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Sample records for study trace metals

  1. studies on trace metal concentration pseudotolithus elongatus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Trace metals, Lead Pollution, Pseudotolithus elongatus, Mbo coastal waters, ..... Analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and ... Pekey, H., Karakas, D., and Bakog'lu, M., 2004. Source apportionment of trace metals in the surface.

  2. Study of particle size and trace metal distribution in atmospheric aerosols of islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.H.; Shaheen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on glass fibre filters using high volume air samplers Half of each aerosol sample was solubilized in nitric acid/hydrochloric acid based wet digestion method and the concentration of trace metals was determined through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the eight trace metals analyzed, mean concentration recorded for Zn (844 ng/m3), Fe (642 ng/m3) and Pb (253 ng/m3), was found to be higher than mean levels of Mn, Cr and Co. The size distribution of the collected particulate samples was carried out on mastersizer, which revealed PM/sub 100-10/ as the major fraction (55 %) followed by PM/sub 2.5-10/ (28 %). The correlation study evidenced a strong tendency of trace metals to be associated with fine particulate fractions. The atmospheric trace metal levels showed that the mean metal concentrations in the atmosphere of Islamabad are far higher than background and European urban sites mainly due to the anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  3. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  4. Trace metal physiology in normal and pathological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the ionic tumour seeking radiopharmaceuticals consist of a metal ion combined with an anion. The choice of metal depends on the existence of radionuclides with suitable radiological properties, and on their availability. Because several of the metal complexes used in nuclear medicine are of rather recent interest, information about their metabolism is scarce. Although nuclear medicine is limited to those metals which radiochemists can produce, we can manipulate the chemical form in which the metals are introduced into the organism to some extent. The relation between chemical form and biological pathway, e.g., the extent of accumulation in certain tissues, is subject of study related to trace metal physiology. It is the purpose of this paper to try and bridge the gap between nuclear medicine and trace metal physiology by showing the progress made by the latter in the study of the metabolism of copper and zinc. Few trace metals have been studied as thoroughly as these, although iron could have been chosen just as well. This presentation is limited to a study of the fate of a metal derivative after its intravenous injection. Where possible the results obtained are related to the behaviour of metals presently of interest to nuclear medicine. (Auth.)

  5. Interactive influences of bioactive trace metals on biological production in oceanic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Donat, J.R.; Hutchins, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the oceanic chemistries of the bioactive trace metals, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; the authors combine field data with results from laboratory phytoplankton culture-trace metal studies and speculate on the potential influences of these trace metals on oceanic plankton production and species composition. Most field studies have focused on the effects of single metals. However, they propose that synergistic and antagonistic interactions between multiple trace metals could be very important in the oceans. Trace metal antagonisms that may prove particularly important are those between Cu and the potential biolimiting metals Fe, Mn, and Zn. These antagonistic interactions could have the greatest influence on biological productivity in areas of the open ocean isolated from terrestrial inputs, such as the remote high nutrient regions of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. The emerging picture of trace metal-biota interactions in these oceanic areas is one in which biology strongly influences distribution and chemical speciation of all these bioactive trace metals. It also seems likely that many of these bioactive trace metals and their speciation may influence levels of primary productivity, species composition, and trophic structure. Future investigations should give more complete consideration to the interactive effects of biologically important trace metals

  6. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  7. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  8. Study of trace metals in evaporites of Sergipe, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals and others which form strong complexes must be present in the brine feed of electrolytic cells only at very low levels. Their occurrence in quantities above the established levels has a deleterious effect on the membranes of the cells and will produce interference on voltage, current efficiency and other factors. The waste resulting from decantation of the brine causes serious environmental problems. Thirty brine samples from different sites, provided by Petrobras Mineracao S.A. (Brazil) were studied. The sample preparation method and the analytical results obtained from semiquantitative determination of trace metals by optical emission spectrography are described. The toxicity of certain metals, their effects on the environment and on electrolytic cell membranes are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  10. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  11. Metals in environmental media: A study of trace and platinum group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed study has been conducted to determine the contamination of Thohoyandou roadside soils, vegetation, sewage and river waters by Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Fe, Pt and Pd. The study further investigated the correlation between these trace metals in roadside soils and vegetation in order to infer the potential impacts of ...

  12. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  13. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of ... transfer factor (TF) showed that Zn was the most bioaccumulated trace metals by all the grasses followed by. Pb, Mn ... was used to de-contaminate copper (Cu) and.

  14. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  15. Linking Environmental Magnetism to Geochemical Studies and Management of Trace Metals. Examples from Fluvial, Estuarine and Marine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scoullos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the diverse research fields and wide range of studies encompassed by environmental magnetism, the present work elaborates on critical aspects of the geochemistry of trace metals that emerged through years of original research in a variety of environmental compartments. This review aims at sharing the insights gained on (a tracing metal pollution sources; and (b identifying processes and transport pathways from sources to depositional environments. Case studies on the Elefsis Gulf (Greece and the Gulf of Lions (France demonstrate the potential of combined magnetic measurements and chemical analysis to trace pollution signals resulting from land-based sources and atmospheric deposition. Case studies on estuarine environments, namely the Louros, Acheloos, and Asopos Estuaries (Greece, address modes of trace metal behavior under the influence of different hydrological regimes and elucidate in situ processes within the transitional estuarine zone, that define their ultimate fate. As sources, transport pathways, and processes of trace metals are fundamental in environmental management assessments, the involvement of magnetic measurements in the policy cycle could facilitate the development and implementation of appropriate regulatory measures for the integrated management of river basins, coastal, and marine areas.

  16. Trace metal speciation: Finally, correctly addressing trace metal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donard, O.F.X.

    2001-01-01

    The history of the development of trace metal speciation was discussed and the reasons behind the relatively slow widespread acceptance of its importance were presented. Partially, this was due to the lack of availability of commercial instrumentation and partly to the drive towards improving sensitivity in analytical chemistry which had focused attention on total concentration determinations. The sophistication and control of analytical instrumentation is now such that the spotlight must be turned onto the chemical species of an element present in a sample since this is what governs its behaviour in the biosphere. Indeed, several companies are currently considering the introduction of instrumentation specifically designed for metal species determination

  17. Trace Metals Concentration Assessment in Urban Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Principal component analysis revealed that major sources of trace metals in ambient air ... contributed by earth crust and windblown soil .... Source Apportionment: To probe the origin of trace .... atmospheric accumulation of heavy metals and.

