Perkins, V J
Occupational therapists lead a variety of groups during their professional activities. Such groups include therapy groups, treatment teams and management meetings. Therefore it is important for each therapist to understand theories of leadership and be able to select the most effective style for him or herself in specific situations. This paper presents a review of leadership theory and research as well as therapeutic groups. It then integrates these areas to assist students and new therapists in identifying a style that is effective for a particular group.
justifies using personality inventories to identify leadership styles and it compares the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type...Indicator for consideration by the ACSC. The study concludes the MBTI has better interpretive value for the understanding of leadership styles .
Osipow, Samuel H.
Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and other instruments administered to 365 students, both undecided and in various interest fields, revealed several differences in cognitive style. No differences regarding cognitive style variations and VPI high-point codes or ease of vocational selection were observed. (Author/CJ)
Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM
Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts
This paper explores style at the syntactic level in Zaynab Alkali‟s The Descendants. he systemic grammar is applied as the theoretical framework to analyse aspects of syntactic selections in the text. The basic tenet of systemic grammar is the exploration of the functions of language in the realization of the thematic concerns ...
data. The study findings identified 10 different leadership styles adopted by different ... or non-academic staff, and staff job performance is assessed based on the .... perspectives, firstly as a “process”, which implies that leadership requires ... changes, focusing on the long-term and the big picture, not always doing to save.
McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J
The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.
This document is a collection of executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues. Most of the briefings discuss differences between the US repository design bases presented in US Working Draft on Repository Physical Descriptions in a Salt Formation, prepared in support of INFCE discussions of May 1978 and the FRG-Netherlands design bases, presented in Design Study of a Radioactive Waste Repository to be Mined in a Medium-Size Salt Dome by Hamstra and Velzeboer, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, January 1978. Advantages and disadvantages of the two sets of design bases are discussed, and the impacts of adopting either of these bases on the other's programs and positions are identified
Rösing, Lilian Munk
Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...
,; Mussey, Orville D.; Conklin, Howard L.; Durfor, Charles N.; Otts, Louis Ethelbert; Walling, Faulkner B.
The early industries in America generally were established when and where demands for the products of industry arose. Most of the early industries were so located that their increasing requirements for transportation, raw materials, market, labor, and water supply could be satisfied economically. Many of these original plant locations have continued as modern industrial centers and their output has increased manyfold in meeting the demands of our growing Nation. The recent and current industrial expansion and the trend toward the growth of chemical industries, many Of which are heavy users of water, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the total withdrawal of water for industrial use as well as a large increase in the per capita use of water. This increase in industrial water requirement has strained the capacity of the developed water supplies in many areas, and in some instances the adequacy of the potential water supplies is questionable. The Geological Survey is engaged in preparing and publishing a series of reports describing the developed and undeveloped water resources of many important industrial areas. This work was started initially at the request of the National Securities Resources Board as a means to insure that water supplies are adequate for our rapidly expanding industrial development. Although many factors contribute to establishing the feasibility or even the limits of future industrial development, the one relating to available water supply is extremely important. A knowledge of the water requirements of various industries is valuable therefore in planning the logical development in any area where water supply is a critical factor. Thus far very little suitable information on the water requirements of our major industries is available for general planning. An inventory of unit water-use values in industry therefore would be generally helpful and also might tend to stimulate water-conservation methods. To obtain such information
Kaminski, Charles William
The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning
The mode of nutrition, physical activity and the lifestyle are very important elements influencing on the health of employees. The subject of this study was to evaluate the selected aspects of lifestyle of a group of hotel employees. The questionnaire-based research was carried out in a group of 241 employees of the hotel industry (121 women and 120 men). The prevalent eating model in the group involved 3 meals daily, and was more frequent in men (62.9% vs. 47.9%; P < 0.05) who ate less regularly than women (28.6% vs. 55.5%; P < 0.001). Fast-food bars were more often frequented by men (a few times a week: 17.1% vs. 7%; P < 0.05). Fish were consumed a few times weekly by 21.1% of women and 30% of men, while vegetables a few times daily by 25.4% of women and 15.7% of men. Women more frequently consumed a few portions of fruit daily (25.4% vs. 8.6%; P < 0.01). As for alcohols, women more frequently opted for wine (49.3% vs. 18.6%; P < 0.001), while men chose beer (50% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.01) and hard liquors (31.4% vs. 17.4%; P < 0.01). The frequency of alcohol consumption was higher in men (P < 0.001). Recreational physical activity in leisure time was undertaken by 15.2% of women and 20.7% of men who simultaneously reported a higher range of physical activity than women (P < 0.01). Women more frequently opted for fitness exercises, while men for team games (P < 0.001). The role of physical activity in reducing emotional pressure was noticed by 18.7% of women and 29.8% of men (P < 0.05). It has also been demonstrated that the subjective rating of physical fitness dropped together with the increase of BMI (P < 0.05). Persons who perceived their fitness level as very good had a BMI of 22.1 kg/m2, while persons with a low rating of fitness had a BMI of 23.7 kg/m2. The studies have shown the prevalence of nutritional mistakes and a low level of recreational physical activity, as well as diversification of certain health behaviours depending on the sex.
Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Weijian; Cao, Liren; Li, Ping; Shi, Meiling; Wang, Jingjing; Cao, Wei; Li, Xinyu
The influence of individual differences on learners' study time allocation has been emphasised in recent studies; however, little is known about the role of individual thinking styles (analytical versus intuitive). In the present study, we explored the influence of individual thinking styles on learners' application of agenda-based and habitual processes when selecting the first item during a study-time allocation task. A 3-item cognitive reflection test (CRT) was used to determine individuals' degree of cognitive reliance on intuitive versus analytical cognitive processing. Significant correlations between CRT scores and the choices of first item selection were observed in both Experiment 1a (study time was 5 seconds per triplet) and Experiment 1b (study time was 20 seconds per triplet). Furthermore, analytical decision makers constructed a value-based agenda (prioritised high-reward items), whereas intuitive decision makers relied more upon habitual responding (selected items from the leftmost of the array). The findings of Experiment 1a were replicated in Experiment 2 notwithstanding ruling out the possible effects from individual intelligence and working memory capacity. Overall, the individual thinking style plays an important role on learners' study time allocation and the predictive ability of CRT is reliable in learners' item selection strategy. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Kidwell, Katherine M; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Roth, Taylor; Lundahl, Alyssa; Nelson, Timothy D
To examine the associations among negative/reactive temperament, feeding styles, and selective eating in a sample of preschoolers because preschool eating behaviors likely have lasting implications for children's health. A community sample of preschoolers aged 3-5 years (M = 4.49 years, 49.5% female, 75.7% European American) in the Midwest of the United States was recruited to participate in the study (N = 297). Parents completed measures of temperament and feeding styles at two time points 6 months apart. A series of regressions indicated that children who had temperaments high in negative affectivity were significantly more likely to experience instrumental and emotional feeding styles. They were also significantly more likely to be selective eaters. These associations were present when examined both concurrently and after 6 months. This study provides a novel investigation of child temperament and eating behaviors, allowing for a better understanding of how negative affectivity is associated with instrumental feeding, emotional feeding, and selective eating. These results inform interventions to improve child health.
In quantum mechanics, we define the measuring system M in a selective measurement by two conditions. Firstly, when we define the measured system S as the system in which the non-selective measurement part acts, M is independent from the measured system S as a quantum system in the sense that any time-dependent process in the total system S + M is divisible into parts for S and M. Secondly, when we can separate S and M from each other without changing the unitary equivalence class of the state of S from that obtained by the partial trace of M, the eigenstate selection in the selective measurement cannot be realized. In order for such a system M to exist, we show that in one selective measurement of an observable of a quantum system S 0 of particles in S, there exists a negative entropy transfer from M to S that can be directly transformed into an amount of Helmholtz free energy of where T is the thermodynamic temperature of the system S. Equivalently, an extra amount of work, , is required to be done by the system M.
Colby, J J; Elder, J P; Peterson, G; Knisley, P M; Carleton, R A
We describe an attempt to influence the selection of menu items in a family-style restaurant. Three different messages, varying in content and emphasis, were used to promote one food special each intervention day. One message emphasized that the specials were particularly healthful, being relatively low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol. A second message stressed flavor and added that the choice was healthful. A third, nonspecific message made no mention of taste or health factors, but simply noted that there was a daily special. Results indicated that restaurant patrons selected healthful specials when the message noted that the choice was healthful but emphasized flavor. Patrons were apparently more open to information about the palatability of the food than its healthfulness per se. These results have implications for point-of-purchase health promotion efforts in general, especially those involving food-labeling programs in restaurants and grocery stores.
Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, P J; Koolhaas, J M; Groothuis, T G
We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either of two different selection lines for coping style were used to test the effect of social defeat by an aggressive resident male conspecific on subsequent social and nonsocial behaviour, body temperature, breath rate and body mass. These parameters were measured 1 day before (baseline), immediately after and at Days 1 to 3 and 6 after the social interaction took place (Day 0). Social defeat decreased social exploration and increased body temperature substantially for at least 1 day in all birds. Breath rate and body mass were not affected. Birds belonging to the more aggressive and bolder line showed impairment in activity immediately after the social defeat. This is to our knowledge the first report showing that psychosocial stress in birds can have a similar impact as in rodents, but with a shorter recovery time. This might be due to species-specific differences in sensitivity to social stress, or to differences in the way social stress was induced.
The “feminine leadership” style, characterized by cooperation, participation, sharing of power and information, teamwork, energizing others, enhancing self-worth of others, etc., is a leadership style of the future. As such, it has to be highly used in today’s organizations. Furthermore, many contemporary surveys have shown that women are primary holders of the “feminine leadership” style. That is why today’s organizations should hire more women, especially for management jobs. However, altho...
Open source software has been widely used. The software world is enjoying the advantages of collaboration and cooperation in software development and use with the advent of open source movement. However, little research is concerned about the practical guidelines of OSS selection. It is hard for an organization to make a decision whether they should use the OSS or not, and to select an appropriate one from a number of OSS candidates. This thesis studies how to select an open source software f...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing requirements. 205.57 Section 205.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Selective enforcement auditing requirements. ...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. 205.160 Section 205.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. ...
Machumu, Haruni J.; Kaitila, Mafwimbo M.
This study reports on the kind of school leadership style that best suits for promoting teachers' job satisfaction in primary schools in Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design with samples of 200 teachers from 20 selected primary schools in Songea and Morogoro districts. Interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires…
Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M
The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. 205.171 Section 205.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 205.171 Selective enforcement auditing (SEA) requirements. ...
Full Text Available The “feminine leadership” style, characterized by cooperation, participation, sharing of power and information, teamwork, energizing others, enhancing self-worth of others, etc., is a leadership style of the future. As such, it has to be highly used in today’s organizations. Furthermore, many contemporary surveys have shown that women are primary holders of the “feminine leadership” style. That is why today’s organizations should hire more women, especially for management jobs. However, although there are many objective factors that force organizations to offer more employment to women, there are still many obstacles that have to be overcome so that more women could be taken on board. For example, prejudices about women’s status and role in society, cultural prejudices, traditional educational schemes and organizational obstacles are the serious constraints that prevent women from entering the labor and management force. Fortunately, as a result of the globalization and the development of the information and communication technologies, the organizational values and attitudes toward women are changing. The new and improved thinking and acting philosophy toward women in organizations, and better organizational policies, programs and processes concerning women have become a necessity.
Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind
Correlations between behavioral and physiological traits, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been demonstrated in numerous animal groups. Such trait variations often cluster in two contrasting styles, with animals characterized as either proactive or reactive. In natural populations....../shyness, dominance, and metabolic rate; resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In farmed fish populations, however the relation between emergence and stress coping styles seems to be absent, an effect which has been related to lack of selection pressure during emergence. In the present...... study two rainbow trout strains genetically selected as LR (low-responsive) and HR (high-responsive) trout, characterized with proactive (LR) and reactive (HR) stress coping traits, was used to further investigate the relationship between the time of emergence and stress coping style in salmonid fishes...
Carere, C.; Welink, D.; Drent, P.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Groothuis, T.G.G.
We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either
Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, Piet J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.
We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either
Mhozya, C. M.
This study, which was funded by the office of research and development (ORD) in the University of Botswana, surveyed 65 primary schools in South Central region in Botswana, which aimed at establishing the perceptions of senior management teams dominant leadership style. The study was done in three phases; the first phase started in June 2008 to…
Full Text Available This study sought to determine the relationship between the conflict management styles of managers and certain management and organization factors. A total of 462 top, middle, and lower managers from 72 companies participated in the study which utilized the Thomas-Killman Conflict Mode Instrument. To facilitate the computation of the statistical data, a microcomputer and a software package was used.The majority of the managers of the 17 types of organization included in the study use collaborative mode of managing conflict. This finding is congruent with the findings of past studies conducted on managers of commercial banks, service, manufacturing, trading advertising, appliance, investment houses, and overseas recruitment industries showing their high degree of objectivity and assertiveness of their own personal goals and of other people's concerns. The second dominant style, which is compromising, indicates their desire in sharing and searching for solutions that result in satisfaction among conflicting parties. This finding is highly consistent with the strong Filipino value of smooth interpersonal relationships (SIR as reflected and discussed in the numerous researches on Filipino values.The chi-square tests generated by the computer package in statistics showed independence between the manager's conflict management styles and each of the variables of sex, civil status, position level at work, work experience, type of corporation, and number of subordinates. This result is again congruent with those of past studies conducted in the Philippines. The past and present findings may imply that conflict management mode may be a highly personal style that is not dependent on any of these variables included in the study. However, the chi-square tests show that management style is dependent on the manager's age and educational attainment.
Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n = 80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.
Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n = 80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.
Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.
The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Russell, Cynthia L; Aud, Myra A
The purpose of this article is to highlight the substantive changes and enhancements between the 4th edition and new 5th edition of the so that modifications and enhancements are more easily incorporated into the reader's writing and editing practice. The 4th and new 5th editions of the were compared and substantive changes are presented. The following text style requirements are addressed: (a) use of parentheses to enclose statistical values, (b) use of italics, and (c) presentation of statistical data. Reference citation style changes include: (a) use of italics instead of underlining, (b) use of et al., and (c) use of the hanging indent. With the explosion of electronic media use, guidelines for documenting these sources are reviewed. Appropriate use of adverbs and research subject descriptors, submission of manuscripts on disks or files, responsibilities of corresponding authors, and converting the dissertation into a journal article are addressed. This information should assist the reader to quickly and accurately focus upon the enhancements and changes in the recently released 5th edition. Hopefully these changes will easily be incorporated into the readers' editing responsibilities, manuscripts, and subsequent publications.
Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R
Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables
Schinkel, S.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Ryan, A.M.
In four studies, applicants’ (N = 478) organizational attractiveness perceptions and recommendation intentions following selection outcomes were measured. In three field studies, actual applicants’ perceptions were measured in authentic, high-stakes application contexts, both preprocedure and
CDC administers regulations that govern the transfer of certain biological agents and toxins ("select agents"). These regulations require entities that transfer or receive select agents to register with CDC and comply with biosafety standards contained in the Third Edition of the CDC/NIH publication "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories ("BMBL")." On October 28,1999, CDC published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ("NPRM") seeking both to revise the biosafety standards facilities must follow when handling select agents and to provide new biosecurity standards for such facilities. These new standards are contained in the Fourth Edition of BMBL, which the NPRM proposed to incorporate by reference, thereby replacing the Third Edition. No comments were received in response to this proposal. CDC is therefore amending its regulations to incorporate the Fourth Edition.
Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne E
A new paradigm for selective pumping of fluids in a complex network of channels in the microscale flow regime is presented. The model is inspired by internal flow distributions produced by the rhythmic wall contractions observed in many insect tracheal networks. The approach presented here is a natural extension of previous two-dimensional modeling of insect-inspired microscale flow transport in a single channel, and aims to manipulate fluids efficiently in microscale networks without the use of any mechanical valves. This selective pumping approach enables fluids to be transported, controlled and precisely directed into a specific branch in a network while avoiding other possible routes. In order to present a quantitative analysis of the selective pumping approach presented here, the velocity and pressure fields and the time-averaged net flow that are induced by prescribed wall contractions are calculated numerically using the method of fundamental solutions. More specifically, the Stokeslets-meshfree method is used in this study to solve the Stokes equations that govern the flow motions in a network with moving wall contractions. The results presented here might help in understanding some features of the insect respiratory system function and guide efforts to fabricate novel microfluidic devices for flow transport and mixing, and targeted drug delivery applications. (paper)
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.
Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…
Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD
Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T
We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.
Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.
We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms
Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.
Biringer, K.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Buden, D.; Foreman, J.; Harrison, S.
The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs
Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A
Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.
Lucas, A.; van Dijk, R.; Prof. Kloek, T.
Using US data from June 1984 to July 1999, we show that the impact of firm-specific characteristics like size and book-to-price on future excess stock returns varies considerably over time. The impact can be either positive or negative at different times. This time variation is partially
Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…
Knapek, Stephan; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimoto, Hiromu
Odor-shock memory in "Drosophila melanogaster" consists of heterogeneous components each with different dynamics. We report that a null mutant for the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein Synapsin entails a memory deficit selectively in early memory, leaving later memory as well as sensory motor function unaffected. Notably, a consolidated…
... Commission will not accept new applications (but will continue to process then-pending applications) for certification of non-portable DSC equipment that does not meet the requirements of ITU-R Recommendation M.493-11... Commission will not accept new applications (but will continue to process then-pending applications) for...
Steimer, Thierry; Driscoll, Peter
The Swiss sublines of Roman high-(RHA/Verh) and low-(RLA/Verh) avoidance rats have been genetically selected for good vs. poor performance in two-way active avoidance since 1972. RLA/Verh rats show increased stress responses (e.g. freezing behaviour, ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin secretion) and adopt a more passive (or reactive) coping style when confronted with a novel environment. In the open field, elevated plus-maze, black/white box test, and in a new light/dark open field test, RLA/Verh rats appear to be more anxious than their RHA/Verh counterparts. Anxiety may result from their particular psychophysiological profile, i.e. increased emotionality combined with a passive coping style. In contrast, RHA/Verh rats are less responsive to stress, they show little anxiety in novel situations and tend to be impulsive and novelty (sensation) seekers. Some behavioural differences are already noticeable shortly after birth, but the full pattern appears to stabilize only after puberty. Gene-environment interactions are critical in establishing this pattern. The data reviewed indicate that the differences between RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh rats probably result from a complex interaction among divergent anxiety/emotionality characteristics, differences in locomotor activity and novelty/reward seeking, as well as active vs. passive coping styles. It is proposed further that these divergent personality types are to be found not only in other selective breeding programs but in the form of individual differences in most populations of rats used for this type of research.
Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Mølbak, Tommy
In this paper, the problem of optimal choice of sensors and actuators is addressed. Given a functional encapsulating information of the desired performance and production economy the objective is to choose a control instrumentation from a given set to comply with its minimum. The objective of the...... to propagate a global objective to local subsystems. Particular focus is on a boiler in a power plant operated by Dong Energy. The business objectives have been propagated to the actuator level to allow for selection of an actuator configuration....
