de Wolff, Marianne S; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Vogels, Anton G C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Validated questionnaires can improve the identification of psychosocial problems in community pediatric services. Our aim was to assess which of 3 short questionnaires-the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE), and the KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory)-was most suitable as a routine screening tool for identification among toddlers. We included 2106 parents (response rate 81%) of children aged 6, 14, or 24 months at routine well-child visits in 18 services across the Netherlands. Child health care professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Parents were randomized to complete either the BITSEA or the KIPPPI; all filled out the ASQ:SE and the Child Behavior Checklist. For each questionnaire, we assessed the internal consistency, validity with Child Behavior Checklist-Total Problems Score (CBCL-TPS) as a criterion, and added value to identification compared to clinical assessment alone. Cronbach's alphas of the total scales varied between 0.46 to 0.91. At the ages of 6 and 14 months, none of the instruments studied had adequate validity. At the age of 24 months, only the BITSEA discriminated sufficiently between children with and without problems (sensitivity = 0.84 at specificity = 0.90), but not the other 2 questionnaires (with sensitivity indices varying between 0.53 and 0.60 at similar specificity). The BITSEA at this age offered slightly higher added value to the identification of psychosocial problems by child health care professionals. For toddlers aged 6 and 14 months, no questionnaire is sufficiently valid to support the identification of psychosocial problems. The BITSEA is the best short tool for the early detection of psychosocial problems in 2-year-old children. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Wolff, Marianne S.; Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
OBJECTIVE: Validated questionnaires can improve the identification of psychosocial problems in community pediatric services. Our aim was to assess which of 3 short questionnaires the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional
Wolff, M.S. de; Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Objective Validated questionnaires can improve the identification of psychosocial problems in community pediatric services. Our aim was to assess which of 3 short questionnaires - the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional
Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Early diagnosis of developmental delays in children with high risk history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit is essential. Children with one or more risk factors before or around birth are more at risk for developmental delay. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution and history of premature children admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: the present descriptive study was conducted on 80 premature children admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Imam Sajad (AS hospital, Yasuj, Iran, with a history of developmental delay at the ages of 4, 6.12 months using the ASQ questionnaire. The questionnaire contains 30 questions including five fields such as communication, gross motor, fine motor, social-personal, problem solving. Along with questionnaire, other essential information were completed. The collected data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: among 80 patients, 43 cases (53.8 % were male, with an average weight of 1734.37+-445.50 gr. Regarding communication, gross motor, fine motor, social-personal, problem solving, the results were abnormal at the rate of 10, 30, 27.5, 23.8 and 23.8% respectively. There was no significant relationship found among different fields of development, birth weight, gestational age and Apgar score a significant relationship was found. A significant relationship between infants born through normal delivery and infants born via Caesarean section was realized (p<0.05. Conclusion: Despite the natural evolution, the majority of premature children with a history of NICU admission, a significant number have developmental disorder and need to consider early to avoid complications in the future.
Carla M. Chicau Borrego
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ, developed by Riemer and Chelladurai (1998, through confirmatory factor analysis since cultural and language characteristics can affect the applicability and the interpretation of the multidimensional Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The ASQ has 14 dimensions, with 54 items to evaluate the athletes' satisfaction with their sports experience. The model was tested with a sample of 527 athletes (basketball, handball, soccer and volleyball players from national and regional championships in Portugal. All factors have good internal reliability coefficients, with Cronbach alpha values ranging from a=0.70 to a =0.94. The results of confirmatory analysis, (robust TLI/NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.93, IFI=0.93, RMSEA=0.042 (0.039 – 0.044 and SRMR=0.05 show that the model has good fit indexes, which express its quality. Therefore, this study points out that the evaluation of athletes satisfaction in different facets which are considered relevant to their sports experience through the use of the ASQ Portuguese version is valid and reliable.
San Martini, Pietro; Roma, Paolo; Sarti, Sara; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Bond, Michael
The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) assesses defensive behavior by empirically evaluating conscious derivatives of defense and coping mechanisms in everyday life. It was developed on the assumption that defenses can be ordered along a maturity-immaturity continuum and tend to group into clusters, or defensive styles. The original factor analytical study, by Bond et al. (1983) identified four styles, called maladaptive, image-distorting, self-sacrifice, and adaptive styles. Successive studies only partially confirmed this factor structure. We present the factor structure and the main psychometric features of the Italian version of the questionnaire. The DSQ was translated into Italian by the back-translation method and administered to a sample of 294 men (mean age, 33.33 years) and 333 women (mean age, 32.38 years). An exploratory factor analysis identified three factors largely corresponding to Bond's maladaptive, image-distorting, and adaptive defensive styles and to analogous factors identified by other authors. Accordingly, three defense style scales were constructed, containing respectively 37, 17, and 12 items. These scales showed intercorrelations compatible with the hierarchical model of defensive functioning at the base of the questionnaire, acceptable, though ameliorable, test-retest reliabilities (r's = .79, .63, and .81, respectively) and, with the exception of the Adaptive Style scale, sufficient internal consistencies (alphas: .85, .72, .57). However, only the Maladaptive Style scale, probably due to its greater length, showed values of reliability and internal consistency high enough to warrant clinical use in its present form. Further investigation is required to find new items that may improve the reliability of the Image-Distorting and the Adaptive Style scales.
Toghyani, R; Sharafi Shorabi, F; Sharafi Shorabi, H; Ghahraman Tabrizi, S H
Introduction: Less than five years old child is gold time for a child for acquiring excellent skills such as perception, interaction, speech, etc., and therefore, the development of screening in this age to identify developmental problems in children early and provide treatment. To this order, the study intended to assess the development of children with a questionnaire ASQ in kids below five 5 year old in rural areas in Isfahan in 2012-2013. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 1900 children under five years old, by separating year, one to two years, and 2 to 5 years in rural areas of Isfahan. The research sample included all children less than five years old were visited health coverage for care. Exclusion criteria for selecting children less than five years was birth defects, such as heart disease, kidney disease. The sampling method was an interview with the mother standardized questionnaire the World Health Organization and the Ministry were used to collect data by in the field of evolutionary 5 (Gross and fine motor, issue solving and interaction, personalization and social). There are six questions in per area, and if yes score 10 and sometimes score 5 and if it still does not do the activity score is zero. The questionnaire delivered to the mother and then returned to where it was necessary to complete the application in question and data was analyzed SPSS21. Findings: Findings indicated that the average age of moms via a mean age of 5.5 ± 28.8 of children 1.4 ± 22 months. 95% of mothers were homemakers, and 33.1 percent had primary education. Regarding the evolution of the most challenging year in the development of gross motor 4.5 and then the solution was 3.7. In group most difficult one to two years of growth in gross motor and fine to the amount of 4.5 to 3.7 after the problem was and in 2 to 5 years in most areas of fine motor problem solving with 7.2 and then 2.8, respectively. Discussion: According to the findings shown
Carla M. Chicau Borrego
Full Text Available O objectivo do estudo foi examinar as propriedades psicométrica da versão Portuguesa do Questionário de Satisfação do Atleta ([QSA/Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire - ASQ], Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998, através da análise factorial confirmatória, uma vez que as características culturais e de idioma podem afectar a aplicação e interpretação do questionário. O QSA possui 14 dimensões, com 54 itens e visa avaliar a satisfação do atleta com a sua experiência desportiva. O modelo foi testado com uma amostra de 527 atletas de diferentes modalidades: basquetebol, andebol, futebol e voleibol, dos campeonatos nacionais e regionais de Portugal. Todos os factores apresentam elevados coeficientes de consistência interna, com valores de alpha de Cronbach entre a=0,70 e a =0,94. De uma forma geral os valores dos indicadores globais de ajustamento do modelo observado, resultantes da análise factorial confirmatória (robustos TLI/NNFI=0,93, CFI=0,93 e do IFI=0,93, RMSEA=0,042 (0,039 - 0,044 e o índice SRMR=0,05 expressam a sua qualidade. Assim, os resultados sugerem que a avaliação da satisfação do atleta nas diversas facetas consideradas relevantes para a sua experiencia desportiva, parece poder ser realizada em futuras pesquisas, através da utilização do ASQ versão portuguesaThe purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ, developed by Riemer and Chelladurai (1998, through confirmatory factor analysis since cultural and language characteristics can affect the applicability and the interpretation of the multidimensional Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The ASQ has 14 dimensions, with 54 items to evaluate the athletes' satisfaction with their sports experience. The model was tested with a sample of 527 athletes (basketball, handball, soccer and volleyball players from national and regional championships in Portugal. All factors have good
Full Text Available Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA. Results:The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population. Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies.
Mónica Cassaretto B.
Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.
Thompson, Martie; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Weiss, Bahr; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
The psychometric properties of the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ) (N. Kaslow and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) were studied with 1086 children, 9 to 12 years old. Results indicate the revised version to be somewhat less reliable than the original, but with equivalent criterion-related validity for self-reported depression.…
Steenis, Leonie J.p.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hessen, Dave J.; Van Baar, Anneloes L.
Background The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) is frequently used for screening developmental delay in problem solving, communication, fine- and gross motor skills and personal-social behavior of infants, toddlers and preschool aged children. The adequacy of the ASQ-3 is evaluated for Dutch
Sices, Laura; Stancin, Terry; Kirchner, Lester; Bauchner, Howard
In analyzing data from a larger study, we noticed significant disagreement between results of 2 commonly used developmental screening tools (Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status [PEDS; parent concern questionnaire] and Ages & Stages Questionnaires [ASQ; parent report of developmental skills]) delivered to children at the same visit in primary care. The screens have favorable reported psychometric properties and can be efficient to use in practice; however, there is little comparative information about the relative performance of these tools in primary care. We sought to describe the agreement between the 2 screens in this setting. Parents of 60 children aged 9 to 31 months completed PEDS and ASQ screens at the same visit. Concordance (PEDS and ASQ results agree) and discordance (results differ) for the 2 screens were determined. The mean age of children was 17.6 months, 77% received Medicaid, and 50% of parents had a high school education or less. Overall, 37% failed the PEDS and 27% failed the ASQ. Thirty-one children passed (52%) both screens; 9 (15%) failed both; and 20 (33%) failed 1 but not the other (13 PEDS and 7 ASQ). Agreement between the 2 screening tests was only fair, statistically no different from agreement by chance. There was substantial discordance between PEDS and ASQ developmental screens. Although these are preliminary data, clinicians need to be aware that in implementing revised American Academy of Pediatrics screening guidelines, the choice of screening instrument may affect which children are likely to be identified for additional evaluation.
Sharifah Mazlina Syed Khuzzan
Full Text Available With the progressive globalisation trend within the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC industry, transdisciplinary education and training is widely acknowledged as being one of the key factors for leveraging AEC organisational success. Conventional education and training delivery approaches within AEC therefore need a paradigm shift in order to be able to address the emerging challenges of global practices. This study focuses on the use of Personalised Learning Environments (PLEs to specifically address learners’ needs and preferences (learning styles within managed Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs. This research posits that learners can learn better (and be more readily engaged in managed learning environments with a bespoke PLE, in which the deployment of teaching and learning material is augmented towards their individual needs. In this respect, there is an exigent need for the Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs to envelop these new approaches into their organisational learning strategy. However, part of this process requires decision-makers to fully understand the core nuances and interdependencies of functions and processes within the organisation, along with Critical Success Factors (CSFs and barriers. This paper presents findings from the development of a holistic conceptual Diagnostic Learning Styles Questionnaire (DLSQ Framework, comprised of six interrelated dependencies (i.e. Business Strategy, Pedagogy, Process, Resources, Systems Development, and Evaluation. These dependencies influence pedagogical effectiveness. These finding contribute additional understanding to the intrinsic nature of pedagogy in leveraging transdisciplinary AEC training within organisations (to improve learner effectiveness. This framework can help organisations augment and align their strategic priorities to learner-specific traits.
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF) with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA). The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach's α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach's α was >0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were >0.30 for the items in each component. The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.
Full Text Available Purpose: Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA. The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach’s α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Results: Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach’s α was > 0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were > 0.30 for the items in each component. Conclusion: The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.
Ghusoon Salim Basheer
Full Text Available Every student has his/her learning styles. Understanding students’ learning styles is an important factor to improve both learning and teaching. Teachers need to identify students’ learning styles to enable them to prepare materials that match their styles of learning. This paper discusses the development of a survey instrument that solicits information on teachers’ observations of their students’ preferences and behaviors in the classrooms to detect students’ learning styles. The instrument solicits observation data from teachers using a survey questionnaire that is developed based on the four layers of Curry’s Onion model. We argue that, in a state where clear detection of learners’ styles is not available, teachers’ observations in the classroom could offer significant contribution to detecting students’ learning styles.
Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the use of Honey and Mumford's (1986) learning styles questionnaire (LSQ) in the context of United Arab Emirates (UAE) higher education. In particular, it aims at exploring the learning style preferences of United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) students using LSQ. It also investigates whether there…
Hong, Ryan; Riskind, John; Cheung, Mike
The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse...
Ruuttu, Titta; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Holi, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents. Internal consistency, factor structure, and discriminant and concurrent validity of the DSQ-40 were studied in 211 adolescent psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 19 years and 199 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Principal components analysis yielded four internally consistent components: mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles. The outpatients reported more immature, image-distorting, and neurotic styles and less mature style than did the controls, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. As a demonstration of convergent and concurrent validity, the severity of psychiatric symptoms assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and psychosocial adjustment assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale correlated theoretically meaningfully with the different defense styles. The DSQ-40 appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for adolescents.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychometric properties of the G1 version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, a self-report instrument designed to investigate how adolescents or adults were parented during childhood. The sample included 1451 Italian adolescents in high school. Three studies tested the scale's structure, invariance, and convergent validity. The first found slightly acceptable fit indexes for a 40-item scale measuring three factors (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles; the factors presented good reliability (ρc .62-.96. Multigroup confirmative analyses found factor loadings invariant in the father version, whereas 12 items resulted not invariant in the mother version (second study. Good convergent validity was found with the Parental Bonding Index and the Parental Monitoring Scale (third study. Discussion of results is provided within the parenting styles literature.
Full Text Available Difficulty making decisions is one of the symptoms of the depressive illness. Previous research suggests that depressed individuals may make decisions that differ from those made by the non-depressed, and that they use sub-optimal decision-making strategies. For this study we constructed an instrument that aims to measure a variety of decision-making styles as well as the respondent's view of him or herself as a decision-maker (decisional self-esteem. These styles and estimates of decisional self-esteem were then related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptomatology correlated negatively with perception of self as a decision-maker. Those with higher depression severity scores characterized themselves as being more anxious about decisions, and more likely to procrastinate. They also reported using fewer productive decision-making strategies, depending more on other people for help with decisions, and relying less on their own intuitions when making decisions. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which these decision-making styles are antecedents to depressive symptomatology or are instead products of, or aspects of, the phenomenology associated with depression.
Meins, Elizabeth; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Bentall, Richard P; Alloy, Lauren B
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) is a frequently employed measure of negative cognitive style, associated with vulnerability to anxiety and depression. However, the CSQ's length can limit its utility in research. We describe the development of a Short-Form version of the CSQ. After evaluation and modification of two pilot versions, the 8-item CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) was administered to a convenience sample of adults (N = 278). The CSQ-SF was found to have satisfactory internal reliability and test-retest reliability. It also exhibited construct validity by demonstrating predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. Results suggest that the CSQ-SF is suitable for administration via the Internet.
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne
This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.
Tam, Wilson; Keung, Vera; Lee, Albert; Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin
Childhood obesity is a major public health issue in many countries, including China. The importance of parenting relative to the healthy development of children requires the development of instruments for assessing parental influence on child dietary pattern. This study aimed to confirm the internal reliability and validity of a self-report measure on parental feeding styles, including emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, prompting or encouragement to eat, and control over eating. A 27-item parental feeding style questionnaire (PFSQ) was translated into Chinese and then translated back into English to verify consistency. The questionnaire was then used to conduct a cross-sectional survey on the parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. The internal reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined by Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. 4,553 completed questionnaires were received. Cronbach's alpha of subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.81, and the overall reliability was good (alpha = 0.75). The factor structure of this questionnaire was similar to that of the original and Turkish versions. One-factor structure was identified for emotional feeding, instrumental feeding (four items), and prompting or encouragement to eat, whereas a two-factor structure was revealed for control over eating. The Chinese version of the PFSQ has good reliability and validity in assessing parental feeding styles in Hong Kong. Researchers can use this instrument to improve their understanding on how parental feeding styles may affect the dietary patterns and ultimately the weight statuses of children among Chinese-speaking populations across different countries.
Giovani de Paula Batista
Full Text Available AbstractThe use of instruments with evidence of validity in education research brings advances to the production of knowledge. This article reports the stages of a survey of teaching style and the evidence for its validity. One thousand teachers participated in a study of different levels of education. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a structure of four factors in which 55 items had a factorial load greater than .30. The correlation steps made it possible to identify how the four factors are related to each other. As a final result, the questionnaire was composed of 40 items, distributed into groups of 10 items organized by teaching style. Evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency of the items that make up the instrument was seen. Analysis of variance indicated that the scale is sensitive to individual differences in the comparison among the four different teaching styles and the gender and teaching level variables.
Kyerematen, Victoria; Hamb, Averine; Oberhelman, Richard A; Cabrera, Lilia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Berry, Susan J
Objectives Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban low-income community in Lima, Peru. Participants The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America. PMID:24413354
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if an owner’s adult attachment style (AAS influences how their dog interacts and obtains support from them during challenging events. A person’s AAS describes how they perceive their relationship to other people, but it may also reflect their caregiving behavior, and so their behavior toward the dog. We measured the AAS of 51 female Golden retriever owners, using the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, and observed the reactions of the dog-owner dyads in response to different challenging situations [visual surprise, auditory stressor and social stressors like a person approaching dressed as ghost or in coat, hat and sunglasses]. In addition, the dog was left alone in a novel environment for 3 min. Interactions between the dog and owner were observed both before and after separation. Spearman rank correlation tests were made (between owner AAS and dog behavior and where correlations were found, Mann–Whitney U-tests were made on the dogs’ behavioral response between high and low scoring groups of owners of the different subscales of the ASQ. The more secure the owner (ASQ subscale ‘Confidence’, the longer the dog was oriented to the two sudden stressors (the visual and auditory stressor. The more anxious the owner (ASQ subscale ‘Attachment anxiety’, the longer the dog oriented toward the owner during the approach of the strange-looking person and the dog showed less lip licking during separation from the owner. The more avoidant the owner (ASQ subscale ‘Avoidant attachment’, the longer the dog oriented toward the owner during the visual stressor, the less it was located behind the owner during the auditory stressor and the less it was oriented toward the auditory stressor. These links between owner attachment style and dog behavior imply that dogs may develop different strategies to handle challenging situations, based on the type of support they get from their owner.
Huys, Quentin J M; Renz, Daniel; Petzschner, Frederike; Berwian, Isabel; Stoppel, Christian; Haker, Helene
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations. The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects. The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D) including only 27 of the 72 items. The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.
Quentin J M Huys
Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.
Claudia Tatiana Escorcia-Mora
Full Text Available Nowadays, Early Childhood Intervention in Spain is taking interest in a family-centred approach. In this context, we present the Styles Questionnaire of Interaction between Parents and Practitioners in Early Intervention -known as SIPPEI (EIPPAT. This is a tool to identify actions, practices and interaction styles conducted by the practitioner to guide families (participative and relational practices. This paper shows the items set of the aforementioned Questionnaire -versions for practitioners and caregivers. Formerly, we detailed the hard work and effort invested to ensure content validity, as we had two focus group -consisting of 15 professionals and 11 parents and a systematized expert judgment by 11 professionals and 5 mothers. Subsequently, an implementation of the questionnaire was developed by a group of 41 practitioners in order to assess the importance given to the items. The results show that the procedure followed to create the questionnaire accomplishes the main objectives. Thus, we got a questionnaire highly regarded by professionals in this area.
Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia
The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…
M. J. Viljoen
Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses
Full Text Available People differ significantly in how they usually explain to themselves the reasons of events, both positive and negative, that happen in their lives. Psychological research shows that children who tend to think optimistically have certain advantages as compared to their pessimistically thinking peers: they are less likely to suffer from depression, establish more positive relationships with peers, and demonstrate higher academic achievements. This paper describes the process of creating the children’s version of the Optimistic Attributional Style Questionnaire (OASQ-C. This technique is based on the theory of learned hopelessness and optimism developed by M. Seligman, L. Abramson and J. Teas dale and is an efficient (compact tool for measuring optimism as an explanatory style in children and adolescents (9-14 years. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that this technique is a two-factor structure with acceptable reliability. Validity is supported by the presence of expected correlations between explanatory style and rates of psychological well-being, dispositional optimism, positive attitude to life and its aspects, depression, and academic performance. The outcomes of this technique are not affected by social desirability. The developed questionnaire may be recommended to researchers and school counsellors for evaluating optimism (optimistic thinking as one of the major factors in psychological well-being of children; it may also be used in assessing the effectiveness of cognitive oriented training for adolescents.
Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja
AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence......--Revised. In a second study, the ASQ was obtained in 22 children born extremely preterm and 19 term children at the age of 35-44 mo. RESULTS: The overall ASQ score correlated significantly with IQ (p=0.007). The children born extremely preterm had an ASQ score of -1.06 SD below the score of the term children (p=0...
Haeffel, Gerald J.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Metalsky, Gerald I.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Swendsen, Joel D.
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) measures the cognitive vulnerability factor featured in the hopelessness theory of depression. The CSQ has been used in over 30 published studies since its inception, yet detailed information about the psychometric and validity properties of this instrument has yet to be published. In this article, we describe the development of the CSQ and review reliability and validity evidence. Findings to date using college samples, indicate that the CSQ is a reliable measure of cognitive vulnerability with a high degree of construct validity. PMID:18234405
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.