  18. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  19. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  20. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  1. Limitation of productivity by trace metals in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.M.M.; Price, N.M.; Hudson, R.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Some trace metals such as Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn are essential for the growth of phytoplankton. The concentrations of these essential trace elements in seawater are so low as to limit their availability to aquatic microbiota. Trace element uptake is ultimately limited by kinetics of reaction with transport ligands or by diffusion to the cell. From what the authors know of the characteristics of the uptake systems of phytoplankton and their trace metal requirements they can estimate that Fe and Zn may at some times in some place limit phytoplankton productivity, which is in accord with available field data on trace metal enrichments

  2. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza

    2016-01-15

    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sandhopper solar orientation as a behavioural biomarker of trace metals contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungherese, Giuseppe; Ugolini, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have focused on trace metals accumulation, investigations of talitrid amphipods as biomarkers are rare. This study explores the possibility of using the solar orientation capacity of Talitrus saltator as a behavioural marker of exposure to two essential (Cu and Zn) and two non-essential (Cd and Hg) metals. LC 50 analyses performed before the solar orientation tests showed that the 72 h LC 50 for Hg was 0.02 ppm while the 96 h LC 50 values for Cu, Cd and Zn were 13.28 ppm, 27.66 ppm, and 62.74 ppm, respectively. The presence of metals in seawater affects the solar orientation capacity of T. saltator in a concentration-dependent manner and according to the toxicity ranking of the metals (Hg > Cu > Cd > Zn). Therefore, the solar orientation capacity of T. saltator seems to be a promising behavioural marker for exposure to trace metals. - Solar orientation capacity is a promising behavioural marker for exposure to trace metals in sandhoppers

  4. Microscopic study of gum-metal alloys: A role of trace oxygen for dislocation-free deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A class of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys called gum metal are known to display high strength, low Young's modulus and high elastic deformability up to 2.5%, simultaneously, and considered to deform by a dislocation-free deformation mechanism. A trace of oxygen (∼1%) in gum metal is indispensable to realize such significant properties; however, the detailed mechanism and the role of the oxygen has not been understood. To investigate an effect of trace oxygen included in gum metal, first-principles calculations for gum-metal approximants including zirconium and oxygen are performed. Calculated results clearly indicate that oxygen site with less neighboring Nb atom is energetically favorable, and that Zr–O bonding has an important role to stabilize the bcc structure of gum metal. The three-dimensional atom-probe tomography (3-D APT) measurements for gum metal were also performed to identify compositional inhomogeneity attributed to the trace elements. From the 3-D APT measurements, Zr ions bonding with oxygen ions are observed, which indicates existence of Zr–O nano-clusters in gum metal. Consequently, it is found that (a) coexistence of Zr atom and oxygen atom improves elastical stability of gum metal, (b) inhomogeneous distribution of the compositions induced by the trace elements causes anisotropical change of shear moduli, and (c) Zr–O nano-clusters existing in gum metal are expected to be obstacles to suppress movemen of dislocations.

  5. Study of the migration of toxic metals in steelmaking waste using radioactive tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.; Jauzein, M.; Charentus, T.; Margrita, R.; Dechelette, O.

    1991-01-01

    The danger presented by toxic metals contained in steelmaking wastes put into slag piles may be neutralized by suitably chosen alternation of these wastes when they are deposited. Presentation of a study method using radioactive tracing of the migration of toxic metal (cadmium, zinc, chromium) in steelmaking wastes (slag, blast furnace sludge). This non destructive method was used in columns in the laboratory, but may be used in on-site slag piles [fr

  6. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 μg/g, 49 μg/g, and 272 μg/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel

  7. Sorbent control of trace metals in sewage sludge combustion and incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I.; Yao, H.; Mkilaha, I. S. N.

    2003-05-01

    Coal and wastes combustion have become an important issue not only in terms of energy generation but also environmental conservation. The need for alternative fuels and wastes management has made the two energy sources of importance. However, the utilization of the two is faced with problems of impurity trace metals in the fuel. These metals usually speciate during combustion or incineration leading to generation of fumes and subsequently particles. This paper reports on the study aimed at understanding the speciation of trace metals and their emission from combustion systems as particulates. Experiments carried out using a down-flow furnace and theoretical study carried out using lead, chromium and cadmium as basic metals had shown that their speciation and subsequent emission is controlled by both chemical composition and physical properties of the fuel. The physical and chemical and physical properties of the fuel and their respective compounds and the operating conditions of the incineration and combustion system control the enrichment of the particles with trace metals.

  8. Urban farming as a possible source of trace metals in human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olowoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have greatly increased the concentrations of trace metals as pollutants in the urban environment. These pollutants (trace metals are more likely to have an adverse effect on peri-urban agriculture which is now becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many urban cities in the world. This review reports on the concentrations of trace metals in crops, including leafy vegetables harvested from different urban areas, thus highlighting the presence of trace metals in leafy vegetables. Various pathways of uptake of trace metals by leafy vegetables, such as the foliar and roots, and possible health risks associated with urban faming are discussed and various morphological and physiological impacts of trace metals in leafy vegetables are described. Defensive mechanisms and positive aspects of trace metals in plants are also highlighted.