The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.
Adams, Kenneth Mark
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear
Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are based on coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis. During the initiation of symbiosis, majority of corals acquire their own zooxanthellae (specifically from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium from surrounding environments. The mechanisms underlying the initial establishment of symbiosis have attracted much interest, and numerous field and laboratory experiments have been conducted to elucidate this establishment. However, it is still unclear whether the host corals selectively or randomly acquire their symbionts from surrounding environments. To address this issue, we initially compared genetic compositions of Symbiodinium within naturally settled about 2-week-old Acropora coral juveniles (recruits and those in the adjacent seawater as the potential symbiont source. We then performed infection tests using several types of Symbiodinium culture strains and apo-symbiotic (does not have Symbiodinium cells yet Acropora coral larvae. Our field observations indicated apparent preference toward specific Symbiodinium genotypes (A1 and D1-4 within the recruits, despite a rich abundance of other Symbiodinium in the environmental population pool. Laboratory experiments were in accordance with this field observation: Symbiodinium strains of type A1 and D1-4 showed higher infection rates for Acropora larvae than other genotype strains, even when supplied at lower cell densities. Subsequent attraction tests revealed that three Symbiodinium strains were attracted toward Acropora larvae, and within them, only A1 and D1-4 strains were acquired by the larvae. Another three strains did not intrinsically approach to the larvae. These findings suggest the initial establishment of corals-Symbiodinium symbiosis is not random, and the infection mechanism appeared to comprise two steps: initial attraction step and subsequent selective uptake by the coral.
We will present a method to decide a priori whether various supersymmetrical scenarios can be distinguished based on sparticle mass data alone. For each model, a scan over all free SUSY breaking parameters reveals the extent of that model's physically allowed region of sparticle-mass-space. Based on the geometrical configuration of these regions in mass-space, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the required accuracy of future sparticle mass measurements to distinguish between the models. We will illustrate this algorithm with an example. This talk is based on work done in collaboration with B C Allanach (LAPTH, Annecy) and F Quevedo (DAMTP, Cambridge).
As a surface protection of floors in nuclear facilities coatings, rubber and PVC coverings, respectively, are normally used, whereas stoneware tiles are still provided in rare cases only. All floor materials must be well decontaminable according to the German standard DIN 25415, Part 1. The general requirement is that low-porous, smooth products with little filler content, made of chemically resistant material, are very well decontaminable. Further investigations will be necessary for heavily loaded floor coatings. They include above all examinations for decontaminability after radiation and for wear and resistance to chemicals. These requirements have been compiled in DIN 55991. The examination of about 212 industrial products has revealed that the decontaminability of covering materials is frequently poor. Investigations have shown that the decontaminability is always deteriorated by additions of hygroscopic fillers. Additions of non-hygroscopic fillers and pigments may result in an excellent to poor decontaminability. The pore-free bonding of the covering materials by welding or jointing is of great importance with respect to the decontaminability of these floors. Care should be taken that the jointing compounds are as well decontaminable as the rubber coverings and stonewares. (orig.) [de
As a surface protection of floors in nuclear facilities coatings, rubber and PVC coverings, respectively, are normally used, whereas stoneware tiles are still provided in rare cases only. All floor materials must be well decontaminable according to the German standard DIN 25415, Part 1. The general requirement is that low-porous, smooth products with little filler content, made of chemically resistant material, are very well decontaminable. Further investigations will be necessary for heavily loaded floor coatings. They include above all examinations for decontaminability after radiation and for wear and resistance to chemicals. These requirements have been compiled in DIN 55991. The examination of about 200 industrial products has revealed that the decontaminability of covering materials is frequently poor. Investigations have shown that the decontaminability is always deteriorated by additions of hygroscopic fillers. Additions of non-hygroscopic fillers and pigments may result in an excellent to poor decontaminability. The pore-free bonding of the covering materials by welding or jointing is of great importance with respect to the decontaminability of these floors. Care should be taken that the jointing compounds are as well decontaminable as the rubber coverings and stonewares. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.
Full Text Available We study the continuous-time mean-variance portfolio selection problem in the situation when investors must pay margin for short selling. The problem is essentially a nonlinear stochastic optimal control problem because the coefficients of positive and negative parts of control variables are different. We can not apply the results of stochastic linearquadratic (LQ problem. Also the solution of corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equation is not smooth. Li et al. (2002 studied the case when short selling is prohibited; therefore they only need to consider the positive part of control variables, whereas we need to handle both the positive part and the negative part of control variables. The main difficulty is that the positive part and the negative part are not independent. The previous results are not directly applicable. By decomposing the problem into several subproblems we figure out the solutions of HJB equation in two disjoint regions and then prove it is the viscosity solution of HJB equation. Finally we formulate solution of optimal portfolio and the efficient frontier. We also present two examples showing how different margin rates affect the optimal solutions and the efficient frontier.
There are many possibilities of the division of the managing styles. In theory one can distinguish two basic styles: directive and integrative. Generalisations describing both styles result in the fact that they do not reflect reality taking place at work. Because of it they cannot be applied in such a form. Therefore, it is necessary to build up the theoretical concept of the managing styles through decreasing their generality and adjusting them to the reality requirements at the same time. For the reality of management Reddin concept seems to be useful. It describes the organizational behaviour of managers. He noticed that the managing style is effective when it fits into the manager's situation whereas it is ineffective in such a situation, when the manager cannot select and adjust the managing techniques to the circumstances of the concrete decision-taking situation. Putting together 3 handling ways: orientation on assignments, orientation on staff, effectiveness, 8 managing can be differentiated. The aim of the paper was an attempt to check what managing styles are used by the nursing management staff working in hospitals. To determine the managing style a questionnaire consisting of 64 statements divided into 8 groups was applied. The examined persons were assigned to distribute 10 points among the statements belonging to each group of tasks which are supposed to specify their solution in the best way. The nursing management staff prefer the styles belonging to the more effective one in which there is a high orientation on staff.
Glenn, E. S.; And Others
Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…
Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.
We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique an...
Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.
...-quality arts education and arts integration activities and services in music, dance, theater, media arts... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Proposed Priority, Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria--Arts in Education National Program (AENP) AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of...
Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie
Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.
Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....
Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David
Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Martin, Royce Ann
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that student scores on a researcher-constructed quantitative and document literacy test, the Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD), were associated with (a) learning styles (imaginative, analytic, common sense, dynamic, and undetermined), as identified by the Learning Type Measure, (b) program curriculum (aerospace administration, professional pilot, both aerospace administration and professional pilot, other, or undeclared), (c) overall cumulative grade point average at Indiana State University, and (d) year in school (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior). The Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD) was a three-part, 35 question survey that required students to interpret graphs, tables, and maps. Tasks assessed in the ADD included (a) locating, interpreting, and describing specific data displayed in the document, (b) determining data for a specified point on the table through interpolation, (c) comparing data for a string of variables representing one aspect of aircraft performance to another string of variables representing a different aspect of aircraft performance, (d) interpreting the documents to make decisions regarding emergency situations, and (e) performing single and/or sequential mathematical operations on a specified set of data. The Learning Type Measure (LTM) was a 15 item self-report survey developed by Bernice McCarthy (1995) to profile an individual's processing and perception tendencies in order to reveal different individual approaches to learning. The sample used in this study included 143 students enrolled in Aerospace Technology Department courses at Indiana State University in the fall of 1996. The ADD and the LTM were administered to each subject. Data collected in this investigation were analyzed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. Results of the study revealed that the variables, year in school and GPA, were significant predictors of the criterion variables, document
Full Text Available Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates. Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles. Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships. Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium
Li, C.; van den Akker, Marjan; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Diepen, Guido
It is essential for product software companies to decide which requirements should be included in the next release and to make an appropriate time plan of the development project. Compared to the extensive research done on requirement selection, very little research has been performed on time
Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes
Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.
Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K
Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.
Fonseca, Beatriz; Kuri, Victor; Zumalacárregui, José M; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Salvá, Bettit K; Caro, Irma; Osorio, M Teresa; Mateo, Javier
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the addition of a commercial phosphate mixture in 2 dry-ripened Spanish-style sausages: "salchichón" and "chorizo." Three batches of each of those sausages were prepared with low and high levels of phosphates, and selected quality variables (moisture, pH, a(w) , lactic and acetic acid, α-amino nitrogen, total free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, microbial counts, color, and texture analysis) were compared against controls. Furthermore, phosphate-added and control sausages were ranked by consumers in order of preference. In "salchichón," phosphate addition resulted in a significant (P sausages, phosphates can be considered as additives with potential enhancement effect in drying and eating quality. The main outcome from the present study is to find evidence on which points of reference could be drawn for the technological application of phosphates in dry-ripened sausages. It has been observed that the drying rate and several eating quality characteristics can be enhanced with the use of phosphates. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.
Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie
indicates that students focus on technical requirements when using the matrix and justifying their selection of materials. This is surprising since the students attend an arts and crafts oriented design school and are encouraged and guided to consider non-technical requirements, as part of the course where...... the matrix is introduced. A possible reason for the undesired behavior could be that students are allowed very freely to define their own matrices, having only little guidance to which requirements to use. A more formal procedure for making the material matrices is therefore proposed. The procedure requires...
Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.
van Herk, H.; Lee, Julie Anne
Research on response styles typically focuses on response styles being bias that requires purging from the data. In the literature several procedures have been proposed to detect response styles such as acquiescence, extreme response style and midpoint responding. The main focus has been on post hoc
... career and technical education programs (20 U.S.C. 2326(e)). This notice does not preclude us from... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter IV [Docket ID ED-2012-OVAE-0053] Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria--Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP) [Catalog...
Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Timmermans, P.; Buragga, K.A.; Zaman, N.
The requirements for e-selection technology to be of practical use for Company T have been investigated. Company T’s main business is in identifying and seconding personnel, especially in the technical sector, and it had been anticipating a shortage in the supply of candidates. This served as the
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
McNeill, M S; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W
Twenty-nine selected styles of subprimals or sections of veal were obtained from a commercial facility to assist in the development of a support program for retailers. They were fabricated into bone-in or boneless retail cuts and associated components by trained meat cutters. Each style selected (n = 6) was used to generate mean retail yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from wholesale and retail weights and processing times. Means and standard errors for veal ribs consisting of five different styles (n = 30) concluded that style #2, 7-rib 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm), had the lowest percentage of total retail yield (P < .05) owing to the greatest percentage of bone. Furthermore, rib style #2 required the longest total processing time (P < .05). Rib styles #3, 7-rib chop-ready, and #5, 6-rib chop ready, yielded the greatest percentage of total retail yield and also had the shortest total processing time (P < .05). Within veal loins, style #2, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin kidney fat in, had the greatest percentage fat (P < .05). Loin styles #2 and #3, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin special trimmed, generated more lean and fat trimmings and bone, resulting in lower percentage of total retail yields than loin style #1, 0 (0 cm) x 1 (2.5 cm) loin special trimmed (P < .05). Results indicated that bone-in subprimals and sections required more processing time if fabricated into a boneless end point. In addition, as the number of different retail cuts increased, processing times also increased.
Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer
Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.
The study analyses and compares German, French, British and Italian practices and procedures applied for various LMFBR projects both related to the quality assurance system and related to the particular type of class of component:Class 1: primary reactor vessel; Class 2: Secondary sodium pump; Class 3: Primary cold trap. Various areas of analysis and comparison were selected to identify the underlying concepts of grading of requirements and measures, to identify the similarities and differences, and to give recommendations for further actions concerning quality assurance requirements 60 refs., 21 tabs., 6 figs
Gräble, M; Hearing, P
Polar packaging of adenovirus DNA into virions is dependent on the presence of cis-acting sequences at the left end of the viral genome. Our previous analyses demonstrated that the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) packaging domain (nucleotides 194 to 358) is composed of at least five elements that are functionally redundant. A repeated sequence, termed the A repeat, was associated with packaging function. Here we report a more detailed analysis of the requirements for the selective packaging of Ad5 DN...
Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.
Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.
Hill, James R
... a successful leadership style. The process of developing leadership styles, however, is not easy and it requires a prodigious amount of determination, time, planning, training, mentoring, and refinement...
This dissertation describes the development of a requirements analysis methodology that takes into account the concept of operations and the hierarchical decomposition of aerospace systems. At the core of the methodology, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is used to ensure the traceability between the qualitative and quantitative information present in the hierarchical model. The proposed methodology is implemented to the requirements definition of a hurricane tracker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Three research objectives are identified in this work; (1) improve the requirements mapping process by matching the stakeholder expectations with the concept of operations, systems and available resources; (2) reduce the epistemic uncertainty surrounding the requirements and requirements mapping; and (3) improve the requirements down-selection process by taking into account the level of importance of the criteria and the available resources. Several challenges are associated with the identification and definition of requirements. The complexity of the system implies that a large number of requirements are needed to define the systems. These requirements are defined early in the conceptual design, where the level of knowledge is relatively low and the level of uncertainty is large. The proposed methodology intends to increase the level of knowledge and reduce the level of uncertainty by guiding the design team through a structured process. To address these challenges, a new methodology is created to flow-down the requirements from the stakeholder expectations to the systems alternatives. A taxonomy of requirements is created to classify the information gathered during the problem definition. Subsequently, the operational and systems functions and measures of effectiveness are integrated to a hierarchical model to allow the traceability of the information. Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the variations of the hierarchical model elements and consequently reduce the
Walker, Casey Jerry Kennon
Interview of incumbents of intellectual capital positions at Boeing. The aerospace industry is a dynamic industry that requires continual skill updates to keep up with advancements in technology and operational trends within the industry. The purpose of this study was to examine intellectual capital requirements of selected professional positions within the Boeing Company in Oklahoma. Data obtained through interviews was used to determine if educational skills gaps existed. The findings of the study can be used to develop an aerospace educational pipeline based on collaborative relationships between industry and higher education to facilitate educational and training programs. Three broad research questions were used to address and support the findings of this study related to educational background, career progression, and gaps. A purposive sample of 10 professional positions was selected for interview using an interview guide containing 18 questions. Data was analyzed using manual coding techniques. Findings and conclusions. The study found that minimum education requirements for selected professional positions consisted of a bachelor's degree. Although the majority of participants identified a business degree as optimal, several participants indicated that an education background from multiple disciplines would provide the greatest benefit. Data from interviews showed educational degrees were not specialized enough and skills required to perform job functions were obtained through direct on the job experience or through corporate training. Indications from participant responses showed employees with a thorough knowledge of government acronyms had a decided advantage over those that did not. Recommendations included: expanding the study to multiple organizations by conducting a survey; expanding industry and academic partnerships; establishing a structured educational pipeline to fill critical positions; creating broad aerospace curricula degree programs tailored
Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.
Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne; Chen, Yu-Hsing
, but they are all still at an immature technology level, as no substantial experience from full-scale detailed design exists. By employing a functional failure mode and effects analysis (F-FMEA) with a decision making tool (Pugh Matrix), the paper presents a structured set of functionalities and design drivers...... required from the turbine DC converter and uses these to compare 6 distinct candidate circuit topologies. The end goal is not to select the best topology, but to narrow down from a vast list of options and give a method that will increase confidence and guide towards the characteristics of reliable design....
Fino, Peter; Lockhart, Thurmon E
This study investigated the relationship of required coefficient of friction to gait speed, obstacle height, and turning strategy as participants walked around obstacles of various heights. Ten healthy, young adults performed 90° turns around corner pylons of four different heights at their self selected normal, slow, and fast walking speeds using both step and spin turning strategies. Kinetic data was captured using force plates. Results showed peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF) at push off increased with increased speed (slow μ=0.38, normal μ=0.45, and fast μ=0.54). Obstacle height had no effect on RCOF values. The average peak RCOF for fast turning exceeded the OSHA safety guideline for static COF of μ>0.50, suggesting further research is needed into the minimum static COF to prevent slips and falls, especially around corners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
which leadership approach suits best their organization. Given this ... leadership styles in business organisations ((Boehunke, Bontis, Distefano and. Distefano ..... adjust their leadership styles to the situational circumstances as well as the people .... leadership style on organisational performance: A survey of selected small.
Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja
Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…
Shakya, Arvind; Goren, Alon; Shalek, Alex; German, Cody N; Snook, Jeremy; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Yosef, Nir; Chan, Raymond C; Regev, Aviv; Williams, Matthew A; Tantin, Dean
Epigenetic changes are crucial for the generation of immunological memory. Failure to generate or maintain these changes will result in poor memory responses. Similarly, augmenting or stabilizing the correct epigenetic states offers a potential method of enhancing memory. Yet the transcription factors that regulate these processes are poorly defined. We find that the transcription factor Oct1 and its cofactor OCA-B are selectively required for the in vivo generation of CD4(+) memory T cells. More importantly, the memory cells that are formed do not respond properly to antigen reencounter. In vitro, both proteins are required to maintain a poised state at the Il2 target locus in resting but previously stimulated CD4(+) T cells. OCA-B is also required for the robust reexpression of multiple other genes including Ifng. ChIPseq identifies ∼50 differentially expressed direct Oct1 and OCA-B targets. We identify an underlying mechanism involving OCA-B recruitment of the histone lysine demethylase Jmjd1a to targets such as Il2, Ifng, and Zbtb32. The findings pinpoint Oct1 and OCA-B as central mediators of CD4(+) T cell memory. © 2015 Shakya et al.
Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P.
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing) in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Rando...
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.
Miyoshi, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)
Manned space activities at National Space Development Agency of Japan and the suitability requirements that an astronaut is supposed to satisfy are described. At the first phase, candidates have to participate in a manned space experiment utilizing a NASA space shuttle and, in 1985, Mori, Mukai, and Doi were selected to be payload specialists. At the second phase, Astronauts Wakata, Doi, and Mori were sent to the mission specialist training course, this being one of the jobs aboard a space shuttle, which was for preparing for the construction and operation of the international space station. In January, 1996, Astronaut Wakata performed extravehicular tool manipulation and so forth, and Astronaut Doi did the same in 1997. The endowments that an astronaut is expected to have include undoubted professionalism, adaptability to branches out of his field, adaptability to a prolonged stay in space, spirit of teamwork and coordination, and ability to perform wide range of duties aboard an international space station. (NEDO)
Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...
E. M. Gichangi
Full Text Available The Transkei is the largest consolidated area in South Africa where land is held by smallholder farmers but little is known about the extent of phosphate fixation in the region. This study was conducted to determine the phosphate sorption properties and external P requirements (EPR of selected soils from the Transkei region, South Africa and to relate derived sorption values to selected soil parameters. The P sorption maxima and EPR values varied widely ranging from 192.3 to 909.1 mg P kg−1 and from 2 to 123 mg P kg−1−1 soil, respectively. Citrate dithionite bicarbonate-extractable aluminum explained most of the observed variations in P sorption. About 43% of the soils were found to be moderate P fixers and may need management interventions to ensure adequate P availability to crops. The single point sorption index accurately predicted the EPR of the soils obviating the need to use multiple point sorption isotherms. The results suggested that the use of blanket phosphate fertilizer recommendations may not be a good strategy for the region as it may lead to under-application or over-application of P in some areas.