Michelson, L K; Bellanti, C J; Testa, S M; Marchione, N
The present study examined the relationship of attributional style, as measured with a revised version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and measures of agoraphobia severity, depression, and treatment outcome in 73 Ss who met DSM-III criteria for agoraphobia with panic attacks and participated in one of three 13-week treatment conditions: paradoxical intention, graduated exposure, or progressive deep muscle relaxation training. Subjects completed assessments at four periods: pretreatment, midtreatment, posttreatment, and at 3 month follow-up. In addition to the three dimensions typically examined on the ASQ, this revised version also measured Ss' estimates of the perceived importance, and future likelihood for both positive and negative events. Congruent with previous research, moderate but somewhat inconsistent associations were observed between attributional style and depression both within and across assessment periods. Predictions about associations between attributional style and agoraphobic severity were not supported; however, an interaction was observed between depression and attributional style with respect to severity of agoraphobia. There was no evidence of group differences across treatment types, although there were several significant changes in attributional style across time. Attributions for health related events were also examined. Conceptual, clinical, and research issues related to the findings are discussed.
Lo, Barbara Chuen Yee; Zhao, Yue; Ho, Yim Chi; Au, Terry Kit-Fong
The Children's Response Styles Questionnaire (CRSQ) is a widely-adopted inventory that assesses response styles in youths. It is useful in examining how coping styles (particularly rumination) may relate to depressive vulnerability in youths. Despite its utility, little is known about its applicability in non-Western cultures and CRSQ has not been evaluated using current psychometric methods including item response theory (IRT). The present study assessed the properties using IRT methods in a Chinese youth sample. Students in Grades 4-6 were recruited from seven public primary schools in Hong Kong, and a total of 581 children (280 boys and 301 girls) between 8 and 14 years of age participated in the study. A Chinese version of CRSQ was administered to them in groups at school after receiving written parental consent as well as students' assent. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure that was comparable to that identified in Western samples, namely, the rumination and distraction/problem-solving subscales. IRT analysis suggested that items varied in levels of item discrimination and item severity, and in precision/usefulness for assessing the underlying latent trait levels. Test information analysis indicated that rumination subscale was more useful than the distraction and problem-solving subscale in assessing the latent trait over a broader range of levels. For gender-based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, item 1 "When I am sad, I think about how alone I feel" was found to exhibit higher discriminating power for girls than boys. The study presents the first attempt to examine CRSQ item properties using IRT analysis and supports its validity beyond the Western cultures. The factor structure of CRSQ was found to be comparable to the West in our Chinese sample. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) evaluation suggested all but one item in the rumination subscale of the CRSQ apply equally well to both boys and girls.
Hong, Ryan Y; Riskind, John H; Cheung, Mike W-L; Calvete, Esther; González-Díez, Zahira; Atalay, Ayse Altan; Curzik, Doris; Jokic-Begic, Natasa; Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Adriana; Mihić, Ljiljana; Samac, Nikola; Sica, Claudio; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Khatri, Safal; Kleiman, Evan M
The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse cultural contexts has been done. In the present research, the measurement invariance of the LMSQ test scores was examined in 10 countries (N=4000). Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a two-factor model (i.e., physical looming and social looming) fitted the data well across countries. Partial measurement invariance was established for the LMSQ scores across the countries whereas full measurement invariance was achieved across gender. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling was applied to examine the unique contributions of the two looming factors to anxiety and depression symptoms. Results indicated that the test scores underlying two looming factors were crucial and valid predictors of symptoms. The LMSQ shows promise as a measure with cross-cultural generalizability and opens new avenues for its use in diverse cultural settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
González-Díez, Zahira; Orue Sola, Izaskun; Calvete Zumalde, Esther; Riskind, John H
The looming cognitive style (LCS) is a specific putative cognitive vulnerability to anxiety but not to depression. LCS is assessed by the Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ-R), which assesses a tendency to generate, maintain, and attend to internally generated scenarios of threats as rapidly increasing and headed in one's direction. This study investigated the structure, measurement invariance across subsamples, concurrent validity, consistency, and stability of a Spanish translation of the LMSQ-R. LMSQ-R was examined in a large sample of Spanish students (n = 1,128, 56.47% women). A subsample of 675 was followed-up six months later. The participants also completed measures of social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and depression. The results provide evidence from factor analyses confirming two second-order factors (social and physical threat). Multiple-group analysis indicated the measurement invariance of the model for men and women and for groups that displayed clinically significant generalized social anxiety and those that did not. Women scored higher on the LMSQ-R. Partial correlation analyses indicated that LMSQ-R scales were independently associated with symptoms of generalized and social anxiety but they were not independently associated with depression. The Spanish version of the LMSQ-R has shown good psychometric properties.
Arnett, Peter A.
Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767
Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei
Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Quinn, Melissa M; Smith, Theodore; Kalmar, Eileen L; Burgoon, Jennifer M
Students learn and process information in many different ways. Learning styles are useful as they allow instructors to learn more about students, as well as aid in the development and application of useful teaching approaches and techniques. At the undergraduate level there is a noticeable lack of research on learning style preferences of students enrolled in gross anatomy courses. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in a large enrollment undergraduate gross anatomy course with laboratory to determine their preferred learning styles. The predominant preferred learning styles of the students (n = 505) enrolled in the gross anatomy course were active (54.9%), sensing (85.1%), visual (81.2%), and sequential (74.4%). Preferred learning styles profiles of particular majors enrolled in the course were also constructed; analyses showed minor variation in the active/reflective dimension. An understanding of students' preferred learning styles can guide course design but it should not be implemented in isolation. It can be strengthened (or weakened) by concurrent use of other tools (e.g., flipped classroom course design). Based on the preferred learning styles of the majority of undergraduate students in this particular gross anatomy course, course activities can be hands on (i.e., active), grounded in concrete information (i.e., sensing), utilize visual representation such as images, figures, models, etc. (i.e., visual), and move in small incremental steps that build on each topic (i.e., sequential). Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).
Fitkov-Norris, E; Yeghiazarian, A
This paper demonstrated the application of a quasi-ipsative scoring approach to assess the relative strengths of individual preferences in a VARK style questionnaire. The approach identified a chi-squared test as more suitable method for analysing the type of data gathered by the VARK questionnaire. The results suggest that the quasi-ipsative chi-squared based approach does not appear to be as sensitive as the original t-test approach in identifying significant modalities. In order to increas...
Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.
While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or…
Full Text Available The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment - the In-Out Dispositional Affective Style Questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ - to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009. The IN-OUT DASQ contains 2 scales of 7 items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE and Other-centric engagement (OCE, as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n= 292 confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n= 300 showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n=153. The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, and therefore the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience.
Mazzola, Viridiana; Marano, Giuseppe; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Boracchi, Patrizia; Lanciano, Tiziana; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido
The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment – the In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ) – to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009). The IN-OUT DASQ contains two scales of seven items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE) and Other-centric engagement (OCE), as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n = 292) confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n = 300) showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n = 153). The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, though the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience. PMID:25309478
Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann
Full Text Available Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire’s psychometric properties were analyzed. In order to do this, two different studies were developed: content and facies validity in one hand, and construct validity procedures in the other. The very first examined items and scale by expert judgment. The second one used principal components analysis (PCA and internal consistency in a preliminary stage, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA in the following. Two independent Argentinian college student samples were analyzed. Content validity results indicate the needing of modifying 8 items. Dichotomous answer scale was preserved. According to the results of construct validity, CPA showed four dimensions with better fit and good internal consistency. Only one of them -pragmatic component- responded to the original model. The remaining factors –assimilatory, convergent, adaptive- were identified as belonging to Kolb´s (1984 theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis compared PCA model with Alonso, Gallego and Honey´s model (1994, obtaining a better fit for the first. Results support PCA´s structural dimensions for the questionnaire.
Marta Figueiredo Pedro
Full Text Available Os estilos parentais educativos constituem um conceito central na área de estudos da parentalidade e do desenvolvimento infantil. Neste sentido, décadas de investigação demonstram o impacto dos estilos parentais em vários aspectos do ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e a validade fatorial da versão portuguesa de autorrelato do Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. A amostra foi constituída por 2081 indivíduos portugueses (1085 mães; 996 pais com filhos dos 3 aos 15 anos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória replicaram a estrutura original de três fatores: autoritativo, autoritário e permissivo. Os índices de ajustamento revelaram uma boa adequação do modelo aos dados. Os níveis de consistência interna dos fatores autoritativo e autoritário revelaram-se adequados, mas o fator permissivo apresentou valores ligeiramente abaixo dos aceitáveis. Os valores de validade convergente e discriminante também se revelaram adequados. Apesar dos níveis menos aceitáveis de consistência interna do factor permissivo, o QDEP revelou, em geral, qualidades psicométricas adequadas para fins de investigação e clínicos, permitindo não só a avaliação de estilos parentais como também de diferentes dimensões e comportamentos parentais com impacto relevante no ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente.
Urval, Rathnakar P.; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.
While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge to change their learning habits. Five hundred undergraduate students belonging to two consecutive batches in their second year of undergraduate medical training were invited to participate in the exercise. Consenting students (415 students, 83%) were administered a printed form of version 7.0 of the VARK questionnaire. Besides the questionnaire, we also collected demographic data, academic performance data (marks obtained in 10th and 12th grades and last university examination), and self-perceived learning style preferences. The majority of students in our study had multiple learning preferences (68.7%). The predominant sensory modality of learning was aural (45.5%) and kinesthetic (33.1%). The learning style preference was not influenced by either sex or previous academic performance. Although we use a combination of teaching methods, there has not been an active effort to determine whether these adequately address the different types of learners. We hope these data will help us better our course contents and make learning a more fruitful experience. PMID:25179610
Urval, Rathnakar P; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A
While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge to change their learning habits. Five hundred undergraduate students belonging to two consecutive batches in their second year of undergraduate medical training were invited to participate in the exercise. Consenting students (415 students, 83%) were administered a printed form of version 7.0 of the VARK questionnaire. Besides the questionnaire, we also collected demographic data, academic performance data (marks obtained in 10th and 12th grades and last university examination), and self-perceived learning style preferences. The majority of students in our study had multiple learning preferences (68.7%). The predominant sensory modality of learning was aural (45.5%) and kinesthetic (33.1%). The learning style preference was not influenced by either sex or previous academic performance. Although we use a combination of teaching methods, there has not been an active effort to determine whether these adequately address the different types of learners. We hope these data will help us better our course contents and make learning a more fruitful experience. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.
Wood, Charles T; Perreira, Krista M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan M; Bentley, Margaret E; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Thompson, Amanda L
Parent feeding practices affect risk of obesity in children. Latino children are at higher risk of obesity than the general population, yet valid measure of feeding practices, one of which is the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), have not been formally validated in Spanish. To validate the IFSQ among Latino families, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis of pressuring, restrictive, and responsive feeding constructs from the IFSQ. The IFSQ was administered at the 12-month visit in the Greenlight study, a multi-center cluster randomized trial to prevent obesity. Parents were included if they were of Latino origin (n = 303) and completed an English or Spanish language modified IFSQ (without the indulgence construct). Scores from nine sub-constructs of the IFSQ were compared between English and Spanish language versions. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Of 303 parents completing the IFSQ, 84% were born outside the US, and 74% completed the IFSQ in Spanish. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.61 for the laissez-faire sub-constructs and from 0.58 to 0.83 for the pressuring, restrictive, and responsive sub-constructs. Results for all coefficients were similar between participants responding to an English and Spanish version of the IFSQ. Goodness of fit indices ranged from CFI 0.82-1 and RMSEA 0.00-0.31, and the model performed best in pressuring-soothing (CFI 1.0, RMSEA 0.00) and restrictive-amount (CFI 0.98, RMSEA 0.1) sub-constructs. In a sample of Latino families, pressuring, restrictive, and responsive constructs performed well. The modified IFSQ in both English and Spanish-speaking Latino families may be used to assess parenting behaviors related to early obesity risk in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petraglia, Jonathan; Thygesen, Kylie Louise; Lecours, Serge; Drapeau, Martin
Studies have shown that men and women differ in their use of defense mechanisms (e.g. Cramer, 1991; Watson and Sinha, 1998). However, how and why this difference exists is still open to debate. The present study explores the relationship between gender and defenses using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60; Trijsburg Bond, & Drapeau, 2003). As expected, no significant differences were found in Overall Defensive Functioning (ODF); however, men and women differed in their choice of defense style, defense level, and individual defense mechanisms. Evidence is provided to support the notion that while overall adaptivity of defenses is comparable, men and women rely on different defensive organizations during conflict-laden situations. We discuss the clinical relevance of these results in light of previous findings.
Rösing, Lilian Munk
Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...
Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein
The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.
Suzana Carmen CISMAS
Full Text Available Our current approach offers an opportunity to analyse the trends in a wide range of educational topics, policies and best practice over the past decade and to assess the challenges lying ahead. We hope that this body of data and information will serve as a valuable source for decision makers in various education areas. Reviewing and reforming educational strategies need to be performed so as to ensure access to high quality instruction and training for all citizens, thus facilitating long-term socio-economic growth and stability. This study analyses the main young adult English learning styles & strategies used in acquiring and improving the communicative competence in English for effectively meeting the demands of the future career. The labour market nowadays is characterized by rapid changes in technology, spectacular developments, higher standards and unprecedented mobility and comfort. All these have essentially changed the way we live and communicate, generating the need for lifelong learning, not only for jobs, but also for active and creative adaptation to the rhythm of common daily life. Foreign language(s communication competences, as well as computer skills, are indispensable for meeting the current employment standards.
Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A
Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.
H?ffler, Tim N.; Ko??Januchta, Marta; Leutner, Detlev
Summary There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object?Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three?dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text?picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three?dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ ...
Vargas, Gray A; Arnett, Peter A
Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms.
Byrne, D. G.; Davenport, S. C.; Mazanov, J.
The importance of stress in the understanding of adolescent health and well-being is widely documented. The measurement of adolescent stress has however been subjected to sufficient methodological and conceptual criticism in recent times to warrant a concerted re-evaluation of the exercise. This study sought information on the nature of adolescent…
Fitkov-Norris, E.; Yeghiazarian, A.
This paper demonstrated the application of a quasi-ipsative scoring approach to assess the relative strengths of individual preferences in a VARK style questionnaire. The approach identified a chi-squared test as more suitable method for analysing the type of data gathered by the VARK questionnaire. The results suggest that the quasi-ipsative chi-squared based approach does not appear to be as sensitive as the original t-test approach in identifying significant modalities. In order to increase the sensitivity of the test, the requirement for overall test significance has to be relaxed and individual cells considered in the analysis. The findings also put some doubt on the statistical validity of the original t-test approach as it also uses the deviation from the means (in the form of standard deviation) rather than statistical significance, as a tool for assessing the strength of individual preferences. The causes of the discrepancies between the two scorings techniques need to be examined further, before recommendations can be made on which approach is better suited to identifying the strength of individual preference for information input modality.
Østergaard, Katrine Kure; Lando, Ane Vibeke; Hansen, Bo Mølholm
The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age....
Østergaard, Katrine Kure; Lando, Ane Vibeke; Hansen, Bo Mølholm
The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age.......The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age....
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Full Text Available Background: Parenting style is associated with children's health-related behaviors. One of the popularity and applicability assessment tools is Parenting Style and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ that the lack of Iranian version can be seen.This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Iranian version of PSDQ.Materials and Methods: This study was done with randomized cluster sampling on 588 parents. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency and Pearson`s correlation coefficients was used for test-retest reliability and the construct validity. Conformity factor analysis was also applied to determine the construct validity. Results: Cronbach's α coefficient for two authoritative and authoritarian styles with the highest estimated value were 0.86 and it was 0.41 for permissive style. The results of the correlation test in all three afore mentioned styles were significant. Correlation coefficients between authoritative style and its subscales were about 0.86 to 0.89 and between authoritarian style and its subscales were about 0.81 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that goodness-of-fit indices, including CMIN/DF,GFI, CFI, IFI and RMSEA, were 2.1, 0.91, 0.90, 0.90, and 0.04, respectively, which indicated a good the construct validity of instrument.Conclusion: The PSDQ that has been translated into Persian obtained good reliability and validity. PSDQ questionnaire can be considered a useful tool in the assessments and interventions concerning parenting styles used in Iran.
De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Moreno, Luis A; Bergman, Patrick; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Nagy, Eniko; Dietrich, Sabine; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan
Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor criterion validity of the
Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
O momento da avaliação na intervenção precoce: o envolvimento da família estudo das qualidades psicométricas do ASQ-2 dos 30 aos 60 meses The moment of assessment in early intervention: study of parental involvement of psychometric properties of ASQ-2 from 30 to 60 months
Patrícia Roberto de Meireles Graça
practice in different contexts, requiring professionals to take on new roles and learn new skills in working with families. These skills come to the foreground during the first contacts with the family beginning at the time of assessment through to the effective provision of services. This study arose due to the perception that parents needed to be involved from the very beginning of the process in Early Intervention, by means of a formal instrument and simple application. The ASQ-2 is composed of 19 different questionnaires organized according to age intervals from 4 to 60 months. Each questionnaire comprises 30 items grouped according to the developmental areas of communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving and personal-social. This study presents the analysis of questionnaires from 30 to 60 months to observe the psychometric properties of the ASQ applied to a convenience sample of 127 households in the district of Braga. We concluded that the ASQ-2 presents attractive results suggesting that it could be used by the Portuguese population of parents and professionals (health and education who wish to answer some questions using a formal screening and monitoring of child development instrument.
Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11–19 years at high (n = 192) and low risk (n = 109) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three factor structure with highly correlated ...
Full Text Available IntroductionA growing body of literature has shown an association between somatic symptoms and insecure “attachment style.” In a recent study, we found a relationship between migraine severity, ambivalent attachment style, and psychological symptoms in children/adolescents. There is evidence that caregivers’ attachment styles and their way of management/expression of emotions can influence children’s psychological profile and pain expression. To date, data dealing with headache are scarce. Our aim was to study the role of maternal alexithymia and attachment style on their children’s migraine severity, attachment style, and psychological profile.Materials and methodsWe enrolled 84 consecutive patients suffering from migraine without aura (female: 45, male: 39; mean age 11.8 ± 2.4 years. According to headache frequency, children/adolescents were divided into two groups: (1 high frequency (patients reporting from weekly to daily attacks, and (2 low frequency (patients having ≤3 episodes per month. We divided headache attacks intensity into two groups (mild and severe pain. SAFA “Anxiety,” “Depression,” and “Somatization” scales were used to explore children’s psychological profile. To evaluate attachment style, the semi-projective test SAT for patients and ASQ Questionnaire for mothers were employed. Maternal alexithymia traits were assessed by TAS-20.ResultsWe found a significant higher score in maternal alexithymia levels in children classified as “ambivalent,” compared to those classified as “avoiding” (Total scale: p = 0.011. A positive correlation has been identified between mother’s TAS-20 Total score and the children’s SAFA-A Total score (p = 0.026. In particular, positive correlations were found between maternal alexithymia and children’s “Separation anxiety” (p = 0.009 and “School anxiety” (p = 0.015 subscales. Maternal “Externally-oriented thinking” subscale
Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally
It is often questioned as to why fewer women enter science. This study assesses whether a cognitive style characterized by systemizing being at a higher level than empathizing (S greater than E) is better than sex in predicating entry into the physical sciences compared to humanities. 415 students in both types of discipline (203 males, 212…
Höffler, Tim N; Koć-Januchta, Marta; Leutner, Detlev
There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three-dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text-picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three-dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo-spatial ability and learning behaviour. Distinct differences between object visualizers, spatial visualizers and verbalizers could be demonstrated. © 2016 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Koć‐Januchta, Marta; Leutner, Detlev
Summary There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three‐dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text–picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three‐dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo‐spatial ability and learning behaviour. Distinct differences between object visualizers, spatial visualizers and verbalizers could be demonstrated.© 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28163372
Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais
Maria Inês Lobato
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi
This book is a compilation of perspectives provided by several winners of the ASQ Feigenbaum Medal, which is awarded each year to an individual under the age of 35 who has made a significant contribution to the field of Quality. As such, it serves as a valuable reference book in this area. It is primarily based on the medalists’ vision to "refresh" and "re-think" the quality concepts that have been used over the past century and the future development of the topic. Maximizing readers’ understanding of the ways in which Quality is created, it provides insights from pioneers in this field from around the globe and anticipates how and what Quality will be in the future, as well as how people and organizations can benefit from it today.
Lopes, Sónia; Graça, Patrícia; Teixeira, Salete; Serrano, Ana Maria; Squires, Jane
The essential underlying foundations of Early Intervention (EI), in which parents/family play a critical role in their child's development, leads us to conclude that their contribution assessing early detection of problems is fundamental. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is a standardized screening instrument that has been successfully studied in different countries and cultures. Translate and study the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese version of the 9, 18 and 30month questionnaires of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Cross-sectional study. Validity and reliability were studied in a sample of 234 parents of children within 9, 18 and 30months. The results indicated that the questionnaires had good internal consistency, strong agreement between observers and between observations with two weeks interval, and strong Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the overall and the total for each domain. The cutoff points (i.e. 2 standard deviations below the mean domain score), that identifies children who should receive further referral for more comprehensive assessment, were close to those determined in the original ASQ-3 psychometric studies. Cronbach's alpha ranging from .42 to .70 and Pearson's r values varies from .22 to .60. Although some weaknesses were noted in psychometric qualities analysis, it can be concluded that the ASQ-PT of 9, 18 and 30months of age fulfills the requirements of a screening tool validated for the Portuguese population. To allow the early identification of children with developmental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bian, Xiaoyan; Xie, Huichao; Squires, Jane; Chen, Chieh-Yu
The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE; Squires, Bricker, & Twombly, 2002a), developed in the United States, was translated and adapted for use in China. Lack of valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. Professionals in China have recently focused efforts on developing methods for early identification of social, emotional, and behavioral issues in the birth-to-5 population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission, the ASQ:SE was translated into Simplified Chinese (ASQ:SE-C) to collect a normative sample of 2,528 children across China. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ASQ:SE-C, using both classical test theory and item response theory, including generating cutoff points appropriate for the Chinese sample. A panel of Chinese experts was surveyed to assess face validity and estimated utility of the newly adapted tool. Discussions of research findings and implications for future studies are provided. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
R Karami Nejad
Full Text Available Introduction: Spiritual intelligence is concerned with understanding the origin and meaning of life. In other words, it involves our ultimate goal to live. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the spiritual intelligence and the attribution styles among addicted and non-addicted women in Yazd. Methods: In this correlational study, the study population consisted of all women in Yazd in 2013, among which a sample of 300 subjects were selected via multistage random cluster sampling from three areas of Yazd. As a matter of fact, 108 addicted subjects were selected referring to Addiction Treatment Centers via multistage cluster sampling. The 29-item spiritual intelligence questionnaire (Abdollah Zadeh et al. and Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ (Peterson Co Seligman were applied and the study data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation. Results: The study results indicated a significant difference between addicted women and non-addicted ones in regard with spiritual intelligence (one-tailed, P<0.05, df= 405, t= 3.22. Furthermore, addicted women significantly used negative attribution style against the failures (one-tailed, P<0.001, df= 406, t= 5.90, and a positive correlation was observed between spiritual intelligence and attribution styles (rs= 0.586, N= 406, P<0.001, two-tailed. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that, without understanding the meaning of life, human life would not be worth much. Life suffering without spirituality would not be meaningful and in dealing with life challenges, it will lead the humans to step down and get helpless. Finding the meaning of life as well as having a positive attribution style can be mentioned as effective elements in regard with the women's tendency to the drug.