  9. Photometric determination of traces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter

  10. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D.; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. - Highlights: • Trace metals measured in blood and feathers. • Arsenic, Mercury and Lead significantly higher at urban colony. • Correlations found between trace metals in feathers and blood. • Little Penguins are suitable bioindicators for coastal metal pollution. - This study confirms the suitability of the Little Penguin as a bioindicator of coastal metal pollution in coastal areas using non-destructive sampling methods

  11. Fate of alkali and trace metals in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, K.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of alkali metals (Na, K) and eleven toxic trace elements (Hg, Cd, Be, Se, Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni) in biomass gasification have been extensively investigated in Finland in the past ten years. The former due to the gas turbine requirements and the latter to comply with environmental regulations. In this paper the results of several experimental studies to measure Na and K in the vapor phase after the gas cooler of a simplified (air-blown) Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) system are reported. Also, trace element emissions from an IGCC plant using alfalfa as the feedstock are discussed and the concentration of a few toxic trace metals in the vapor phase in the gasifier product gas are reported. (author)

  12. Trace Metals in Vegetables and Cereals- A Case Study of Indian Market-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidya Nath Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables and Cereals are considered vital for properly-balanced diet given that they deliver vitamins, minerals, nutritional fiber, and phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the concentration of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg in common vegetables and cereals in urban open markets in Varanasi district, India Materials & Methods: Total 260 edible portions of vegetable samples of 13 species were collected in March to October, 2016 from predefined market sites. These samples classified into roots, stems, leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes. These samples (unwashed, acetic acid washed and boiled were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical evaluations were carried out using the IBM SPSS 21. Results: The results obtained reveal that unwashed vegetables and cereals as compared to washed and boiled samples contain higher trace metal concentration. The order of heavy metal concentration was observed in Cu>Pb>Cd>As in vegetable and cereals samples. Hg and Cr were not detected in any samples. The mean value of Cu, Cd and Pb in unwashed and washed vegetables and cereals were lower than PFA standard except As, whereas in boiled vegetables and cereals are lower than PFA standard but the mean value of Cd and Pb were many folds higher than the EU standard at all the market site samples. Leafy vegetables were found to contain the highest metals values especially Spinacia oleracea followed by roots vegetable like Brassica rapa, at all the studied sites. The market sites MS3 located in the vicinity of industrial zone and in proximity to national highway showed elevated levels of trace metals concentration in the vegetables and cereals as compared to other market sites. Conclusions: The results showed that, the As, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration were reduced to about 12.5%, 5.87%, 11.36% and 10.42% of the initial concentrations by 2% acetic acid washing and to 25%, 21.87%, 20.45% and 16.67% of the initial

  13. Adsorption of trace metals to plastic resin pellets in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Luke A.; Turner, Andrew; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic production pellets collected from beaches of south west England contain variable concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) that, in some cases, exceed concentrations reported for local estuarine sediments. The rates and mechanisms by which metals associate with virgin and beached polyethylene pellets were studied by adding a cocktail of 5 μg L −1 of trace metals to 10 g L −1 pellet suspensions in filtered seawater. Kinetic profiles were modelled using a pseudo-first-order equation and yielded response times of less than about 100 h and equilibrium partition coefficients of up to about 225 ml g −1 that were consistently higher for beached pellets than virgin pellets. Adsorption isotherms conformed to both the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and adsorption capacities were greater for beached pellets than for virgin pellets. Results suggest that plastics may represent an important vehicle for the transport of metals in the marine environment. - Highlights: ► Beached plastic production pellets contain considerable concentrations of trace metals. ► In laboratory experiments trace metals are shown to adsorb to both virgin and beached pellets. ► Metal adsorption is greater on aged pellets. ► Pellets may represent an important vehicle for metal transport in the marine environment. - Trace metals accumulate on plastic resin pellets in the marine environment through adsorption to the polymer and to chemical and biological attritions thereon.

  14. Terrestrial sedimentary pyrites as a potential source of trace metal release to groundwater – A case study from the Emsland, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, Georg J.; Sitnikova, Maria A.; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrite is a common minor constituent of terrestrial freshwater sediments and a sink for trace elements. Different amounts and morphological types (framboids and euhedral crystals) of sedimentary pyrites were found in the heavy mineral fraction of cores obtained from several drillholes located in the Emsland region, NW Germany. Their trace element contents were investigated to assess their potential for groundwater contamination after oxidation, e.g. induced by dewatering or autotrophic denitrification. Nickel, arsenic and cadmium were found in significant concentrations in pyrite. Geochemical modeling showed that elevated trace metal concentrations in groundwater, potentially exceeding drinking water standards, should preferentially occur in a less than 1 m thick zone situated around the depth of the redoxcline, where nitrate is reduced by pyrite. This was confirmed by depth-specific groundwater sampling in the Emsland and by previously published studies. The absolute concentration of released trace metals depends on their content in the pyrite but also strongly on the nitrate load of groundwater. - Highlights: • Pyrite from heavy mineral fraction of aquifer sediment analyzed for trace metal content. • Pyrites contain significant concentration of trace metals, such as nickel, arsenic, cadmium. • Trace elements are released by autotrophic denitrification. • Reactive transport model predicts small zone of trace element accumulation. • Release of trace elements strongly dependent on nitrate content of groundwater.

  15. Analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes belonging to four different countries. In the present research seven trace elements have been determined spectrophotometrically by the use of suitable analytical reagent of the respective metal ions. The metals which has been analysed quantitatively in forty one brand of cigarettes are aluminium, copper, chromium, nickel, iron titanium and zinc. The concentration per cigarette of these metals are in tolerable range. The concentration of above mentioned metal ions is highest in Pakistani cigarettes tobacco while the concentration of nickel is highest in American cigarettes. (author) 221 refs

  16. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  17. Estuaries as filters: the role of tidal marshes in trace metal removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Teuchies

    Full Text Available Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary.

  18. Estuaries as Filters: The Role of Tidal Marshes in Trace Metal Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuchies, Johannes; Vandenbruwaene, Wouter; Carpentier, Roos; Bervoets, Lieven; Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen; Maris, Tom; Cox, Tom J. S.; Van Braeckel, Alexander; Meire, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary. PMID:23950927

  19. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: Application of acid leachable technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki-Raman, D.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Mohan, S.P.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO 3 , organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO 3 indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources. - Natural and anthropogenic trace metals afeecting mangrove sediments

  20. Interactions of trace metals with hydrogels and filter membranes used in DET and DGT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmo, Oyvind A; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2008-08-01

    Equilibrium partitioning of trace metals between bulk solution and hydrogels/filter was studied. Under some conditions, trace metal concentrations were higher in the hydrogels or filter membranes compared to bulk solution (enrichment). In synthetic soft water, enrichment of cationic trace metals in polyacrylamide hydrogels decreased with increasing trace metal concentration. Enrichment was little affected by Ca and Mg in the concentration range typically encountered in natural freshwaters, indicating high affinity but low capacity binding of trace metals to solid structure in polyacrylamide gels. The apparent binding strength decreased in the sequence: Cu > Pb > Ni approximately to Cd approximately to Co and a low concentration of cationic Cu eliminated enrichment of weakly binding trace metal cations. The polyacrylamide gels also had an affinity for fulvic acid and/or its trace metal complexes. Enrichment of cationic Cd in agarose gel and hydrophilic polyethersulfone filter was independent of concentration (10 nM to 5 microM) but decreased with increasing Ca/ Mg concentration and ionic strength, suggesting that it is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. However, Cu and Pb were enriched even after equilibration in seawater, indicating that these metals additionally bind to sites within the agarose gel and filter. Compared to the polyacrylamide gels, agarose gel had a lower affinity for metal-fulvic complexes. Potential biases in measurements made with the diffusive equilibration in thin-films (DET) technique, identified by this work, are discussed.