Darhan, Hongyu; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiichi
Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition. The feed conversion ratio for the B group was significantly higher in the H than in the L line. Feed intake for metabolic energy content per metabolic body size was significantly also higher in the H line, whereas accumulated energy content per metabolic body size was significantly higher in the L line. MER of the H line was greater than that of the L line (P < 0.10). These results suggest that selection for H or L OC produced differences in chemical components, feed efficiency, and MER between the H and L lines. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti
The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.
Parrett, E E; Hurd, P D; Northcraft, G; McGhan, W F; Bootman, J L
The leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors and the association between leadership style, participative management, and innovative pharmaceutical services were studied using a mail questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 570 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors. Included were a validated instrument that measures task-oriented versus relationship-oriented leadership behavior and other questions about participation of staff members, innovative services, and respondents' personal characteristics. The response rate was 69%. The majority of respondents perceived their leadership as highly relationship-oriented as well as highly task-oriented. Respondents with the "high relationship-high task" leadership style had the highest scores for subordinate participation. There were no significant differences in scores for innovative services by leadership style. A positive correlation between scores for subordinate participation and scores for innovative services was demonstrated. Most hospital pharmacy directors used a management style in which relationships and staff participation were important.
Lawden, M. D.
This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any special requirements for enrollment related to the Military Selective Service Act? 670.420 Section 670.420 Employees' Benefits... INVESTMENT ACT Recruitment, Eligibility, Screening, Selection and Assignment, and Enrollment § 670.420 Are...
Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua
Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7°C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3°C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.
Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.
Full Text Available Learning is the basic human need to know something, whether packed formally or not. There is not one method that is appropriate and certainly appropriate with all students. Students have their own learning styles between one another can’t be equated. Real memorable learning comes from the will of the heart, not coercion. The uniqueness of each individual is what makes the variety of learning styles should be understood so that each student can overcome difficulties learning. In the implementation of learning many teachers doesn’t understand the learning style, so as to force students to always pay attention to the speech and explanation of teachers. The learning process will be effective if the method of learning used can accommodate students. Research on the most appropriate teaching methods turns out to be a failure, because each teaching method depends on the way or style of the student in learning. This research was conducted in the school as a place of observation (field research by using a quantitative approach. Data were collected by questionnaires, observations, interviews, and document studies which were then processed and analytically analyzed descriptively. The results of research showed that a class can not be equally aligned using and applying a single learning method only. Because in the class there are several learning styles of students. The student's learning style visually dominates the class, followed by the auditorial style, and the kinesthetic style. This research also provides advice to educators / teachers to understand the diversity of student learning styles. so that with the basic teachers are required to be more creative and innovative in applying the method of learning so that all learning styles of students can be accommodated, so that with this understanding of learning achievement can be improved.
Johnson, Donald M.; Ferguson, James A.; Vokins, Nancy W.; Lester, Melissa L.
Over 50% of faculty teaching undergraduate agriculture courses (n=58) required use of word processing, Internet, and electronic mail; less than 50% required spreadsheets, databases, graphics, or specialized software. They planned to maintain or increase required computer tasks in their courses. (SK)
Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Macías, David; Levitsky, Konstantin L; Rodríguez-Gómez, José A; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; López-Barneo, José
Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis. Remarkably, glomus cells from these animals have normal electrical and neurochemical properties. However, they show a marked decrease in the size of quantal dopaminergic secretory events. Inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mimic the effect of biotin deficiency. In biotin-deficient animals, VMAT2 protein expression decreases in parallel with biotin depletion in CB cells. These data suggest that dopamine transport and/or storage in small secretory granules in glomus cells depend on biotin. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin required for the function of carboxylases as well as for the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report that biotin accumulates in unusually large amounts in cells of arterial chemoreceptors, carotid body (CB) and adrenal medulla (AM). We show in a biotin-deficient rat model that the vitamin rapidly disappears from the blood and other tissues (including the AM), while remaining at relatively high levels in the CB. We have also observed that, in comparison with other peripheral neural tissues, CB cells contain high levels of SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Biotin-deficient rats show a syndrome characterized by marked weight loss, metabolic lactic acidosis, aciduria and accelerated breathing with normal responsiveness to hypoxia. Remarkably, CB cells from biotin-deficient animals have normal electrophysiological and neurochemical (ATP levels and catecholamine synthesis) properties; however
de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Ter Horst, J.R.
In this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis.The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions.Such mimicking portfolios can be used, e.g., to construct efficient portfolios of mutual
F.A. de Roon (Frans); T.E. Nijman (Theo); B.J.M. Werker
textabstractIn this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis. The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions. Such mimicking portfolios can be used e.g. to construct efficient
Keefe, James W., Ed.
The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…
Saracho, Olivia N.
A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)
Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.
College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…
Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in
Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz
Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.
Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the ﬁeld of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classiﬁcation of architectural styles from facade images. Our classiﬁer ﬁrst identiﬁes the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classiﬁer to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.
Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan
Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection (GS) in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies). It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating GS into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken, and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in breeding scenarios.
M Behnam Moghadam
Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.
Mahmoudfakhe, Hemn; Rahmani, Aref; Nasrollahzade, Soraya
The aim of the present research was to compare parenting styles and mental health among students. The statistical population of the paper included all the female and male third grade high school students in the city of Boukan. The sample was selected through simple random style in access which included 340 people of both sexes. The tools used in this research comprises two: Baumrind parenting style and Goldberg's general health questionnaires. Findings revealed that this research is of a caus...
Ayora, Pauline; Janssen, Niels; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Alario, F.-Xavier
Two grammatical classes are commonly distinguished in psycholinguistic research. The open-class includes content words such as nouns, whereas the closed-class includes function words such as determiners. A standing issue is to identify whether these words are retrieved through similar or distinct selection mechanisms. We report a comparative…
Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano
There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.
The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)
Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture.
Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz
, defined by choices of research topics, theories, empirical material, analytical methods/techniques, epistemological research aims, practical research aims, publication strategies and collaborative activities. The first dimension opposes a quantitative style focusing on questions of cognition, on the one...
Štemberger, M.; Pavko-Čuden, A.
The presented research relates the basic elements of the art theory with the concept of style and fashion design. The objective of the research was to determine how style is manifested in knitting in different periods of fashion seasons. The collections of three designers were compared: Missoni, Issey Miyake and Sonia Rykiel, in four different seasons in three different years. The basic artistic elements used in the presented research were: point, line, light-dark and colour together with syntactic rules. A combination of different elements and syntactic rules refers to different artistic languages, which have their own artistic grammar, i.e. a different style. All three investigated fashion designers used knitting in their collections as a significant element which defined their style. Different knitting technologies as well as different yarns made of synthetic or natural fibres in all colour spectra significantly influence the surface of a knitted fabric. Even when the technology is the same, the use of different materials, structures, colours, etc. creates various unique surfaces. The method used in the presented research was a style matrix which is developed from the axiomatic system. Only the part dealing with the language of fine arts and the pictorial speech - the style of a certain designer and a certain work of art/knitted fabric was used. After the selected three designers were examined through all the periods, it was concluded that each designer can be characterised by his own style. Despite the influencing fashion trends, all the compared designers still retained their own style, their own techniques, their own inspirations.
Berry, Kathleen M.; Kuhl, Dean H.
This survey was conducted in order to determine the training requirements of the clothing industry in South Australia. The results and findings are intended to be used as a means for upgrading and revising the Clothing Production Certificate Course and for providing suitable training programs for other key occupations within the industry. Survey…
There were 12 contributions presented at the conference focused on the requirements of the standard ISO 9001:2000 for supplies of services and products, especially from the point of view of supplies for nuclear power plants. Two contributions were focused in the issue of quality assurance of finishing of the building of 3. and 4. block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce
This study examined the extent to which dimensions of parenting style influence identity formation among the youths in a changing society such as Nigeria. 345 youths (15-24 year olds) who were randomly selected completed the questionnaire which measured parenting style and identity formation. 2x2x2 Analysis of ...
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.
This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...
Full Text Available The aim this research was to analyze the ways of integration of management systems in food sector. The study involved the documentation, audits, corrective and preventive actions and management's review phases described in the specification PAS 99, which is one of common elements of integrated management systems. Four organizations were selected for the study. The organizations had introduced and certified at least two standardized management systems. It was assumed that the investigated organizations should have implemented the HACCP system. Studies were conducted as a case study. The employees responsible for the functioning of management systems were interviewed in all four organizations. The study was conducted in the form of in-depth interviews based on pre-prepared script. The scenario was developed based on the PAS 99 guideline. The process of integration of management systems implemented in the studied companies reveals the full compliance of an integrated management system with PASS 99 in the policy area.
O'Hare, Justin K; Li, Haofang; Kim, Namsoo; Gaidis, Erin; Ade, Kristen; Beck, Jeff; Yin, Henry; Calakos, Nicole
Habit formation is a behavioral adaptation that automates routine actions. Habitual behavior correlates with broad reconfigurations of dorsolateral striatal (DLS) circuit properties that increase gain and shift pathway timing. The mechanism(s) for these circuit adaptations are unknown and could be responsible for habitual behavior. Here we find that a single class of interneuron, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), modulates all of these habit-predictive properties. Consistent with a role in habits, FSIs are more excitable in habitual mice compared to goal-directed and acute chemogenetic inhibition of FSIs in DLS prevents the expression of habitual lever pressing. In vivo recordings further reveal a previously unappreciated selective modulation of SPNs based on their firing patterns; FSIs inhibit most SPNs but paradoxically promote the activity of a subset displaying high fractions of gamma-frequency spiking. These results establish a microcircuit mechanism for habits and provide a new example of how interneurons mediate experience-dependent behavior.
Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark
"Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme
Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav
Traditionally spectral reflectance of the material is measured and compared with permitted spectral reflectance boundaries. The boundaries are limited by upper and lower curve of spectral reflectance. The boundaries for unique color has to fulfil the operational requirements as a versatility of utilization through the all year seasons, day and weather condition on one hand and chromatic and spectral matching with background as well as the manufacturability on the other hand. The interval between the boundaries suffers with ambivalent feature. Camouflage pattern producer would be happy to see it much wider, but blending effect into its particular background could be better with narrower tolerance limits. From the point of view of long time user of camouflage pattern battledress, there seems to be another ambivalent feature. Width of the tolerance zone reflecting natural dispersion of spectral reflectance values allows the significant distortions of shape of the spectral curve inside the given boundaries.
Catania, Annunziata; Iavarone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Stella M.; Chiariello, Mario
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the control of gene expression and their inhibition by specific drugs has been widely correlated to cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether HDAC activity was required for PDGF-dependent signal transduction and cellular proliferation. Exposure of PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblasts to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) potently repressed the expression of a group of genes correlated to PDGF-dependent cellular growth and pro-survival activity. Moreover, we show that TSA interfered with STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity induced by PDGF. Still, neither phosphorylation nor nuclear translocation and DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo of STAT3 were affected by using TSA to interfere with PDGF stimulation. Finally, TSA treatment resulted in the suppression of PDGF-dependent cellular proliferation without affecting cellular survival of NIH3T3 cells. Our data indicate that inhibition of HDAC activity antagonizes the mitogenic effect of PDGF, suggesting that these drugs may specifically act on the expression of STAT-dependent, PDGF-responsive genes
The in-situ ball rheometer is designed to provide data concerning the rheological properties of the waste contained in tank 101-SY. It is imperative that the data collected and the results obtained are useful to the community presently concerned with the mitigation of the waste contained within this tank. To ensure that this objective is met, discussions were held with representatives of different groups in order to determine their data needs. This report is a synopsis of these discussions. Four separate groups were identified as potential users of the data. Persons contacted included Don Trent (Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)), who is involved with Tempest modeling of the tank; Randy Marlow and John Strehlow (Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)), involved with structural analysis of the tank; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu and Cetin Unal (Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)), who are concerned with the safety analysis of activities performed within the tank; and Judith Bamberger, Paul Scott, and Gita Golcar (PNL) who are involved with the eventual retrieval of waste from the tank. Very specific questions were asked of these groups, including: From where in the tank are data needed? When should data be collected? In what manner are the data useful? What is the required accuracy of the data? Responses from each group are given
Management style is a major factor in the successful accomplishment of the many tasks required of an educational administrator. An administrator's leadership style develops in proportion to his adaptation to organizational structure, his personality and value system, his concept of personal success, experiences both in and out of his managerial…
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W
Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles
The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...... culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
Bruins, Henderikus B
The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...
Zanecchia, M D
One of the many problems facing the nursing profession today is the lack of preparedness of its leaders. Nursing educators, collaborating with nursing service, can teach baccalaureate students leadership skills and to develop leadership styles. Experiential real-world management tasks selected by faculty and head nurses can serve as learning opportunities. Students can learn leadership ability and change style. Utilizing t-test, the before and after course mean scores on the standardized Leadership Ability Evaluation instrument were statistically analyzed. Significant differences and style changes were identified. Students in the total class became more effective leaders as did the students in both the traditional and experiential groups. Traditional students (lecture only) became less autocratic-submissive and more democratic. The experiential group significantly became less autocratic-aggressive, less laissez-faire and more democratic.
Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs
Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik
We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....
Cuddy, Claudia M
Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.
Mulugeta, G.; Sokoutis, D.
In this paper we study the dynamic and rheologic control of hanging wall accommodation in ramp-flat thrust models. In particular we vary the dimensionless ratio of shear strength to gravity stress to model hanging wall accommodation styles in different materials. In all models we require that the
Moghadam, Marzyeh; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Rostamian, Negar
Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students' attachment styles and demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people ( P = 0.03). No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style ( P = 0.001), male gender ( P = 0.005), and scholar achievement ( P = 0.047) were associated with higher happiness score. The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
Carrica, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…
The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... have to be repeated and answers interrupted when the light or the sound is not just right. He furthermore deconstructs the interview process by constantly referring to the impossibility of answering questions without specific contexts, frames and grounds. This makes it easy to characterize the film...
Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)
Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…
Examines two prominent schools of critics who employ a hermeneutic strategy and who arrive at conflicting interpretations of Gorgias's overall "philosophy." Argues that in fact both schools misconstrue the nature of Gorgias's writing. Presents an alternative reading of Gorgias' style. (TB)
Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.
This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…
Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent
This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... enable the creation of new styles. In order to conceptualize this creative process, we explore how play can create disharmonies within the organization, but we also maintain that any new practice will remain marginal without a collective assemblage capable of adopting it. On this basis, we argue...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...
This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design. An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...
Berzonsky, M D
This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.
Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A
52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.
Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.
This study examined learning styles in 137 high ability fourth-grade students. All students were administered two learning styles inventories. Characteristics of students with the following learning styles are summarized: auditory language, visual language, auditory numerical, visual numerical, tactile concrete, individual learning, group…
Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean
Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…
Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.
Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili
Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.
The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...
Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.
Vezhnovets', T A
The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of interpersonal relationships between executives and subordinates in healthcare institutions on their style of resolving management decision. It was established that indulgent and autonomous style are formed against background of liberal interpersonal relationship by the following criteria, as the absence of dominant traits, expressed benevolence among executives with autonomous style, uncertainty and inexperience among executives with indulgent style. Authoritarian and marginal styles are formed against empowerment and dominance in relationship with subordinates by expressed dominance criteria, as leadership qualities among executives with authoritarian style or as a manifestation of social maladjustment among executives with marginal style. Type of interpersonal relationships determines the style of resolving management decisions, that should be considered at conducting professional selection of candidates for senior positions in healthcare institutions.
Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland
The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...
Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...
Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.
Hyunsun Catherine Yoon
Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.
Full Text Available Team diversity scholars have called for examining cognitive variables (van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007, such as cognitive style, in team dissimilarity research. However, due to the dearth of research on cognitive style diversity in teams, heeding these calls requires new theory. Therefore, we extended recent theoretical developments that suggested indirect relationships between diversity and performance by orienting cognitive style within the team diversity literature and by proposing cognitive style diversity’s effects on team processes in decision making teams. We also integrated the moderating role of team member perspective taking into the framework. We presented arguments and propositions for the combined effects of cognitive style diversity and perspective taking on task conflict, affective conflict, and the development of schema congruence. We offer suggestions for testing the proposed relationships in future research regarding variable measurement and multi-level data. Implications for and contributions to practice are also addressed.
Y. H. Li
Full Text Available The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds have been used to examine the effectiveness of genetic marker selection and optimal approaches for individual assignment. In this paper, these pigs and the following breeds: Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, Meishan and Taoyuan, TLRI Black Pig No. 1, and Kaohsiung Animal Propagation Station Black pig are studied to build a genetic reference database. Nineteen microsatellite markers (loci provide information on genetic variation and differentiation among studied breeds. High differentiation index (FST and Cavalli-Sforza chord distances give genetic differentiation among breeds, including Lanyu’s inbred populations. Inbreeding values (FIS show that Lanyu and its derived inbred breeds have significant loss of heterozygosity. Individual assignment testing of 352 animals was done with different numbers of microsatellite markers in this study. The testing assigned 99% of the animals successfully into their correct reference populations based on 9 to 14 markers ranking D-scores, allelic number, expected heterozygosity (HE or FST, respectively. All miss-assigned individuals came from close lineage Lanyu breeds. To improve individual assignment among close lineage breeds, microsatellite markers selected from Lanyu populations with high polymorphic, heterozygosity, FST and D-scores were used. Only 6 to 8 markers ranking HE, FST or allelic number were required to obtain 99% assignment accuracy. This result suggests empirical examination of assignment-error rates
Matthew D. Keefe
The size of the pancreas is determined by intrinsic factors, such as the number of progenitor cells, and by extrinsic signals that control the fate and proliferation of those progenitors. Both the exocrine and endocrine compartments of the pancreas undergo dramatic expansion after birth and are capable of at least partial regeneration following injury. Whether the expansion of these lineages relies on similar mechanisms is unknown. Although we have shown that the Wnt signaling component β-catenin is selectively required in mouse embryos for the generation of exocrine acinar cells, this protein has been ascribed various functions in the postnatal pancreas, including proliferation and regeneration of islet as well as acinar cells. To address whether β-catenin remains important for the maintenance and expansion of mature acinar cells, we have established a system to follow the behavior and fate of β-catenin-deficient cells during postnatal growth and regeneration in mice. We find that β-catenin is continuously required for the establishment and maintenance of acinar cell mass, extending from embryonic specification through juvenile and adult self-renewal and regeneration. This requirement is not shared with islet cells, which proliferate and function normally in the absence of β-catenin. These results make distinct predictions for the relative role of Wnt–β-catenin signaling in the etiology of human endocrine and exocrine disease. We suggest that loss of Wnt–β-catenin activity is unlikely to drive islet dysfunction, as occurs in type 2 diabetes, but that β-catenin is likely to promote human acinar cell proliferation following injury, and might therefore contribute to the resolution of acute or chronic pancreatitis.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.
حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم
The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS) preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987) which was designed to...
Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ
This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...
Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.
Cadnum, Jennifer L; Hurless, Kelly N; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J
Effective and easy-to-use methods for detecting Clostridium difficile spore contamination would be useful for identifying environmental reservoirs and monitoring the effectiveness of room disinfection. Culture-based detection methods are sensitive for detecting C. difficile, but their utility is limited due to the requirement of anaerobic culture conditions and microbiological expertise. We developed a low-cost selective broth medium containing thioglycolic acid and l-cystine, termed C. difficile brucella broth with thioglycolic acid and l-cystine (CDBB-TC), for the detection of C. difficile from environmental specimens under aerobic culture conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of CDBB-TC (under aerobic culture conditions) were compared to those of CDBB (under anaerobic culture conditions) for the recovery of C. difficile from swabs collected from hospital room surfaces. CDBB-TC was significantly more sensitive than CDBB for recovering environmental C. difficile (36/41 [88%] versus 21/41 [51%], respectively; P = 0.006). C. difficile latex agglutination, an enzyme immunoassay for toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase, and a PCR for toxin B genes were all effective as confirmatory tests. For 477 total environmental cultures, the specificity of CDBB-TC versus that of CDBB based upon false-positive yellow-color development of the medium without recovery of C. difficile was 100% (0 false-positive results) versus 96% (18 false-positive results), respectively. False-positive cultures for CDBB were attributable to the growth of anaerobic non-C. difficile organisms that did not grow in CDBB-TC. Our results suggest that CDBB-TC provides a sensitive and selective medium for the recovery of C. difficile organisms from environmental samples, without the need for anaerobic culture conditions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda
With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available On the sample by 121 perspective young athletes was carried out the researching in the aim to establish the behavior style of coaches. The relevant information was obtained through the validated questionnaires of Chelladura and Saleha (1980. The questionnaire contains 40 questions which directly determine 5 behavior styles of coaches. All questions possess the scale by 5 levels with possible statements: (always, often, periodically, rarely and never. The true answer is only one statement on one question. It is word about five degrees 'Likert's scale'. It was carried out extensive and complex statistics processing of date, where the input qualitative categorical variables were transformed into quantitative. In the next step, transformed categorical variables were exposed in classical and neoclassical statistical methodology. On the base of exact indications which were obtained by using relevant invariant and multivariate statistical methods and tests, dominant behavior style of coaches is 'Instructive'. This behavior style of coach is the most desirable. According to this researching at the last position is behavior style which is the autocratically and it is also at the same time the least desirable. The results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Canonic discriminative analysis show the general statistical significant difference in the representation of the behavior styles. Instructive and Autocratic behavior style of coach mostly influences on the total (general discrimination i.e. difference. For above mentioned styles, it could be said that they are paradigm of contrasts in every way. Values of Tukey - HSD test explicitly shows that there are not statistical significant difference between Instructive Style and style Awarded - Feedback as well as between Democratically and style of Social Support. The other combinations i.e. couples of behavior styles are statistical significantly different.
In this paper we examine how (courseware) can accommodate differences in preferred learning style. A review of the literature on learning styles is followed by a discussion of the implications of being able to accurately classify learners, and key issues that must be addressed are raised. We then present two courseware design solutions that take into account individual learning‐style preference: the first follows on from traditional research in this area and assumes that learners can be class...
Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...
Schmidt, Johannes; Smith, Nicola J; Christiansen, Elisabeth
given its size. Propionate, however, does not discriminate between FFA2 and the closely related receptor FFA3 (GPR41). To identify FFA2 selective ligands and understand the molecular basis for FFA2 selectivity, a targeted library of small carboxylic acids (SCAs) was examined using holistic, label...
Full Text Available Despite limitations on comprehensive studies, scholars accept that transformational and transactional leadership theories will have a universal application because these models have capacity for being adapted to different cultural settings. However, more exploration is required in order to develop a strong and consistent picture of the generalizability of culturally-linked leadership styles differently perceived, evaluated or enacted in diverse cultures because the meaning and importance given to the concept of leadership vary across cultures. By comparing and contrasting the number of cultural frameworks of leadership styles and drawing conclusions as to the relationship between leadership styles and culture, more holistic understanding can be attained.
The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available Numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations render cancer cells selectively dependent on specific genes and regulatory pathways, and represent potential vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically exploited. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi-based synthetic interaction screen to identify genes preferentially required for proliferation of p53-deficient (p53- human cancer cells. We find that compared to p53-competent (p53+ human cancer cell lines, diverse p53- human cancer cell lines are preferentially sensitive to loss of the transcription factor ETV1 and the DNA damage kinase ATR. In p53- cells, RNAi-mediated knockdown of ETV1 or ATR results in decreased expression of the telomerase catalytic subunit TERT leading to growth arrest, which can be reversed by ectopic TERT expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that ETV1 binds to a region downstream of the TERT transcriptional start-site in p53- but not p53+ cells. We find that the role of ATR is to phosphorylate and thereby stabilize ETV1. Our collective results identify a regulatory pathway involving ETV1, ATR, and TERT that is preferentially important for proliferation of diverse p53- cancer cells.
Mei Ph’ng Lee
Full Text Available Learner diversity that exists in the classroom plays a role in influencing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It should be acknowledged in order for the teaching and learning process to be a meaningful and effective process. Thus, this study examined the learning styles preference of engineering students and the teaching styles preferences of their Technical Communication lecturers. The study also looked at whether the students’ learning styles preferences were influenced by their field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds. Felder and Solomon’s Index of Learning Styles was administered to 588 engineering students while Grasha and Riechmann-Hruska’s Teaching Style Survey was administered to 10 Technical Communication lecturers. The findings revealed that the students have a marked preference for the visual learning style but balanced preferences for the other learning styles dimensions. The students’ field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds did not seem to influence the students’ learning styles preferences. As for their Technical Communication lecturers, they seem to favour the student-centered teaching approach. All the data support the notion of adopting a balanced teaching approach in the Technical Communication classroom.
Keefe, James W., Ed.
In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…
Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati
Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately.
Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.
The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…
The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).
cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.
Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.
We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its
Full Text Available How the individual differences prime different learning process is well addressed in literature. But, what is missing from these analyses is how learners with different identity styles approach reading and writing skills and if different identity styles can predict differentiated language performance. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between identity styles, and reading/writing skills of Iranian intermediate female EFL learners. One the basis of the results of Nelson language proficiency test, 120 participants were selected to participate in this research. Participants' answers to Berzonsky's Identity Style Inventory (ISI3 and reading and writing parts of Preliminary English Test were analyzed. The results indicated that informational and normative identity styles were found to be positively correlated and diffuse-avoidant style was negatively correlated with reading and writing abilities whereas commitment identity didn't bear any significant relationships. The findings also indicated that informational style acted as the best predictor of these skills. Implications for language teachers are suggested.
Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José
The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed.
Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida
Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style?s questionnaire was do...
Pahl, Claus; Giesecke, Simon; Hasselbring, Wilhelm
peer-reviewed The conceptual modelling of software architectures is of central importance for the quality of a software system. A rich modelling language is required to integrate the different aspects of architecture modelling, such as architectural styles, structural and behavioural modelling, into a coherent framework.We propose an ontological approach for architectural style modelling based on description logic as an abstract, meta-level modelling instrument. Architect...
Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali
One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non addicted men to recognize their role in addiction. In this study, 200 addicted and non addicted men were randomly selected. Decision-making style and attributional style questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent Student's t and Pearson correlation tests. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. Addicted and non addicted men were significantly different in rational decision-making style (P rational decision making and optimistic attribution style (r = -0.305, P rational decision making and learned helplessness (r = 0.309, P rational in decision making and addicts that developed learned helplessness were less rational and did not have optimistic attribution style. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.
In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…
Boehe, Dirk Michael
While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…
Aubry, William E.
The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…
Moormann, Peter Paul
Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…
Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren
Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...
Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA
Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.
Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.
This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.
Full Text Available Research data is increasingly perceived as a valuable resource and, with appropriate curation and preservation, it has much to offer learning, teaching, research, knowledge transfer and consultancy activities in the visual arts. However, very little is known about the curation and preservation of this data: none of the specialist arts institutions have research data management policies or infrastructure and anecdotal evidence suggests that practice is ad hoc, left to individual researchers and teams with little support or guidance. In addition, the curation and preservation of such diverse and complex digital resources as found in the visual arts is, in itself, challenging. Led by the Visual Arts Data Service, a research centre of the University for the Creative Arts, in collaboration with the Glasgow School of Art; Goldsmiths College, University of London; and University of the Arts London, and funded by JISC, the KAPTUR project (2011-2013 seeks to address the lack of awareness and explore the potential of research data management systems in the arts by discovering the nature of research data in the visual arts, investigating the current state of research data management, developing a model of best practice applicable to both specialist arts institutions and arts departments in multidisciplinary institutions, and by applying, testing and piloting the model with the four institutional partners. Utilising the findings of the KAPTUR user requirement and technical review, this paper will outline the method and selection of an appropriate research data management system for the visual arts and the issues the team encountered along the way.
Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS
Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.
Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.
We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its correlation with that style. We test this prediction by studying how comovement varies with proxies of popularity. We use different kinds of data, such as data on stocks, mutual funds, IPO?s and fin...
Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).
Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…
Baltos, Georgios; Mitsopoulou, Zoi
... with, and reliability of candidate team members. Motivation, professional capabilities, and leadership skills are the most preferred selection variables when the organizational situation is perceived as a crisis.
Wihl, B. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This document proposes an early, high level design for a fitness tracking system which can automatically log weight lifting style workouts. The system will provide an easy to use interface both physically through the use of several wireless wristband style motion trackers worn on the limbs, and graphically through a smartphone application. Exercise classification will be accomplished by calibration of the user’s specific motions. The system will accurately track a user’s workout, miscounting no more than one repetition in every 20, have sufficient battery life to last several hours, work with existing smartphones and have a cost similar to those of current fitness tracking devices. This document presents the mission background, current state-of-theart, stakeholders and their expectations, the proposed system’s context and concepts, implementation concepts, system requirements, first sublevel function decomposition, possible risks for the system, and a reflection on the design process.
Hafiz Ali Javed; Asad Abbas Jaffari; Muzahir Rahim
This research study shows the relationship of leadership styles with the job satisfaction of employees working in the private banking sector of Pakistan and also depicts which leadership style leaders have adopted most. A questionnaire with five points likert scale was used to collect data on different dimensions of leadership styles and employees? job satisfaction from 230 participants working in five selected private banks of four districts of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The results s...
Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh
Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...
Nasvytienė, Dalia; Trakimavičiūtė, Rasa
The aim of research was to investigate the learning style of adolescents with the features of hyperactivity. The participants were selected as quite common group in the educational practice exceeding by number the pure clinical disorder group of hyperactive children. Their learning style is still under discussion in regard to the efficiency and dynamics of learning process. Learning style questionnaire was created for this purpose. The participants came from a consecutive sample of 30 adolesc...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment.
O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C
To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms
Cole, L.; Kudera, D.; Newberry, W.
This document results from the Secretary of Energy's response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94--2. The Secretary stated that the US Department of Energy (DOE) would ''address such issues as...the need for additional requirements, standards, and guidance on low-level radioactive waste management. '' The authors gathered information and compared DOE requirements and standards for the safety aspects Of low-level disposal with similar requirements and standards of non-DOE entities
This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance
Blissett, J; Haycraft, E
This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
Andrews, John D. W.
Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)
... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...
Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)
Aliaga, Daniel G; Rosen, Paul A; Bekins, Daniel R
Interactive visualization of architecture provides a way to quickly visualize existing or novel buildings and structures. Such applications require both fast rendering and an effortless input regimen for creating and changing architecture using high-level editing operations that automatically fill in the necessary details. Procedural modeling and synthesis is a powerful paradigm that yields high data amplification and can be coupled with fast-rendering techniques to quickly generate plausible details of a scene without much or any user interaction. Previously, forward generating procedural methods have been proposed where a procedure is explicitly created to generate particular content. In this paper, we present our work in inverse procedural modeling of buildings and describe how to use an extracted repertoire of building grammars to facilitate the visualization and quick modification of architectural structures and buildings. We demonstrate an interactive application where the user draws simple building blocks and, using our system, can automatically complete the building "in the style of" other buildings using view-dependent texture mapping or nonphotorealistic rendering techniques. Our system supports an arbitrary number of building grammars created from user subdivided building models and captured photographs. Using only edit, copy, and paste metaphors, the entire building styles can be altered and transferred from one building to another in a few operations, enhancing the ability to modify an existing architectural structure or to visualize a novel building in the style of the others.
Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O
The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Wiggins, Lori A.
This study examined the leadership styles of the chief state school officers of the United States and the District of Columbia. The entire population of 51 chief state school officers was surveyed and a response rate of 60% was obtained. The study examined the relationship between the leadership style, select demographic variables, and the…
Oyetunji, Christianah O.
This paper describes the followership style and job performance in Botswana private universities. Attempt was made to determine if there is a significant relationship between followership styles in relation to job performance. A total of 102 randomly selected lecturers from the two private universities completed followership and job performance…
Brittin, Ruth V.
Explores the influence of tempo on musical preference for students in grades 2-6, focusing on the effects of various styles using a MIDI keyboard. Explains that the students listened to 10 musical selections identifying their preferences and perceptions of tempo. Reveals that the preferred styles were Hip-Hop, Heavy Rock Shuffle, Samba, and Funk2.…
صادق تقی لو
Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male), who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Style...
Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe
Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.
Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe
Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128
... (written in Structured Query Language) links RPA flight performance parameters to individualized METOC Elements of Measurement, a subset of a larger Joint Service METOC Requirements database table, presented elsewhere in the thesis in full...
Based on this, this study was set out to investigate the influence of self esteem, parental monitoring and parenting styles on adolescents' risky sexual behavior in Ibadan. Cross-sectional research design was used. A total number of 194 adolescents selected from three secondary schools participated in the study.
The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...
Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe
We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…
Harris, Thomas E.
A study examined the management style of non-Fortune 500 business leaders and its relationship to their organizations' environment in order to provide a profile of a cross-section of these leaders. The presidents or CEOs of 65 randomly selected Indiana companies with annual sales of at least $5 million were surveyed about situational leadership…
Effects Of Parenting Styles On Psychosocial Well-Being Of Adolescents In Selected Secondary Schools In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. ... Based on these findings, it was recommended that the schools or teachers should learn how to satisfy the emotional needs of children, using appropriate teaching techniques in the ...
The influence of Gender and Leadership Style on job satisfaction was investigated using two hundred (200) Civil Servants made up of 100 (males) and 100 (females) randomly selected from the population of civil servants in various Ministries of Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. The mean age of the participants was 37.53 ...
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.
The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)
This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined
Rana Rashid Rehman
Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.
In this paper, we propose a partial quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented relay selection scheme with a decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocol, to reduce the feedback amount required for relay selection. In the proposed scheme, the activated relay is the one with the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) in the second hop among those whose packet loss rates (PLRs) in the first hop achieve a predetermined QoS level. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme, we exploit it with transmission constraints imposed on the transmit power budget and interference to other users. By analyzing the statistics of received SNRs in the first and second hops, we obtain the end-to-end PLR of this scheme in closed form under the considered scenario. Moreover, to compare the proposed scheme with popular relay selection schemes, we also derive the closed-form PLR expressions for partial relay selection (PRS) and opportunistic relay selection (ORS) criteria in the same scenario under study. Illustrative numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of our derivations and substantiate that the proposed relay selection scheme is a promising alternative with respect to the tradeoff between performance and complexity.
مریم جهان بخش
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
identical learning styles were found to be positively or negatively related to critical thinking. However comparative findings across studies revealed that all learning styles might be positive determinants toward critical thinking evolution, suggesting that there is a relationship between learning styles and critical thinking. Certain links between learning styles and critical thinking were supported in given settings and given nursing student populations. Further field exploration is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brumovsky, M.; Kraus, V.; Ruscak, M.; Vejvoda, S.
A survey is presented of data required for the evaluation and control of nuclear power plant aging and service life, and a data acquisition and record-keeping system is proposed. The data fall in 3 classes: (i) information on the initial status, including design data and status data at the beginning of the operational lifetime of the facilities; (ii) data on the history of operation, including operating conditions at the level of the corresponding system and facility, as well as operating test and failure data; and (iii) data on the history of maintenance, including data on the monitoring of the facility condition and on maintenance. Basic information requirements for the evaluation of the service life of the pressure vessel, steam generator, pressurizer, and main circulation pipe are given; the way of processing this information is outlined. (J.B.). 2 figs
In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized
Dominic P Golec
Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.
Bruins, Henderikus B; Coburn, John F
The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...
Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie
Individual differences in physiological and behavioural responses to stressors are increasingly recognised as adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution and fish farming improvements including selective breeding. Such individual variation has been evolutionarily conserved and is present...... in all vertebrate taxa including fish. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, that is coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years because many studies have demonstrated links to performance traits, health and disease susceptibility and welfare. This study...... will review (i) the main behavioural, neuroendocrine, cognitive and emotional differences between reactive and proactive coping styles in farmed fish; (ii) the methodological approaches used to identify coping styles in farmed fish, including individual (group) mass-screening tests; and (iii) how knowledge...
Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.
Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....
Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein
characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...
Moghaddam Hoseini V
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.
Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili
Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648
Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.
Full Text Available Leadership style plays an important role on job satisfaction in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on job satisfaction. The study also investigates the impacts of transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style and Laissez – fair leadership style on job satisfaction. Finally, the study considers the relationship between personality trait neuroticism and transformational leadership style as well as personality trait extraversion and transformational leadership style. The study uses Pearson correlation test and verify that nine out of ten hypotheses have been confirmed and the relationship between Laissez – fair leadership style and job satisfaction is not confirmed.
Students and lecturers in tertiary institutions whose areas of specialization are in Education and the Social and Behavioural Sciences are required to apply the APA style whenever they submit their projects and papers. However, due to the fact that the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is very ...
Veldhuis, Hollace Anne
The author's presentation at the staff meeting centered on Diana Baumrind's parenting styles framework (Baumrind, 1967). Baumrind believed that there were four requirements for effective guidance: nurturing, communication, maturity demands, and control. She rated parents on these four dimensions and identified the pattern of parenting that…
This may require the coach to display flexibility in adapting his/her leadership style to suit specific leadership situations so that all stakeholders (i.e. coach, athletes and management) are satisfied. Coaches wield strong influence over their athletes, therefore their leadership skills forms a vital element of their coaching.