Filgueiras, Alberto; Pires, Pedro; Maissonette, Silvia; Landeira-Fernandez, J
Well-designed screening assessment instruments that can evaluate child development in public daycare centers represent an important resource to help improve the quality of these programs, as an early detection method for early developmental delay. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), comprises a series of 21 questionnaires designed to screen developmental performance in the domains of communication, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, problem solving, and personal-social ability in children aged 2 to 66 months. The purpose of the present work was to translate and adapt all of the ASQ-3 questionnaires for use in Brazilian public child daycare centers and to explore their psychometric characteristics with both Classical Test Theory and Rating Scale analyses from the Rasch model family. A total of 18 Ages & Stages Questionnaires - Brazilian translation (ASQ-BR) questionnaires administered at intervals from 6 to 60 months of age were analyzed based on primary caregiver evaluations of 45,640 children distributed in 468 public daycare centers in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The results indicated that most of the ASQ-BR questionnaires had adequate internal consistency. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a one-factor solution for each domain of all of the ASQ-BR questionnaires. The only exception was the personal-social domain in some of the questionnaires. Item Response Theory based on Rating Scale analysis (infit and outfit mean squares statistics) indicated that only 44 of 540 items showed misfit problems. In summary, the ASQ-BR questionnaires are psychometrically sound developmental screening instruments that can be easily administered by primary caregivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván
The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Passenger satisfaction towards airport service quality is influenced by the level of service at the previous service quality. It causes the new facility is expected to exceed the previous service quality. Service quality improvement of people mover system in Grand Design of Soekarno Hatta International Airport (SHIA expected to support increasing airport service quality management. People mover existing conditions that occur on a free shuttle bus has caused some customer complaint. The purpose of this thesis is providing strategic support as complaint handling on people mover system to enhancing SHIA service quality. The discussion involves a passenger's perspectives, passengers’ satisfaction, and airport service quality to get a purpose of research. This thesis utilizes Fodness and Murray (2007 theory regarding the accurate scale to measure SHIA service quality by using Servqual method and Kano Model approach. Airport Service Quality (ASQ aims to give an airport more competitive in the relationship between business and operations. In this thesis offers support strategy in service quality attributes and considerations to assist airport management in improving airport service quality. This thesis finds the value gap between airport management and passengers’ perspectives that serve as accurate scale in each service attributes on people mover facility at SHIA that must be met to achieve satisfaction based on passengers’ perspectives. Also, this thesis finds several services attributes that must be met on people mover facility at SHIA as a basic service needs by passengers need. Airport management at SHIA should focus on the improved operating system of people mover system related to attributes punctuality, free of charge, information about the schedule, headway, and safety. This thesis presents the relationship between the value gap with service attributes that must be met by passengers’ perspectives, passengers’ satisfaction, and
Mula, Marco; Danquah-Boateng, Davies; Cock, Hannah R; Khan, Usman; Lozsadi, Dora A; Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan
Interpersonal relationships are viewed as important contexts within which psychopathology emerges and persists or desists. Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans especially in families and lifelong friendships. The present study was aimed at investigating attachment styles in adult patients with epilepsy as compared to subjects with migraine and their potential correlates with a history of mood disorders. A consecutive sample of 219 adult outpatients with epilepsy (117) or migraine (102) was assessed with the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Patients with epilepsy and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented elevated scores for Need for approval (pmigraine and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented lower scores in Confidence (p=0.002) and higher scores in Discomfort with closeness (p=0.026). An anxious-preoccupied attachment correlated with mood disorders in epilepsy while it was an avoidant pattern in migraine. Our results bring further data on the role of psychological variables in mood disorders in epilepsy. Further studies will allow early identification of patients at risk and the development of preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Yunju; Park, Jongbae; Lee, Hyejung; Bang, Heejung; Park, Hi-Joon
The aims of this study are to collect acupuncture sensations reflecting real-life patients' experiences using qualitative methods and to test the content validity whether their sensations are proper candidates for de qi. The items for the Acupuncture Sensation Questionnaire (ASQ) were developed through in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and expert panel judgment for content validity. Descriptions of sensations were collected and categorized according to the three stages of acupuncture: insertion, manipulation, and retention of the needle. Those expressions chosen after review by a focus group were tested for the content validity by 10 expert panel judges. The content validity index (CVI) on each item was calculated, and the items that showed over 0.8 of CVI, representing 80% of consent by experts, were constituted for the ASQ. Sixty-one (61) in-depth interviews from 48 patients in the acupuncture clinic were analyzed. Thirty-three (33) expressions for the needle insertion, 59 for the manipulation, and 29 for the retention were collected. After the discussion by a focus group, the expressions were consolidated into 57 items (15 for insertion, 26 for manipulation, and 16 for retention) and they were tested for the content validity. In the final version, 19 items (3, 9, and 7, respectively) were listed. The items were found to be reflecting real-life experiences and expanded from the traditional acupuncture sensations. The newly developed ASQ incorporated real acupuncture experiences and has sufficient content validity for de qi.
Fleming, Kimberly A; Bartholow, Bruce D; Hilgard, Joseph; McCarthy, Denis M; O'Neill, Susan E; Steinley, Douglas; Sher, Kenneth J
Variability in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol is an important risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The most commonly used retrospective self-report measure of sensitivity, the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) form, queries a limited number of alcohol effects and relies on respondents' ability to recall experiences that might have occurred in the distant past. Here, we investigated the construct validity of an alternative measure that queries a larger number of alcohol effects, the Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire (ASQ), and compared it to the SRE in predicting momentary subjective responses to an acute dose of alcohol. Healthy young adults (N = 423) completed the SRE and the ASQ and then were randomly assigned to consume either alcohol or a placebo beverage (between-subjects manipulation). Stimulation and sedation (Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale) and subjective intoxication were measured multiple times after drinking. Hierarchical linear models showed that the ASQ reliably predicted each of these outcomes following alcohol but not placebo consumption, provided unique prediction beyond that associated with differences in recent alcohol involvement, and was preferred over the SRE (in terms of model fit) in direct model comparisons of stimulation and sedation. The ASQ compared favorably with the better-known SRE in predicting increased stimulation and reduced sedation following an acute alcohol challenge. The ASQ appears to be a valid self-report measure of alcohol sensitivity and therefore holds promise for identifying individuals at-risk for AUD and related problems. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
© 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. The FeII/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AsqJ from Aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. Interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6-bicyclic scaffold of the quinolone alkaloid 4′-methoxyviridicatin. Herein, we report different crystal structures of the protein in the absence and presence of synthesized substrates, surrogates, and intermediates that mimic the various stages of the reaction cycle of this exceptional dioxygenase.
Wiley, Susan; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen
Children with sensorineural hearing loss have a high rate of additional disabilities beyond those expected by the impact of hearing loss on language and are identified later than children without hearing loss. Identifying these developmental delays and allowing earlier implementation of interventions specific to these concerns would improve care. To determine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) can identify unmet needs or unidentified developmental delays among young children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Fifty children with any degree of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, 6months to 36months of age recruited from a tertiary referral center and regional early intervention programs for children who are deaf/hard of hearing. The ASQ and comprehensive developmental evaluations with the Revised Gesell Developmental Schedules. Sensitivities and specificities of the ASQ were calculated. While 32% of our population had a developmental delay outside the domain of communication, the ASQ had poor sensitivity on the overall score without the communication domain as well as for fine motor, cognitive, personal-social domains. It had good sensitivity for the domains of communication and gross motor skills and good specificity (ranging 83-85%) on specific domains as well as for the overall score (70%). The ASQ does not provide an effective mean for identifying additional developmental concerns in young children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Further studies are needed to determine how to identify additional disabilities in a timely manner among young children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Mark, Lonneke B; van Wonderen, Karina E; Mohrs, Jacob; Bindels, Patrick Je; Puhan, Milo A; Ter Riet, Gerben
In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study's validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research is scarce. To study the impact of two strategies to enhance completeness and efficiency in observational cohort studies with follow-up durations of around 2 years. METHOD AND INTERVENTION: In a factorial design, 771 children between 2 and 5 years old and their parents participating in a prospective cohort study were randomized to three intervention groups and a control group. Three types of lotteries were run: (i) daytrip tickets for the whole family to a popular amusement park if they returned all postal questionnaires, (ii) €12.50-worth gift vouchers for sending back the questionnaire on time after each questionnaire round and (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). Primary outcome was the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires without any reminder. Secondary outcomes were '100% returned with or without reminder', 'probability of 100% non-response', 'probability of withdrawal', 'proportion of returned questionnaires' and 'overall number of reminders sent'. After testing for interaction between the two lottery interventions, the two trials were analysed separately. We calculated risk differences (RD) and numbers needed to "treat" and their 95% confidence intervals. Daytrip nor voucher intervention had an effect on the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires (RD -0.01; 95% CI-0.07 - 0.06) and (RD 0.02; 95% CI-0.50 - 0.08), respectively. No effects were found on the secondary outcomes. Our findings do not support the idea that lottery-style incentives lead to more complete response to postal questionnaires in observational cohort studies with repeated data collection and follow-up durations of around 2 years.
Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad
The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…
Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.
Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…
Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).
Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.
Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…
Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Background In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study’s validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research is scarce. Objectives To study the impact of two strategies to enhance completeness and efficiency in observational cohort studies with follow-up durations of around 2 years. Method and intervention In a factorial design, 771 children between 2 and 5 years old and their parents participating in a prospective cohort study were randomized to three intervention groups and a control group. Three types of lotteries were run: (i) daytrip tickets for the whole family to a popular amusement park if they returned all postal questionnaires, (ii) €12.50-worth gift vouchers for sending back the questionnaire on time after each questionnaire round and (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires without any reminder. Secondary outcomes were ‘100% returned with or without reminder’, ‘probability of 100% non-response’, ‘probability of withdrawal’, ‘proportion of returned questionnaires’ and ‘overall number of reminders sent’. Statistical analysis After testing for interaction between the two lottery interventions, the two trials were analysed separately. We calculated risk differences (RD) and numbers needed to “treat” and their 95% confidence intervals. Results Daytrip nor voucher intervention had an effect on the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires (RD −0.01; 95% CI-0.07 – 0.06) and (RD 0.02; 95% CI-0.50 – 0.08), respectively. No effects were found on the secondary outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the idea that lottery-style incentives lead to more complete response to postal questionnaires in observational cohort studies
Rassool, Goolam Hussein; Rawaf, Salman
To determine the predominant learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students. A demographic questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's (2000a) learning styles questionnaire were administered to a purposive sample of 136 students. A response rate of 81% (110) was obtained. The results are congruent with U.K. studies, which show that the reflector is the preferred learning style of undergraduate nursing students. A 'dual' learning style category was also identified. A mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students has been found to have serious consequences. A variety of modes of teaching and learning should be used to meet the learning needs of students.
... to measure nurses' perception for management styles in their work unit. The questionnaire consists of 16 items classified into four parts called systems, which are exploitative/authoritative management style, benevolent/authoritative management style, consultative management style, and participative management style.
Rana Rashid Rehman
Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR
Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?
Full Text Available Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265. Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale’s use in younger populations are also discussed.
Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11–19 years at high (n = 192) and low risk (n = 109) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three factor structure with highly correlated subscales of Disclosure Concerns, Negative Self Image, and Concern with Public Attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two-weeks (n = 45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem and emotional symptoms and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. PMID:20580842
Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.
Versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire (DSQ-40 para avaliação dos mecanismos de defesa: um estudo preliminar Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 for defense mechanisms measure: a preliminary study
Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é o de descrever o processo de tradução e adaptação do Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 versão em português e avaliar a validade de conteúdo dessa versão do instrumento. MÉTODOS: A primeira versão da escala foi apresentada para cinco indivíduos, com graus diferentes de escolaridade, que efetuaram pequenos ajustes de linguagem. Posteriormente, a escala foi apresentada para três "experts", que avaliaram a validade de conteúdo do instrumento. A versão final foi retraduzida e apresentada para o autor do instrumento original que aceitou essa versão do DSQ-40. RESULTADOS: Houve necessidade de pequenos ajustes no vocabulário em nove questões e modificações na linguagem em quatro questões, resultando na versão final do instrumento. A média de correlação dos "experts" com cada defesa foi de 89%, e dos fatores maduros, imaturos e neuróticos foi de 100%. CONCLUSÕES: A adaptação do DSQ-40 por diferentes indivíduos com diferentes graus de escolaridade e pelo grupo de experts possibilitou o ajuste à realidade sociocultural brasileira.The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 into Brazilian-Portuguese version. The instrument has also contended validation evaluation. METHODS: The first version of the scale was presented to five individuals with different schooling for language adaptation. Afterwards the instrument was presented to three experts that evaluated its content validation. The final version was back-translated and accepted by the original author. RESULTS: Vocabulary adjustments were needed in 9 items and language adaptation in 4 items in order to render the final DSQ-40 Brazilian-Portuguese version. The mean of experts' correlation to each defense was 89%, being 100% to mature, neurotic and immature factors. CONCLUSION: The adaptation of DSQ-40 by different individuals and the group of experts enabled the necessary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based samples have previously published performance on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, a recommended screening tool to detect infant developmental delay. The aim of the study was to investigate performance on the ASQ in a population-based sample of 6-month-old infants. Methods In this population-based questionnaire study from Oslo, Norway, the 30 item ASQ 6 month Questionnaire (N = 1053 were included, however without the pictograms, and compared to the Norwegian reference sample (N.ref (N = 169 and to US cut-off values. Exclusion criteria were maternal non-Scandinavian ethnicity, infant age 7.0 months (corrected age, twins, and birth weight Results The reported ASQ scores were lower on all but one of the 10 significantly different items, and in all areas except Personal social, compared to the N.ref sample. The estimated cut-off values for suspected developmental delay (Communication 25, Gross motor 15, Fine motor 18, Problem solving 25 and Personal social 20 were lower than the recommended American (US values in all areas, and lower than the Norwegian values in two areas. Scores indicating need for further assessment were reached by 13.8% or 20.5% of the infants (missing items scored according to the US or the Norwegian manual, and by 33.8% or 30.3% of the infants using the recommended US or the Norwegian cut-off values, in this population-based sample. The Fine motor area demonstrated a large variability depending on the different cut-off and scoring possibilities. Both among the items excluding pictograms and the items that do not have pictograms, approximately every third item differed significantly compared to the N.ref sample. Conclusion The psychomotor developmental scores were lower than in the reference samples in this study of ASQ 6 month Questionnaire; to our knowledge the first study to be both representative and comparatively large. Approximately every third child with birth weight above 2
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G
To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.
Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11-19 years at high (n=192) and low risks (n=109) for ADHD. Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three-factor structure with highly correlated subscales of disclosure concerns, negative self image, and concern with public attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two weeks (n=45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem, and emotional symptoms, and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wardle, J.; Guthrie, C. A.; Sanderson, S.; Rapoport, L.
Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from t...
Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....
Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.
Gobaw, Mekasha Kassaye
This research had three objectives: determining the level of participation of women in the academic leadership of Addis Ababa University (AAU), specifying the types of leadership styles women leaders demonstrate, and tracing the factors that led to those styles. Two key research instruments were used: questionnaires and interview. Qualitative and…
Parnrod, Urarat; Darasawang, Pornapit; Singhasiri, Wareesiri
This qualitative study aims at investigating the relationship among cognitive styles, learning strategies and task. In order to determine the dominant cognitive styles of the subjects, questionnaires designed by Kolb (2005) were distributed to 778 engineering students. From the data analysis, it was found that two cognitive…
Ward, L. Patrice
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…
Lincoln, Felicia; Rademacher, Barbara
This study investigated the learning styles of adult English as a second language (ESL) students in Northwest Arkansas. Learning style differences by age, gender, and country of origin were explored. A total of 69 northwest Arkansas adult ESL students attending 7 adult-education centers were administered the VARK Learning Styles Questionnaire.…
Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad
Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce
This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…
Howard, W. C.
The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Jones, Irma S.; Blankenship, Dianna
This study was adapted from a learning styles questionnaire in College Study Strategies (Laskey & Gibson, pp. 52-53, 1997). The authors administered the adapted questionnaire to undergraduate education and legal online students in a Southern predominately Hispanic serving institution. This study allowed the students to identify their preferred…
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.
Laeeq, Kulsoom; Weatherly, Robert A; Carrott, Alice; Pandian, Vinciya; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Kolb portrays four learning styles depending on how an individual grasps or transforms experience: accommodating, assimilating, diverging, and converging. Past studies in surgery, medicine, and anesthesia identified the predominant learning style in each of these specialties. The prevalence of different learning styles and existence of a predominant style, if any, has not been reported for otolaryngology residency programs. The purpose of our study was to determine if otolaryngology residents have a preferred learning style that is different from the predominant learning styles reported for other specialties. We conducted a survey of the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents at two residency programs. Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 was administered to 46 residents from Johns Hopkins University and Kansas University Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery programs. LSI is a widely used 12-item questionnaire, with each item followed by four options. The subjects graded the options depending on how the options applied to them. Forty-three otolaryngology residents completed the survey, with a response rate of 93.47%. The predominant learning style was converging (55.81%) followed by accommodating (18.61%), accounting for the learning styles of 74.42% of the total population. There were only 13.95% assimilating and 6.98% diverging learning styles. Two residents (4.65%) had their preference balanced across four learning styles. The predominant learning styles in otolaryngology were converging and accommodating, accounting for three fourths of the population. It would be desirable to modify our curriculum in a way that will optimize and facilitate learning.
Mehrali Hemmatinezhad; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Razavi; Farogh Fathi Kajal
The purpose of this survey is to study the change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments in the province of Ardebil. 180 heads of sports commissions answered a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). The multi-factor leadership questionnaire includes 41 questions covering three leadership styles of change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered. The validity of questionnaire has been studied and verified through the corrective feedbac...
Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.
The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Siamak Khodarahimi; Intan H.M. Hashim; Norzarina Mohd-Zaharim
The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of an adult attachment style questionnaire, to understand the relationships between the type of attachment style in relation to self-perceived...
Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian
The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude...
Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara
This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan
Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.
Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.
Wedekind, Dirk; Bandelow, Borwin; Heitmann, Soren; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Engel, Kirsten R; Huether, Gerald
Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.
Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad
Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler, Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication: emotional-improvising style, emotional-methodical style, rational-improvising style and rational-methodical style. Methods. To identify the dominant teaching style was built a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The second questionnaire was proposed for a self-evaluative kind of authority expressed in the daily professional work. To identify the dominant type of authority were updated two classifications: traditional axis authoritarian - democratic - laissez-faire and a classification inspired by John RP French and B. Raven expert authority, rewards, position and personal. In this investigation were involved 30 teachers for primary education. Findings and Results. Exists a moderate correlation between rational-improvising style and authoritarian and position styles of authority. Also, indicates significant statistical connection between rational-improviser teaching style and authoritarian, democratic and expert teacher’s authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between rational-methodical style and personal authority. The indexes of correlation indicates significant statistical link between emotional-improvisational style teaching styles and reward and expert authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between emotional-style improvisation and styles of authority laissez-faire, and his model.
Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik
Assessors are the main measurement instruments in subjective quality evaluation studies. Although the perceptual abilities and constrains are influenced by multiple demographic and psychographic factors, they are typically disregarded as a part of quality assessment. Cognitive styles refer to individual's consistent approaches to organize and represent information. Goal of this study is to explore the impact of cognitive styles on visual quality requirements. The data collection is conducted using the Style of Processing (SOP) questionnaire in three video quality experiments with a total of 72 participants. All participants were categorized into four groups according to sensorial preferences in information processing (visual, verbal, bimodal - high processing, and bimodal - low processing). The experiments were conducted in controlled circumstances when varying depth in video quality with several content types on the mobile device. The results show variation in quality requirements between these groups. Finally, these results also indicate that sensorial processing styles are essential to explore for sample characterization in quality evaluation experiments and for exploring more user-aware quality adjustments in future services and products.
Eckstein, Daniel; Goldman, Alan
Effective communication is a cornerstone of marital happiness. The Couples' Gender-Based Communication Questionnaire is presented as a method for identifying male-female different communication styles. Suggests that once people realize that their partners have different conversational styles, they are inclined to accept difference without blaming…
Chayata Viriya; Sutthirak Sapsirin
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. The study used the perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) to investigate the learning style preferences and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 designed by Oxford (1990) to find the learning strategy preferences of first year University students at the faculty of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Thailand....
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi; Jalil Makarem
Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was s...