  1. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.; Hillman, A. L.; Pompeani, D. P.; Abbott, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The remobilization of legacy contamination stored in floodplain sediments remains a threat to ecosystem and human health, particularly with potential changes in global precipitation patterns and flooding regimes. Vehicular and industrial emissions are often the dominant, recognized source of anthropogenic trace metal loadings to ecosystems today. However, loadings from early industrial activities are poorly characterized and potential sources of trace metal inputs. While potential trace metal contamination from these activities is recognized (e.g., the historical use of lead arsenate as a pesticide), the magnitude and distribution of legacy contamination is often unknown. This presentation reconstructs a lake sediment record of trace metal inputs from an oxbow lake in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sediment cores were analyzed for major and trace metal chemistry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Sediment trace metal chemistry in this approximately 250 year record (180 cm) record changes in land use and industry both in the 19th century and the 20th century. Of particular interest is early 19th century loadings of arsenic and calcium to the lake, likely attributable to pesticides and lime used in tanning processes near the lake. After this period of tanning dominated inputs, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of coal mining operations and resulting discharge of acid mine drainage to surface waters. In the 20th century portion of our record (70 -20 cm), patterns in sediment zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by the opening and closing of the nearby Donora Zinc Works and the American Steel & Wire Works, infamous facilities in the history of air quality regulation. The most recent sediment chemistry records periods include the enactment of air pollution legislation (~ 35 cm), and the phase out of tetraethyl leaded gasoline (~30 cm). Our study documents the impact of early industry in the

  2. Chemical speciation of trace metals in the industrial sludge of Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Al-Mamun, Md Habibullah; Feng, Ye; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess total concentration and chemical fractionation of trace metals in the industrial wastewater and sludge collected from seven different types of industries in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The sludge from industries is either dumped on landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in the sludges were 1.4-9,470, 4.8-994, 12.8-444, 2.2-224, 1.9-46.0 and 1.3-87.0 mg/kg, respectively. As a whole, the average concentrations of trace metals in samples were in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. The results of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the oxidizable fraction. The study revealed that the mobile fractions of trace metals are poorly predictable from the total content, and bioavailability of all fractions of elements tends to decrease.

  3. a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

    2013-05-01

    The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to

  4. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  5. Bioavailability of metals-trace in sediments: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rafaela E. de A.V.; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Lima, Vanessa Lemos de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao

    2014-01-01

    The chemical association of metals in sediments provides an indication of its release by physical, chemical and biological processes, with toxic effects under certain environmental conditions. Knowing about their chemical bonds in sediments, can recognize specific sources of pollution, and speciation of trace metals is important for bioavailability and toxicity to animals and plants. The accumulation of these particles in the sediment occur by the following mechanisms: a) adsorption to the finest particles; b) precipitating of the element in the form of compounds; c) co-precipitating of the element with iron and manganese oxides; d) complexation with organic matter; e) incorporation into the crystal lattice of minerals. Currently, five phases are considered when studying the bioavailability of trace elements in sediments: a) the exchangeable phase, MgCl 2 (causes saltiness change); b) leachable phase, (acetic acid causes pH change); c) reducible phase (hydroxylamine hydrochloride causes release of the bound metals linked to Fe and Mn oxides); d) oxidized phase, the peroxide hydrogen (cause the degradation of organic matter); e) the residual pseudo-phase, the aqua regia (cause release of metals associated to minerals). The first three phases are considered the most bioavailable. In the last two fractions, the metals are linked to sediment constituents and not bioavailable. The organic phase is relatively stable and the metal present therein are removed under oxidative conditions. Metals present in the pseudo-phase residual measure the degree of environmental pollution, since great amount of metals at this stage indicates a lower degree of pollution

  6. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  7. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  8. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  9. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  10. Measurement of trace metals in vitiligo by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, Abdel-Aziz M.; Amin, N.E.; Mohy El-Din, Safaa M.

    1985-01-01

    Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Co, Ag, Ca, and Mg were estimated in hair, fingernails and epidermis of vitiligo patients by atomic absorption spectroscopy. There has been a significant reduction in the concentration of trace metals in the studied sites. It seems that any speculation on the role of trace elements in vitiligo would have to take into account the structural defect which underlies the absence of melanin

  11. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  12. Trace metal contamination of Beaufort's Dyke, North Channel, Irish Sea: A legacy of ordnance disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Alexander; Quinn, Rory; Brown, Craig J.; Service, Matthew; Benetti, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our samples are the first trace metal concentrations taken from the valley of Beaufort's Dyke. → There is no clear trend between concentrations of trace metals in Dyke and NMMP sediments. → Particle transport simulations show dispersal of trace metals from Beaufort's Dyke is possible. → Disposed ordnance may also contribute to contamination of surrounding areas. → These methods could help predict areas at risk of future trace metal contamination as a result of ordnance disposal. - Abstract: Beaufort's Dyke is a disused ordnance disposal ground within the North Channel of the Irish Sea. Over 1 million tonnes of ordnance were disposed of in the dyke over a 40 year period representing a substantial volume of trace metal pollutants introduced to the seabed. Utilising particle transport modelling software we simulated the potential transport of metal particles from Beaufort's Dyke over a 3 month period. This demonstrated that Beaufort's Dyke has the potential to act as a source for trace metal contamination to areas beyond the submarine valley. Trace metal analysis of sediments from the Dyke and surrounding National Marine Monitoring Programme areas demonstrate that the Dyke is not the most contaminated site in the region. Particle transport modelling enables the transport pathways of trace metal contaminants to be predicted. Implementation of the technique in other munitions disposal grounds will provide valuable information for the selection of monitoring stations.