Good public speaking style requires, among other skills, "effective management of the resources of language." Good speakers choose language carefully to create credibility, emotional impact, and logical appeal. If a speaker's language is wishy-washy, dull, vague, or long-winded, the speaker appears less trustworthy. Audience distrust of a speaker…
Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai
To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child
Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the learning styles of students may help educational planning and improve the learning. This study aims to assess learning styles, and relevant determinants, of students who study in various disciplines of medical sciences at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 students from BUMS were selected randomly. Data were collected sing the Kolb learning style questionnaire during April/May 2012. One-way ANOVA, Student t-test, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.3±7.0, majority of them were males. The preferred learning styles were diverger (76.7%, accommodator (12.8%, assimilator (7.8% and converger (2.8% respectively. The results showed that the factors such as age, sex, marriage status, father and mother education, grade point average (GPA and academic degree could be important to determine learning style characteristics of students. The findings also indicate that the preferred learning style among the students with different GPAs or academic degrees are not different considerably. Conclusion: Regarding the most preferred leaning style by the, proper planning to address proper teaching styles according to the preferred learning styles is necessary.
Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam
Introduction Identifying and employing students’ learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students’ final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual–aural–reading/writing–kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles’ questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Results Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). Conclusion The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students. PMID:27382442
Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan
The plasmid pDBORO conferred sensitivity of Lactococcus lactis towards 5´-Fluoroorotate. Moreover, by transformation, this plasmid was found to be essential for orotate dependent growth in a pyrimidine requiring strain. A single gene on pDBORO was required for growth on orotate, and was termed oro......P. Since the corresponding open reading frame, OroP showed the features of a membrane protein, OroP most likely is an orotate transporter. A number of strains like L. lactis and Bacillus subtilus have been shown to be unable to metabolize orotate. If the oroP gene was introduced into these strains......, they acquired the ability to utilize orotate. If the strains had a pyrimidine requirement, the oroP gene could function as a selectable marker when growing in the presence of orotate as sole pyrimidine source. In an otherwise resistant strain, oroP was shown to sensitize the strain towards the analog 5...
مهسا اکبریان فیروزآبادی
Full Text Available Various studies on attachment show that child-caregiver interaction and caregiver’s reaction to child have momentous role in formation of child’s attachment. The aim of this study was to explain the intergenerational transmission cycle of attachment styles. In this regard the effect of parenting styles and childhood traumas on children’s attachment styles was investigated. This study is an ex post facto with causal design, and 175 Iranian available students were selected from Kharazmi University, Tehran University and Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, mediation analysis, and path analysis. The results indicated that different parenting styles lead to different attachment styles in children. Our results supported the relationship between parent’s care and over-protection factors with avoidance index of attachment, while no significant relationship was observed between these two factors with anxiety index. Moreover, perceived emotional abuse had a mediator roll in the relationship between parenting components and avoidance index of attachment. Finally, we achieved a model of simultaneous effects of two care and control factors on avoidance index, which is mediated by the perceived childhood trauma.
Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati
Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.
Oberem, Josefa; Koch, Iring; Fels, Janina
Using a binaural-listening paradigm, age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention between two speakers, defined by their spatial location, were examined. Therefore 40 normal-hearing participants (20 young, Ø 24.8years; 20 older Ø 67.8years) were tested. The spatial reproduction of stimuli was provided by headphones using head-related-transfer-functions of an artificial head. Spoken number words of two speakers were presented simultaneously to participants from two out of eight locations on the horizontal plane. Guided by a visual cue indicating the spatial location of the target speaker, the participants were asked to categorize the target's number word into smaller vs. greater than five while ignoring the distractor's speech. Results showed significantly higher reaction times and error rates for older participants. The relative influence of the spatial switch of the target-speaker (switch or repetition of speaker's direction in space) was identical across age groups. Congruency effects (stimuli spoken by target and distractor may evoke the same answer or different answers) were increased for older participants and depend on the target's position. Results suggest that the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention to a new cued location was unimpaired whereas it was generally harder for older participants to suppress processing the distractor's speech. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The large-scale turnover of intracellular material including organelles is achieved by autophagy-mediated degradation in lysosomes. Initiation of autophagy is controlled by a protein kinase complex consisting of an Atg1-family kinase, Atg13, FIP200/Atg17, and the metazoan-specific subunit Atg101. Here we show that loss of Atg101 impairs both starvation-induced and basal autophagy in Drosophila. This leads to accumulation of protein aggregates containing the selective autophagy cargo ref(2P/p62. Mapping experiments suggest that Atg101 binds to the N-terminal HORMA domain of Atg13 and may also interact with two unstructured regions of Atg1. Another HORMA domain-containing protein, Mad2, forms a conformational homodimer. We show that Drosophila Atg101 also dimerizes, and it is predicted to fold into a HORMA domain. Atg101 interacts with ref(2P as well, similar to Atg13, Atg8a, Atg16, Atg18, Keap1, and RagC, a known regulator of Tor kinase which coordinates cell growth and autophagy. These results raise the possibility that the interactions and dimerization of the putative HORMA domain protein Atg101 play critical roles in starvation-induced autophagy and proteostasis, by promoting the formation of protein aggregate-containing autophagosomes.
Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.
Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…
Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)
Wright, John C.
A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…
Shopen, Timothy, Ed.; Williams, Joseph M., Ed.
A collection of articles on the kinds of variation in English that one finds within the language of one group or one person includes: "The English Language as Rule-Governed Behavior" (Timothy Shopen); "The English Language as Use-Governed Behavior" (Joseph M. Williams); "Styles" (Ann D. Zwicky); "The Organization…
Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah
This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.
Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)
Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.
Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)
Full Text Available The article reviews research on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management by setting out the organisational framework of the findings to date in four generic dimensions: people, measures, effects, and objectives. Using this framework, an overview has been provided of studies on directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional and instrumental leadership, strategic and executive leadership, as well as shared and distributed leadership. There are strong signals that different stages and types of innovation raise different leadership requirements. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only innovation management style and various leadership styles have their own, distinct ways of contributing to different types and stages of innovation. However, the determination of this allocation is still very incomplete and the answer to the question of how innovations should be managed remains unclear. The article also describes research needs and their practical implications.
Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Martin, Pamela; Coard, Julie; Toffaletti, John; McDonnell, Elizabeth; Taylor, Elizabeth; Farrell, Lausanne; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Chen, Ting; Alva, Shridhara; Ng, Ronald
A new version of international standard (ISO 15197) and CLSI Guideline (POCT12) with more stringent accuracy criteria are near publication. We evaluated the glucose test performance of the FreeStyle Precision Pro system, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) designed to enhance accuracy for point-of-care testing (POCT). Precision, interference and system accuracy with 503 blood samples from capillary, venous and arterial sources were evaluated in a multicenter study. Study results were analyzed and presented in accordance with the specifications and recommendations of the final draft ISO 15197 and the new POCT12. The FreeStyle Precision Pro system demonstrated acceptable precision (CV FreeStyle Precision Pro system met the tighter accuracy requirements, providing a means for enhancing accuracy for point-of-care blood glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Halah, Ziad; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Grauman, Kristen
What is the future of fashion? Tackling this question from a data-driven vision perspective, we propose to forecast visual style trends before they occur. We introduce the first approach to predict the future popularity of styles discovered from fashion images in an unsupervised manner. Using these styles as a basis, we train a forecasting model to represent their trends over time. The resulting model can hypothesize new mixtures of styles that will become popular in the future, discover styl...
Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam
Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother's parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls.
Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W
Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion
Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad
The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…
Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi
To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…
The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.
Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed
In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…
Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca
Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…
Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others
The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…
Hilliard, Asa G., III
Argues that unique behavioral styles can be identified among African-American populations and that behavioral style may help explain differences in test performance for white and African-American students. Implications for all students of providing stylistic diversity in the schools and student ability to use multiple learning styles are…
Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider
This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…
KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M
The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the
Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan
The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…
مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری
The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...
Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters
Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.
In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations
Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi
Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite’s radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. PMID:25821071
Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi
Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite's radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental
Sanavi, Fariba Shahhraki; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Shovey, Mehdi Faraji; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011.The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n = 380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n = 170; 38.7%) and consensual (n = 152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p parent relation and home life (p parents while raising their children.
Muhtarom; Sugiyanti; Utami, R. E.; Indriana, K.
This study revealed the metacognitive activity of male students in impulsive cognitive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problems, especially in the material of plane. One student of impulsive cognitive style and one student of reflective cognitive-style were selected to be the subjects of the study. Data were collected by giving written test of problem solving and interview. Data analysis was done through data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation and conclusion. The results showed that male student of reflective cognitive style was meticulous and careful in solving the problem so as to obtain correct answers, while the impulsive cognitive style student had the characteristics of using a short time in solving the problem, but less careful so that the answers tended to be wrong
Mohammad Reza SARMADI
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the group creativity on thinking styles in distance education based on collaborative learning. Sample included 120 students from three intact classes of the College of education were selected as the participants for the main study. The instruments of measurement were the thinking styles inventory and the creative product semantic scale. Using the factorial quasi-experimental design, impact of thinking styles in the group creativity was tested. The results of the present study showed that male students tended to prefer the legislative thinking style more than the female students. There was no significant difference between male and female students in the overall creative ability. In addition, this study found that there was no significant association between the average group member creative ability and the overall group creative performance. The findings also supported Sternberg’s argument that ability is different from style.
Kayıran, Sinan Mahir; Cure, Sena
The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest. Until recently, it was thought that compared to adults, infants have very limited memory processing abilities. Knowledge about factors affecting a child's memory abilities can help families (specifically mothers) behave in a manner that best benefits their children in language and memory skills. The present study examines one factor that may underlie a child's memory capabilities; namely the mother's narrative style. Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Forty healthy children (mean age of 31.55 months, range 25-37 months) and their mothers were entered into the study. All participants were native Turkish speakers, from similar socioeconomic status backgrounds. Memory was assessed by a modified version of the Magic Shrinking Machine. Narrative style was assessed by the mother "reading" a Frog Story; a picture book with no words in it. Children were then grouped according to their mother's level of narrative style. Children's language skills were measured via the Turkish form of the CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) which was translated to Turkish as TIGE. To explore the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory and language skills and between children's language skills and memory capabilities, linear regressions were run. There were no significant correlations among any comparisons (P > 0.05). Children's language skills do not improve according to their mothers' narrative styles, and children do not show better memory abilities when mothers use more words and longer sentences. In order to have a better understanding of these relationships, future research that includes several more variables is needed. Child; Mother; Memory; Narrative style.
Bryson, Charles H.; Howard, Richard D.
The planning processes at two universities are contrasted as they relate to styles of data management and institutional research required to support two different planning philosophies--centralized planning and decentralized planning. (Author/BH)
Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars
Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....
Chakraborty, Santanu; Sengupta, Chandana; Roy, Kunal
Considering the current need for development of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, an attempt has been made to explore physico-chemical requirements of 2-(5-phenyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-5-methanesulfonylpyridines for binding with COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme subtypes and also to explore the selectivity requirements. In this study, E-states of different common atoms of the molecules (calculated according to Kier & Hall), first order valence connectivity and physicochemical parameters (hydrophobicity pi, Hammett sigma and molar refractivity MR of different ring substituents) were used as independent variables along with suitable dummy parameters in the stepwise regression method. The best equation describing COX-1 binding affinity [n = 25, Q2 = 0.606, R(a)2 = 0.702, R2 = 0.752, R = 0.867, s = 0.447, F = 15.2 (df 4, 20)] suggests that the COX-1 binding affinity increases in the presence of a halogen substituent at R1 position and a p-alkoxy or p-methylthio substituent at R2 position. Furthermore, a difluoromethyl group is preferred over a trifluoromethyl group at R position for the COX-1 binding. The best equation describing COX-2 binding affinity [n = 32, Q2 = 0.622, R(a)2= 0.692, R2 = 0.732, R = 0.856, s = 0.265, F = 18.4 (df 4, 27)] shows that the COX-2 binding affinity increases with the presence of a halogen substituent at R1 position and increase of size of R2 substituents. However, it decreases in case of simultaneous presence of 3-chloro and 4-methoxy groups on the phenyl nucleus and in the presence of highly lipophilic R2 substituents. The best selectivity relation [n = 25, Q2 = 0.455, R(a)2 = 0.605, R2 = 0.670, R = 0.819, s = 0.423, F = 10.2 (df 4, 20)] suggests that the COX-2 selectivity decreases in the presence of p-alkoxy group and electron-withdrawing para substituents at R2 position. Again, a trifluoro group is conductive for the selectivity instead of a difluoromethyl group at R position. Furthermore, branching may also play significant role in
This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit.
This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit
Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate
Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...
Example 2: The general’s dog, obedient and loyal, was the perfect companion . 2. Adverbial modifiers: Adverbial modifiers are usually followed...pronoun in this case. Example 3: Us chefs like to cook. You wouldn’t say, “Us like to cook,” so the appropriate pronoun here is we. 2...in Chicago Style. Resources for Additional Help: Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. The Business Writer’s Companion
Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.
Chakraborty, Santanu; Sengupta, Chandana; Roy, Kunal
An attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) versus cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) binding of terphenyl methyl sulfones and sulfonamides using electrotopological state (E-state) index and suitable indicator parameters. Multiple linear regression analyses produced statistically acceptable equations: the best relation based on 'all-possible-subsets regression' for COX-1 binding (n=18) showed predicted variance and explained variance of 0.675 and 0.777, respectively, while in case of the best equation for COX-2 binding (n=38), these values rose to 0.842 and 0.874, respectively. For the selectivity relation (n=17), predicted variance and explained variance values were 0.601 and 0.687, respectively. Based on the results of the analyses, three important sites have been suggested: sites A (methylsulfonyl or aminosulfonyl moiety), B (central phenyl ring), and C (terminal phenyl ring containing different substituents). All three sites are important for COX-2 binding while sites B and C are important for COX-1 binding. For COX-2 selectivity, only site C plays an important role. The study shows the utility of E-state index in developing statistically acceptable model having direct physicochemical significance.
Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit
Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar
Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.
Full Text Available Challenges within the customer service industry make leadership styles a key factor in the success of customer service project delivery. This research provides an overview of information and knowledge within a corporate environment with an underlying theme of defining leadership styles within the customer service projects environment to ensure successful project delivery. This research aims to investigate the perception of leadership styles required and factors that contribute to successful project delivery effectiveness within a telecommunication customer service environment. A conceptual research model is formulated and is followed by a quantitative research process and analysis. The results of the study identified that employees had a neutral perception to leadership styles however; different leadership styles are important to themselves and the organisation
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…
Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…
Full Text Available This paper explores preference to the style of decision making (managerial, analytical, conceptual and behavioural, (Alan Rowe, 1992, management styles (relationship-oriented leadership and management by objectives, (Fiedler, 1987 and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, (Eysenck, 1998. The convenience sample of 61 respondents (principals of primary and secondary schools from Macedonia were subjected to decision making style inventory (Decision Style Inventory - DSI of 20 claims, a questionnaire to assess the management style (Least preferred coworker - LPC composed of 18 bipolar adjectives, and a personality test (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - EPQ composed of 90 items in the form of questions. Results show that schools lean towards directive style of decision making with a combination of democratic-participatory style that includes subordinates in the process of decision making. The results also demonstrate that school principals prefer management style motivated by relationships; they are more introverted and emotionally stable. The findings indicate a necessity for a new generation of managers who will be different from the traditional managers. It is evident that the future will require managers with leadership styles different from the traditional in Republic of Macedonia. Given that the school is a basic organisational cell on which the educational system of the country is based, the proposed findings present an occasion for developing new ideas and practices that may yield great results. This would increase the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the school as a modern organisation. Thus, these findings have practical implications as they may direct special training of principals in order to apply the best management style, or style that is most appropriate for certain situations, certainly through coordination of the desired profile of the principal and the business strategy, development and maturity of
Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili
Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...
Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceicao, Luis E. C.; Millot, Sandie; Rey, Sonia; Begout, Marie-laure; Damsgard, Borge; Kristiansen, Tore; Hoglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind; Martins, Catarina I. M.
Individual differences in physiological and behavioural responses to stressors are increasingly recognised as adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution and fish farming improvements including selective breeding. Such individual variation has been evolutionarily conserved and is present in all vertebrate taxa including fish. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, that is coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years because many studies h...
Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G
Full Text Available Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting styles questionnaire and investigator made questionnaire of tendency to drug were completed by selected sample. Typology of family parenting styles was extracted by combining parental and maternal parenting styles. Because of low frequency of some kind of parenting styles, only 6 parenting styles were entered in the analysis and adolescents’ anxiety and depression were compared in various styles by running of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Scheffe Follow up test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that adolescents achieve the most positive outcomes and the least tendency to drugs, when both of parents are authoritative. Also, the greatest tendency has been seen in adolescents with two indulgent parents or at least one indulgent parent. Discussion: These findings indicate the importance of parental control on adolescents' attitudes to drug.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of parenting styles and the risk to develop an eating disordered behavior among teenage girls. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that parenting style are correlated with the risk to have an eating disordered behavior among female teenagers. It was predicted that the teenage girls at risk for developing an eating disorder would report experiencing their parents style as high in control and low in warmth or low in control and high in warmth. Specifically, the permissive and the authoritarian parenting style will be positively correlated with the risk to develop an eating disordered behavior. The sample of this research was composed by 100 teenage girls 15-18 years old. The selection of the participant was totally random and they were selected on the schools they frequented. There were found significant correlations between daughters approach to eating and mothers parenting style. These results support the impact of mothers parenting style on the risk to have an eating disorder, but more research needs to be conducted in examining the relationship between parenting style and eating disordered behavior.
Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi
This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Pauthoritative parenting style on the effortful control trait (Pparent style on the child negative affectivity (PParenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah
Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh
Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692
M Alshahrani, Fawaz Musaed; Baig, Lubna A
To evaluate the effect of transformational and transactional leadership styles of head nurses on the job satisfaction of staff nurses in critical care units (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital. Cross-sectional study. Critical care units at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia, from July to December 2012. The multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ-5X) and job satisfaction survey with demographics were used. Staff nurses (N=89) reporting to 8 nurse leaders responded as per the requirements of MLQ-5X and also filled the job satisfaction survey. ANOVA, correlation coefficient (Pearson r) and multiple linear regression were used for analyses. All nurse leaders demonstrated a combination of transactional (TA) and transformational (TF) style of leadership. Nurses working under leaders with a TF style demonstrated significantly (p style of leadership. Pay, fringe benefits and nature of work were not related to the style of leadership. The nurses were moderately satisfied with their work and 23% of the variation in nurses' job satisfaction could be explained by the head nurses 6 leadership facets with positive effect of professional support, intellectual motivation, management by correction and their laissez faire style. The study emphasized the importance of TF style of head nurses for increasing staff nurses' job satisfaction. It is suggested that nurse leaders should be trained in TF style of leadership and provided more support and training for effective management of CCU.
ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI; RITA REZAEE; ZAHRA YAZDANI; SINA BAGHERI; PARISA NABEIEI
Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.???? Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Bau...
Shirin Jahan Mumu; Farzana Saleh; Ferdous Ara; Fadia Afnan; Liaquat Ali
Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care ce...