Chernyshkova Elena Vyacheslavovna; Rodionova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna; Mukhina Marina Yurievna; Veretelnikova Yulia Yakovlevna; Chernyshkov Danila Vsevolodovich
The article presents the analysis of the results of elderly people’s (aged 55–65) questionnaires concerning the basic precepts of healthy life style for activity prolongation (N = 180). It has been established that the basic principles of healthy life style include regular moderate physical loads, a rational diet, giving up bad habits. Healthy life style popularization may become a promising measure to increase activity motivation of elderly people.
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W
Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.
Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kosslyn, Stephen; Shephard, Jennifer
.... Specifically, scores on spatial and object imagery tasks, along with a visualizer-verbalizer cognitive style questionnaire, identified a group of visualizers who scored poorly on spatial imagery...
Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica
In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.
Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...
The aim of this study was to examine students' and teachers' attitudes toward disciplinary styles and to compare the views of the participants from Nigeria and England. Two hundred and eighty five (285) students and 41 teachers from high schools completed the disciplinary styles questionnaires which contained ...
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
collection were Marital Adjustment Scale and Parenting Styles Questionnaire which were validated by four experts in Psychology, ... positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary .... manner in which parents raise their children. Parenting is a ...
Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.
The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…
Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…
Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.
Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying
Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…
This study examined the extent to which dimensions of parenting style influence identity formation among the youths in a changing society such as Nigeria. 345 youths (15-24 year olds) who were randomly selected completed the questionnaire which measured parenting style and identity formation. 2x2x2 Analysis of ...
Titus, Thomas G.; And Others
Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…
Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury
The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.
current managerial competencies, transactional and transformational leadership styles; and • managerial competencies and selected biographical variables. Data was collected using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using Statistica V.8. Sample T-testing, Cross Tabulations (Chi Square) and ...
Lawden, M. D.
This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.
David Álvarez-García; Trinidad García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo,; Alejandra Dobarro; Ángela Antúnez
Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...
M Behnam Moghadam
Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.
Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool
Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.
Smith Staley, Charlesetta
This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…
Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati
The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…
van Dillen, S M E; Hiddink, G J; Koelen, M A; van Woerkum, C M J
To assess the nutrition communication styles of Dutch family doctors and in particular to assess its psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. A cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 600 Dutch family doctors completed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted in October and November 2004 in the Netherlands. A total of 267 family doctors completed the questionnaire (response rate 45%). Principal component factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed to construct factors. Cronbach's alpha was used as an index of reliability. Our hypothetical model for nutrition communication style was tested using multiple regression analysis, combining the forward and backward procedures under the condition of the same results. Many family doctors felt at ease with a motivational nutrition communication style. The main predictor for motivational nutrition communication style was task perception of prevention (26%). Some individual and environmental correlates had an additional influence (explained variance 49%). Other styles showed explained variances up to 57%. The motivational style was the best predictor for actual nutrition communication behaviour (35%), while the confrontational style was the best predictor for actual nutrition communication behaviour towards overweight (34%). In contemporary busy practice, family doctors seem to rely on their predominant nutrition communication style to deal with standard situations efficiently: for the majority, this proved to be the motivational nutrition communication style. Moreover, family doctors used a combination of styles. This study suggests that family doctors behave like chameleons, by adapting their style to the specific circumstances, like context, time and patient. If family doctors communicate about nutrition in general, they select any of the five nutrition communication styles. If they communicate about overweight, they pick either the confrontational or motivational style.
Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade
.... The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale...
Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Beck, Susan L; Amos, Linda K
To examine nursing faculty job satisfaction and their perceptions of nursing deans' and directors' leadership styles, and to explore how the perceptions of leadership styles relate to faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan. Descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. The sample was recruited from 18 nursing programs, and 286 questionnaires were returned. Faculty perceived that Taiwan's nursing deans and directors showed more transformational than transactional leadership. Taiwan's nursing faculty were moderately satisfied in their jobs, and they were more satisfied with deans or directors who practiced the transactional leadership style of contingent reward and the transformational style of individualized consideration. A style with negative effect was passive management by exception. Three types of leadership behaviors explained significant variance (21.2%) in faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan, indicating the need for further attention to training and development for effective leadership behaviors.
Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.
Merrill, Katreena Collette
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nurse manager (NM) leadership style and safety climate. Nursing leaders are needed who will change the environment and increase patient safety. Hospital NMs are positioned to impact day-to-day operations. Therefore, it is essential to inform nurse executives regarding the impact of leadership style on patient safety. A descriptive correlational study was conducted in 41 nursing departments across 9 hospitals. The hospital unit safety climate survey and multifactorial leadership questionnaire were completed by 466 staff nurses. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to determine how well leadership style predicted safety climate. Transformational leadership style was demonstrated as a positive contributor to safety climate, whereas laissez-faire leadership style was shown to negatively contribute to unit socialization and a culture of blame. Nursing leaders must concentrate on developing transformational leadership skills while also diminishing negative leadership styles.
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Full Text Available The paper seeks to offer a contribution to the extent literature on the role of managers’ personality characteristics over management styles and decision-making styles. We have prepared a questionnaire which consists of Girgin’s (2007 personality scale adaptation from Goldberg (1992, Kurban’s (2015 decision-making scale adopted from Scott and Bruce (1995, and Yıldızhan’s (2012 management style scale. The questionnaire is conducted among managers and employees in various sectors in Istanbul via the single random sampling method. Frequency analysis is applied to descriptive findings. In order to determine reliability and validity of the scales, reliability and factor analysis are performed. We have focused on investigating the impact of managers’ personality traits on management styles and decision-making styles by applying the Multivariate Regression Model and Correlation Analysis. The result of the factor analysis revealed that the three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness of big-five personality traits have a significant effect on some dimensions of managers’ decision making and management styles.
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela
Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967 and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004. The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333 of seventh, eighth and ninth grade students in Slovenia show a three dimensional structure of the questionnaire: (a authoritative parental style and autonomy, (b authoritarian parental style and (c rewarding. Questionnaires' reliability in terms of internal consistency (,72 > α < ,95 as well as sensitivity (average r = ,67 proved to be sufficient. Our results show significant gender differences in perceived authoritative parental style and autonomy as well as low association between school grades and the perceived relationship.
Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia
This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...
Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.
This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…
Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.
This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…
Schroeder, David H.
This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…
Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...
Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others
Examined group leadership style using self-report questionnaire of experienced group leaders (N=204) in effort to build on work of Lieberman, Yalom, and Miles (1973). Found no support for factor structure previously reported by Lieberman et al. Results suggest that group leader questionnaire with modifications can tie leader behavior to outcome.…
Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…
Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.
Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H.…
M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)
textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV
Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda
Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently published questionnaire and to establish normative data. The Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability) (ASQ-ID: Cuskelly & Bryde, 2004) was modified slightly and questions about hypothesised stereotypical views of sexuality were added. A community sample of 261 adults completed this modified questionnaire, as well as a shorter version of the questionnaire about attitudes to sexual expression in typically developing adults. Factor analysis revealed one general factor associated with sexual rights, plus three other factors related to parenting, non-reproductive sexual behaviour, and self-control. There were few differences in attitudes towards male and female sexuality, and attitudes were only slightly less positive for individuals with an ID than for those without a disability. Views about parenting by people with an ID were more cautious than for other aspects of sexuality. The present study established the factor structure of an instrument for measuring attitudes towards the sexual expression of adults with an ID and provided normative data. Community attitudes towards the sexual rights of adults with an ID are generally quite positive.
Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the ﬁeld of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classiﬁcation of architectural styles from facade images. Our classiﬁer ﬁrst identiﬁes the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classiﬁer to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.
Perveen, Shagufta; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; ur Rehman, Atiq
Depression is one of the major problems faced by medical students, which have significant adverse effects on their social, academic and occupational functioning. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of depression and to explore the gender differences and interrelationship between the depression and negative cognitive style among medical students of First year (FY) Last year (LY) MBBS. A Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in Ayub medical college Abbottabad; Khyber medical college Peshawar; Bannu medical college; Rawalpindi medical college; Punjab medical college Faisalabad and Allama Iqbal medical college Lahore, Pakistan. Applying stratified sampling technique a battery of questionnaires naming depression screening test, self-report depression scale and cognitive style questionnaire was filed by a sample of 1000 (first and last year) medical students. The data was analysed by SPSS 16. Positive relationship exists between depression and negative cognitive style (r = .57, p < .05) among medical students. Forty one percent male and 61% female students of FY and 58% males and 69% female of LY students exhibited depressive symptoms. Females have higher scores on cognitive style questionnaire t (998) = 3.70, p < .05, and depression t (998) = 4.28, p < .05. The t-test analysis also revealed that FY students were holding more negative cognitive style t (998) = 6.21, p < .05, whereas LY medical students to be more depressed t (998) = 5.43, p < .05. The study revealed significant distress among medical students. Negative cognitive style positively correlates with depression among medical students. Furthermore, it is noticed that among female students the prevalence of depressive symptoms and negative cognitive style was higher. Moreover, it is concluded that the prevalence of depression in LY and negative cognitive styles among FY was higher respectively. Students should be provided proper counselling to avoid and cope with faulty
Abstract Aim. This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. Method/material. In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1–5). Results. Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Conclusion. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees’ attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership
Hana, Jan; Kirkhaug, Rudi
This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. METHOD/MATERIAL: In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1-5). Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees' attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership training for general practice.
Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang
.... Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style...
Hui Liu; Fei-xue Wang; Xiao-yang Yang
.... Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style...
Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland
to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...
Aye Aye Mon
Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.
The study compared the SMTs (School Management Teams) and teachers' perceptions of preferred leadership styles in some selected schools in Botswana. SMTs and teachers completed a questionnaire adopted from the leadership styles questionnaires. The findings of the study pointed to an overwhelming view that the preferred style of leadership is the…
Adesunloye, Bamidele A; Aladesanmi, Oluranti; Henriques-Forsythe, Marshaleen; Ivonye, Chinedu
To determine the preferred learning style, as defined by David Kolb, and predictors of the different learning styles among residents and faculty members at an internal medicine residency program. A cross sectional study of internal medicine residents and faculty members at Morehouse School of Medicine was performed using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) version 3.1. The Kolb LSI is a questionnaire of 12 sentences, each with four phrases for sentence completion that are to be ranked according to how they apply to the subject. Forty-two out of 59 questionnaires that were given out to residents and attending physicians were properly completed and returned. Assimilating style was the predominant learning style among residents (42%) and attending physicians (55%). There was no significant association between age, gender or medical education status, and learning styles. The understanding of residents' learning styles may facilitate instructional rapport between residents and attending physicians, thereby improving residents' academic performance.
Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya
Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter
This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo
Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked
Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara
This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…
Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A
To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili
Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.
García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez
This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Based on the results, two relationships proposed by the SLT (Situational Leadership Theory) were verified: between coercive power and S1 leadership style (telling), and between referent power and S3 leadership style (participating). In other cases, results have been opposite to expectations: the use of power proposed by the model decreases the probability of performing the prescribed leadership style.
Gellerman, Saul W.
Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)
Full Text Available The problem discussed in this article concerns the relationship between hope and action styles in adolescents. An action style is a way in which man perceives and responds to the outside world, and it may be aimed at securing oneself or interacting with the surroundings. The main aim of this analysis was to find out if, and to what degree, the level of hope is connected with action styles. The following hypotheses are proposed: H – 1. There is a relationship between hope and an action style. H- 2. Persons with different types of hope are characterised by different styles of action. H – 3. Persons with a high level of hope have a cooperation -oriented style. H – 4. Persons with a low level of hope are often characterised by a style aimed at protecting themselves. 149 persons aged 17 – 18 participated in the study. The following methods were used: the Basic Hope Inventory (BHI-12 – compiled by Trzebiński and M. Zięba, the Hope for Success Questionnaire (KNS – adaptation of C. R. Snyder’s questionnaire made by M. Łaguna, J. Trzebiński and M. Zięba, as well as the Action Styles Questionnaire by Z. Uchnast . The results obtained have allowed the researchers to form the opinion that hope helps individuals function better in the world. The way in which a person perceives the world and their own capabilities translates into the style of action which they choose. A person who is full of hope seeks self -actualisation as well as cooperation with others.
Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi
Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students
Navarro, Claudia Patricia
These papers sample the attribution style of children of 9 to 12 years as opposed to the social interactions in the class classroom. The Questionnaire of Social Interactions in the Classroom was designed and valued, and soon it is applied to 371 participants in 35 schools. A style of attribution in its dimensions predominates internal, stable and controllable, with tendency of social motivational dominion. Significant difference between the nature of the school (public vs. private) and intern...
García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez
This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses we...
Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Jolliffe, Laura
Background: Occupational therapy graduates are expected to assume leadership roles in a variety of contexts and capacities. Objective: To investigate the leadership styles of undergraduate occupational therapy students. Methods: First, second, third, and fourth year undergraduate occupational therapy students from one Australian university were asked to complete the What’s My Leadership Style (WMLS) questionnaire. Results: The total sample response rate was 86.3% (n = 182/211). Overa...
Braakhuis, Andrea Jane
Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalise and process information. Athlete educators, such as coaches and sports medical staff, rarely consider the learning style of an prior to education. This study aims to characterise a range of athletes with regards to their learning style, to increase awareness and conversation about athletes as learners. Athletes (n=93; 44 males, 49 females), age 24 ±8 yrs, completed the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic) questionnair...
Henze, Mary Vance
This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…
Full Text Available Every student certainly demonstrates different achievement in her/his Chinese language learning process because every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, student’s individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students’ learning styles. This study was based on Reid’s learning styles theory and also uses Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate student’s learning styles. The main finding of this study is that student’s learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.
LaForge, Mary C; Cantrell, Stephen
Explanatory style, a cognitive variable, reflects how people typically explain the causes of bad events involving themselves. Explanatory style emerged from the attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness and depression model as a way of explaining individual differences in response to uncontrollability. A central prediction of the reformulation is that people with habitual explanatory tendencies differ, and individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style will be more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms following bad events than individuals with an optimistic explanatory style. 116 upper-level undergraduates beginning a degree program at this university completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Scores were correlated with students' cumulative grade point averages and their total points earned in Consumer Behavior, the first course required in the Marketing major. Students with pessimistic explanatory style scores outperformed colleagues with optimistic explanatory style scores. Implications of these findings and possible explanations for why explanatory style did not correlate in the theoretically predicted way with academic achievement are considered.
Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan
The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.
This study aimed to examine the direct and significant affect of leadership style to learning organization, leadership style to employee's satisfaction, learning organization to firm's performance, employee's satisfaction to firm's performance, leadership style to firm's performance, and learning organization to employee's satisfaction on manufacturing companies in Surabaya. This study used quantitative approach and the data were obtained through the distribution of questionnaire to manufactu...
Paiva, Fernando Santana; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota
This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Maternal, but not paternal, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles were directly related to adolescent alcohol intake. The style that mothers use to interact with their children may influence uptake of high-risk behaviors.
Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita
Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was sent to each student. The enthusiasm, anxiety, and overall attitude toward computer were compared among the different learning styles. Results: The response rate to the questionnaire was 91.8%. The distribution of learning styles in the students was 181 (49.3% visual, 106 (28.9% auditory, 27 (7.4% tactual, and 53 (14.4% overall. Visual learners were less anxious for computer use and showed more positive attitude toward computer. Sex, age, and academic grade were not associated with students’ attitude toward computer. Conclusions: The learning style is an important factor in the students’ attitude toward computer among medical students, which should be considered in planning computer-based learning programs. Keywords: LEARNING STYLE, ATTITUDE, COMPUTER, MEDICAL STUDENT, ANXIETY, ENTHUSIASM
Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS
Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.
Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat
The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated curriculum models. The study instruments were Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and a questionnaire describing the students' demographic characteristics. Sample selection was not done, and all first-year students (n = 547) were targeted. This study was designed in two phases. In the first year, the study instruments were delivered to the target group. The next year, the same instruments were delivered again to those who had fully completed the first questionnaire (n = 525). Of these, 455 students had completed the instruments truly and constituted the study group. The majority of the students were assimilators and convergers in both the first and second years. A change in learning style was observed between 2 yr in 46.9% of the students in the integrated curriculum, in 49.3% of the students in the hybrid curriculum, and 56.4% of the students in the PBL curriculum. The least and most changes observed between the learning style groups were in assimilators and divergers, respectively. Curriculum models and other independent variables had no significant effect on the change between learning styles. The learning styles of medical students may change over time. Further followup studies in larger groups are needed to clarify this relation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between humour styles and shyness. The sample consisted of 640 (330female; 310 male university students. Humour styles and shyness levels of these students were measured by the use of theHumour Styles Questionnaire, and Shyness Scale respectively. To analyze the data, regression analysis and correlation analysiswere employed. A significant effect of humour styles on shyness was detected. All humour styles (affiliative, self-enhancing,aggressive, and self-defeating were found to be significantly correlated to shyness.
Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.
The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…
SASI, DIYAH APRITA
Keywords: Learning Style, VAK Learning Style Model, VAK Learning Style SelfAssessment QuestionnaireLanguage is one of communication device which is used to deliver feeling message, or opinion within society. In learning language, many people are not aware of their own way in learning. Whereas, knowing the style of learning is useful which also influences the learning outcome. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate learning style used by the students and its correlation on the stude...
There are many possibilities of the division of the managing styles. In theory one can distinguish two basic styles: directive and integrative. Generalisations describing both styles result in the fact that they do not reflect reality taking place at work. Because of it they cannot be applied in such a form. Therefore, it is necessary to build up the theoretical concept of the managing styles through decreasing their generality and adjusting them to the reality requirements at the same time. For the reality of management Reddin concept seems to be useful. It describes the organizational behaviour of managers. He noticed that the managing style is effective when it fits into the manager's situation whereas it is ineffective in such a situation, when the manager cannot select and adjust the managing techniques to the circumstances of the concrete decision-taking situation. Putting together 3 handling ways: orientation on assignments, orientation on staff, effectiveness, 8 managing can be differentiated. The aim of the paper was an attempt to check what managing styles are used by the nursing management staff working in hospitals. To determine the managing style a questionnaire consisting of 64 statements divided into 8 groups was applied. The examined persons were assigned to distribute 10 points among the statements belonging to each group of tasks which are supposed to specify their solution in the best way. The nursing management staff prefer the styles belonging to the more effective one in which there is a high orientation on staff.
Full Text Available Understanding the learning styles of the students is very crucial in implementing student-centered learning (SCL. The objectives of this research are to describe: 1 the general learning styles profile of the students of English Education Department Universitas Muria Kudus; 2 the dependency relationship between learning styles dimensions and gender, and 3 the dependency relationship between subject preference and learning styles dimensions. This research uses 208 students from different semesters as the samples, while the instrument is the Indonesian translation of Solomon-Felder Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire. The result of the analysis reveals that: 1 the general learning style profile of the students is balanced; 2 at ? .05, there is no significant relationship between the probability of the students of having certain learning styles dimensions and gender; 3 at ? .05, the subject preference of the students who are SensingIntuitive and Visual Verbal depends on their learning styles dimensions, while that of those who are Active Reflective and Sequential Global does not.
Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Etherington, Jamie
It has been identified that health science students, and in particular undergraduate nutrition and dietetics (N&D) students, have distinctive learning needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning styles of undergraduate N&D students enrolled at a large Australian university. An awareness of the learning styles of undergraduate N&D students will assist university educators in providing appropriate learning opportunities and developing curricula to equip N&D graduates with the essential skills they need to work effectively in the modern practice environment. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (K-LSI), Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and Success Types Learning Style Type Indicator (STLSTI) were distributed to 162 students enrolled in a Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics program at one metropolitan university. One hundred twenty-nine questionnaires were returned, providing a response rate of 79.6%. The K-LSI showed that students were inclined toward converging (practical) and assimilating (reasoning) learning styles while the ILS identified the students as intuitive (innovative). The STLSTI results indicated an intraverted, sensing, feeling, judging approach to learning. It is recommended N&D educators take into consideration the learning styles of dietetics students when developing curricula and evaluating teaching approaches. Analysis of learning styles can inform the planning, implementation, and assessment of teaching and learning activities to create effective learning environments, appropriate learning opportunities, and a contemporary curriculum for N&D students.
Soner Cakmak; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Ali Tasdemir; Mahmut Onur Karaytug
Purpose: Self-esteem and humor styles are significant factors for being a healthy person. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation ship between self-esteem and humor styles in medical students. Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females) were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high ...
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Darwis, Tommy K; Djajadiningrat, Surna Tjahja
This study explores relationship between leadership styles and organizational culture in an oil and Gas Company in Indonesia. The respondents are employees of an oil and Gas Company in Indonesia. This study use Multifactor leadership questionnaires to define leadership styles and Denison's Organizational Culture Model to measure Organizational Culture. These questionnaires were used to measure leadership styles of immediate or direct supervisor and organizational culture ...
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
Herwijnen, Ineke R van; van der Borg, Joanne A M; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne
Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining
Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S
In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that there is a high expectation for chronic disability following a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for rheumatoid arthritis in disease-naïve subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and did not know a person with RA were given a vignette concerning a new onset diagnosis of RA and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviours indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectations regarding daily functioning according to the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for RA. The mean active coping style score for RA was 27.3 ± 4.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 26.2 ± 7.0 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score (higher HAQ score) of disability from rheumatoid arthritis. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.48, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.34. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of RA patients. Further studies of coping styles and expectations in RA are required.
Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda
With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E
The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.
Di Sabato, Francesco; Buonfiglio, Marzia; Mandillo, Silvia
Despite great advances in pathophysiological facets of migraine that have been made during recent years, as of today, migraine etiology is still not completely understood; moreover, to date the relationship between psychological factors and this primary headache must be further elucidated. However, abnormal information processing, as measured by evoked and event-related potentials, has been considered a key feature in migraine pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the relationships between analytic/global style of information processing and migraine, hypothesizing an analytic style, as highlighted by our previous study on cluster headache. This study applied three cognitive style tests never previously used in the context of migraine: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and Brain-Dominance Questionnaire. 280 migraneurs with and without aura were tested and matched with two control groups: healthy subjects and tension-type headache patients. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between analytic information processing style and migraine, indicating a preference toward a visual sensory approach in migraine without aura, in line with known neuroelectrophysiological data. These findings may suggest a role for this specific cognitive behavior in migraine pathogenesis, leading us to further investigate the neuroelectrophysiological, neurobiological, and epigenetic correlates.
Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães
Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations. Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.
Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie
Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.
Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik
We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....
Cuddy, Claudia M
Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background After a survey of medical graduates' skills found a lack of confidence in developmental assessment, a program was introduced with the broad aims of increasing medical student confidence and respect for the parents' role in childhood developmental assessment. Research has shown that parents' concerns are as accurate as quality screening tests in assessing development, so the program utilised the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, a parent completed, child development assessment tool. Method To evaluate the program, an interpretative analysis was completed on the students' reports written during the program and a questionnaire was administered to the parents to gain their perception of the experience. As well, student confidence levels in assessing growth and development were measured at the end of the paediatric term. Results Although there was an increase in student confidence in developmental assessment at the end of the term, it was not statistically significant. However the findings indicated that students gained increased understanding of the process and enhanced recognition of the parental role, and the study suggested there was increased confidence in some students. Parents indicated that they thought they should be involved in the teaching of students. Conclusion The ASQ was shown to have been useful in an education program at the level of advanced beginners in developmental assessment.
Accreditation for Management System Certification Bodies that certify to: ISO 9001 (QMS), ISO 14001 (EMS), TS 16949 (US Automotive) etc...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Laboratories – ISO /IEC 17025 Inspection...Bodies – ISO /IEC 17020 RMPs – ISO Guide 34 (Reference Materials) PT Providers – ISO 17043 Product Certifiers – ISO Guide 65 Government
Millings, A.; Walsh, J; Hepper, E.; O'Brien, M
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving respon...
Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh
Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...
Nicolette Vanessa Roman; Thembakazi Makwakwa; Marlies Lacante
Parenting style is an area of research which is emerging in South Africa. Previous research notes significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of parenting. In a country as diverse as South Africa, which has also evolved from an era of separatism and segregation, comparing parenting styles across ethnic groups is an interesting topic. This is a comparative study using a cross-sectional design. The Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The final sa...
Chapman, Ann L N; Johnson, David; Kilner, Karen
Purpose: Clinician leadership is important in healthcare delivery and service development. The use of different leadership styles in different contexts can influence individual and organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine the predominant leadership styles used by medical leaders and factors influencing leadership style use.\\ud \\ud Design: A mixed methods approach was used, combining a questionnaire distributed electronically to 224 medical leaders in acute hosp...
Hafiz Ali Javed; Asad Abbas Jaffari; Muzahir Rahim
This research study shows the relationship of leadership styles with the job satisfaction of employees working in the private banking sector of Pakistan and also depicts which leadership style leaders have adopted most. A questionnaire with five points likert scale was used to collect data on different dimensions of leadership styles and employees? job satisfaction from 230 participants working in five selected private banks of four districts of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The results s...
Z Monjamed; A Kazemnejad; Z Parsa Yekta; F Bahramnezhad; M Zolfaghari
Introduction: Life style is an important element to prevent the cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine life style risk factors of Tehran citizens as well as to prevent cancer. Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytic research with Sample size of 2500 Tehran citizens. The study data was collected via a questionnaire that contained 2 parts: demographic and questions related to life style cancer. Its validity and reliability was determined through content validity and Alfa-Cronb...
NKEMCHO OJEH; NATASHA SOBERS-GRANNUM; UMA GAUR; ALAYA UDUPA; MD. ANWARUL AZIM MAJUMDER
Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...
Carrica, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…
Abo El Elella, Soheir S; Tawfik, Maha A M; Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa M; Barseem, Naglaa Fathy
Developmental delay is a delay in areas of speech, language, motor, social and cognitive development. Because of the negative impact of intellectual and learning disabilities, early identification of children with developmental and behavioral problems using appropriate screening tests is crucial. Utilization of parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQs) for detecting the developmental delay in preschool age children and clarification of possible associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1012 children aged 24-60 months enrolled from six centers (n=608) and six villages (n=404) located in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. All children were screened by nine age-based questionnaires in the first stage of assessment. Children whose scores were ≤ cut-off points in one or more of the screened developmental areas were considered to have suspected developmental delay (SDD) and underwent further evaluation in the second stage assessment. Among the 1012 studied children aged 24-60 months, 978 (96.4%) had normal development. SDD had an overall prevalence of 3.4%, with the highest rates of SDD in problem-solving (3%), followed by communication (2.4%), fine motor skills (2.2%) and social-personal domain (1%), with no SDD in gross motor skills. SDD was more commonly observed in boys, with a significant association with both parental education and consanguinity. Problems with learning (32.3%) was the most commonly observed provisional diagnosis, followed by language disorders (29.4%). Children with SDD in more than one area of ASQ skills also had mild to borderline IQ scores. The use of of parent-completed ASQs showed an overall prevalence of developmental delay in children aged 24-60 months of3.4%. Male gender, consanguinity and parental education were identified as risk factors for developmental delay. Family counselling about the child's developmental state is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the
Bennett, C R; Grussing, P G; Hutchinson, R A; Stewart, J E
Relationships between hospital pharmacists' perceptions of their own and their immediate supervisors' leadership styles and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units were examined. Pharmacists practicing in 12 large Chicago-area hospitals were asked to complete a four-part questionnaire that consisted of demographic questions, the LEADSelf instrument, the LEADOther instrument, and a measure of perceived work unit effectiveness. Respondents' primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and their degree of style adaptability were determined and compared with the primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and style adaptability of their immediate supervisors and with their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units. Pharmacists involved in providing clinical or drug information services and pharmacists responsible for purchasing activities perceived their work units to be most and least effective, respectively. Most respondents perceived their primary leadership style to be high task-high relationship, but only 32% perceived their immediate supervisors to exhibit this style. Pharmacists who perceived their immediate supervisors to have high relationship leadership styles (based on primary and combination style classifications) had significantly more favorable perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units than did pharmacists who perceived their supervisors to exhibit low relationship styles. Respondents' perceptions of their supervisors' style adaptability were positively and significantly correlated with their perceptions of work-unit effectiveness. Respondents who thought their supervisors' leadership styles were more adaptable than their own had the most favorable perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Shapcott, Erin J B; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Loughead, Todd M; Delaney, J Scott
Individuals with an optimistic explanatory style have generally been linked with improved mental and physical health across a variety of chronic and serious conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of explanatory style on recovery time and number of sport-related concussions suffered in the last 12 months. University varsity athletes (n=170) suffering from at least one concussion over the last 12 months from six contact or collision team sports completed both the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Sport History Questionnaire. The results indicated that athletes with an optimistic explanatory style took longer to recover than athletes with a pessimistic or average explanatory style. More specifically, optimistic athletes who suffered a complex concussion (requiring more than 7 days to recover) took significantly longer to return to play. However, the results showed that explanatory style did not influence whether an athlete suffered subsequent concussions. Overall, the current results can be used to better understand the psychology of concussions, as well as concussion prevention efforts and management strategies.
Full Text Available Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
Cox, Craig D.; Seifert, Charles F.
Objectives. To identify preceptors’ and students’ learning styles to determine how these impact students’ performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Methods. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist’s Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of “matched” and “unmatched” learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Results. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported “assimilator” as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Conclusion. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance. PMID:23049100
Robles, Janie; Cox, Craig D; Seifert, Charles F
To identify preceptors' and students' learning styles to determine how these impact students' performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist's Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of "matched" and "unmatched" learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported "assimilator" as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance.
Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie
Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.
Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.
Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.
Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)
This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design. An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...
Berzonsky, M D
This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.
Turkle, Sherry; Papert, Seymour
Case studies of elementary school and college students are used to examine the different styles of approach taken to computer programing. Introduces the term "bricoleur" to describe programers who do not take a structured approach to programing. Discusses gender differences among programers. (MDH)
Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren
Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...
Huitema, Dave; Van Snellenberg, Ton
Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is
Huitema, D.; van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.
Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is
Glenn, E. S.; And Others
Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…
Bonnici, Charles A.
Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…
Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…
Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)
Camelia M. Cmeciu
Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.
An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...
Krypel, Michelle N.; Henderson-King, Donna
We explored the meanings that undergraduate students make of their education and how these meanings relate to students' perceived stress, styles of coping with stress, and optimism. Participants completed a meaning of education questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the COPE (a measure of coping styles), and the Life Orientation Test-Revised.…
Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline
This study examined whether attributional style for negative events plays a mediating or moderating role in the association between victimisation by bullying and psychological distress in young adults. A total of 127 undergraduate students completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire, a newly developed Victimisation and Bullying Inventory and…
Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany
Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…
Bateh, Justin; Heyliger, Wilton
This article examines the impact of three leadership styles as a predictor of job satisfaction in a state university system. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was used to identify the leadership style of an administrator as perceived by faculty members. Spector's Job Satisfaction Survey was used to assess a faculty member's level of job…
Gurley, Kathy; Wilson, Dawn
This study looked at the use of a business simulation that focused on improving the leadership skills of students in an MBA class at an HBCU in North Carolina. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire that identified their dominant leadership style. The study then compared the students who had an affiliative style of management against…
This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…
Adubale, Andrew A.
The study investigates parenting styles as predictors of anxiety and depression in secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design. Two hundred and forty students constituted the sample for the study. Parenting Style Scale questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Linear regression was used to…
Soliman, Abdulla M.; Torrance, E. Paul
Responses to a questionnaire indicated that Japanese college students (N=200) scored highest on the right hemisphere scale, preferring intuitive and creative learning styles, while Kuwaiti students (N=400) scored highest on the left hemisphere scale, preferring planning and precision styles. American students (N=200) scored highest on an…
Mahasneh, Ahmad M.
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi
This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…
Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.
AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using
Kitamura, Toshinori; Shikai, Noriko; Uji, Masayo; Hiramura, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Nao; Shono, Masahiro
In order to examine the relationships between parenting styles and personality traits over generations, a cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted for fathers and mothers of school-age children of grades 5-9. The parenting styles measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the personality traits measured by the Temperament and…
Workman, Michael; Kahnweiler, William; Bommer, William
Sternberg's Thinking Style Inventory and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were completed by 261 of 552 teleworkers in virtual teams. Cognitive styles and types of media (rich/lean) were associated with commitment to telework and to the team. Results have implications for staff development and the design of telework. (Contains 74…
Sun, Peijian Paul; Teng, Lin Sophie
This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor…
Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.
This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately
Noble, Betty Scott
This study examined the relationship between children's understanding of their parents' divorce, attribution style, and classroom behavior. Fifty fourth and fifth grade children of divorce completed questionnaires concerning their understanding of divorce and attribution style, while teachers completed a rating of classroom behavior. Measures of…
Hofstra, J; van Oudenhoven, JP; Buunk, BP; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
The present study examined the relationship between attachment styles and majority members' attitudes towards adaptation strategies of immigrants. A second purpose was to determine the construct validity and the stability of the Attachment Styles Questionnaire. A group of 177 first-year psychology
Haagen, C. Hess
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…
Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…
Warrick, D. D.
Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…
Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.
Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…
Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.
Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Karen Cristina Kades Andrigue
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze Situational Leadership styles adopted by hospital nurses and their association with their personal and professional profile. This is a quantitative and descriptive study and the Hersey and Blanchard leadership model was used with nurses who work in hospitals. Data were collected through sociodemographic questionnaire and the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description. The more directive leadership style focused on persuasion was the most present. The activity sector showed a significant relation to the leadership style (p=00.1, demonstrating approximation between assistance and leadership profile. Although the population is composed of young group with a short time of performance, the predominance of the Coaching leadership style may limit the creativity and potential of team members for the focus to be focused on the task. Strategies to achieve high levels of maturity, can assist nurses in adopting more flexible leadership practices.
González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F
The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.
Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li
Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the sport orientation of adolescents based on their perceived patterning styles. Through a two-stage sampling method, 350 junior high school students were selected. A battery of questionnaires was applied to collect the data including parenting style questionnaire, sport orientation questionnaire, and participation motivation questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings indicated that parenting styles affect children’s sport orientation. In addition, this study shows a signifycant difference between boys and girls in sport orientation, suggesting that boys are more competitive, winning and goal oriented. Consequently, according to the results, children of authoritative parents might be more sport and success oriented than those of permissive parents. In general, the present study reveals that parenting style is a fundamental important process influencing the improvement of adolescents' sport orientation.
Sharma, Manoj Kumar
...; General Health questionnaire and family burden interview schedule. It demonstrate the addictive use of video game and its impact on users life style and the presence of psychiatric distress/family burden in the caregivers...
Goossens, P.J.J.; Wijngaarden, B. van; Knoppert-van der Klein, E.A.; Achterberg, T. van
AIMS: This study investigated the consequences caregivers of outpatients with bipolar disorder are confronted with, the distress they experience and their coping styles. METHODS: Caregivers (n = 115) were asked to complete the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) to measure caregivers'
Peters, Emmanuelle R; Moritz, Steffen; Schwannauer, Matthias; Wiseman, Zoe; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Scott, Jan; Beck, Aaron T; Donaldson, Catherine; Hagen, Roger; Ross, Kerry; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Ison, Rebecca; Williams, Sally; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa A
The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes. Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas.
Sarikcioglu, Levent; Senol, Yesim; Yildirim, Fatos B; Hizay, Arzu
The summary is the last part of the lesson but one of the most important. We aimed to study the relationship between the preference of the summary method (video demonstration, question-answer, or brief review of slides) and learning styles. A total of 131 students were included in the present study. An inventory was prepared to understand the students' learning styles, and a satisfaction questionnaire was provided to determine the summary method selection. The questionnaire and inventory were collected and analyzed. A comparison of the data revealed that the summary method with video demonstration received the highest score among all the methods tested. Additionally, there were no significant differences between learning styles and summary method with video demonstration. We suggest that such a summary method should be incorporated into neuroanatomy lessons. Since anatomy has a large amount of visual material, we think that it is ideally suited for this summary method.
Full Text Available In this work relations between quality of friendship and attachment styles among adolescents were investigated. The question of the differences, among individuals of different styles of attachment in the quality of their friendly relations, both at the individual and at the dyadic level were investigated. Also, the predictive significance of attachment when it comes to the quality of friendship, were discussed. The study included 425 subjects of both genders, first grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 17 years. Following instruments were used: Friendship Quality Questionnaire, which was created for the purposes of this study, and assesses dimensions of affection, intimacy, interaction and conflicts in friendship, and a questionnaire for assessing styles of attachment UPIPAV (Nataša Hanak.Results indicate that participants of secure and insecure attachment styles differ significantly in all dimensions of quality of friendships. Secure participants have a higher level of affection, companionship, intimacy and conflict in relation to insecure subjects. Exceptions are subjects of fearful styles of attachment who have a similar level of affection in friendship to those of secure ones. When the above differences are observed at the dyadic level, the situation is as follows: couples of friends with secure styles of attachment at all dimensions of friendship have higher scores compared to couples with insecure styles. Regression analysis showed that attachment significantly contributes to the explanation of all the dimensions of friendship. The strongest individual contribution to the explanation of all dimensions of quality friendships have secure style of attachment. The results are discussed within the attachment theory perspective.
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: To assess the nutrition communication styles of Dutch family doctors and in particular to assess its psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Design: A cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 600 Dutch family doctors completed a questionnaire. Setting: The survey
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership style and job commitment of library personnel in private universities in the Southwest, Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study. The research instrument used in the collection of data was questionnaire. In measuring the research ...
Gidman, Lori Kathleen
The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…
Abstract. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership style and job commitment of library personnel in private universities in the Southwest, Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for the study. The research instrument used in the collection of data was questionnaire. In measuring the research ...
This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar, Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire was used ...
Xie, Qing; And Others
This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…
Spooren, Pieter; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Thijssen, Peter
Structural equation modelling is used to measure the existence of a response style (in particular, acquiescence) behind three balanced Likert scales measuring different concepts in a questionnaire for student evaluation of teaching in higher education. Exploration with one sample (n = 1125) and confirmation in a second sample (n = 710) from a…
Abstract. This study focused on the effect of changes in leadership styles on organisational performance in a cement manufacturing firm in Ogun State of Nigeria. A total of 385 participants were selected for the study using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire and in-depth interview were used for data ...
He, J.; Bartram, D.; Inceoglu, I.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
In two studies, we examined the shared and unique meaning of acquiescent, extreme, midpoint, and socially desirable responding in association with the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32), a forced-choice format personality measure designed to be less affected by these response styles,
Buitenhuis, J; Spanjer, J; Fidler, [No Value
Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Victims of car accidents who initiated compensation claim procedures at a Dutch insurance company and presented themselves with neck complaints were sent a questionnaire containing neck-related questions and questions regarding the coping styles used shortly
Hossein Taran; Siavash Kalantari; Fateme Dahaghin; Zahra Shahsavari Abhari
This study aimed to investigate the relationship among parenting styles, self-efficacy, and achievement among students. This study used ex post facto research method. The population consisted of all high school students in Zanjan in academic year 2014-2015. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, 400 participants were selected as sample. The Scheffer’s parenting styles questionnaire and Scherrer’s self-efficacy questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed that there was ...
Tueros C., Rosa; Doctorado en Psicología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Matalinares C., María; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Raymundo V., Ornella; Maestría en Psicología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
This research aimed to establish the degree of relationship between interpersonal values and attributional styles of male and female students of the 5th year of secondary education. We used a descriptive correlational method, the sample consisted of 400 students, distributed in proportion to the population. The research was carried out, using the attributional style questionnaire and the Interpersonal Values Questionnaire SIV Leonard Gordon 1977. The results indicate according to the Spearman...
Habibeh Mortazanajad; Faride mostafafi; Shahram Vahedi
"n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male) aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), ...
Dariush Gholamzadeh; Azadeh Tahvildar Khazaneh; Manijeh Salimi Nabi
This paper examines the effect of leadership styles on organizational culture by testing a hypothesized model. A quantitative survey using questionnaire was conducted among 93 employees from diverse work units of Mapsa Company in October 2012. They filled out multifactor leadership questionnaire and the Denison organizational culture survey. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that Transformational and Transactional leadership styles could positively influence on organization...
Buri, J R
A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.
Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati
Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.
Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent
This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...... ties different social practices together. While organization makes the connections between social practices durable, entrepreneurship disrupts such patterns. We further elucidate how organization and entrepreneurship are two intermingled processes – those of durability and disruption – that together...
The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...
Transfer Standard URI uniform resource identifier W3C World Wide Web Consortium XML extensible markup language XSD XML schema definition XML Style...XML Overview The XML standard is a specification produced by the World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ), whose original intent was to provide a machine...15, July 2015 10 Figure 7. IHAL Use Schema Modularity and Composability 4.2 Schema Format Define the schema according to the W3C XML schema
Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...
Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.
Harkness, Janet; Schoua-Glusberg, Alicia
"Translation of questionnaires is the most frequently chosen route to implementing 'equivalent' instruments in cross-national and cross-lingual survey research. The article presents the framework of current survey translation practice: the various procedures proposed for translation and for assessment of translation products and the respective advantages or disadvantages of each. In doing so, pointers are made to research gaps in questionnaire adaptation and evaluation for cross-cultural work...
Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael
Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.
Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.
Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.
Hyunsun Catherine Yoon
Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.
Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H
To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.
Dunbar, Jennifer P; McKee, Laura; Rakow, Aaron; Watson, Kelly H; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E
Coping and negative cognitive style were studied in relation to depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression. In a sample of 165 children (ages 9-15) of depressed parents, the main and interaction effects of coping and negative cognitive style were examined in association with children's depressive symptoms measured by parent and child report on questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Negative cognitive style was related to three types of coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement). Furthermore, coping and negative cognitive style made independent contributions to depressive symptoms. Little support emerged for interactive effects on depressive symptoms. Implications for future research with this high-risk population of children are considered.
Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam
Identifying and employing students' learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students' final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual-aural-reading/writing-kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles' questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students.
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of leadership styles on organizational culture by testing a hypothesized model. A quantitative survey using questionnaire was conducted among 93 employees from diverse work units of Mapsa Company in October 2012. They filled out multifactor leadership questionnaire and the Denison organizational culture survey. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM showed that Transformational and Transactional leadership styles could positively influence on organizational culture. Laissez-fair leadership has a negative effect on organizational culture. In conclusion, transformational leadership style was recommended to balance all four traits of Denison’s organizational culture.
Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.
KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat
Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.
Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A
Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla
The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.
Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.
Robson Luiz Montanari
Full Text Available This case study aims to evaluate the influence of the style of group working in the teams’ performance in a midsize services company in Parana State. For this purpose an exploratory interview was originally performed. Then the questionnaires were applied: Working Group Style, proposed by Parker (1994 and Evaluation of a Success Team, proposed by Chang (1999. Besides the questionnaires, non-participant observations were made that intended to register items which interest the research objectives. Finally, the data analysis was carried out, making intersection with the interviews and the non-participant observations. The results identified some influences of the group working styles in the performance of teams. The different behaviors determined the degree of influence which help or not the performance of teams in this study. Two result matrices were found. The first with a relatively uniform distribution of styles, but presenting lower performance; the second showed a predominant contributor style and a higher performance of teams.
In order to make clear the life-style and mental health status in university freshman, I carried out a questionnaire for the students. This questionnaire is composed by personal profile (gender, age, school year), the lifestyle (hobby, exercise, dietary, drinking, smoking, and sleeping habits), and mental health status (GHQ: The General Health Questionnaire). The questionnaire was given to the students taking a general education class in April 2005 and 2006. The results obtained were as follo...
Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam
Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother's parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls.