  13. Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Herting, Gunilla; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-01-01

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid-liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing 'dissolved' metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction. - Highlights: → Membrane filtration for trace metal analysis can introduce significant artifacts. → The dissolved metal fraction cannot be assessed by membrane filtration. → Non-specified filtration procedures are inadequate for scientific studies. → Artifacts caused by membrane filtration need to be addressed by regulators. - Membrane filtration cannot be used to assess the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media and needs to be defined in detail in standard tests.

  14. Studies of trace metals in fish, sediment and water from kpong reservior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yikpo, Wisdom Kwasi

    2014-06-01

    Water of good quality is indispensable to human survival on earth. The provision of potable water to both the rural and the urban populations is necessary to prevent health hazards. The aim of this research was to assess water quality with respect to physicochemical parameters and trace metals levels in the water, the sediment and the fish species from the Kpong Reservoir on the Lower Volta River. The water, the sediment and the fish samples were collected monthly for six (6) months from November 2011 to February 2012 (dry season) and from May to July 2012 ( wet season). The water, the sediment and the fish samples were analyzed for Hg, Se, Fe, Mn and Pb using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury was determined using a cold vapour technique with the AAS equipped with a hydride generator. Selenium was also determined by hydride generation. A mixture of nitric acid (HNO3 65%), hydrochloric acid ( HCl 35%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 30%) was used for complete oxidation of the organic sample in a fume chamber. The samples were loaded on a Milestone microwave Labstation ETHOS 900, INSTR:MLS -1200 MEGA. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in concentrations of the physicochemical parameters between the two seasons. Domestic, municipal and Agricultural waste might have contributed to the release of higher contaminants into the sediment in both seasons. Coefficients of variation for the physicochemical parameters were below 50%, while iron and lead in addition to phosphate and sulphate were more than 50%. The mean concentration of trace metals in the water were 0.008 mg/L for Hg, 0.0035 mg/L for Se, 0.255 mg/L for Fe, 0.087 mg/L for Mn and 0.135 mg/L for Pb. Levels of all trace metals were below the WHO guideline values, except Pb which exceeded at 0.05 mg/L. Levels of nutrients were also below the WHO guideline value except phosphate which recorded a standard deviation of ±0.02 for the WHO guideline value of 0.3 mg/ L. The

  15. Trace Metals in Urban Stormwater Runoff and their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Hall, K.; Li, L. Y.; Schreier, H.

    2009-04-01

    In past decades, due to the rapid urbanization, land development has replaced forests, fields and meadows with impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots and roads, significantly affecting watershed quality and having an impact on aquatic systems. In this study, non-point source pollution from a diesel bus loop was assessed for the extent of trace metal contamination of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in the storm water runoff. The study was carried out at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) of British Columbia, Canada. Fifteen storm events were monitored at 3 sites from the diesel bus loop to determine spatial and temporal variations of dissolved and total metal concentrations in the storm water runoff. The dissolved metal concentrations were compared with the provincial government discharge criteria and the bus loop storm water quality was also compared with previous studies conducted across the GVRD urban area. To prevent storm water with hazardous levels of contaminants from being discharged into the urban drainage system, a storm water catch basin filter was installed and evaluated for its efficiency of contaminants removal. The perlite filter media adsorption capacities for the trace metals, oil and grease were studied for better maintenance of the catch basin filter. Dissolved copper exceeded the discharge criteria limit in 2 out of 15 cases, whereas dissolved zinc exceeded the criteria in 4 out of 15 cases, and dissolved manganese was below the criteria in all of the events sampled. Dissolved Cu and Zn accounted for 36 and 45% of the total concentration, whereas Mn and Fe only accounted for 20 and 4% of their total concentration, respectively. Since they are more mobile and have higher bioaccumulation potentials, Zn and Cu are considered to be more hazardous to the aquatic environment than Fe and Mn. With high imperviousness (100%) and intensive traffic at the UBC diesel bus loop, trace metal concentrations

  16. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  17. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more...

  18. Distribution of particulate trace metals in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, D.; Murty, P.V.S.P.; Sarma, V.V.

    continuous increase from surface to bottom in the case ofFe, Ni, which appeared to be related to a combination offactors suchas authigenicprecipita tion/scavenging, rcsuspension of bottom rich sediments, and diffusion followed by precipitation at sedimcnt... ), most of these studies do not provide information onthe interaction of trace elements with particulate matter. The present study deals with the distribution of particulate trace metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and their possible interactions...

  19. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  20. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  1. Source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments: A comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trace metal pollution in river sediment poses a significant threat to watershed ecosystem health. Identifying potential sources of sediment metals and apportioning their contributions are of key importance for proposing prevention and control strategies of river pollution. In this study, three advanced multivariate receptor models, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and multivariate curve resolution weighted-alternating least-squares (MCR-WALS), were comparatively employed for source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments and applied to the Le'an River, a main tributary of Poyang Lake which is the largest freshwater lake in China. The pollution assessment with contamination factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the river sediments in Le'an River were contaminated severely by trace metals due to human activities. With the three apportionment tools, similar source profiles of trace metals in sediments were extracted. Especially, the MCR-WALS and PMF models produced essentially the same results. Comparatively speaking, the weighted schemes might give better solutions than the unweighted FA-NNC because the uncertainty information of environmental data was considered by PMF and MCR-WALS. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned as the most important pollution sources influencing the sediment metals in Le'an River with contributions of about 90%. Among them, copper tailings occupied the largest contribution (38.4–42.2%), followed by mining wastewater (29.0–33.5%), and agricultural activities (18.2–18.7%). To protect the ecosystem of Le'an River and Poyang Lake, special attention should be paid to the discharges of mining wastewater and the leachates of copper tailing ponds in that region. - Highlights: • Three advanced receptor models were comparatively employed for source apportionment. • The MCR-WALS and PMF models produce essentially same source profiles. • Copper

  2. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment ... mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  3. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composition of Trace Metals in Dust Samples Collected from Selected High Schools in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olowoyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential health risks associated with trace metal pollution have necessitated the importance of monitoring their levels in the environment. The present study investigated the concentrations and compositions of trace metals in dust samples collected from classrooms and playing ground from the selected high schools In Pretoria. Schools were selected from Pretoria based on factors such as proximity to high traffic ways, industrial areas, and residential areas. Thirty-two dust samples were collected from inside and outside the classrooms, where learners often stay during recess period. The dust samples were analysed for trace metal concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The composition of the elements showed that the concentrations of Zn were more than all other elements except from one of the schools. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the schools (p<0.05. Regular cleaning, proximity to busy road, and well maintained gardens seem to have positive effects on the concentrations of trace metals recorded from the classrooms dust. The result further revealed a positive correlation for elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Sb, indicating that the dust might have a common source.