De Mattos, Claudio; Salciuviene, Laura; Auruskeviciene, Vilte; Juneja, Garima
The main purpose of the paper is to identify consumer decision making styles based on Sproles & Kendall's (1986) framework in a large emerging market for international apparel brands. An online questionnaire-based survey with individual Indian consumers was conducted. The results of this study identify five consumer decision making styles among Indian consumers when selecting international apparel brands. The findings also suggest significant statistical differences between males and fema...
Hossein Taran; Siavash Kalantari; Fateme Dahaghin; Zahra Shahsavari Abhari
This study aimed to investigate the relationship among parenting styles, self-efficacy, and achievement among students. This study used ex post facto research method. The population consisted of all high school students in Zanjan in academic year 2014-2015. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, 400 participants were selected as sample. The Scheffer’s parenting styles questionnaire and Scherrer’s self-efficacy questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed that there was ...
In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles
Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena
Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena
Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767
Full Text Available Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses’ and supervisors’ perceptions of nurse managers’ leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.
Mukherjee, Subhendu; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal
Considering importance of developing selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), the present paper explores selectivity requirements of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives for binding with ER(alpha) versus ER(beta) receptors using E-state index and physicochemical parameters. The best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.512, R(a)(2)=0.613, R=0.819, F=11.6 (df 3,17)] for ER(alpha) binding data obtained from radioligand binding assay showed importance of C(1), C(15) and lipophilicity (logP) while the best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.768, R(a)(2)=0.796, R=0.904, F=40.1 (df 2,18)] for ER(beta) binding data showed importance of C(1) and molar refractivity (MR). While modeling ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity [n=21, Q(2)=0.695, R(a)(2)=0.739, R=0.882, F=19.8 (df 3,17)], C(1), C(15) and molar refractivity were found to be significant contributors. The data obtained from cellular transcription assay were also modeled. In case of ER(alpha), the best equation involving E-state values of C(1) and C(14) and logP explained 62.1% of the variance while the best equation for ER(beta) involving E-state values of C(1) and C(15) and MR explained 64.6% of the variance of the response variable. In case of ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity, the best equation involving E-state values of O(8), C(14) and N(27) showed 48.3% explained variance, which increased to 63.5% on deletion of single outlier. From the analysis it appears that the nitrogen atom of the aminoethoxyphenyl substituent and 6-hydroxy substituent of the tetrahydroisoquinoline nucleus play important roles for ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity in addition to R(1) and R(2) substituents.
Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the main strategies for keeping health is having healthy life style. Due to important role of adolescent health in community health promotion, this study aimed to determine health promoting life style in female adolescents of high schools and its associated factors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 810 girls ranging in ages from 14to 18 years old, who were studying in high schools and selected using cluster sampling from in Mashhad, Iran in 2013. They completed questionnaires of demographic data and Adolescent Health Promoting AH scale. Data were analyzed by statistical tests of Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Freedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation coefficient and General linear model. Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.51±0.98 and the mean score of life style was 63.92±12.01. The highest score of life style subscales was allocated to the “spiritual growth or life-appreciation (77.66±15.56 and the least to the physical and sport activities (51.66±22.49. There was a significant relationship between the life style score of adolescents with parents educational level (mother P=0.024, father P=0.014. However no significant relationship was found between adolescents' life style and their residential area and also parents' job. Among different dimension of life style, the highest correlation was seen between spiritual growth score and life style total score (p=0.01. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is necessary to prioritize implementing of health-related educational programs in order to changing and modification of unhealthy life style related factors, with focus on sport activities as well as health and nutrition. Also it is needed to provide special facilities to select healthy living behaviors among Female adolescents.
Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the current study was to identify associations between the learning style of nursing students and their cultural values and demographic characteristics. Methods: A non-probability purposive sampling method was used to gather data from two populations. All 156 participants were female, Muslim, and full-time degree students. Data were collected from April to June 2010 using two reliable and validated questionnaires: the Learning Style Scales and the Values Survey Module 2008 (VSM 08. A simple linear regression was run for each predictor before conducting multiple linear regression analysis. The forward selection method was used for variable selection. P-values ≤0.05 and ≤0.1 were considered to indicate significance and marginal significance, respectively. Moreover, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the invariance of the Farsi and English versions of the VSM 08. Results: The perceptive learning style was found to have a significant negative relationship with the power distance and monumentalism indices of the VSM 08. Moreover, a significant negative association was observed between the solitary learning style and the power distance index. However, no significant association was found between the analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles and cultural values (P>0.05. Likewise, no significant associations were observed between learning style, including the perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles, and year of study or age (P>0.05. Conclusion: Students who reported low values on the power distance and monumentalism indices are more likely to prefer perceptive and solitary learning styles. Within each group of students in our study sample from the same school the year of study and age did not show any significant associations with learning style.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
The goal of the current study was to identify associations between the learning style of nursing students and their cultural values and demographic characteristics. A non-probability purposive sampling method was used to gather data from two populations. All 156 participants were female, Muslim, and full-time degree students. Data were collected from April to June 2010 using two reliable and validated questionnaires: the Learning Style Scales and the Values Survey Module 2008 (VSM 08). A simple linear regression was run for each predictor before conducting multiple linear regression analysis. The forward selection method was used for variable selection. P-values ≤0.05 and ≤0.1 were considered to indicate significance and marginal significance, respectively. Moreover, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the invariance of the Farsi and English versions of the VSM 08. The perceptive learning style was found to have a significant negative relationship with the power distance and monumentalism indices of the VSM 08. Moreover, a significant negative association was observed between the solitary learning style and the power distance index. However, no significant association was found between the analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles and cultural values (P>0.05). Likewise, no significant associations were observed between learning style, including the perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles, and year of study or age (P>0.05). Students who reported low values on the power distance and monumentalism indices are more likely to prefer perceptive and solitary learning styles. Within each group of students in our study sample from the same school the year of study and age did not show any significant associations with learning style.
Casida, Jesus; Parker, Jessica
To explore the correlations of leadership styles of nurse managers (NMs) and outcomes. Little is known about the linkages among leadership styles [transformational (TFL), transactional (TRL)] of NMs and outcomes [a leader's extra effort (LEE), leadership satisfaction (LS) and effectiveness (LE)] using the full-range leadership theory. Methods An exploratory correlational design was employed using data from a 2007 study in which staff nurses (n = 278) from four hospitals in the Northeastern US were asked to rate the leadership styles of NMs (n = 37) and outcomes using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5x-Short. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. TFL leadership has strong correlations to LEE, LS and LE, and was a predictor for leadership outcomes. Conversely, TRL leadership has week correlations to LEE, LS and LE and did not predict leadership outcomes. NMs who frequently display TFL leadership styles will probably achieve goals in a satisfying manner, warranting further research. TFL leadership training should be a basic competency requirement of NMs. Placing successful and effective TFL leaders in nursing units are the professional and moral obligations of nurse executives. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias
We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...
Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa
This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena
Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and...
Each leader has a leadership style that is different tobe adapted to the work environment so as to avoidinternal conflicts between superiors and subordinates.No leadership style that has been attached since theman was still in the womb, but some are derived fromexperience and knowledge about leadership.In an era of democratization takes leaders who have ademocratic leadership style that promotes democraticvalues that exist so that the subordinate was given theopportunity to cooperate and coor...
Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...
Higa, Elza de Fátima Ribeiro; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora
This study focuses on nursing leadership on the basis of Grid theories. According to the authors, these theories are an alternative that allows for leadership development in nursing. The research aimed to identify and analyze the style of leadership idealized by nurses, according to their own view, and to compare the styles of leadership idealized by nurses between the two research institutions. Study subjects were 13 nurses. The results show that nurses at both institutions equally mention they idealize style 9.9, followed by 5.5 and 1.9, with a tendency to reject styles 9.1 and 1.1.
Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
V Moghaddam Hoseini
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Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.
Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.
Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.
Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.
Mohammed, U. K.; Prabhakar, G. P.; White, G.
The management of culture has become increasingly important to many organisations and business disciplines, particularly multicultural and international project management. Cultural differences often result in varying degrees of conflict and require careful consideration. This study surveys 116 Project Managers using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument to determine their approach toward managing conflict. Indian, French and UK Project Managers’ conflict management style are correlated...
Apart from a long list of advantages, design students face certain challenges when working collectively in groups on form, styling and aesthetics. An investigation about these challenges has been carried out and a number of challenges have been identified. The most apparent challenges relate to d...... to different aesthetic preferences, lack of tools and methods, and difficulties in establishing form related requirements. The challenges are presented and design quality, as well as some solution strategies, is discussed....
Despite limitations on comprehensive studies, scholars accept that transformational and transactional leadership theories will have a universal application because these models have capacity for being adapted to different cultural settings. However, more exploration is required in order to develop a strong and consistent picture of the generalizability of culturally-linked leadership styles differently perceived, evaluated or enacted in diverse cultures because the meaning and importance give...
Bachelor students at the Faculty of Psychology in Bergen are required to write their thesis according to the guidelines of scientific writing by the American Psychological Association (APA). These guidelines provide help with structuring the thesis, describing research methods, reporting findings, referencing, and using a clear scientific writing style. Despite its relevance, teaching the APA guidelines has been considered somewhat boring by both students and teaching staff – largely due to t...
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Leadership styles of service professionals--including social workers and teachers--in the area of family abuse were investigated. Leadership characteristics of the professionals were measured by their responses to a survey. Results indicated that the interviewed service professionals demonstrated productive leadership traits. Study findings are congruent with leadership styles described in the research. Holistic and collaborative services are required to enhance care for women of abuse, as their needs are multifaceted and complex. Specific leadership styles promote better care for women; leaders need to collaboratively initiate and deliver more interdisciplinary and unified service.
ÖZDEMİR, Erkan; OMAROV, Zaur
Consumersmake purchasing decisions based on different criteria. These criteria, whichcan be considered in many different titles such as price, quality, fashion,entertainment, also shape the purchasing decision-making styles of consumers. Consumerscan be divided into market segments according to decision-making styles. Thisstudy aims to determine the decision-making styles ofconsumers in Turkey and Azerbaijan and compare the decision-making styles ofconsumers in the two countries.The data coll...
Rana Rashid Rehman; Ajmal Waheed
The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to coll...
Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saeed, Rajaeepour; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zahra, Amiri; Abdolghayoum, Nematiniya; Zaman, Ajdai; Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh
Assuring job satisfaction, over a long-term, requires managers' styles, careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Job satisfaction is influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. The aim of this study was to determine the…
Neyen, Julia; Volpe, Carolyn Ann; Selby, Edwin C.; Houtz, John C.
Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data…
Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki
Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…
Brittin, Ruth V.
Listeners ("N" = 543) in grades 4, 5, and 6 rated their preference for 10 instrumental and vocal selections from various styles, including four popular music selections with versions performed in English, Spanish, or an Asian language. Participants estimated their identification with Spanish/Hispanic/Latino and Asian cultures, the number…
Harris, Julia M; Nguyen, Phil P; Patel, Milan J; Sporn, Zachary A; Hines, Justin K
Yeast prions are heritable amyloid aggregates of functional yeast proteins; their propagation to subsequent cell generations is dependent upon fragmentation of prion protein aggregates by molecular chaperone proteins. Mounting evidence indicates the J-protein Sis1 may act as an amyloid specificity factor, recognizing prion and other amyloid aggregates and enabling Ssa and Hsp104 to act in prion fragmentation. Chaperone interactions with prions, however, can be affected by variations in amyloid-core structure resulting in distinct prion variants or 'strains'. Our genetic analysis revealed that Sis1 domain requirements by distinct variants of [PSI+] are strongly dependent upon overall variant stability. Notably, multiple strong [PSI+] variants can be maintained by a minimal construct of Sis1 consisting of only the J-domain and glycine/phenylalanine-rich (G/F) region that was previously shown to be sufficient for cell viability and [RNQ+] prion propagation. In contrast, weak [PSI+] variants are lost under the same conditions but maintained by the expression of an Sis1 construct that lacks only the G/F region and cannot support [RNQ+] propagation, revealing mutually exclusive requirements for Sis1 function between these two prions. Prion loss is not due to [PSI+]-dependent toxicity or dependent upon a particular yeast genetic background. These observations necessitate that Sis1 must have at least two distinct functional roles that individual prions differentially require for propagation and which are localized to the glycine-rich domains of the Sis1. Based on these distinctions, Sis1 plasmid-shuffling in a [PSI+]/[RNQ+] strain permitted J-protein-dependent prion selection for either prion. We also found that, despite an initial report to the contrary, the human homolog of Sis1, Hdj1, is capable of [PSI+] prion propagation in place of Sis1. This conservation of function is also prion-variant dependent, indicating that only one of the two Sis1-prion functions may have
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors as learning styles can influence the learning process. The aim of thisstudy was to determine learning styles, which are used by nursing and allied health students in SemnanUniversity of Medical Sciences.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 199 nursing and allied healthstudents of Semnan university of medical sciences (2007, Iran. Students were selected using a simplesampling method. The assessment instrument was the last version of Kolb learning style inventory (KLSIV.3.1.Results: Generally, the learning styles of students were divergent (% 27.1, accommodations (% 26.6,convergent (%23.6, and assimilation (%22.6. The preferred learning style in nursing students wasconvergent (%31.9, and in allied health students was divergent (%36.1. There was a significantrelationship between the type of learning styles with academic courses (P=0.006 married status(P=0.004 and average score (P=0.031, but there was no correlation between the type of learning stylesand gender.Conclusion: Considering the predominance of convergent and divergent learning styles in thesestudents, the usage of some educational methods such as problem -based learning, group discussions,brain storming, role playing, computerized simulation and demonstration are recommended in theoretical,clinical and skill laboratory fields, so that; the students in the new and objective situations can apply theirvisualization for more earning knowledge and professional skills.
Huang, Fang; Hoi, Cathy Ka Weng; Teo, Timothy
Learning style is one of the main factors that determines how students learn English and has a significant influence on students' learning strategy selection, which further affects their learning outcomes (Ehrman and Oxford in Mod Lang J 74(3):311-327, 1990; Oxford in Language learning styles and strategies: an overview, 2003. http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf ). This study examines the learning style preferences of Chinese university students and whether those preferences influence their English achievements. Four hundred undergraduates from one university in eastern mainland China participated in this study. Data from 329 valid questionnaires were analysed. The results revealed that the Chinese university students preferred the visual learning style the most, followed by the auditory and kinaesthetic styles. However, no learning style preference was found to influence the students' English proficiency. Cultural reasons are discussed to explain the findings, which contradict those of previous studies of learning style theories and practices. This study recommends that Chinese scholars consider issues of English teaching and learning in China and to adopt appropriate teaching methods to effectively improve English teaching.
Rodriguez, Christina M
The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.
Zampieron, Alessandra; Spanio, Daniele; Bernardi, Paola; Milan, Rosalia; Buja, Alessandra
The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to compare the different leadership styles based on perceptions of nurse managers and their staff. Nurse managers' styles are fundamental to improving subordinates' performance and achieving goals at health-care institutions. This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire developed by Ekvall & Arvonen, considering three leadership domains (Change, Production and Employee relations), was administered to all nurse managers and to their subordinates at a city hospital in north-east Italy. The comparison between the leadership styles actually adopted and those preferred by the nurse managers showed that the preferred style always scored higher than the style adopted, the difference reaching statistical significance for Change and Production. The leadership styles preferred by subordinates always scored higher than the styles their nurse managers actually adopted; in the subordinates' opinion, the differences being statistically significant in all three leadership domains. The study showed that nurse managers' expectations in relation to their leadership differ from those of their subordinates. These findings should be borne in mind when selecting and training nurse managers and other personnel, and they should influence the hospital's strategic management of nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sharifah Mazlina Syed Khuzzan
Full Text Available With the progressive globalisation trend within the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC industry, transdisciplinary education and training is widely acknowledged as being one of the key factors for leveraging AEC organisational success. Conventional education and training delivery approaches within AEC therefore need a paradigm shift in order to be able to address the emerging challenges of global practices. This study focuses on the use of Personalised Learning Environments (PLEs to specifically address learners’ needs and preferences (learning styles within managed Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs. This research posits that learners can learn better (and be more readily engaged in managed learning environments with a bespoke PLE, in which the deployment of teaching and learning material is augmented towards their individual needs. In this respect, there is an exigent need for the Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs to envelop these new approaches into their organisational learning strategy. However, part of this process requires decision-makers to fully understand the core nuances and interdependencies of functions and processes within the organisation, along with Critical Success Factors (CSFs and barriers. This paper presents findings from the development of a holistic conceptual Diagnostic Learning Styles Questionnaire (DLSQ Framework, comprised of six interrelated dependencies (i.e. Business Strategy, Pedagogy, Process, Resources, Systems Development, and Evaluation. These dependencies influence pedagogical effectiveness. These finding contribute additional understanding to the intrinsic nature of pedagogy in leveraging transdisciplinary AEC training within organisations (to improve learner effectiveness. This framework can help organisations augment and align their strategic priorities to learner-specific traits.
Höfler Stefan; Sugisaki Kyoko
This paper reports on the development of methods for the automated detection of violations of style guidelines for legislative texts, and their implementation in a prototypical tool. To this aim, the approach of error modelling employed in automated style checkers for technical writing is enhanced to meet the requirements of legislative editing. The paper identifies and discusses the two main sets of challenges that have to be tackled in this process: (i) the provision of domain-specific NLP ...
Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam
Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...
Sousa, Paulo; Rouco, Carlos; Nogueira, Fernanda; Carvalho, Ana Branca; Dias, Damasceno
Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze and relate the leadership behaviors and communication styles required of Infantry junior officers in their daily command tasks, in order to influence their subordinates to achieve extraordinary effort, group effectiveness and satisfaction. For this study, was used quantitative method and a survey was implemented comprising three questionnaires: one on leadership competences, one on communication styles, and one on with three criterion facto...
Full Text Available The development of the interpersonal behaviour of managers has received a good deal of attention, especially in terms of the most appropriate interpersonal styles in the work context and the skills involved in developing and maintaining effective interpersonal relationships. The design of effective interpersonal development programs requires a thorough evaluation of an individual’s interpersonal development needs. In order to do this, evaluators should have an understanding of the most appropriate interpersonal styles for managers. Given the aims of the investigation, the approach that was followed was to evaluate the relevant literature in this field. The theoretical goal was to study and describe the most appropriate theoretical interpersonal style repertoire of middle-level managers using the interpersonal approach, and specifically the 1982 Interpersonal Circle. The conclusions support the notion that dominant, assured, exhibitionistic, social, friendly, warm and trusting styles are the most relevant of the 16 interpersonal segments, while the assured-dominant, social-exhibitionistic and warm-friendly octants are viewed as the most appropriate. Opsomming Die ontwikkeling van die interpersoonlike gedrag van bestuurders het reeds heelwat aandag gekry. Dit geld veral vir aangeleenthede wat verband hou met die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style binne die werkskonteks en die vaardighede wat die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike verhoudings onderlê. Die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsprogramme vereis ’n deeglike evaluering van ’n individu se interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsbehoeftes. Om dit te vermag, is dit nodig vir evalueerders om te verstaan wat die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style vir bestuurders is. Gegee die doelwitte van die ondersoek is die metode wat gevolg is ’n evaluering van die relevante literatuur in hierdie gebied. Die teoretiese doel was om die mees toepaslike teoretiese
Wheeless, Lawrence R.; Reichel, Lisa S.
