Development (LID) Master Plan to guide and prioritize future development of LID projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The LID Master Plan applies to developed areas across the Laboratory and focuses on identifying opportunities for storm water quality and hydrological improvements in the heavily urbanized areas of Technical Areas 03, 35 and 53. The LID Master Plan is organized to allow the addition of LID projects for other technical areas as time and funds allow in the future.

  11. Cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Fujita, Jun-ya.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a rational structural member of a cryostat of a thermonuclear reactor or a thermonuclear device. Namely, the cryostat comprises a cylindrical body structural member and a lid structural member covering the upper end opening thereof. The lid structural member comprises (1) a lid bottom plate for vacuum sealing, comprising a flat board mounted substantially horizontally to the upper end opening of the body structural member, (2) lid reinforcing ribs comprising linear beams mounted integrally to the surface of the lid bottom plate and (3) neutron shielding concretes disposed on the surface of the lid bottom plate. With such a constitution, curving fabrication of the lid bottom plate and bending fabrication for the lid reinforcing ribs which have been conducted in an existent construction method are made unnecessary. In addition, an outer lid plate (lid top plate) which has been required for a lid structural member of an existent plate-type structure is also made unnecessary. As a result, the number of structural parts can be reduced, the structure can be simplified and the number of construction steps can be reduced. (I.S.)

  12. Altering the activation mechanism in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    It is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates......, and enhanced calcium independence. The rational design was based on the lid residue composition in Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (FAEA). Five constructs included lipase variants containing the full FAEA lid, a FAEA-like lid, an intermediate lid of FAEA and TlL character, and the entire lid region...... from Aspergillus terreus lipase (AtL). To investigate an altered activation mechanism for each variant compared to that of TlL, a combination of activity- and spectroscopic-based measurements were applied. The engineered variant with a lid from AtL displayed interfacial activation comparable...

  13. Silver Alginate Hydrogel Micro- and Nanocontainers for Theranostics: Synthesis, Encapsulation, Remote Release, and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Ekaterina; Saveleva, Mariia; Abalymov, Anatolii; Atkin, Vsevolod; Wuytens, Pieter C; Kamyshinsky, Roman; Vasiliev, Alexander L; Gorin, Dmitry A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Skirtach, Andre G; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan

    2017-07-05

    We have designed multifunctional silver alginate hydrogel microcontainers referred to as loaded microcapsules with different sizes by assembling them via a template assisted approach using natural, highly porous calcium carbonate cores. Sodium alginate was immobilized into the pores of calcium carbonate particles of different sizes followed by cross-linking via addition of silver ions, which had a dual purpose: on one hand, the were used as a cross-linking agent, albeit in the monovalent form, while on the other hand they have led to formation of silver nanoparticles. Monovalent silver ions, an unusual cross-linking agent, improve the sensitivity to ultrasound, lead to homogeneous distribution of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles appeared on the shell of the alginate microcapsules in the twin-structure as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Remote release of a payload from alginate containers by ultrasound was found to strongly depend on the particle size. The possibility to use such particles as a platform for label-free molecule detection based on the surface enhanced Raman scattering was demonstrated. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies conducted in this work have revealed that microcontainers exhibit nonessential level of toxicity with an efficient uptake of cells. The above-described functionalities constitute building blocks of a theranostic system, where detection and remote release can be achieved with the same carrier.

  14. Microfabricated photoplastic cantilever with integrated photoplastic/carbon based piezoresistive strain sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Lauge; Rasmussen, Peter Andreas; Calleja, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an SU-8 micrometer sized cantilever strain sensor with an integrated piezoresistor made of a conductive composite of SU-8 polymer and carbon black particles. The composite has been developed using ultrasonic mixing. Cleanroom processing of the polymer composite has been investigated...

  15. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Tunable Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    and polymer hybrid actuator and applications as a tunable filter in telecom and in IR chemical detector,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication...consistently achieved. At this temperature, SU8 - SU-8 bonding withstood subsequent processing steps, resulting in a 57% bond yield and an overall 30

  16. Polymeric cantilever-based biosensors with integrated readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia; Blagoi, Gabriela; Boisen, Anja

    2006-01-01

    The authors present an SU-8 cantilever chip with integrated piezoresistors for detection of surface stress changes due to adsorption of biomolecules on the cantilever surface. Mercaptohexanol is used as a model biomolecule to study molecular interactions with Au-coated SU-8 cantilevers and surfac...

  17. Improved Adhesion of Gold Thin Films Evaporated on Polymer Resin: Applications for Sensing Surfaces and MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Moazzez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present and analyze a method to improve the morphology and mechanical properties of gold thin films for use in optical sensors or other settings where good adhesion of gold to a substrate is of importance and where controlled topography/roughness is key. To improve the adhesion of thermally evaporated gold thin films, we introduce a gold deposition step on SU-8 photoresist prior to UV exposure but after the pre-bake step of SU-8 processing. Shrinkage and distribution of residual stresses, which occur during cross-linking of the SU-8 polymer layer in the post-exposure baking step, are responsible for the higher adhesion of the top gold film to the post-deposition cured SU-8 sublayer. The SU-8 underlayer can also be used to tune the resulting gold film morphology. Our promoter-free protocol is easily integrated with existing sensor microfabrication processes.

  18. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  19. Spin coating and plasma process for 2.5D integrated photonics on multilayer polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebda, A.; Camberlein, L.; Beche, B.; Gaviot, E.; Beche, E.; Duval, D.; Zyss, J.; Jezequel, G.; Solal, F.; Godet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer spin coating, surface plasma treatment and selective UV-lithography processes have been developed to realize 2.5D photonic micro-resonators, made of disk- or ring-shaped upper rib waveguides, using common polymers such as SU8 (biphenol A ether glycidyl), PS233 (polymeric silane) and SOG (siloxane Spin on Glass). Both oxygen and argon plasma treatments, applied to PS233 and SOG before spin-coating the SU8, improve substantially the grip of multilayer devices (SU8 / PS233 or SU8 / SOG). Surface energy components derived from contact angle measurements have been used to optimize the processing conditions. In such integrated photonic devices, the both single-electromagnetic-modes called transverse electric (TE 00 ) and transverse magnetic (TM 00 ) have been excited in a SU8 micro-disk, with a single mode propagation strongly localized near the edge of the disk (i.e. the so called whispering gallery modes)

  20. Stable material modication with polymers incorporation for broad application in microfabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mednova, Olga

    The aim of this thesis is to improve SU-8 fracture resistance in order to eliminate micro crack formation during fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS). An amphiphilic block copolymer incorporation, as an efficient method of material toughening without changing its original properties...... analytical techniques. The second part of the thesis describes modified SU-8 blends. Thermal stability, structural organization, components interaction, hardness and brittleness of the composites are described. Finally, lithographic properties of modified SU-8 blends have been tested. Commercial SU-8...... and the modified blends demonstrate identically patternability and high aspect ratio structures can be obtained regardless of PEE-b-P2VP content. In conclusion, a recommendation of SU-8 modification with as little as 5 wt.% of PEE30-b-P2VP69 is made in order to avoid micro crack formation and its growth during...