  5. Distributions of traces of metals on sorption from solutions of vanadium(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, N.K.; Turnaov, A.N.; Telegin, G.F.; Kremenskaya, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the distributions of traces of metals between aqueous solutions of vanadium(V) and a solid reagent made by introducing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid into an inert matrix: a nonionic macroporous copolymer of polystyrene with divinyl benzene (wofatit Y 29). As regards degree of extraction, the trace components fall in the series zinc > cadmium > manganese > copper > cobalt, which resemble the extractability series. The vanadium content of the solution and the concentrations of the trace components have virtually no effect on the sorption. The process is effective in concentrating trace components from solutions containing vanadium(V)

  6. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  7. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Molecular Speciation of Trace Metal Organic Complexes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R. M.; Bundy, R. M.; Babcock-Adams, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial production across approximately one third of the surface ocean is limited by extraordinarily low (picomolar) concentrations of dissolved iron, essentially all of which is complexed to strong organic ligands of unknown composition. Other biologically important trace metals (cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel) are also complexed to strong organic ligands, which again have not been extensively characterized. Nevertheless, organic ligands exert a strong influence on metal bioavailability and toxicity. For example, amendment experiments using commercially available siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, show these ligands can both facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on the siderophore composition and available uptake pathways. Over the past few years we have developed analytical techniques using high pressure liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify and quantify trace metal organic complexes in laboratory cultures of marine microbes and in seawater. We found siderophores to be widely distributed in the ocean, particularly in regions characterized by low iron concentrations. We also find chemically distinct complexes of copper, zinc, colbalt and nickel that we have yet to fully characterize. We will discuss some of our recent work on trace metal organic speciation in seawater and laboratory cultures, and outline future efforts to better understand the microbial cycling of trace metal organic complexes in the sea.

  9. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  10. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10"3 mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K_s_p_(_M_e_S_)/K_s_p_(_p_y_r_)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r"2 = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  11. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-01-01

    mapping or the predicted levels of trace metals • Drinking water was predicted to be at risk from studied trace metals • 53% of the total area of Pakistan found to be contaminated with trace metals

  12. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    mapping or the predicted levels of trace metals • Drinking water was predicted to be at risk from studied trace metals • 53% of the total area of Pakistan found to be contaminated with trace metals.

  13. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  14. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  15. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  16. Are acid volatile sulfides (AVS) important trace metals sinks in semi-arid mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Hermano Melo; Nóbrega, Gabriel Nuto; Otero, Xose L; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2018-01-01

    Acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) formation and its role on trace metals bioavailability were studied in semi-arid mangroves. The semi-arid climatic conditions at the studied sites, marked by low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates, clearly limited the AVS formation (AVS contents varied from 0.10 to 2.34μmolg -1 ) by favoring oxic conditions (Eh>+350mV). The AVS contents were strongly correlated with reactive iron and organic carbon (r=0.84; r=0.83 respectively), evidencing their dominant role for AVS formation under semi-arid conditions. On the other hand, the recorded ΣSEM/AVS values remained >1 evidencing a little control of AVS over the bioavailability of trace metals and, thus, its minor role as a sink for toxic metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  18. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic

  19. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  20. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  1. Recovery of Trace and Heavy Metals from Coal Combustion Residues for Reuse and Safe Disposal: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-09-01

    The safe disposal of coal combustion residues (CCRs) will remain a major public issue as long as coal is used as a fuel for energy production. Both dry and wet disposal methods of CCRs create serious environmental problems. The dry disposal method creates air pollution initially, and the wet disposal method creates water pollution as a result of the presence of trace and heavy metals. These leached heavy metals from fly ash may become more hazardous when they form toxic compounds such as arsenic sulfite (As2S3) and lead nitrate (N2O6Pb). The available studies on trace and heavy metals present in CCRs cannot ensure environmentally safe utilization. In this work, a novel approach has been offered for the retrieval of trace and heavy metals from CCRs. If the proposed method becomes successful, then the recovered trace and heavy metals may become a resource and environmentally safe use of CCRs may be possible.

  2. Effects of trace metal concentrations on the growth of the coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Barra Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirement of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of S. kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal interreplacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  3. Particulate trace metals in Cochin backwaters: Distribution of seasonal indices

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.

    that surface distribution pattern of the trace metal concentration of cobalt, nickel and iron was almost similar at the four stations thereby stressing the fact that seasonal fluctuations contributed a major part in the surface distribution of these metals...

  4. HAIR HEAVY METAL AND ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Kandelaki, E; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-11-01

    Our study aims evaluation of level of essential trace elements and heavy metals in the hair samples of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identification of changes that are associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Case-control study was conducted at Child Development Center of Iashvili Children's Central Hospital (LD).We studied 60 children aged from 4 to 5 years old. The concentrations of 28 elements among (Ca,Zn, K, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Mo, Sr, Ti, Ba, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Zr, Sn, Bi) them trace elements and toxic metals) were determined in scalp hair samples of children (n=30) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and from control group of healthy children (n=30) with matched sex and age. Micro-elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method (Method MBИ 081/12-4502-000, Apparatus ALVAX- CIP, USA - UKRAIN) .To achieve the similarity of study and control groups, pre and postnatal as well as family and social history were assessed and similar groups were selected. Children with genetic problems, malnourished children, children from families with social problems were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of ASD were performed by pediatrician and psychologist (using M-CHAT and ADOS) according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric association) criteria. The study was statistically analyzed using computer program SPSS 19. Deficiencies of essential trace microelements revealed in both group, but there was significant difference between control and studied groups. The most deficient element was zinc (92% in target and 20% in control), then - manganese (55% and 8%) and selenium (38% and 4%). In case of cooper study revealed excess concentration of this element only in target group in 50% of cases. The contaminations to heavy metals were detected in case of lead (78% and 16), mercury (43% and 10%) and cadmium (38% and 8%). The

  5. Trace Metal Concentrations in Commercially Important Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Some trace metals such as zinc and copper are important in small quantities for ...... Cameroon: Institut de recherches meddicales et d'etudes des plantes edicinales, ... Determination of Total Cadmium, Zinc, Lead, Copper in Selected Marine ...