Investigates the relationship between general styles of communicating and more situation-specific conflict management styles. Finds substantial relationships between general communication styles and conflict management styles, as well as very substantial relationships between the style constructs and task attraction of supervisors. (SR)
Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.
Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…
Pavlovic, Nebojsa; Oljaca, Milka; Kostovic, Svetlana
Management style can be defined as a special behavior of directors in the work process that affects the performance in an organization, in this case-school. Management style has two related meanings: first is behavior of directors to employees, second is directors' approach in school regarding management, participation of employees in decision…
Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle
a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....
Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.
The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…
Metabolic syndrome included obesity, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and disorder of lipid metabolism are serious complication affecting many people of economic advanced countries. Unhealthy live style with limited physical activity and overfeeding are the main cause of this disorder. Adjustment of the live style with regular physical activity has the better result compared with a diet intervention alone.
Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d
Natalia N. Volkova
Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.
Full Text Available Goodman's semiotics and the theory of style are highly influental in contemporary conteptualizations of style and in defining the scope of literary stylistics, particulary in France. The key concept in that context is exemplification – a specific referential function. This paper presents a critical summary of Nelson Goodman's hypotheses as well as his successors', namely Gérard Genette.
Gobaw, Mekasha Kassaye
This research had three objectives: determining the level of participation of women in the academic leadership of Addis Ababa University (AAU), specifying the types of leadership styles women leaders demonstrate, and tracing the factors that led to those styles. Two key research instruments were used: questionnaires and interview. Qualitative and…
Moran, Michael G.
Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…
Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...
Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…
Cranston, Charles M.
Describes a study that examined whether statistically significant differences existed among performance levels of college students in a beginning media writing class when compared according to cognitive style and learning style subgroups. Results are reported for five mass media formats--broadcast news, television copywriting, documentary,…
Smith, Gina; Minor, Maria; Brashen, Henry; Remaly, Kristie
The purpose of this research study was to explore the dominant leadership styles of online college instructors. Online instructors voluntarily participated in a survey to indicate which of four leadership styles they use in their classes: transformational, situational, democratic, or authoritarian. The surveys indicated that the transformational…
Park, Clara C.
Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…
This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.
The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…
Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid
The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…
Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan
This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...
Neumeyer, Peter F.
Assesses the writing style of a famous author of children's books, concluding that E.B. White's informal tone uses anaphora, simple sentences, doubling and redundancy, and mixes colloquial with standard English. Provides examples of his style, from 10 years old to maturity. (NKA)
Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.
Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…
James, Thomas O.
Options in management style from corporate administration literature available to educational institutions include the choices of Theory X vs. Theory Y, the managerial vs. academic grid, management by objectives, autocratic vs. bureaucratic vs. participative vs. free-rein leadership styles, situational leadership, presidential role, leadership…
Oakland, Thomas; Singh, Kuldeep; Callueng, Camelo; Puri, Gurmit Singh; Goen, Akiko
Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 8- through 16-years-old in India (n = 400) and the United States of America (n = 3,200) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In general, Indian children prefer extroverted to…
Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…
Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…
Emans, B.J.M.; Munduate, L; Klaver, E; Van de Vliert, E.
In contrast to non-forcing influence styles used by leaders, their forcing influence styles are commonly found to be ineffective, evoking sheer resistance, rather than compliance. As a corollary of conglomerate conflict behavior theory, we state that forcing, if combined with non-forcing, may
Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.
Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…
Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A
Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of
Maria Claudia Mendes Caminha Muniz
Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.
Rahim Molazadeh, E
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.
Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren
Total Quality Management, Business Process Reengineering, Learning Organisations and Human Resource Management are all concepts which lately have been mentioned in relation to leadership. Each of these management theories have different views concerning the strategic direction companies should...... pursue when operating in an international and highly competitive business environment. Often, the way in which management should carry out its daily work is advocated for in such theories and typically on the basis of a single success story. In this way leaders such as Mærsk McKinney Møller - Mærsk...... and different leadership styles which are to be found in any organisation. Without a profound understanding of this relationship, we cannot achive Business Excellence. This article sets out the results of the research project, which was carried out under the joint auspices of the Research Group on Quality...
Dyachenko, Yu. I.; Дьяченко, Ю. И.
The paper describes different leadership styles. The definition of leadership is given and differences between leadership and management are examined. В документе описываются различные стили руководства. Дано определение лидерства и рассматриваются различия между руководством и управлением.
Full Text Available One of the factors that predict perfectionism in children education is reported to be families and the way their expectation of children. The aim of the present research is to investigate the role of perceived parenting styles in perfectionism of third grade female students in high school. Using a correlational method, 161 students through a multi stage cluster method were selected. Scales of perception of parenting styles (POPS, and dimensions of perfectionism (MPS were applied to evaluate the research variables. The results of the regression analysis showed that among parenting styles, mother's involvement and warmth have a significant negative relationship with socially prescribed perfectionism. As a result of warmer relations of mother and child and mother's involvement in children's various activities may reduce socially prescribed perfectionism. It seems that the involvement style and warmth of the mothers would play an important role in prediction of socially prescribed perfectionism.
Full Text Available Background and aim: There are an increasing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment styles to psychopathology. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between attachment style and depression among students of Bu-Ali Sina University in Iran. Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 157 girl students who were randomly selected. They were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI (Hazan and Shaver, and theBeck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. The data was analysis by using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Findings indicated that secure attachment style had no significant correlation with depression and insecure attachment styles had a significant positive correlation with depression (p
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between parenting styles and employees' career adaptability. The statistical population includes all employees in Polyacrid's Factory of Isfahan in 2012. The proposed study selects a sample of 321 employees using cluster sampling. The study has used a based on Baumrind's theorem, which maintains three groups of permissive, authoritarian and authoritative in Likert scale. The results of our study have indicated that there is definitely a difference in parenting style among various members in terms of career concern, career curiosity and career confidence but such relationship does not exists in terms of career control. In addition, the study explains that people with permissive parenting style have less career concern, career curiosity and career confidence than those with permissive parenting style do.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the sport orientation of adolescents based on their perceived patterning styles. Through a two-stage sampling method, 350 junior high school students were selected. A battery of questionnaires was applied to collect the data including parenting style questionnaire, sport orientation questionnaire, and participation motivation questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings indicated that parenting styles affect children’s sport orientation. In addition, this study shows a signifycant difference between boys and girls in sport orientation, suggesting that boys are more competitive, winning and goal oriented. Consequently, according to the results, children of authoritative parents might be more sport and success oriented than those of permissive parents. In general, the present study reveals that parenting style is a fundamental important process influencing the improvement of adolescents' sport orientation.
Full Text Available The personality features of leader of sporting command and style of his co-operation are considered. The problems of adjusting and optimization of co-operation of leader and other players of command are selected in achievement of the set team purpose. 37 skilled sportsmen-handballers took part in research. An informal structure is exposed in commands, leaders and followers are certain. The quantitative indexes of personality features of leader, follower of sporting command are certain. Style of co-operation of leader and follower (prevailing and goodwill and quality is exposed personalities which will be realized by them in a sporting command. It is set that in interpersonality co-operation a leader will realize dominant style, and follower equal will realize dominant and benevolent styles.
ZAHRA KERMANI MAMAZANDI
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles with the mediating role of marital adjustment. Therefore 360 male and female, married students living in Tehran University dormitory were randomly selected and were asked to answer the items of Sternberg’s Love Questionnaire, King’s Spiritual Intelligence Scale, Oxford’s Happiness Questionnaire and Spanier’s Marital Adjustment Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (path analysis was used for data analysis. The results of path analysis showed that spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles have direct effects on couples’ happiness, and the spiritual intelligence did not have an indirect effect on couples’ happiness whereas lovemaking styles had indirect effects on couples’ happiness through martial satisfaction. Altogether the results of this research show that marital adjustment has a mediating role in predicting couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles.
Rodriguez, Christina M
This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R
With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song Jin Bao
Full Text Available With the popularity of digital TV, TV programs have been on the increase no matter in both the number and species, which brought many choice to the users. Although the digital TV has increased largely in the selectivity, it has become a fussy process that users search for programs which they are interested in. So there is need to have an efficient program recommendation system to solve the problem that is “information overload” for users. It can not only help users to get the program which they require, but also bring convenience to people’s life. The program recommendation system named MyView is planned and designed, aimed to providing an efficient information platform. The system also involves intelligent recommendation. The information guide will trigger the recommendation engine after users registering information, the engine will accord to the data in the guide information to make the personalized program recommendation. The system was deployed in the Tomcat and Apache integration servers on my localhost, so it also belongs to the Web application based on J2EE platform. AJAX is used that can achieve a good user experience to develop web presentation layer on MyView PC browser with flexible interface performance. The background of business services uses the hierarchical form. MyView System uses the CXF framework and Hibernate to equip controller and data persistence layer in the Spring container. The overall framework of the system uses the REST style, in order to extend the performance and function later. Background service layer with uniform interface, marked by the URI resource. At the same time, HTTP requestion is submitted by the AJAX to obtain services provided by resources. Finally, we can analyze and summary the features of MyView System.
The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept, academic ... the four specific parenting styles, the authoritative style has the medium correlation 'r' ... school level parent education programs should be incorporated and parents ...
Al-Hamdan, Zaid; Nussera, Hayat; Masa'deh, Rami
To explore the relationship between conflict management styles used by nurse managers and intent to stay of staff nurses. Nursing shortages require managers to focus on the retention of staff nurses. Understanding the relationship between conflict management styles of nurse managers and intent to stay of staff nurses is one strategy to retain nurses in the workforce. A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was carried out in Jordan. The Rahim organization conflict inventory II (ROCI II) was completed by 42 nurse managers and the intent to stay scale was completed by 320 staff nurses from four hospitals in Jordan. The anova analysis was carried out. An integrative style was the first choice for nurse managers and the last choice was a dominating style. The overall level of intent to stay for nurses was moderate. Nurses tend to keep their current job for 2-3 years. There was a negative relationship between the dominating style as a conflict management style and the intent to stay for nurses. The findings of the present study support the claim that leadership practices affect the staff nurses' intent to stay and the quality of care. Nurse managers can improve the intent to stay for staff nurses if they use the appropriate conflict management styles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Engels, Paul T; de Gara, Chris
Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p learning style found in the residents and faculty. The predominant learning styles of the residents and faculty were convergent and accommodative, with no statistically significant differences between the residents and the faculty. We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.
Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam
Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. Findings: The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p adaptability in adolescent girls. PMID:23833590
Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.
A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.
This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.
Garrett, Ryan W; Carlson, Katherine A; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Nesson, Michael H; Shepard, Christopher A; Schofield, Robert M S
Leafcutter ants cut trimmings from plants, carry them to their underground nests and cut them into smaller pieces before inoculating them with a fungus that serves as a primary food source for the colony. Cutting is energetically costly, so the amount of cutting is important in understanding foraging energetics. Estimates of the cutting density, metres of cutting per square metre of leaf, were made from samples of transported leaf cuttings and of fungal substrate from field colonies of Atta cephalotes and Atta colombica. To investigate cutting inside the nest, we made leaf-processing observations of our laboratory colony, A. cephalotes. We did not observe the commonly reported reduction of the leaf fragments into a pulp, which would greatly increase the energy cost of processing. Video clips of processing behaviours, including behaviours that have not previously been described, are linked. An estimated 2.9 (±0.3) km of cutting with mandibles was required to reduce a square metre of leaf to fungal substrate. Only about 12% (±1%) of this cutting took place outside of the nest. The cutting density and energy cost is lower for leaf material with higher ratios of perimeter to area, so we tested for, and found that the laboratory ants had a preference for leaves that were pre-cut into smaller pieces. Estimates suggest that the energy required to transport and cut up the leaf material is comparable to the metabolic energy available from the fungus grown on the leaves, and so conservation of energy is likely to be a particularly strong selective pressure for leafcutter ants.
German, Alexander J
Obesity is a major medical concern in human subjects, and most concerning is the rapid recent increase in childhood obesity. Children are more likely to be obese if their parents are obese, an effect that is mediated both by genetics and environment, most notably parental influence. Four major parenting styles have been recognised: authoritative; authoritarian; indulgent; uninvolved. Too much parental control, as with the authoritarian style, is associated with a higher weight status in children. Conversely, indulgent feeding styles can also have negative consequences and, where control is too lax, a poor relationship with food develops, which may also lead to weight gain. Obesity is also a growing concern in companion animals, and it has parallels with obesity in children. For instance, overweight people are more likely to own overweight dogs. Furthermore, the care that people provide for their pets mirrors that which parents provide for children, and pets are commonly viewed as child substitutes. These similarities raise obvious questions about whether different styles of pet ownership exist, and what part they may play in attitudes to feeding as well as predisposition to obesity in pets. Future work could focus on determining to what extent styles of pet ownership mirror parenting styles, whether there are links to obesity in dogs and cats. Knowledge regarding the owner-pet bond might provide comparative insights into the links between parenting styles and childhood obesity.
Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.
D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; De Monte, Celeste; Cirilli, Roberto; Yáñez, Matilde; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco
Exploring the effect that substituents on the cycloaliphatic ring had on the inhibitory activity against human monoamine oxidase B of a series of 4-aryl-2-cycloalkylidenhydrazinylthiazoles led to the synthesis of a new series of 2-methylcyclopentyl and 3-methylcyclopentyl derivatives which were tested in vitro as mixtures of diastereoisomers. In fact, due to the presence of a chiral center on the cycloaliphatic ring and a trisubstituted CN bond, they exist as four diastereoisomers ((E)-(R), (E)-(S), (Z)-(R), (Z)-(S)). 4-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-2-(2-(3-methylcyclopentylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole was chosen as a model to investigate the influence of stereochemical requirements on the inhibitory activity against hMAO-B of these derivatives after a stereoconservative synthesis and semi-preparative HPLC diastereoseparation. (R)-(Z) isomer of this compound was endowed with a potent and selective hMAO-B inhibition higher than that of reference drugs as also corroborated by molecular modeling studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available While Taiwan is a modern culture, it is also a deeply traditional one, and Taiwan’s public administrators often struggle to implement new and innovative disaster response programs in the nation that accommodate these two disparate influences. This research examines leadership styles that are employed in Taiwan with those used in Japan, as well as in the West. Much of the research on leadership styles across cultures is being conducted in the field of business administration, which has value for public administrators as well. In order to understand the qualities required of effective emergency managers in East Asia, particularly Taiwan, and how these qualities differ from those of emergency managers in the West, it is essential to take a culturalist perspective on the issue.
Fitriyani, H.; Khasanah, U.
The purpose of this research was to determine the rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) of mathematics education students in solving math problems in terms of reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research used descriptive qualitative approach. Subjects in this research were 4 students of the reflective and impulsive cognitive style which was each consisting male and female subjects. Data collection techniques used problem-solving test and interview. Analysis of research data used Miles and Huberman model that was reduction of data, presentation of data, and conclusion. The results showed that impulsive male subjects used three levels of the cognitive function required for RMT that were qualitative thinking, quantitative thinking with precision, and relational thinking completely while the other three subjects were only able to use cognitive function at qualitative thinking level of RMT. Therefore the subject of impulsive male has a better RMT ability than the other three research subjects.
Ozkan, Suna; Alev, Sedat; Ercan, Abdulkadir
The aim of this study has been to identify school managers' leadership styles and levels in terms of teachers' perceptions. The focus of the study includes primary, secondary and high schools in Sahinbey and Sehitkamil districts of Gaziantep. In the study, the selection of the sample, which consists of 228 teachers, was carried out by using the…
Schroeder, Noah D.
Mastery learning employs repeated cycles of instructional support and formative assessment to help students achieve desired skills. Instructional objectives are broken into small pieces, and students master those pieces in successive order by performing to a set standard on an assessment for each objective. If a student cannot master an objective, instructional support is provided, and the student is reassessed. Mastery learning has been proved effective in many subject areas, but comparatively little research has been done on applying it in physics instruction. This dissertation details the path taken that culminated in the use of mastery-inspired exercises to teach students basic skills in introductory physics courses. The path that led to our choice of mastery began with an attempt to provide students with extra practice and formative assessment through weekly practice tests with corresponding solutions, with the goal of helping them better prepare for summative exams in an introductory physics course. No effect was seen, and participation was very low. Investigating how students learn from solutions revealed that they are poor evaluators of their understanding of provided solutions and struggle to retain the skills taught in those solutions. In a follow-up clinical experiment that provided students with solutions, required them to recall the solutions from memory, and re-presented the solutions for restudy, students showed strong retention as well as the ability to transfer information from the solutions to new situations. These results inspired the formal use of mastery learning as an instructional paradigm due to its requirement that students repeatedly recall information from solutions and apply it to new situations. Mastery-style exercises were first created and tested in clinical trials, followed by two in-course implementations. In the clinical trials, students completed a set of questions on a particular skill, and if they failed to master that skill
Lee, Yong-Il; Choi, Yeojeong; Jeong, Jaeseung
In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES) had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration). Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process), even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot) is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style) in empathy induction when viewing cartoons.
Shankar, P R; Dubey, A K; Binu, V S; Subish, P; Deshpande, V Y
Information on the learning styles of medical students are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Learning styles may be associated with student understanding and may predict success in examination. The present study was carried out to obtain information on learning styles and preferences for teaching of fourth semester medical students and note the association, if any, between respondents' personal characteristics and preferences for learning styles and types of teaching. The correlation between preferences for learning styles and types of teaching and performance in the second year university examination was also explored. The study was carried out during October 2003 at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory (ASSIST) instrument. Information on the respondents' personal characteristics was collected. Respondents had to indicate their degree of agreement with a set of statements using a modified Likert-type scale. The statements were grouped into three main learning styles and two types of teaching. The median scores among different subgroups of respondents were compared using appropriate non-parametric tests (peducated in English medium schools. The median scores for deep and surface learning styles were 64 and 49 respectively (maximum score=80). The scores for strategic learning was 75.5 (maximum score=100). There was no clear preference for any particular type of teaching. Indian students used more surface apathetic learning strategies compared to others. There was a negative correlation between surface learning and marks obtained in the final examination. The students mainly used deep and strategic learning styles. Differences in preference for learning styles and types of teaching were noted according the respondents' personal characteristics. This was a preliminary study and further studies are required.
Deniz, Metin; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Ayas, Tuncay; Koç, Mustafa
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parental style and internet parental style and find out whether student's parental style and parental internet style differ according to various variables. In this study, survey model was used. The study was performed with 296 students, attending at an elementary school in the second period of 2011-2012 academic years in Sakarya, Turkey. Parental style and parental internet style scales were used. Results indicated ...
Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara
This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Darren C. WU
Full Text Available Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning styles in DE. The following is the research question for this study. Are students’ learning styles based on the visual, auditory, tactile model correlated to satisfaction of course format in an online undergraduate course? The participants of this study were students enrolled in three sections of the Contemporary Worldviews course at a private higher education institution (HEI. Learning styles were determined by a variant of the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK framework. Satisfaction of course format was determined from one composite question with responses based on a Likert scale. The response rate was 53.5%. Statistical analysis determined that learning styles was not correlated to satisfaction of course format in this current study. There are implications from this study that curriculum can be designed for a single course that leaves students highly satisfied. Educators should saturate DE courses with as much variance as feasible given technology and cost limitations to account for possible learning style differences.
Arnett, Peter A.
Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767
Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values <0,0001). These findings should encourage further research to investigate information processing style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Aggression is a phenomenon that causes irreversible damage to a community. Psychodynamic theory suggests that aggression is rooted in early relationships with family members, especially mother. According to this theory, infant-mother relationship is a major predictor of an individual’s behavior from childhood to adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between mother-infant attachment styles and aggression. Methods:This study was conducted on 150 university students (75 female, 75 male randomly selected from Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan, Iran. Data were collected via demographic questionnaires, Persian version of Adult Attachment Inventory (AAS (Hazen and Shaver and Ahvaz Aggression Inventory (AAI. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: According to our findings, secure mother-infantattachment had a significant negative correlation with aggression. In addition, ambivalent mother-infantattachment had a significant positive correlation with aggression, while avoidant attachment style had no significant correlation with aggression. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, secure attachment of mother with infant could reduce aggression during adulthood. On the other hand, ambivalent attachment between mother and infant could clearly increase the risk of aggression. Therefore, it is recommended to train different attachment styles to pregnant women through related workshops during pregnancy in order to prevent ambivalent mother-infant attachment.
Full Text Available The paper examines the potential aspects that affect the flexibility of Czech managers’ leadership style, because the ability to lead subordinates flexibly seems to be necessary for managerial practice in these days full of rapid change. A tool which makes it possible to determine the degree of flexibility of individual managers within the situational leadership style is represented by original method LBAII® developed by Ken Blanchard Companies, which the authors were provided with solely for this purpose. Due to the fact that research based on this method had not been conducted in the Czech Republic, an opportunity to learn new information from this field about the selected sample of Czech managers occurred. First of all, the article introduces the concept of a situational leadership style as well as an explanation of its use in practice. Subsequently it describes in detail the methodology of the authors’ primary research and presents the outcomes of a questionnaire survey conducted in the form of contingency tables and other tools (correspondence map, box plot, scatter plot, which aptly illustrate the data found. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and aspects related to the achieved scores of flexibility of the monitored managers are established based on verified hypotheses.
Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.
Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.
Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....
Asan Vernyuy Wirba
Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.
Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm; Song, Jiwen Lynda
This paper reviews the insights that research offers on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management. To do so, we develop a framework structuring existing insights into four generic dimensions: people, means, effects, and goals. Based on this framework, we review studies on...... demands on leadership. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only style to lead innovations, but different leadership styles fit differently well with different innovation types and stages. However, the specification of this fit is still very incomplete and the answer...
Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G
Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to investigate whether, and to what extent, there is a relationship between field independence / dependence cognitive styles and Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. For this purpose, a sample population of 131 Subjects was randomly selected. A battery of tests including: a the Group Embedded Figures Test (1971, b the TOFEL listening test (1995, c the listening task preference questionnaire, and d the Michigan ECPE test (1996 were administered. The data analysis showed that the correlation between the TOFEL and the GEFT scores for FD learners (both males and females was significant(r =0.70, and higher scores on the GEFT led to an increase in the FD learners TOFEL scores. Conducting one-way and two-way ANOVAs, it was suggested that while there was a relationship between cognitive style and listening comprehension (F= 18.02 and also no relationship between sex and listening comprehension (F=0.267, the interactional effect was significant (f = 7.03. Therefore, sex can be regarded as a source of performance difference in listening comprehension but not by itself and it seems that the interaction of sex and cognitive style can have a stronger effect on this skill. Regarding the learners’ preference toward the different parts of the TOEFL listening section, most learners favored the short conversations, informal assessment, and one item/one conversation, however, the FI ones did better on the longer conversations of the second and the third parts of the TOEFL listening test. Keywords: Cognitive style, Field dependence, Field independence, Listening comprehension.
Zattas, Dimitrios; Berk, Jason M; Kreft, Stefan G; Hochstrasser, Mark
Specific proteins are modified by ubiquitin at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are degraded by the proteasome, a process referred to as ER-associated protein degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two principal ER-associated protein degradation ubiquitin ligases (E3s) reside in the ER membrane, Doa10 and Hrd1. The membrane-embedded Doa10 functions in the degradation of substrates in the ER membrane, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm, and nucleoplasm. How most E3 ligases, including Doa10, recognize their protein substrates remains poorly understood. Here we describe a previously unappreciated but highly conserved C-terminal element (CTE) in Doa10; this cytosolically disposed 16-residue motif follows the final transmembrane helix. A conserved CTE asparagine residue is required for ubiquitylation and degradation of a subset of Doa10 substrates. Such selectivity suggests that the Doa10 CTE is involved in substrate discrimination and not general ligase function. Functional conservation of the CTE was investigated in the human ortholog of Doa10, MARCH6 (TEB4), by analyzing MARCH6 autoregulation of its own degradation. Mutation of the conserved Asn residue (N890A) in the MARCH6 CTE stabilized the normally short lived enzyme to the same degree as a catalytically inactivating mutation (C9A). We also report the localization of endogenous MARCH6 to the ER using epitope tagging of the genomic MARCH6 locus by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. These localization and CTE analyses support the inference that MARCH6 and Doa10 are functionally similar. Moreover, our results with the yeast enzyme suggest that the CTE is involved in the recognition and/or ubiquitylation of specific protein substrates. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.
Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev
Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested.
Zahed Zahedani, Zahra; Rezaee, Rita; Yazdani, Zahra; Bagheri, Sina; Nabeiei, Parisa
Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind's Parenting Style and Moqimi's Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Parents have an important role in identifying children's talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.
Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the Family Power Structure (FPS and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in Tehran.Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers, aged between 15 and 18, were selected following cluster sampling procedure as well as 80 students of secondary school, aged between 15 and 18, in Tehran in 2014. To obtain data, FPS (Saidian, 2004 and Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G: White et al, 1998 instruments were used. Data was analyzed between these two groups using independent t test, and Chi square test.Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in FPS and its subscales (P<0.001 and identity style (P<0.001. Moreover, the informational identity style was related to lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was found to be related to the delinquency.Conclusion: These findings emphasize that an inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family counselors must pay attention to FPS in the therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment for adolescent delinquency.Keywords: Parenting; Family; Juvenile Delinquency; Adolescent
ZAHED ZAHEDANI, ZAHRA; REZAEE, RITA; YAZDANI, ZAHRA; BAGHERI, SINA; NABEIEI, PARISA
Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Conclusion Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes. PMID:27382580
صادق تقی لو
Full Text Available Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male, who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire, using multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that the main effects of gender and age are significant at 0.01 level. Parents’ interaction with boys is more authoritarian and with girls more authoritative; also compared with adolescents less than 17 years, they interact with adolescents 17 years old more permissively. The interaction effects of gender and age were significant at 0.05 level only in the permissive parenting style. This means that unlike the girls, parents use more and more the permissive parenting style along with increasing age of adolescent teenage boys. It was concluded that the interaction patterns of parents with children are not fixed and these patterns vary according to gender and age of the children.
Elahe Sadat Tabatabaeirad
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Parenting styles are one of the most important factors in shaping adolescents’ behaviors and personality. Therefore, we aimed to predict internet addiction and social anxiety based on parenting styles. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and correlational study was performed in 400 high school students of Sabzevar, Iran, in 2015. The participants were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were collected using Yang’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Social Anxiety Scale (SAS-A, and Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Questionnaire. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression were run in SPSS, version 22. Results: We found a significant positive correlation between the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and Internet addiction (r=0.102, r=0.210, respectively and social anxiety (r=0.576, r=0.517, respectively. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the authoritative parenting style and Internet addiction and social anxiety (r= -0.291 and r= -0.263, respectively. In addition, multiple regression analysis reflected that the parenting styles could predict Internet addiction and social anxiety, and they explained respectively 39% and 35% of the variance. Conclusions: According to the results, adopting proper educational methods and implementing practical plans can predict Internet addiction and improve positive relationships among individuals.
ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students’ transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03. Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001. Conclusion: Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the test of the mediating role of demographic features in relation with marital conflicts and attachment styles. The studied samples were 150 couples visiting the consulting centers of the city Shiraz who were selected by the purposeful sampling method among 800 couples. They filed out adult attachment styles and marital conflicts and also emographic questionnaire. The findings showed that secure attachment style has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Besides, avoidant and ambivalent attachment style has a direct and positive effect on it. Moreover, age has a direct and positive effect but education has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Results showed that the conflicts in samples with secure attachment style will be increased by increasing age and they will be reduced by increasing the level of education. Because in people with secure attachment style, increase of age and academic level leads to their intellectual growth and therefore, they adapt more active and flexible approaches to the resolve their problems and conflicts flexibility in solving problems and conflicts. Besides, they use a variety of intellectual methods and pay more attention to their spouses, they use a wide spectrum of solutions so that the level of their conflicts would be reduced.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning styles are effective factors in the learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in the behavior or attitude of a person over time. Whereas improvement of existing conditions is pivotal in educational activities; therefore, the aim of this study was the assessment of stages and learning styles based on the Kolb theory among students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 279 students of the QomUniversity of Medical Sciences, Iran in October 2015. The participants were selected using a stratified sampling method. The assessment instrument was the Kolb learning style inventory (KLSI V.3.1. Data analysis was performed by SPSS using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Results: The mean age of students was 22.23±4.38 years, and the average grade was 16.85±1.65. Generally, the learning styles of students were convergent (% 38.9, assimilative (% 37.5, divergent (%13.2 and accommodative (%10.4. There was a significant relationship between learning styles with gender (P=0.01. Conclusion: Considering the predominance of convergent and assimilative learning styles in these students, it is recommended that faculty members use visual methods such as diagrams, self learning, individualized instruction and emphasize on practical methods in teaching.
Mohammad Akbari Booreng
Full Text Available Family is an influential setting in physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Accordingly, studying the atmosphere and current relationships in the family in terms of their effect on children and adolescents is highly necessary. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the relationship between students' perception of parental communication styles and their own incompatibility. In this descriptive study, population consisted of female students of high school, of whom, 300 were selected and studied in a random cluster method. Data were collected using the standardized students' compatibility and family communication pattern questionnaire. The results showed a significant relationship only between emotional incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. A statistically significant relationship was also observed between general incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. The results also showed that parental communication styles have a role in children's incompatibility. Analysis of each dependent parameter alone showed a difference in parental communication styles only in emotional incompatibility component. Pluralistic family communication style is associated with emotional compatibility of children of the family. The present study results relating to role of communication styles in students' compatibility suggest that it is necessary to teach parents appropriate communication styles.
One way of achieving long term sustainability of game ranches in South Africa is to ensure the ... assess the management competencies and leadership styles needed by game ranch managers/owners in order ... AJOL African Journals Online.
von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan
A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask
Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...
Hoeve, M.; van Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.
We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering
Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der
We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering
Gelade, Garry A
Research has shown that creative style, as measured by the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; M. J. Kirton, 1976), is correlated with more than 30 different personality traits. In this article, the author demonstrates that many of these correlations can be understood within the framework of the Five-Factor Model of personality and shows that the predominant correlates of creative style are personality indicators in the domains of the factors Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and, to a lesser extent, Extraversion. These findings provide a basis for comparing the personality traits associated with creative style and occupational creativity. High scorers on the KAI (innovators) differ from both average and creative scientists but have personality characteristics similar to those of artists. This finding suggests that the artistic personality may be more common than is generally supposed and that common factors might underlie both artistic endeavor and creative style.
Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.
Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury
The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.
Bennet, Nancy L.; Fox, Robert D.
Synthesizes literature on cognitive style and considers issues about its role in continuing medical education research, including whether it should be used as a dependent or independent variable and how it may be used in causal models. (SK)
Gregorc, Anthony F.
Findings from early and current phenomenological studies indicate that stylistic characteristics are indicators of psychological forces that guide interactions with the world. Implications of how this theory relates to learning and teaching styles are discussed. (DF)
The "Air University Style and Author Guide" is designed to unify the writing of faculty, staff, and students of Air University stylistically, and to give them information about publishing with Air University (AU) Press...
Hicks, Joel M
Communication is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing managers and leaders today. Clearly articulating ideas and expectations to employees is vital to the productivity and the longevity of an organization. Furthermore, the style in which the communication is delivered has an influence on the satisfaction levels of employees. Research has discovered that there are many different styles in which a leader may communicate with employees. Research has provided several methods that aid in determining which style is the most appropriate for any given circumstance. Research has demonstrated how appropriate and effective communication is used to promote organizational health. Furthermore, research has demonstrated how inappropriate communication may decrease employee satisfaction. Finally, research has provided methods to aid in improving communication styles and delivery.
Sümer, N; Güngör, Derya
The present study examined the interplay between the perceived parenting styles of the university students and attachment styles, basic self-dimensions, behavior patterns in close relationships, and relationship satisfaction. The findings indicated that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive/indulgent, and permissive/neglecting), which were constructed by crossing perceived parental acceptance/involment and strict control dimensions of parenting were consistently related w...
Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph
Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency ...
Ghorban Mohammad Koochaki
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The validity of an educational system is dependent on students' learning. Learning is a complex variable which is affected by multiple factors. One of the most important factors is learning styles. Knowledge of learning styles of students to educational programs is very important. Therefore, this study aimed to determine students' learning styles among students of Para medicine and Health faculties in Golestan University of medical sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 401 students of the faculty of Para medicine and Health in Golestan University of Medical Sciences since 1391 till 1392 were selected and filled out the Standard Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI which was previously tested for reliability (8.0. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 18.0 using Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results: The mean age of students was 20.57 and 71.8 percent of them were female students. Learning styles of students included a convergent (63.4 %, absorber (25.4 %, accommodating (7.5% and divergent (3.7 %. Learning style of study had no statistically significant difference in comparison to sex, school, age, GPA, credits, semester and education levels (P>0.05. Conclusion: Converging and absorbing learning styles were more dominant among students. Therefore, it is recommended to use training methods which fit this style such as showing hand-writings and presentations with self-study materials, simulations, laboratory assignments and problem-based learning.
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy
The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal
Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães
Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and...
Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül
The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which
Pittet , Florent; Houdelier , Cécilia; de Margerie , Emmanuel; Le Bot , Océane; Richard-Yris , Marie-Annick; Lumineau , Sophie
International audience; Care provided by females of many mammal species varies naturally between individuals; these differences in turn influence the phenotypic development of their offspring. When individual maternal behavioural traits are consistent over a number of breeding periods, maternal styles can be defined. These styles have been studied in a large range of mammalian species. Nevertheless, mammals rarely offer the possibility to dissociate mothers' behavioural influence from their g...
Tutz, Gerhard; Schauberger, Gunther; Berger, Moritz
In the modelling of ordinal responses in psychological measurement and survey- based research, response styles that represent specific answering patterns of respondents are typically ignored. One consequence is that estimates of item parameters can be poor and considerably biased. The focus here is on the modelling of a tendency to extreme or middle categories. An extension of the Partial Credit Model is proposed that explicitly accounts for this specific response style. In contrast to exi...
Pedersen, Eva de la Fuente
En se forgeant un style presque inimitable, qui paraît ébauché, Rembrandt a suscité l'admiration de ses contemporains. Au-delà son apparente spontanéité, ce style fait certainement écho aux préoccupations des théoriciens de l'art contemporains qui attendaient de la peinture, comme de la rhétorique...
Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca
Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pegah OMIDVAR,, Putra University, MALAYSIA
Full Text Available The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.
Introduction Leadership can have a different meaning to different individuals. The way a person defines a leader depends on many aspects, such as cultural background, beliefs and experiences. Leaders are not in short supply but leaders that truly make a positive difference are not easy to come by. Leadership styles There are many leadership styles that are mentioned in the literature. In this review, four models are discussed which the author thinks best apply to the healthcare s...
Cullen, John G.
This teaching resource supplements 2 videos which are available online on YouTube. These videos are titled: • ‘Citing and referencing using the Harvard Style (Part 1)’ - Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X1UjtfgTU8 • Citing and referencing using the Harvard Style (Part 2)’ - Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj_EXIFviZA
Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph
Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either...... a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency whereas the rule governance style associates with the generation of original ideas. By providing a cognitive...
ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M
Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.
Charakterystyka budowy ciała tancerzy stylu standardowego tańca sportowego na przykładzie pary mistrzów świata = Characteristics of body building standard style dancers on the example of pair of world champions
Abstract Aim of the study The aim of the study was to determine the specificity of somatic build ballroom dancers sporting standard style. Materials The research material was sporting ballroom dancing couple having the highest international dance class "S". World Champions of 2013, the standard style. The length of the internship dance couples was 19 years. Subjects were trained from 6 to 7 days a week, after 3-4 hours a day. They were both 28 years. Methods Physical development assessment was based on anthropometric measurements of body weight and height, the length of the neck, upper and lower limbs, torso, thigh and lower leg, foot length, width, shoulders, pelvis, feet, chest, deep chest, circuits, waist, hips, thighs and ankles. Typological classification was also used to assess the specificity of physique subjects. Conclusions A pair of dance sport sporty style with a high level of standard sports (with the 2013 World Champions. characterized by a specific construction of somatic manifested a certain size characteristics and indicators of body (shown in this work.Presented by their size parameters of somatic and morphological indicators should be considered as a result of the impact of dance training and the requirements of the standard style of discipline and separately for dancers and dance together for a couple as the specifics of their selection. Key words: ballroom dancing, standard style, construction somatic, World Champions.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya
Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Tan, Luke Kien-Weng
Full Text Available Blogs are readily available sources of opinions and sentiments which allows bloggers to exert a certain level of influence over the blog readers. Previous studies had attempted to analyze blog features to detect influence within the blogosphere, but had not studied in details influence at the blogger-level. Other studies studied bloggers' personalities with regards to their propensity to blog, but did not relate the personalities of bloggers to influence. Bloggers may differ in their way or manner of exerting influence. For example, bloggers could be active participants or just passive shares, or whether they express ideas in a rational or subjective manner, or they are received positively or negatively by the readers. In this paper, we further analyze the engagement style (frequency, scope, originality, and consistency of the blog postings, persuasion style (appeals to reasons or emotions, and persona (degree of compliance of individual bloggers. Methods used include similarity analysis to detect the sharing-creating aspect of engagement style, subjectivity analysis to measure persuasion style, and sentiment analysis to identify persona style. While previous studies analyzed influence at blog site level, our model is shown to provide a fine-grained influence analysis that could further differentiate the bloggers' influence style in a blog site.
Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…