Milanese, Steve; Gordon, Susan; Pellatt, Aya
This study investigated the preferred learning styles, related to clinical education of a cohort of final year physiotherapy students. A cross sectional observation study using a questionnaire survey. Undergraduate physiotherapy program at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland. 48 final year physiotherapy students representing 89% of the total cohort (48/54). Survey questionnaire using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (Version 3.1). The preferred learning styles were spread uniformly across the three learning styles of Converging, Assimilating and Accommodating, with the least preferred method of learning style the Diverging style. This suggests that in the clinical environment this student cohort are least likely to prefer to develop their learning from actually experiencing the scenario i.e. in front of a real life patient (concrete experience), and were more likely prefer this learning to come from a theoretical perspective, allowing them to consider the problem/scenario before experiencing it. When transforming this experience into knowledge, they prefer to use it on a 'real life' patient (active experimentation). Whilst understanding learning styles have been promoted as a means of improving the learning process, there remains a lack of high level evidence. The findings of this study reinforce those of other studies into the learning styles of physiotherapy students suggesting that physiotherapy students share common learning style profiles. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper shows the findings of a study conducted in three Chilean universities in 2014. It aims to analyze EFL student teachers’ preferences regarding their teaching and learning styles. 279 participants answered the teaching style inventory and 238 took the learning style questionnaire. These participants are first, third and fifth year student-teachers. This study uses Grasha and Riechman’s model to study teaching and learning styles. These authors propose a classification, cluster grouping and integrated clustering (Lewis, 2014; Grasha y Riechmann, 1975. The findings reveal that all student teachers favor the Facilitator teaching style and the Collaborative learning style.
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the role of mathematical thinking styles in students' achievement in mathematics. On the basis of this study, it is also to generate recommendation for classroom instruction. The two specific aims are; first to observe students' mathematical thinking styles during problem solving, the second to asses students' achievement in mathematics. The data were collected by using Mathematical Thinking Styles questionnaires and test of students' achievement in mathematics. The subject in this study was 35 students from third year at mathematics study program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in academic year 2016/2017. The result of this study was that the students have three mathematical thinking styles (analytic, visual, and integrated), and the students who have analytic styles have better achievement than those who have visual styles in mathematics.
Nicolette Vanessa Roman
Full Text Available Parenting style is an area of research which is emerging in South Africa. Previous research notes significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of parenting. In a country as diverse as South Africa, which has also evolved from an era of separatism and segregation, comparing parenting styles across ethnic groups is an interesting topic. This is a comparative study using a cross-sectional design. The Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The final sample consisted of 746 participants with a mean age of 20.48 (SD = 1.96 years; 36% males and 64% females. The results found maternal authoritative parenting style to be the most prevalent across and within groups, but there were also significant differences between and within groups. Fathers’ parenting style was perceived as significantly different in three ethnic groups, but mothers’ parenting styles were not perceived as significantly different.
Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer
This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blissett, J; Haycraft, E
This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.
Rumpold, Gerhard; Doering, Stephan; Höfer, Stefan; Schüssler, Gerhard
The "Measure of Parental Style" (MOPS, Parker et al., 1997) represents an internationally accepted self-assessment instrument. A German translation of the questionnaire, the "Fragebogen dysfunktionaler elterlicher Beziehungsstile"(FDEB), is presented and its construct properties are evaluated. In addition, characteristic parental styles in different diagnostic groups are assessed. Psychometric testing was performed in a sample of 108 psychotherapeutic outpatients and 109 students. Parental styles of different diagnostic subgroups were compared to the whole sample. Using discriminant analysis the predictive value of parental style for psychiatric diagnoses was evaluated. The internal consistency of the instrument and its subscales revealed to be satisfactory. The three-factor solution of the English version explaining 55% of variance could be replicated: "Indifference", "over-control", and "abuse". Compared to students patients scored significantly higher on all three factors. Within different diagnostic groups characteristic parental styles could be identified that correctly described 82.2% of psychiatric diagnoses. We conclude that the German version of the MOPS represents a useful and reliable screening and research instrument for the assessment of parental styles.
Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba
The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.
Sehulster, J R
The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles.
Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10 in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ, a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29 but negatively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22 and permissive scale (r = −0.20. Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2 had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1 or Authoritarian
Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle
Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after
مهسا اکبریان فیروزآبادی
Full Text Available Various studies on attachment show that child-caregiver interaction and caregiver’s reaction to child have momentous role in formation of child’s attachment. The aim of this study was to explain the intergenerational transmission cycle of attachment styles. In this regard the effect of parenting styles and childhood traumas on children’s attachment styles was investigated. This study is an ex post facto with causal design, and 175 Iranian available students were selected from Kharazmi University, Tehran University and Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, mediation analysis, and path analysis. The results indicated that different parenting styles lead to different attachment styles in children. Our results supported the relationship between parent’s care and over-protection factors with avoidance index of attachment, while no significant relationship was observed between these two factors with anxiety index. Moreover, perceived emotional abuse had a mediator roll in the relationship between parenting components and avoidance index of attachment. Finally, we achieved a model of simultaneous effects of two care and control factors on avoidance index, which is mediated by the perceived childhood trauma.
Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ
Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas
In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.
Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.
Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A
Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.
Muhammad Ramzan Mehar, , and
Full Text Available This research is about transformational leadership style on organization commitment in Punjab. We collected data through questionnaire from education and banking sector of Punjab. The study includes Organization Commitment as a dependent variable and Transformational Leadership independent variable and its dimensions are Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation and Individualized Consideration. We applied frequency, descriptive and correlation analyses. Results presents a beneficial support for the suggested hypotheses. The study find that transformational leadership style and its dimension has positive and significant relationship with organization commitment.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the teaching and learning process based on the detected student´s learning style. The teaching process is built on the needs analysis questionnaire which defines students´ individual learning styles and summarizes their experience in previous foreign language learning. These results are consequently reflected in the teaching methods and approaches to each student. The paper presents results of students´ opinions reflected in proposals of methods and activities which support the efficiency of the teaching process and students´ motivation towards learning.
This questionnaire will be widely used in various tropical and subtropical regions. It was developed in a modular structure and comprises nine sections : demographic data, screening, confirmation of diagnosis, natural history of the seizure disor- der, past medical history, clinical examination, paraclinical examinations ...
Marks, John B.; And Others
This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes toward drugs in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 105 items (multiple choice, yes/no, or completion) are concerned with personal and demographic data, "book" knowledge of drugs, "street" knowledge of drugs (drug argot and the like),…
This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.
Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize
Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe
Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.
Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A; Khoshhal, Khalid I
Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students' learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1(st)-5(th) year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students' learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.
There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.
The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)
Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria
A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…
Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi
Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...
Aubry, William E.
The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…
Browne, Dauna Bell
Reviews 5 models of learning or cognitive styles and the concept of brain hemispheric functions. Discusses the right hemisphere dominant learning style of many Native American children. Presents points to consider when modifying curricula or designing a reading program aimed at all learners. Contains 19 references. (SV)
Boehe, Dirk Michael
While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…
Reed, Marie-Elaine Burns
Leadership styles and management skills needed by directors and coordinators of learning assistance and developmental education were assessed. Based on a literature review, a questionnaire was constructed and then validated by a panel of experts in the field. The questionnaire was sent to 45 selected learning assistance/developmental education…
Aran, Adi; Shalev, Ruth S; Biran, Gali; Gross-Tsur, Varda
To assess the impact of parenting style and disease severity on quality of life (QOL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-nine children with CP, their siblings, and their parents participated in the study. Probands and siblings, ages 6 to 18 years, completed questionnaires on parenting style (accepting, rejecting, controlling, and autonomy allowing) using the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Parents completed generic (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]) and disease-specific (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collecting Instrument [PODCI]) QOL questionnaires for both children. A physician determined disease severity with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In children with CP, parenting style positively correlated with the CHQ scores: physical summary and psychosocial summary (r = 0.40, P = .01) and family activities scale (r = 0.34, P = .03). Autonomy allowing parenting style impacted on psychosocial aspects of QOL, as reflected by CHQ scores, more than the degree of disability. In other domains of QOL, the effect of parenting style was greater than IQ, anxiety, and socioeconomic status. Parenting style is a significant factor in QOL in CP and the only known factor to impact on the psychosocial domains of the CHQ, exceeding the effect of disease severity. Because QOL is an important treatment goal in children with CP, early family interventions, particularly those focusing on parenting style, should be considered.
Jodar I Solà, Glòria; Gené I Badia, Joan; Hito, Pilar Delgado; Osaba, M Antonia Campo; Del Val García, Jose Luís
The concept of leadership has been studied in various disciplines and from different theoretical approaches. It is a dynamic concept that evolves over time. There are few studies in our field on managers' self-perception of their leadership style. There are no pure styles, but one or another style is generally favoured to a greater or lesser degree. In the primary health care (PHC) setting, managers' leadership style is defined as a set of attitudes, behaviours, beliefs and values. The objectives of this study were to describe and learn about the self-perception of behaviours and leadership styles among PHC managers; to determine the influence of the leadership style on job satisfaction, efficiency, and willingness to work in a team; and to determine the relationship between transformational and transactional styles according age, gender, profession, type of manager years of management experience, and the type of organization. To describe leadership styles as perceived by PHC managers, a cross sectional study was performed using an 82 items-self-administered Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). This questionnaire measures leadership styles, attitudes and behaviour of managers. The items are grouped into three first order variables (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire) and ten second order variables (which discriminate leader behaviours). Additionally, the questionnaire evaluates organizational consequences such as extra-effort, efficiency and satisfaction. One hundred forty responses from 258 managers of 133 PHC teams in the Barcelona Health Area (response rate: 54.26 %). Most participants were nurses (61.4 %), average age was 49 years and the gender predominantly female (75 %). Globally, managers assessed themselves as equally transactional and transformational leaders (average: 3.30 points). Grouped by profession, nurses (28.57 % of participants) showed a higher transactional leadership style, over transformational leadership style
Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.
Ángela Camargo Uribe
Full Text Available In this paper the relationship among high school students’ mathematics achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension is examined. Subjects were 128 tenth graders of a public school at Bogotá, Colombia. The MSLQ Questionnaire was used to assess students’ level of self-regulation and the EFT test was used to measure students’ field dependence-independence cognitive style. Mathematics achievement was indicated by the grades obtained by the students during the academic year. Results show that self-regulated learning and cognitive style are related to Math achievement, each one separately. Additionally, complex relations between self-regulation and field dependence-independence were found.
Gunther, Mary; Evans, Ginger; Mefford, Linda; Coe, Thomas R
Much of the nursing literature on leadership describes the qualities of existing nursing leaders, while emphasizing the need for leadership development in student nurses for both managerial and clinical practice. However, there is a lack of research literature on the characteristics of current students. Conducted by the University of Tennessee College of Nursing Empathy Research Group, this pilot study explores the relationship between leadership styles and empathy (cognitive and affective) levels. This correlational descriptive study involved self-report using 3 instruments. Hogan Empathy Scale (HES) and Emotional Empathy Tendency Scale (EETS) measured cognitive and affective empathy levels. The Multifactoral Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x) was used to determine leadership style. Data analysis yielded evidence of a weak positive correlation between the predominant transformational leadership style and empathy levels in both junior and senior students. This correlation has implications for both nurse educators and future employers.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.
Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma
The aim of the study was to test if variations in oral hygiene levels in adolescents were associated with locus of control and parenting styles after controlling for demographic factors. The study sample comprised 237 adolescents aged 12-13 years. The structured questionnaire included demographic characteristics and items about parenting style and locus of control. The Individual Quantitative Plaque % Index (IQPI) and toothbrushing frequency were used as clinical outcome measures. In the bivariate analyses, socioeconomic status (P=0.012), number of children in the family (P=0.003), and frequency of toothbrushing (P=0.001) were related to dental plaque levels. Gender (Pparenting styles, locus of control, and oral hygiene levels was not confirmed.
Suliman, Wafika A
This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments.
Almigbal, Turky H
To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student's academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies' variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students' learning styles.
Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali
Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field.The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers' leadership style through selfassessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives' leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness. In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (pleadership effectiveness with transformational (0.051) and transactional (0.216) styles. There was a correlation between leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness with leadership styles. Application of this research will be crucial to universities and healthcare executives. This study suggests that strengthening the scientific basis is essential for leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness in healthcare system.
Almigbal, Turky H.
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Results: The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student’s academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies’ variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Conclusion: Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students’ learning styles. PMID:25737179
Negussie, Nebiat; Demissie, Asresash
Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when pleadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, pleadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.
Kader Ali Noor Nasir
Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing leaders today is the need to develop new business models that stress on effective leadership styles, employee job satisfaction and sustainability without sacrificing the financial and non-financial performance. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership styles and business performance of multinational companies operating in Malaysia mediated by job satisfaction. A quantitative study, using self-administered structured questionnaire, are issued using purposive sampling via direct distribution to 150 employees working in MNC. Analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS and Partial Least Square (PLS indicated that spiritual leadership style has the highest significant influence on job satisfaction, followed by authentic leadership style, transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style. In addition, job satisfaction has a mediating effect on the relationship between each of the leadership styles, namely, transactional, transformational, authentic, and spiritual on business performance.
Exam success at undergraduate and graduate-entry medical schools : is learning style or learning approach more important? : A critical review exploring links between academic success, learning styles, and learning approaches among school-leaver entry (“traditional”) and graduate-entry (“nontraditional”) medical students
Feeley, Anne-Marie; Biggerstaff, Deborah
Phenomenon: \\ud The literature on learning styles over many years has been replete with debate and disagreement. Researchers have yet to elucidate exactly which underlying constructs are measured by the many learning styles questionnaires available. Some academics question whether learning styles exist at all. When it comes to establishing the value of learning styles for medical students, a further issue emerges. The demographics of medical students in the United Kingdom have changed in rece...
Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.
Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.
Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray
This paper examines relationships between teacher-perceived principal decision-making styles and teacher job satisfaction in schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia. We use the General Decision-making Style instrument, the Job Satisfaction Survey and a demographic questionnaire developed for this study. Our findings show that: 12 out of the 15…
Full Text Available Leadership style literature in the independent public institution, such as national bank type, is a subject with a high potential for research studies, especially in Romania. As organizational culture, leadership style is considered to be an important element for the public institution performance and work satisfaction of the employees. The aim of this research paper is to identify which leadership style is more common in the employee’s perception of National Bank of Romania (NBR. According to this, as a scientific research method it was used a quantitative method based on a questionnaire. In the period of March-June 2015 it was applied a questionnaire with 23 items on a Likert Scale (20 regarding leadership style and 3 regarding respondent profile on a total population of 1860 employees. Items measured were used from Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Version 12 LBDQ XII and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (5X. After analyzing and interpreting the results related to the perception of employees on leadership style to hierarchic direct superior, it can be concluded that leadership styles often identified by employees are authoritarian leadership style and participative leadership style, both with a 82% percentage of totally agree responses.
Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…
Bhalli, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Sattar, Abdul
Researchers have categorized the learning styles in many ways. Kolb proposed a classification of learner's styles as convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators. Honey and Mumford simplified learning styles as activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. Neil Fleming's VARK model (Visual, Auditory, Read/write and Kinesthetic) is also popular. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of learning styles (Honey and Mumford) of medical students and its correlation with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements. A total of 77 medical students of 4th year MBBS were selected through non-probability convenient sampling for this study. Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire, and a 2nd questionnaire to know their preference for different teaching methodologies were distributed to the students. Learning styles were identified and correlated with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements by Chi-square test. Mean age of the medical students was 22.75 ± 1.05 years. Twenty one (27.3%) participants were males and 56 (72.7%) females. By learning styles, 7 (9.1%) medical students were activists, 36 (46.8%) reflectors, 13 (16.9%) theorists and 21 (27.3%) were pragmatists. Out of 77 students, 22 preferred interactive lectures; 16, small group discussion; 20 problem based learning, 10 preferred demonstration on models. Only 01 students preferred one-way lecture as the best teaching methodology. No significant correlation was found between learning styles and preferred teaching methodologies and learning styles and academic scores. Most of the medical students had reflector (46.8%) and pragmatist (27.3%) learning styles. Majority preferred interactive lectures (28.57%) and problem based learning (25.98%) as teaching methodologies. Aligning our instructional strategies with learning styles of the medical students will improve learning and academic performance.
Full Text Available This paper explores preference to the style of decision making (managerial, analytical, conceptual and behavioural, (Alan Rowe, 1992, management styles (relationship-oriented leadership and management by objectives, (Fiedler, 1987 and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, (Eysenck, 1998. The convenience sample of 61 respondents (principals of primary and secondary schools from Macedonia were subjected to decision making style inventory (Decision Style Inventory - DSI of 20 claims, a questionnaire to assess the management style (Least preferred coworker - LPC composed of 18 bipolar adjectives, and a personality test (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - EPQ composed of 90 items in the form of questions. Results show that schools lean towards directive style of decision making with a combination of democratic-participatory style that includes subordinates in the process of decision making. The results also demonstrate that school principals prefer management style motivated by relationships; they are more introverted and emotionally stable. The findings indicate a necessity for a new generation of managers who will be different from the traditional managers. It is evident that the future will require managers with leadership styles different from the traditional in Republic of Macedonia. Given that the school is a basic organisational cell on which the educational system of the country is based, the proposed findings present an occasion for developing new ideas and practices that may yield great results. This would increase the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the school as a modern organisation. Thus, these findings have practical implications as they may direct special training of principals in order to apply the best management style, or style that is most appropriate for certain situations, certainly through coordination of the desired profile of the principal and the business strategy, development and maturity of
Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco
This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations
Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.
Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no
Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J
Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh
Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah
Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.
Maryam Jafari Gol
Full Text Available Background: Nursing and health care, will be challenged to respond the changing needs of people and changing nature society and this requires that nurses are in managerial roles until nurses needs management and support for continuing professional development. This study was developed to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and personality traits of nursery managers of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Sciences Universities. Method: It’s descriptive correlational. Multi-stage sampling 140 nursery managers affiliated hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences Universities was selected. The data collection tools are the three standard questionnaires leadership style and personality traits and demographic properties. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability were calculated for leadership style questionnaire 0.86 and personality traits 0.88 and analyzed by spss19 data analysis was descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: More nursery managers are commanding leadership style and personality traits of extroversion, conscientiousness, liberal leadership style with extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits, and commanding leadership style with extraversion, openness, Adaptability and conscientiousness personality traits, and modulated leadership style with the of extraversion, openness and conscientiousness personality traits are significant inverse relationship. Conclusion: Based on research findings leadership styles and personality traits are significant relationship, there by the personality traits score may be predicted leadership style of a manager’s future that it’s good way selection of personal with more effective leadership style and optimization management organization.
Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela
Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Educators of the health care profession (teachers are committed in preparing future health care providers, but are facing many challenges in transmitting their ever expanding knowledge to the students. This study was done to focus on different learning styles among dental students. Aim: To assess different learning preferences among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire among dental students. Results: Majority 75.8% of the students preferred multimodal learning style. Multimodal learning was common among clinical students. No statistical significant difference of learning styles in relation to gender (P > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, majority of students preferred multimodal learning preference. Knowledge about the learning style preference of different profession can help to enhance the teaching method for the students.
Wijnberg - Williams, Barbara; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Kamps, Willem; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of children treated for cancer. MethodsMarital dissatisfaction (Maudsley Marital Questionnaire), intimacy, avoidance, destructive and incongruent
Yamashita, Kanae; Saito, Miwa; Takao, Toshihiro
The objective of this investigation was to examine the stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students. The principal measures of the stress and coping styles were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. In a cross-sectional analysis, 1324 students completed the anonymous self-administered questionnaires including the scales earlier. Feeling stress, living with family, not eating breakfast every day, having no regular exercise and poor sleep were associated with GHQ responder (psychological distressed group). The most commonly reported source of stress was taking examinations, followed by relationships with friends, engaging in clinical practice and presenting reports. The three most common coping styles adopted by the nursing students were acceptance, self-distraction and using instrumental support. By logistic regression analysis of coping styles with GHQ responder, self-blame, active coping, acceptance and behavioural disengagement were highly associated with GHQ responder. The nursing school educators as well as students should be aware of stress management strategies (e.g. using active coping and avoiding self-blame) that may help prevent depression. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám
A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.
Association du personnel
CERN must remain the centre of excellence that it has been for the last sixty years. Therefore, the Organization must continue to be able to attract, motivate and retain the best specialists coming from all the Member States. This is why, every five years, on the occasion of a five-yearly review, our employment conditions are compared with bodies having similar activities.In order to prepare the next five-yearly review, the topics of which will be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has drawn up a questionnaire that gives you the opportunity to tell us what you think about your current employment conditions. You can also indicate how you wish to see them evolve, and to help you we present some proposals for improvement on which you can give your opinion. Above all, do not hesitate, by using the comments’ fields available in the questionnaire, to formulate your own suggestions in all areas of your conditions of employment that are of interest to you. Your replies will hel...
Putra, Arief Karunia; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar
The relevance of this study is the growth of character values for students in Indonesia. Mathematics is a subject that builds the character values for students. It can be seen from the students' confidence in answering mathematics problems, their persistent and resilience in mathematics task. In addition, students have a curiosity in mathematics and appreciate the usefulness of mathematics. In mathematics, it is called a mathematical disposition. One of the factors that can affect students' mathematical disposition is learning style. Each student has a dominant learning style. Three of the most popular ones are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. The most important uses of learning styles is that it makes it easy for teachers to incorporate them into their teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine which one that gives better mathematical dispositions among students with learning styles of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. The subjects were 150 students in Sleman regency. Data obtained through questionnaires. Based on data analysis that has been done with benchmark assessment method, it can be concluded that students with visual learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory and kinesthetic learning styles, while students with kinesthetic learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory learning style. These results can be used as a reference for students with individual learning styles to improve the mathematical positive disposition in the learning process of mathematics.
Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Torabizadeh, Camellia
The recognition of learning styles and teaching based on that recognition will help lecturers use suitable methods of teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on dominant learning styles on the academic achievement of nursing students. The population of this quasi-experimental research consisted of 40 third-semester nursing students. The data were collected by using Kolb's Learning Style questionnaire. To determine the dominant learning style of the students, the researchers had them take a pre-test; then, based on the dominant learning style, the students were taught through group discussion. A formative exam and a summative exam were taken. The most and least preferred learning styles of the participants were the divergent style and the assimilative style respectively. Education based on learning styles, particularly for college students, can not only enhance students' academic achievement and teachers' professional satisfaction, but can help with training professional nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buali, Waleed Hamad Al; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Muhaidab, Nouria Saab Al
NONE DECLARED. By knowing the different students' learning styles, teachers can plan their instruction carefully in ways that are capitalized on student preferences. The current research is done to determine specific learning styles of students. This cross sectional study was conducted in Al Ahsa College of Medicine from 2011 to 2012. A sample of 518 students completed a questionnaire based on Kolb inventory (LSI 2) to determine their learning style. A spreadsheet was prepared to compute all the information to get the cumulative scores of learning abilities and identify the learning styles. The mean values of the learning abilities; active experimentation (AE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualizing (AC) or concrete experience (CE) for male students were 35, 28, 30 and 26 respectively while they were 31, 30, 31 and 29 respectively for female students. There were significant difference between male and female students regarding the mean values of AE-RO (6.7 vs 1.5) and AC-CE (4.1 vs 2.1). This indicated that the style of male students were more convergent and accommodating than those of female students. The female had more assimilating and divergent styles. Learning style in Saudi medical students showed difference between males and females in the early college years. Most male students had convergent and accommodating learning styles, while the female dominant learning styles were divergent and assimilating. Planning and implementation of instruction need to consider these findings.
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah
Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.
Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles. PMID:26165948
Juan Manuel Alducin-Ochoa
Full Text Available The objectives guiding this research were to determine the dominant learning style of the first year Building engineering students (University of Seville, the influence of the style on the grades in each school subject, and if learning style is influenced by socio-demographic variables. The sample was composed of 161 students, who completed the Honey-Alonso questionnaire (CHAEA and the CDAT. Descriptive and correlational methods were used. For the analysis of the data, a univariate (one-way ANOVA descriptive study was performed, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, both with a confidence level of 95% (σ=.05 were used. The results show the predominance of the reflective style, and the fact that grades as a function of styles vary depending on the school subject. No significant differences were found in the variables gender, university admission scores, type of school (private or public of the study centers attended previous to university. Significant differences were found for some styles in the variables age, type of university admission, and if a student had to work as well as to study. The conclusions highlight the need to develop teaching strategies that encompass all the styles to improve performance, as well as the need to modify the teaching practices for the students to develop the rest of the styles in a balanced manner. This latest aspect is important so that the students can freely operate professionally, as the Engineering profession requires having all four characteristic styles simultaneously.
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A
The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.
Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai
To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3% participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.
Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the learning styles of students may help educational planning and improve the learning. This study aims to assess learning styles, and relevant determinants, of students who study in various disciplines of medical sciences at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 students from BUMS were selected randomly. Data were collected sing the Kolb learning style questionnaire during April/May 2012. One-way ANOVA, Student t-test, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.3±7.0, majority of them were males. The preferred learning styles were diverger (76.7%, accommodator (12.8%, assimilator (7.8% and converger (2.8% respectively. The results showed that the factors such as age, sex, marriage status, father and mother education, grade point average (GPA and academic degree could be important to determine learning style characteristics of students. The findings also indicate that the preferred learning style among the students with different GPAs or academic degrees are not different considerably. Conclusion: Regarding the most preferred leaning style by the, proper planning to address proper teaching styles according to the preferred learning styles is necessary.
Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima
This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student's learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.
Wolters, Gisela; Stapert, Sven; Brands, Ingrid; Van Heugten, Caroline
This study investigated the changes in coping styles of patients with acquired brain injury who underwent cognitive rehabilitation, and the effects of these changes on their quality of life. Participants were 110 patients in the chronic phase post-injury, who underwent outpatient cognitive rehabilitation according to current guidelines and standards. Coping style (Utrecht Coping List) was measured at the start of rehabilitation (T0) and repeated at least 5 months later (T1). Coping style was related to quality of life measured at T1 (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Stroke-Adapted Sickness Impact Profile). Results indicated that active problem-focused coping styles decreased and passive emotion-focused coping styles increased significantly between T0 and T1. Furthermore, the study showed that increases in active problem-focused coping styles and decreases in passive emotion-focused coping styles predicted a higher quality of life in the long term. These changes in coping styles are adaptive for the adjustment process in the chronic phase post-injury. Overall however, most participants showed maladaptive changes in coping styles. Implications for cognitive rehabilitation are therefore discussed.
Phuphaibul, Rutja; Wittayasooporn, Jariya; Choprapawon, Chanpen
This descriptive study identifies and examines the consistency of parenting styles during the first year of their children's lives. The data were collected from interviewing 4088 parents or primary care takers of the 6 month old infants during the third wave of data collection of The Prospective Cohort of Thai Children project. The instrument used was the Infant Parenting Styles Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, which reflected parental responses to infant care in five different situations. After the answers were categorized into controlling, reasoning, overprotection, and neglectful parenting styles, the weighted kappa was used for the consistency analysis. The findings revealed that during the first 6 months of life, the overprotection style was the most common, followed by the reasoning style. The controlling and neglectful styles were very seldom used. The consistency of the parental styles in the same care givers using the kappa values showed that agreement between each of the styles was very low (-0.0419 to 0.0688). This suggests that parenting styles during the first year of life seem to occur in random patterns. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok
Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Personalization is one of the most expected features in the current educational systems. User modeling is supposed to be the first stage of this process, which may incorporate learning style as an important part of the model. Learning style, which is a non-stable characteristic in the case of children, differentiates students in learning preferences. This paper identifies a new hybrid method to initiate and update the information of children’s learning style in an educational system. At the start-up phase, children’s learning style information is gathered through the modified Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC questionnaire, which is based on the well-known Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. This primary information will be tuned by tracking children’s behaviors during the learning process. Analytical data mining helped us to cluster these behaviors and find their patterns. The proposed method was applied on 81 fourth grade children in elementary school. Delivering results suggest that this method provides a good precision in recognizing children learning style and may be an appropriate solution for non-stability problems in their preferences.
Full Text Available Research purpose: Managers, when applying their leadership styles, are affected by some of their own traits. This article intends to compare the leadership styles of the managers of Zabol University of Medical Sciences with respect to Hersey and Blanchard model that was based on their biographical characteristics.Research design, approach and method: The research methodology is descriptive-causal and comparative. The data were collected from 300 individuals (124 female and 176 male participants.Main findings: No significant difference was observed between the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of male and female managers. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of managers, considering their work experience, education level and field of study.Research limitations: The conservative atmosphere in university environments may affect the manager’s responses to the questionnaire; therefore, in the generalisation of the results, this issue should be taken into account.Practical implications: It is recommended to hold in-service courses for managers who have a lower education level or less work experience or have been graduated from the fields of study other than the Management major. It is also suggested to pay attention to the managers’ fields of study and managerial experiences at the time of employment.Contribution: This study enhances the quality of managers’ leadership style and consequently increases the productivity in university environments.
Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee
Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.
Zydziunaite, V; Lepaite, D; Suominen, T
The overlooked aspect in Lithuania is the dearth of leaders among head nurses, who bear the responsibility for decisions in ethical dilemmas. Understanding the application of leadership styles is fundamental to ensuring head nurses' abilities to influence outcomes for healthcare providers and patients. To identify the leadership styles applied by head nurses in decision making in ethical dilemmas on hospital wards. The data were collected by questionnaires completed by head nurses (n = 278) working in five major state-funded hospitals in each of the five regions of Lithuania. The data were analysed using SPSS 16.0, calculating descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Head nurses apply democratic, affiliative, transformational and sustainable leadership styles when resolving ethical dilemmas. The application of leadership styles is associated not only with specific situations, but also with certain background factors, such as years of experience in a head nurse's position, ward specialization and the incidence of ethical dilemmas. Nurses having been in a head nurse's position over 10 years use primitive leadership styles, notably bureaucratic leadership, more often than do those head nurses with only a few years of experience in such a position. The results highlight the need for head nurses to reflect on their practices and to find new ways of learning from practice, colleagues and patients. Head nurses' managerial decisions due to their 'executive power' can turn into a new state-of-the-art leadership in nursing. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the differences in self-esteem and the communication style, depending on the level of education (at high school and university subjects. It is analyzed also how the positive self-esteem can correlate with a style of communication and assertively-positive approach. The participants are 120 subjects, 60 high school students and 60 students. The data was collected using two instruments: the Rosenberg questionnaire and a questionnaire on communication style. The data analyzed using a t test for independent samples and a Pearson correlation test with SPSS statistical software. The results show that there are differences regarding the self-esteem and the communication style depending on the level of education.
Russo Joan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider relationships in primary care are characterized by greater continuity and depth than in non-primary care specialties. We hypothesized that relationship styles of medical students based on attachment theory are associated with specialty choice factors and that such factors will mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Methods We determined the relationship styles, demographic characteristics and resident specialty match of 106 fourth-year medical students. We assessed the associations between 1 relationship style and specialty choice factors; 2 specialty choice factors and specialty match, and 3 relationship style and specialty match. We also conducted mediation analyses to determine if factors examined in a specialty choice questionnaire mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Results Prevalence of attachment styles was similar to that found in the general population and other medical school settings with 59% of students rating themselves as having a secure relationship style. Patient centeredness was directly associated, and career rewards inversely associated with matching in a primary care specialty. Students with a self-reliant relationship style were significantly more likely to match in a non-primary care specialty as compared to students with secure relationship style (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.6. There was full mediation of the association between relationship style and specialty match by the specialty choice factor characterized by patient centeredness. Conclusion Assessing relationship styles based on attachment theory may be a potentially useful way to improve understanding and counsel medical students about specialty choice.
Full Text Available We have conducted a pilot study of the typically developing preschool children's functionality, their peers with Down syndrome and autism, with a new questionnaire "Functionality-07" (F-07. We have examined 164 children 2,7 - 7,1 years of age (31-95 months: 94 boys and 73 girls, attended educational services, including 11 - with autism, 10 - with Down syndrome. F-07 method has demonstrated high internal coherence: Cronbach alpha = 0.99. Functionality of children with autism and Down syndrome was significantly lower than that of their typically developed peers (p <0,1 E-6. We believe that monitoring of functionality can be used to identify the children requiring special psychological and educational assistance.
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Caspersen, Ida Dyhr
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disturbances in childhood. Nonetheless, they often go unrecognized and untreated, which puts the child at risk for developing additional difficulties, such as academic difficulties, depression, and substance abuse. Further knowledge...... and valid assessment tools are essential to identify at-risk children. The present study investigates (i) the factor structure of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C) using a large Danish community sample (N¿=¿933), and (ii) its treatment sensitivity in clinically anxious children (N......¿=¿30) treated with cognitive behavioral therapy. Results from the community sample replicated previous findings supporting the strong psychometric properties of the PSWQ-C, and yielded Danish norms and clinical cut-offs for the measure. Clinically anxious children with a generalized anxiety disorder...
Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.
Nursing literature supports the importance of an engaged nursing workforce as a means to positively influence performance. Nurse manager leadership style plays a critical role in engaging staff nurses. These relationships have been minimally studied in nurse managers and staff nurses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of nurse manager leadership style factors on staff nurse work engagement. Using a descriptive correlational research design, 441 staff nurses working in 3 acute care hospitals were surveyed. Survey instruments included the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire 5X short form. Transactional and transformational leadership styles in nurse managers positively influenced staff nurse work engagement. Passive-avoidant leadership style in nurse managers negatively influenced staff nurse work engagement. Nurse managers who provide support and communication through transformational and transactional leadership styles can have a positive impact on staff nurse work engagement and ultimately improve organizational outcomes.
Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M
Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST
K. E. Van der Geest
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an
Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.
Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)
Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.
Bell, Arthur H.; And Others
Describes German correspondence styles in order to assist American managers. Explains typical conventions of both letter and memo formats, emphasizing the need to appreciate differences between formal and informal modes of communication. (RS)
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
mahin soheili; Gholamreza Dehshiri; Seiyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi
Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females) of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results ...
Yang, Dong-Ye; Ye, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jue-jun; Huang, Qiu-yu; Wan, Li-Hong
Objective: To investigate the relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the hospital, in order to identify nursing measures. Methods: Chinese versions of the Mishel Uncertainty In Illness Scale (MUIS), Brief Profile Of Mood States (BPOMS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) were used to assess uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style, respectively, in 126 patients with TMD. Results:...
Sousa, Paulo; Rouco, Carlos; Nogueira, Fernanda; Carvalho, Ana Branca; Dias, Damasceno
Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze and relate the leadership behaviors and communication styles required of Infantry junior officers in their daily command tasks, in order to influence their subordinates to achieve extraordinary effort, group effectiveness and satisfaction. For this study, was used quantitative method and a survey was implemented comprising three questionnaires: one on leadership competences, one on communication styles, and one on with three criterion facto...
Sharifi fard; Emel; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Mohammad Ali Mazaheri; Hooshang Talebi
This study aimed to determine the relationship between personality characteristics and parenting styles with video computer games dependency among secondary students (males and females) in Ahvaz city. There were 872 participants from different educational regions of the city (four regions) which were selected via a multistage cluster method of sampling. The applied instruments included temperament-Character inventory (TCI-125), parenting styles Questionnaire (PSQ) and problematic video game p...
Butalid, Roselyn M; Estacio, Karen M; Gadian, Christer D. C; Sisican, Juneva I. U
This study determined if parental bonding styles affect the development of emotional intelligence of student nurses. A descriptive-correlational research design was used. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) developed by Parker et.al. (1979) was utilized to determine the bonding styles of the respondents' parents interpreted as Neglectful Parenting, Affectionless Control, Optimal Parenting and Affectionate Control. The Emotional Intelligence (EI) questionnaire adapted from Weisinger's EQ tes...
Carvalho, Cláudia; Marques, Mariana; Silva, Maria Inês; Santos, José; Conceição, Liliana; Cunha, Marina; Espirito-Santo,Helena
Introduction There are few studies in the international and national literature exploring the association between parental rearing styles, eating habits/behaviours and symptoms of Eating Disorders (ED). Objectives/aims To examine the associations between the dimensions of Parental Rearing Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (EMBU-A), the dimensions of a test assessing eating disorders symptoms (Eating Attitudes Test-25/EAT-25), Body Mass Index (BMI), items assessing eating habits/be...
Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.
This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functi...
Munk, Adam C.
This secondary analysis employed data trom portions of the Spanish and Engli sh versions of the RELATionship Evaluation inventory, a self-report questionnaire (RELATE) The present research analyzed conflict resolution types, communication styles, and relationship satisfaction and stability among Latino men and women compared to Caucasian men and women. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for analyzing the data. Communication styles and conflict resolution types were more different...
Naseem Zahra; Sheikh Zahoor Sarwar; Ali Imran Baig
In this study the Transformational, Transactional and laissez faire leadership styles within the organizations are discussed. The purpose of this research was to measure the leadership style of middle level managers both males and females within organizations in Pakistan. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Avolio and Bass in 1994 is used for this purpose. Leadership on seven factors i.e. Idealized influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation, Individualized Con...
A Zeraati; H Hajian; R Shojaian
Background: Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write(R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight).These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire.Purpose: We aimed to assess different learning styles of medical students in our collage.Methods: This study was conducted to describe lea...
Full Text Available The survey aims at identifying to what extent advertising agencies (especially Romanian ones, as organizations that depend on the creativity of professionals they hire, use a democratic management that focuses on values meant to offer working satisfactions to these professionals (autonomy, flexibility, cooperation, indirect control, participation in decision-making, etc.. The presentation of the results of the empirical research of management style in Romanian agencies (as showed by the analysis of the press in the field and by the answers to the questionnaires sent by e-mail to the managers of a number of agencies is followed by a series of proposals for its improvement, in order to become a participative management.
Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.
The aim of this research is to set up a theory about style in architectural design from a cognitive point of view. It has been observed that the constant application of certain factors in a design process constitutes the formation of a style. Those factors include design constraints, search methods, goals, and the sequential order of applying them. Because of the constant application of these factors, constant cognitive phenomena appear and, consequently, produce constant forms by which a sty...
Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.
In her article, "Intercultural Communication and Speech Style," Fee-Alexandra Haase discusses intercultural communication as a concept for the production and analysis of speeches and written texts. Starting with a theoretical and historical perspective, Haase exemplifies selected intercultural patterns found in different cultures. Further, based on definitions of style in rhetoric from different cultural backgrounds from the ancient Greek culture up to modern approaches of rhetoricians, Haase...
Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O
The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Full Text Available The investigation aimed two objectives, namely to study the relationship between the learning styles, strategies, motivation, orientations and opinions with regard to learning, of Biology Domain students, comparative with those from double domain Biology – Chemistry, and particular learning styles of students from different specialties, which are in the first year of study, comparative with those which are in the last year of cycle I (age III of study, under the Bologna system. A version adapted by Trif, in 2007 , of the Learning Style Inventory (ILS, designed by Vermunt and Rijswijk (1998, was administrated to the total number of 77 students. Students of Biology specialization (Bologna system were largely learning style oriented to understanding and at those of the Biology-Chemistry (last generation of the old system we identified a style based on reproduction, but the differences of learning strategies and motivations, orientations and opinions were not statistically significant between the two groups of students. The second hypothesis formulated by us proved to be true, identifying significant statistically differences between the strategies, motives and opinions about learning of first academic year students, who prefer step by step learning or external guidance, learning orientation being to note, to obtain a degree, wishing much more support from teachers or colleagues (expressing an undirected learning style, compared with third academic year students, which use concrete processing of information, with getting a job motivation.
Kumar, Latha Rajendra; Chacko, Thomas Vengail
In India, as in some other neighboring Asian countries, students and teachers are generally unaware of the differences in the learning styles among learners, which can handicap students with learning styles alien to the common teaching/learning modality within the institution. This study aims to find out whether making students aware of their learning styles and then using the Appreciative Inquiry approach to help them discover learning strategies that worked for them and others with similar learning styles within the institution made them perceive that this experience improved their learning and performance in exams. The visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic (VARK) inventory of learning styles questionnaire was administered to all 100 first-year medical students of the Father Muller's Medical College in Mangalore India to make them aware of their individual learning styles. An Appreciate Inquiry intervention was administered to 62 student volunteers who were counseled about the different learning styles and their adaptive strategies. Pre and post intervention change in student's perception about usefulness of knowing learning styles on their learning, learning behavior, and performance in examinations was collected from the students using a prevalidated questionnaire. Post intervention mean scores showed a significant change (P < 0.0001) in student's self-perceptions about usefulness of knowing one's learning style and discovering strategies that worked within the institutional environment. There was agreement among students that the intervention helped them become more confident in learning (84%), facilitating learning in general (100%), and in understanding concepts (100%). However, only 29% of the students agreed that the intervention has brought about their capability improvement in application of learning and 31% felt it improved their performance in exams. Appreciate Inquiry was perceived as useful in helping students discover learning strategies
Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional mo...
Eileen Ortiz Rivera
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between “national culture” (cultural dimensions and leadership styles displayed by managers in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico. In this study, the independent variable was “national culture” and the national culture index (Geert Hofstede, 1980 served as indicator. In contrast, leadership styles were the dependent variable measured using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 2004. Findings indicate that, overall, “national culture” resulted as a significant variation in transactional and transformational leadership styles employed by managers working in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico.
Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye
The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...
Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G
Full Text Available Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting styles questionnaire and investigator made questionnaire of tendency to drug were completed by selected sample. Typology of family parenting styles was extracted by combining parental and maternal parenting styles. Because of low frequency of some kind of parenting styles, only 6 parenting styles were entered in the analysis and adolescents’ anxiety and depression were compared in various styles by running of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Scheffe Follow up test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that adolescents achieve the most positive outcomes and the least tendency to drugs, when both of parents are authoritative. Also, the greatest tendency has been seen in adolescents with two indulgent parents or at least one indulgent parent. Discussion: These findings indicate the importance of parental control on adolescents' attitudes to drug.
Maria M. Chiang Vega
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the relationship between work satisfaction and leadership style in 145 faculty staff in public and private education institutions in Chile. To measure work satisfaction, the questionnaire by Chiang et al., (2008 was used and for leadership styles, a questionnaire was used based on the situational theory by Hersey and Blanchard (Chiang and Salazar 2011. The reliability of the scales is variable and in all cases adequate, with Cronbach's alpha between 0.7 and 0.9. Values of work satisfaction are around 4 (scale from 1 to 5, placing those surveyed at a level as "satisfied with their work". No results are available to indicate low levels of satisfaction. Values regarding instruction, persuasive, participation, and delegation leadership styles range between 3 and 3.5, both for the female and male samples. The results indicate that the four leadership styles are present with medium levels. Statistically significant correlations exist, in low levels, among instruction, persuasion, and participation leadership styles with all the factors of work satisfaction. Positive correlations are highlighted between satisfaction with the way their work is carried out and the persuasion and participation leadership styles. The delegation leadership style does not correlate with any of the factors associated to work satisfaction
Childhood disability population-based surveillance: Assessment of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition and Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning in a rural setting in South Africa
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological information on childhood disability provides the basis for a country to plan, implement and manage the provision of health, educational and social services for these vulnerable children. There is, however, currently no population-based surveillance instrument that is compatible with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, internationally comparable, methodologically sound and comprehensively researched, to identify children under 5 years of age who are living with disability in South Africa and internationally. We conducted a descriptive pilot study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of translated versions of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition (ASQ-III and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning (WG/UNICEF module as parent-reported measures. The aim of our study was to identify early childhood disabilities in children aged 24–48 months in a rural area of South Africa, to determine the appropriateness of these instruments for population-based surveillance in similar contexts internationally.Methods: This study was conducted in the Xhariep District of the Free State Province in central South Africa, with 50 carers whose children were registered on the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA database as recipients of a grant for one of the following: Care Dependency, Child Support or Foster Care. The researchers, assisted by community healthcare workers and SASSA staff members, conducted structured interviews using forward–backward translated versions of the ASQ-III and the WG/UNICEF module.Results: Both measurement instruments had a clinically meaningful sensitivity of 60.0%, high specificity of 95.6% for the ASQ-III and 84.4% for the WG/UNICEF module, and the two instruments agreed moderately (Kappa = 0.6.Conclusion: Since the WG/UNICEF module is quicker to administer, easier to understand
Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.
Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Sahebzad, Elahe Sadegi; Rasoulighasemlouei, Seyedehsahel; Khavandi, Siamak
Self-efficacy is believe in and feeling of ability to complete work. One of these factors is educational teachers ' role. This study aimed to determine relationship between teachers' leadership style and students' self-efficacy in midwifery students. This Study is a cross sectional correlation study. Sampling was conducted in midwifery students in Bachelor Science degree in 2013. Data collection tools were multi leadership questionnaire and self-efficacy clinical performance. After explaining the goals of study, 97 students completed the questionnaire. Scoring the questionnaire was based on a Liker's scale (0-5).Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Correlation coefficient test was adopted to investigate the relationship and p value was considered 0.05. Mean of self-efficacy scores were 116.12 (24.66.). In 53.3% of the cases, self-efficacy was good, in 42.2% moderate and in 4.3%, it was bad. The majority of the students (88.9%) reported that their teachers had an idealized style in leadership. About 94.6% of the students with good self- efficacy believed that their teachers' leadership style was transformational style. There was a significant correlation between self- efficacy and leadership style (p<0.05). Results showed that transformational style is appropriate for midwifery teachers.
Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark
"Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme
The subjective dimension of decision making in sport development and validity of the cetd questionnaire of sport decision style Dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte: desarrollo y validación del cuestionario cetd de estilo de decision en el deporte
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One of the main objectives of sport psychological research is knowing how sportsmen and women understand, perceive, interpret and decide in sport situations. This study presents the results of the development and validation of a questionnaire for analysing the personal dimension of decision making in sport. This instrument permits to explore different aspects of this process such as commitment with the decision training, perceived decisional competence and anxiety with decisional situations. Its psychometric properties permits to say that is an adequate tool for sport psychologists and coaches in order to improve psychological process implied in sport decisions.
KEY WORDS: Decision making, questionnaire, psychological processes, assessment
Una de los retos de la investigación sobre los procesos psicológicos en el ámbito deportivo es acercarse a la comprensión de lo que percibe, interpreta y decide el deportista ante las situaciones que su deporte le presenta. En el presente estudio se presenta el desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para analizar la dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte. Este instrumento permite explorar aspectos relacionados con la toma de decisiones tales como el compromiso al decidir, la competencia decisional percibida así como la ansiedad y el agobio al decidir.
Sus características psicométricas permite que se puede considerar adecuados para poder ser empleado por los profesionales del Deporte y la Psicología con intenciones de mejorar los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales de los deportistas participantes en deportes en los que la decisión es fundamental.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Toma de decisiones, Cuestionario, procesos psicológicos, evaluación
The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...
The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...
Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.
Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.
The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...
Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.
The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…
Nia, Anvar Sadat Nayebi; Salari, Parvin; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Nooghani, Hadi Jabbari
According to Bowbly attachment theory, attachment of a baby and its main care provider, influences on social growth and the baby's feelings throughout its life. The present study was performed aim to determine the effect of attachment style to parents on domains of sexual dysfunction in married women. This cross-sectional study was carried out on two hundred married women who were fertile, and referred private and governmental gynecology clinics in Mashhad, Iran, in 2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; Demographic and marital questionnaire, Female sexual function index questionnaire, and Adult attachment style questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 (IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 20 using independent-samples t-test and logistic regression. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Mean of safe attachment style to parents in all aspect of sexual dysfunction was significantly lower (p≤0.01), however, mean of distant attachment style to parents in all aspects of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher (p≤0.05). Secure and distance attachment style to the mother showed maximum power of prediction for sexual dysfunction, which indicates the importance of attachment to parents and its impact on adult relationships.
Kraemer, David J M; Rosenberg, Lauren M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
It has long been thought that propensities for visual or verbal learning styles influence how children acquire knowledge successfully and how adults reason in everyday life. There is no direct evidence to date, however, linking these cognitive styles to specific neural systems. In the present study, visual and verbal cognitive styles are measured by self-report survey, and cognitive abilities are measured by scored tests of visual and verbal skills. Specifically, we administered the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ) and modality-specific subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to 18 subjects who subsequently participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. During the imaging session, participants performed a novel psychological task involving both word-based and picture-based feature matching conditions that was designed to permit the use of either a visual or a verbal processing style during all conditions of the task. Results demonstrated a pattern of activity in modality-specific cortex that distinguished visual from verbal cognitive styles. During the word-based condition, activity in a functionally defined brain region that responded to viewing pictorial stimuli (fusiform gyrus) correlated with self-reported visualizer ratings on the VVQ. In contrast, activity in a phonologically related brain region (supramarginal gyrus) correlated with the verbalizer dimension of the VVQ during the picture-based condition. Scores from the WAIS subtests did not reliably correlate with brain activity in either of these regions. These findings suggest that modality-specific cortical activity underlies processing in visual and verbal cognitive styles.
Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte
Background One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. Objective The aim of this study was to examine people’s tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. Methods An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. Results In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Conclusions Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. PMID:28526662
Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh
Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.
Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte
One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships.
Full Text Available The main goal of the article was to prove a relationship between applied leadership style of branch managers and productiveness of bank sales clerks and room for their productiveness improvementapplicable in the banking sector in Slovakia. One part of the objective was to examine the continuity between applied leadership style of branch managers and their time in control functions held. Dependencies between the individual productiveness of bank sales clerks and the level of their loyalty and satisfaction were investigated. Opinions of branch managers about the applicable leadership style and room for sales clerks’ productiveness improvement were examined through two questionnaire surveys (conducted in 2008 and 2012. The research results confirmed that the directive style of leadership is the mandatory style in the banking sector in Slovakia whereas the intensity of its implementation during the analysis period was increased. The research has also shown that there is a direct connection between the dominant style of leadership and room for improvement of sales clerks’ productiveness, because the growth of the intensity of directive style in this case led to lower productiveness of the average bank sales clerks. Our assumption that the applied leadership style of bank employees depends on timeworking in managerial positions has not been confirmed. In comparison to long-term managers, branch managers who were working for rather short period in any managerial positions did not show any differences in their management priorities. The assumption that the employee satisfaction and loyalty significantly encourage individual employee productiveness was not confirmed in the research.
Yaghoobi, Abolghasem; Mohammadzade, Serwa; Chegini, Ali Asghar; Yarmohammadi Vasel, Mosaeib; Zoghi Paidar, Mohammad Reza
The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users. Of these, 203 users (103 men and 100 women) filled out the questionnaires. The results showed that women achieved higher scores in self-monitoring and the anxious attachment style, and men achieved higher scores in cybercrime and the anxious attachment style. There was a negative correlation between self-monitoring and cybercrime, and the anxious attachment style had a positive correlation with cybercrime and a negative correlation with self-monitoring. The secure attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. The dependent attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. All correlations were significant. Attachment styles have significant relationships with both self-monitoring and cybercrime. Self-monitoring and attachment styles are significant predictors of cybercrimes.
Juárez-Muñoz, Irina Elizabeth; Gómez-Negrete, Alonso; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Arellano, José Agustín; Sciandra-Rico, Martha Minerva; Matute-González, Mario Manuel
Background: the learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and psychological characteristics, which function as relatively stable indicators of how teachers and students perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. Knowing students' styles allows teachers to have tools to improve medical education. Our objective was to identify learning styles in pediatric residents and professors from a pediatric hospital. Methods: a learning styles questionnaire was applied to residents and theirs professors; data was analyzed in SPSS 12 software. Results: the dominant learning style in pediatric residents was reflexive and for professors was theoretical. There wasn't any difference between sexes or between medical or surgical specialities. There was more correlation between professors and residents when there was an increase in training time. Conclusions: the learning styles between professors and residents are different, especially at the beginning of the medical specialty courses; that's why it is necessary to realize a confrontation between the students' learning styles and teaching methods used by professors to improve significant learning. To know learning styles gives residents an important alternative to find a better study strategy.
Full Text Available Background/AimsLeadership plays a crucial role in many professions, especially in challenging positions such as emergency medical service jobs. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between managers’ leadership styles and emergency medical technicians’ job satisfaction.MethodThis is a descriptive and cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2010. The research population included 21 managers and 87 emergency medical technicians working in 23 stations in Isfahan city, Iran. The main tools used for data accumulation were the Multiple Leadership Questionnaire for evaluating leadership styles and the Job Descriptive Index for measuring job satisfaction levels. Also, the Pearson correlation analysis test was used to evaluate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction.ResultsAmong both managers and technicians, the highest mean score related to the transformational management style, whereas the lowest mean score related to the laissez-faire management style. Moreover, a significant relationship (P<0.01 was found between the transformational and transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction. However, no significant relationship was observed between the laissez-faire management style and job satisfaction.ConclusionConsidering the importance of job satisfaction in medical emergencies, it is recommended that health sector policy makers should provide the groundwork for implementing the transformational leadership style to enhance job satisfaction of the medical emergency staff.
The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.
Ana Luiza Andrade
Full Text Available It is known that learning refers to how beings acquire new knowledge, develop skills and change behavior. Thus, knowing the learning styles of individuals is important, both for those who learn how to teach. In this sense, this research project aimed to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample, identify the predominant learning styles of these individuals and see if there is a correlation between learning styles with sociodemographic variables. The sample consisted of 248 elderly participants in the study "Continuing Education - Benefits of the Open University of the Third Age EACH USP", funded by the National Institute for Educational Studies and Research Teixeira (INEP| Ministry of Education. We used a protocol that included sociodemographic questionnaire and the Learning Style Inventory (Learning Style Inventory - LSI by David A. Kolb. Descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The dominant learning style was the assimilator and identified the association between learning styles of older people and sex (p = 0.0372, age (p = 0.0450, schooling for males (p = 0.0155 and sex for seniors with even the elementary school level (p = 0.0166. The results of this study are in line with theoretical perspectives and findings in the literature with regard to sample characteristics and learning styles identified. Future studies should be conducted in order to investigate more about the topic of learning in the elderly.
Ferrari, Robert; Louw, Deon
The objective of the study was to determine the odds ratio for compliance with referral to an active treatment program according to coping style in a cohort of acute whiplash-injured subjects. Sixty whiplash patients were assessed within 1 week of their collision for their coping styles and were then questioned 3 weeks later to determine if they had complied with a referral for an active treatment program. Coping style was assessed with the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Adjusting for age, gender, and initial whiplash disability questionnaire scores, the odds ratio for compliance with therapy for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 0.15 (P=0.03) (95% CI, 0.03-0.86) relative to all other coping style patterns, whose odds ratios did not differ from each other. As a secondary outcome, the odds ratio for reporting prescription medication use for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 6.7 (P=0.038) (95% CI, 1.1-40.4). Those whiplash patients who have a low active/high passive coping style are less likely to attend an active exercise-based rehabilitation program and more likely to use prescription medications in the first 3 weeks following injury. Coping style may affect recovery from whiplash injury through issues of compliance with active therapy and increased reliance on prescription medications.
Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y
This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.
Kadmon, Ilana; Noy, Sigal; Billig, Allan; Tzur, Tomer
To address decision-making styles among breast cancer survivors considering breast reconstruction. . A primary analysis of a cross-sectional sample among survivors who chose to have breast reconstruction to examine correlations among patient age, decision-making style, and the level of involvement of decision making. . Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. . 70 women who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery in the past five years. . Participants completed decision-making style and demographic questionnaires and an assessment of their level of involvement in the decision-making process. . Level of involvement in decision making, decision-making model between provider and patient, and decision-making styles were examined. . No correlation was found between four main decision-making styles and patient age or the extent of patient decision-making involvement and age. A statistically significant correlation was found between the level of involvement in decision making and the decision-making style of the patient. . Nurses should assess patient decision-making styles to ensure maximum patient involvement in the decision-making process based on personal desires regardless of age. . Nurses working in breast cancer care must address the decision-making process of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, including the choice to undergo breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Nurses should understand the complex factors that influence a woman's decision-making style to best help with the decision.
Sanrı, Çağla; Goodwin, Robin
Little previous research has examined the relationship between values and love styles, and none has done so across cultures or intracultural regions. This research was the first attempt to explore the correlation between individual-level values and love styles, and examined both within- and between-cultural variations in love styles. In this study 224 participants from Turkey and Britain, from urban or rural locations, completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Love Attitudes Scale measure of love styles. Pancultural analyses demonstrated significant correlations between certain value dimensions and love styles. In particular, agape (selfless love) was positively correlated with self-transcendence, ludus (game-playing love) was positively correlated with self-enhancement, and pragma (realistic love) was positively correlated with conservation. The inclusion of location and nationality and their interactions with values in the multiple regression analyses significantly increased the variance explained by values for five of the six love styles. Multivariate analyses indicated that ludus, storge, mania, and pragma were all significantly higher among Turkish respondents; pragma, mania, and agape all higher amongst rural respondents. Eros was highest among rural British respondents; storge, pragma, and agape highest among rural Turks. When these culture effects were explored, conservation significantly mediated the relationship between the groups of more conservative rural Turks (versus other participants) and both pragmatic and storgic love styles. Findings are discussed in the light of disparities in values and relationship styles within cultures, and the need to include both intracultural and intercultural variations in cross cultural research.
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis [M.S] is one of the common autoimmune diseases that effects on central nervous system. It is unpredictable and cause to changes in life style. M.S progresses to inability. There is a close relation between health and life style, so that we can prevent from rate of disease attacks. Therefore recognition life style in MS patients is very important. The objective of this study was to determine of MS patient's life style referred to MS Association in Tehran City in 2008. This research was a descriptive and analytical study. In this study2oo men and women who were suffering from M.S disease were selected. Study instrument was questionnaire and method was interviews. Data were obtained through easy; the data were analyzed with descriptive statistical and inferential statistical methods. Findings showed there were significant relation between educational level, supportive resources, number of relapse and self-care dimension in life style. Also, relation between marriage status, family income and nutrition dimension in life style was significant. According to the results of this study, life style in some dimensions [e.g. Physical activity, exercise. Sleep and rest patterns and adaptation with stress] were undesirable. These no healthy behaviors can effect on severity and relapse of disease and ultimately these effect on quality of life in these patients. Therefore, change and modification and improvement in life style in these patients seem to be essential that we can access to it with holistic educational programs.
Espinosa, Regina; Valiente, Carmen; Rigabert, Alina; Song, Hanna
Persecutory delusions are a very common symptom in psychotic disorders and represent a considerable cost for both patients and for society. The way in which a person faces their psychotic disorder (i.e., recovery style) has impact on their recovery. The impact of coping style as a moderator in the course of their illness has not been studied sufficiently in persecutory delusions. In addition, internalised stigma is a common process in psychosis that not only might affect emotional distress, but might also shape recovery style. The goal of this study was to examine the moderator role of recovery style between internalised stigma and emotional distress in people with persecutory delusions. All 50 people with persecutory beliefs were assessed by the Recovery Style Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition, and Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness. Moderation analysis showed that participants with a sealing-over recovery style had high levels of depression when they experienced internalised stigma and low levels of depression only when internalised stigma was low. However, participants with an integration recovery style presented similar levels of depression regardless of the level of their internalised stigma. Findings suggest the moderator role of recovery style between internalised stigma and depression in people with persecutory delusions.
Shakeri, Jalal; Kamangar, Mohamad; Ebrahimi, Ehteram; Aznab, Mozafar; Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid
Cancer patients experience a high level of stress caused by the disease and treatment processes. Dealing with cancer using more beneficial coping styles can effectively improve the quality of life (QOL) and reduce the side effects of cancer, and it is treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between coping styles and QOL in cancer patients. The study was performed on 150 cancer patients (71 females and 79 males) admitted to the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Endler and Parker Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to evaluate their coping style and QOL, respectively. The Present study showed in cancer patients being male, single, having higher salary and education, and lower age are related to higher QOL. Furthermore, in general, QOL of cancer patients was positively correlated with avoidant coping style (P styles (P style, predominantly on an emotion-focused coping style, is essential to improve patient's QOL, and that patients possibly to employ a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive enough notice, particularly before discharge.
Yaghoobi, Abolghasem; Mohammadzade, Serwa; Chegini, Ali Asghar; Yarmohammadi Vasel, Mosaeib; Zoghi Paidar, Mohammad Reza
Background The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. Objectives The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. Patients and Methods The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users. Of these, 203 users (103 men and 100 women) filled out the questionnaires. Results The results showed that women achieved higher scores in self-monitoring and the anxious attachment style, and men achieved higher scores in cybercrime and the anxious attachment style. There was a negative correlation between self-monitoring and cybercrime, and the anxious attachment style had a positive correlation with cybercrime and a negative correlation with self-monitoring. The secure attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. The dependent attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. All correlations were significant. Conclusions Attachment styles have significant relationships with both self-monitoring and cybercrime. Self-monitoring and attachment styles are significant predictors of cybercrimes. PMID:27818964
Wehrwein, Erica A; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E
Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write (R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire. We administered the VARK questionnaire to undergraduate physiology majors enrolled in a capstone physiology laboratory at Michigan State University; 48 of the 86 students (55.8%) who returned the completed questionnaire voluntarily offered gender information. The responses were tallied and assessed for gender difference in learning style preference; 54.2% of females and only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among the female students, 4.2% of the students preferred V, 0% of the students preferred A, 16.7% of the students preferred printed words (R), and 33.3% of the students preferred using all their senses (K). In contrast, male students were evenly distributed in preference, with 4.2% of the students preferring A, R, or K, respectively, while 0% of the students preferred V. Furthermore, 45.8% of female and 87.5% of male respondents preferred multiple modes [female: 2 modes (12.5%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (20.8%); males: 2 modes (16.7%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (58.3%)] of presentation. In summary, a majority of male students preferred multimodal instruction, specifically, four modes (VARK), whereas a majority of female students preferred single-mode instruction with a preference toward K. Thus, male and female students have significantly different learning styles. It is the responsibility of the instructor to address this diversity of learning styles and develop appropriate learning approaches.
Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei
Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, pcoping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction. PMID:24787952
Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra
The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.
Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman
This paper reports a study identifying the learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students and examining its influence on educational outcomes. There are limited recent studies in the UK on the learning styles preference of undergraduate and its influence on educational outcomes. A purposive sample of 110 undergraduate nursing students completed a demographic questionnaire and the Honey and Mumford's learning styles inventory. A pre-post-test design was used to evaluate the educational outcomes. Reflector learning styles preference was the dominant learning styles among the majority of undergraduate nursing students. An interesting phenomenon about the distribution of the learning styles preference is the additional "dual" learning style category. The hypothesis that learning styles preference will determine knowledge acquisition, changes in attitude and intervention confidence skills was rejected. However, as this is a multi-layered hypothesis the findings showed that only the dual learning styles preference group was found to have a significant influence in intervention confidence skills. Further research is warranted to replicate this study using the same methodology but with several different population samples specialising in different branch of nursing. As there are limited literature on the dual learning styles preferences, this dual preference phenomenon needs further investigation to establish its acceptability in nursing education.
This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature.
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Blank, Diana; Al Jarad, Abdulqader; Alosaimi, Fahad; Hirschfield, Gideon; Abbey, Susan E
Patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) commonly suffer from the triad of depression, pain and fatigue. This symptom triad in HCV is likely influenced by additional psychological and interpersonal factors, although the relationship is not clearly understood. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the relationship between attachment style and depressive and physical symptoms in the HCV-infected population. Over 18 months, 99 consecutively referred HCV infected patients were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 for physical symptoms and the Relationship Questionnaire for attachment style. An ANOVA was used to identify differences between attachment styles and Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the association between depression, fatigue and physical symptoms. Approximately 15 % of patients in the sample had a fearful attachment style. Patients with fearful attachment style had significantly higher depressive symptoms compared to a secure attachment style (p = .025). No differences in physical and fatigue symptoms were observed between attachment styles. Further, HDRS scores were significantly associated with fatigue scores (p < .001) and physical symptoms (p < .001), reinforcing the relationship between these symptom domains in HCV-infected patients. Although depressive, physical and fatigue symptoms are inter-related in HCV-infected patients, our study results suggest that only depressive symptoms were influenced by the extremes of attachment style. Screening of relationship styles may identify at-risk HCV-infected individuals for depression who may have difficulty engaging in care and managing physical symptoms.
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to offer the results of a pilot study which examined the personality type and teaching style preferences of faculty who elected to teach an on-line course. The article will present a description of personality assessments, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and Anthony Gregorc's Transaction Ability Inventory used to determine teaching tendencies and styles. In addition, a structured written questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher satisfaction with worldwide web-based instruction. Utilizing the results of these psychological assessments, a preliminary analysis of the personal characteristics of college professors who chose to teach on line will be presented. This pilot study found that some preferred teaching styles may be more compatible with the dynamics of distance learning formats. By determining successful teaching styles for on-line courses, we can develop more effective faculty development programs to assist others in successfully transitioning into the cyber-teaching and learning environment.
Casida, Jesus; Parker, Jessica
To explore the correlations of leadership styles of nurse managers (NMs) and outcomes. Little is known about the linkages among leadership styles [transformational (TFL), transactional (TRL)] of NMs and outcomes [a leader's extra effort (LEE), leadership satisfaction (LS) and effectiveness (LE)] using the full-range leadership theory. Methods An exploratory correlational design was employed using data from a 2007 study in which staff nurses (n = 278) from four hospitals in the Northeastern US were asked to rate the leadership styles of NMs (n = 37) and outcomes using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5x-Short. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. TFL leadership has strong correlations to LEE, LS and LE, and was a predictor for leadership outcomes. Conversely, TRL leadership has week correlations to LEE, LS and LE and did not predict leadership outcomes. NMs who frequently display TFL leadership styles will probably achieve goals in a satisfying manner, warranting further research. TFL leadership training should be a basic competency requirement of NMs. Placing successful and effective TFL leaders in nursing units are the professional and moral obligations of nurse executives. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.