  6. Spatial variability and temporal changes in the trace metal content of soils: implications for mine restoration plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rachna; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Azeez, P A

    2014-06-01

    Trace metals in soils may be inherited from the parent materials or added to the system due to anthropogenic activities. In proposed mining areas, trace metals become an integral part of the soil system. Usually, researchers undertake experiments on plant species selection (for the restoration plan) only after the termination of mining activities, i.e. without any pre-mining information about the soil-plant interactions. Though not shown in studies, it is clear that several recovery plans remain unsuccessful while carrying out restoration experiments. Therefore, we hypothesize that to restore the area effectively, it is imperative to consider the pre-mining scenario of metal levels in parent material as well as the vegetation ecology of the region. With these specifics, we examined the concentrations of trace metals in parent soils at three proposed bauxite locations in the Eastern Ghats, India, and compared them at a spatio-temporal scale. Vegetation quantification and other basic soil parameters accounted for establishing the connection between soil and plants. The study recorded significant spatial heterogeneity in trace metal concentrations and the role of vegetation on metal availability. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) directly influenced metal content, and Cu and Ni were lithogenic in origin. It implies that for effective restoration plant species varies for each geological location.

  7. Trace metals and vitamin levels in Nigerian patients with sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of the higher levels of magnesium in the patients is unclear and needs further investigation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this observation. Keywords: ataxia, trace metals, vitamins, Nigerians Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 4(2) 2005: 156–160 ...

  8. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in newly diagnosed hypertensives (NDH) A total of 50 NDH subjects (24 males and 26 females) attending Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo ...

  9. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  10. Trace metal in surface water and groundwater and its transfer in a Yellow River alluvial fan: Evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. The aim of sustainable management of the agro-ecosystem includes ensuring that water continues to fulfill its function in agricultural production, cycling of elements, and as a habitat of numerous organisms. There is no doubt that the influence of large-scale irrigation projects has impacted the regional surface–groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given these concerns, the aim of this study is to evaluate the pollution, identify the sources of trace metals, analyze the influence of surface–groundwater interactions on trace metal distribution, and to propose urgent management strategies for trace metals in the agriculture area in China. Trace metals, hydrochemical indicators (EC, pH, concentrations of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) and stable isotopic composition (δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. Trace metals were detected in all samples. Concentrations of Fe, Se, B, Mn, and Zn in SW exceeded drinking water standards by 14.8%, 29.6%, 25.9%, 11.1%, and 14.8% higher, respectively, and by 3.8%, 23.1%, 11.5%, 11.5%, and 7.7% in GW. The pollution of trace metals in surface water was more serious than that in groundwater, and was also higher than in common irrigation areas in NCP. Trace metals were found to have a combined origin of geogenic and agriculture and industrial activities. Their distribution varied greatly and exhibited a certain relationship with the water flow direction, with the exception of a number of singular sites. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidence indicates surface–groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of trace metal in the study area. Facing the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring net to warn of increased risk are

  11. Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audry, Stephane; Grosbois, Cecile; Bril, Hubert; Schaefer, Joerg; Kierczak, Jakub; Blanc, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Mining/smelting wastes and reservoir sediment cores from the Lot River watershed were studied using mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS, EMPA) and geochemical (redox dynamics, selective extractions) approaches to characterize the main carrier phases of trace metals. These two approaches permitted determining the role of post-depositional redistribution processes in sediments and their effects on the fate and mobility of trace metals. The mining/smelting wastes showed heterogeneous mineral compositions with highly variable contents of trace metals. The main trace metal-bearing phases include spinels affected by secondary processes, silicates and sulfates. The results indicate a clear change in the chemical partitioning of trace metals between the reservoir sediments upstream and downstream of the mining/smelting activities, with the downstream sediments showing a 2-fold to 5-fold greater contribution of the oxidizable fraction. This increase was ascribed to stronger post-depositional redistribution of trace metals related to intense early diagenetic processes, including dissolution of trace metal-bearing phases and precipitation of authigenic sulfide phases through organic matter (OM) mineralization. This redistribution is due to high inputs (derived from mining/smelting waste weathering) at the water-sediment interface of (i) dissolved SO 4 promoting more efficient OM mineralization, and (ii) highly reactive trace metal-bearing particles. As a result, the main trace metal-bearing phases in the downstream sediments are represented by Zn- and Fe-sulfides, with minor occurrence of detrital zincian spinels, sulfates and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Sequestration of trace metals in sulfides at depth in reservoir sediments does not represent long term sequestration owing to possible resuspension of anoxic sediments by natural (floods) and/or anthropogenic (dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation. It is estimated that, during a major

  12. Dissolved and particulate trace metals in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; De; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Pb, both in soluble and particulate forms were studied in the upper 200 m depth. Correlation between the trace metal concentration and the primary productivity was also investigated. Zn, Ni and Co were...

  13. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  14. Bioaccessibility of selected trace metals in urban PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples: a model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falta, Thomas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Division of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Bioaccessibility of trace metals originating from urban particulate matter was assessed in a worst case scenario to evaluate the uptake and thus the hazardous potential of these metals via gastric juice. Sampling was performed over a period of about two months at the Getreidemarkt in downtown Vienna. Concentrations of the assayed trace metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb) were determined in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples by ICP-MS. The metal concentrations in sampled air were in the low picogram to high nanogram per cubic metre range. The concentrations in PM{sub 2.5} samples were generally lower than those in PM{sub 10} samples. The average daily intake of these metals by inhalation for a healthy adult was estimated to be in the range of <1 ng (Tl) to >1,000 ng (Zn). To estimate the accessibility of the inhaled and subsequently ingested metals (i.e. after lung clearance had taken place) in the size range from 2.5- to 10-{mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter, a batch-extraction with synthetic gastric juice was performed. The data were used to calculate the bioaccessibility of the investigated trace metals. Extractable fractions ranged from 2.10% (Ti in PM{sub 2.5}) to 91.0% (Cd in PM{sub 2.5}), thus yielding bioaccessible fractions (PM{sub 2.5-10}) from 0.16 ng (Ag) to 178 ng (Cu). (orig.)

  15. Determination of metallic traces in kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens of rats with metallic implants after a long implantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Alonso, Maria Cristina; Alonso, Concepcion; Alobera, Miguel Angel; Clemente, Celia; Munuera, Luis; Escudero, Maria Lorenza

    2008-01-01

    Metallic transfer from implants does not stop at surrounding tissues, and metallic elements may be transferred by proteins to become lodged in organs far from the implant. This work presents an in vivo study of metallic implant corrosion to measure metallic element accumulation in organs located far from the implant, such as kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens. The studied metallic implant materials were CoCr alloy, Ti, and the experimental alloy MA956 coated with alpha-alumina. The implants were inserted in the hind legs of Wistar rats. Analysis for Co, Cr, Ti and Al metallic traces was performed after a long exposure time of 12 months by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) with Mass Spectrometry (MS). According to the results, the highest Cr and Ti concentrations were detected in spleens. Co is mainly found in kidneys, since this element is eliminated via urine. Cr and Ti traces increased significantly in rat organs after the long implantation time. The organs of rats implanted with the alpha-alumina coated experimental MA956 did not present any variation in Al content after 12 months, which means there was no degradation of the alumina layer surface.

  16. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D ow , ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant ( 3.3 -10 5.3 ml g -1 . The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating trace metals in natural waters

  17. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Mawji, Edward [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D{sub ow}, ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (<1%) to octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10{sup 3.3}-10{sup 5.3} ml g{sup -1}. The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating

  18. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, A.; Dawson, K.; Sassiat, N.; Quinn, A. J.; O'Riordan, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H2SO4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  19. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O'Riordan, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu 2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu 2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  20. Facilitation drives the positive effects of plant richness on trace metal removal in a biodiversity experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoextraction is an environmentally acceptable and inexpensive technique for mine tailing rehabilitation that uses metallophyte plants. These plants reduce the soil trace metal contents to environmentally acceptable levels by accumulating trace metals. Recently, whether more trace metals can be removed by species-rich communities of these plants received great attention, as species richness has been reported having positive effects on ecosystem functions. However, how the species richness affects trace metals removal of plant communities of mine tailing is rarely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of species richness on soil trace metal removal in both natural and experimental plant communities. The root lengths and stem heights of each plant species were measured in order to calculate the functional diversity indices. Our results showed that trace metal (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in mine tailing soil declined as species richness increased in both the natural and experimental plant communities. Species richness, rather than functional diversity, positively affected the mineralomass of the experimental plant communities. The intensity of plant-plant facilitation increased with the species richness of experimental communities. Due to the incremental role of plant-plant facilitation, most of the species had higher biomasses, higher trace metal concentrations in their plant tissues and lower malondialdehyde concentrations in their leaves. Consequently, the positive effects of species richness on mineralomass were mostly attributable to facilitation among plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide clear evidence that, due to plant-plant facilitation, species richness positively affects the removal of trace metals from mine tailing soil through phytoextraction and provides further information on diversity conservation and environmental remediation in a mine tailing environment.

  1. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  2. Influence of Protozoan Grazing on the Marine Geochemistry of Particle Reactive Trace Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbeau, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    .... Principle findings included mobilization of extracellular as well as intracellular trace metals by protists, apparent generation of metal-organic complexes, and decoupling of metal and carbon cycling...

  3. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Bonten, Luc T C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-12-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still limited. Here, a field-contaminated paddy soil was subjected to two flooding and drainage cycles in a pot experiment with two rice plant cultivars, exhibiting either high or low Cd accumulation characteristics. Flooding led to a strong vertical gradient in the redox potential (Eh). The pH and Mn, Fe, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased with decreasing Eh and vice versa. During flooding, trace metal solubility decreased markedly, probably due to sulfide mineral precipitation. Despite its low solubility, the Cd content in rice grains exceeded the food quality standards for both cultivars. Trace metal contents in different rice plant tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) increased at a constant rate during the first flooding and drainage cycle but decreased after reaching a maximum during the second cycle. As such, the high temporal variability in trace metal solubility was not reflected in trace metal uptake by rice plants over time. This might be due to the presence of aerobic conditions and a consequent higher trace metal solubility near the root surface, even during flooding. Trace metal solubility in the rhizosphere should be considered when linking water management to trace metal uptake by rice over time.

  4. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references

  5. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  6. Trace Metals in Mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    A coastal survey in the northwestern Mediterranean region was initiated to measure existing levels of selected trace metals in mussels. For most metals the highest values were found in samples from port cities and areas in the vicinity of river discharge. Marked seasonal variation for many metals was evident; an overall increase in metal concentration in mussels from most stations during March 1974 was attributed to high precipitation and attendant run-off rather than to local pollution. Data comparison indicates that average metal levels in northwestern Mediterranean mussels do not differ markedly from those measured in similar species from different localities throughout the world. (author)

  7. Dissolved trace metal (Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, and Ag) distribution and Cu speciation in the southern Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiaojing, Wang; Jihua, Liu; Xuefa, Shi

    2017-02-01

    Trace metals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling in ocean systems. However, because the use of trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques has been limited in coastal China, there are few accurate trace metal data for that region. This work studied spatial distribution of selected dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cu, Co, Cd, and Ni) and Cu speciation in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and Bohai Sea (BS). In general, the average metal (Cu, Co, Cd, and Ni) concentrations found in the SYS were lower by a factor of two than those in BS, and they are comparable to dissolved trace metal concentrations in coastal seawater of the United States and Europe. Possible sources and sinks and physical and biological processes that influenced the distribution of these trace metals in the study region were further examined. Close relationships were found between the trace metal spatial distribution with local freshwater discharge and processes such as sediment resuspension and biological uptake. Ag, owing to its extremely low concentrations, exhibited a unique distribution pattern that magnified the influences from the physical and biological processes. Cu speciation in the water column showed that, in the study region, Cu was strongly complexed with organic ligands and concentrations of free cupric ion were in the range of 10-12.6-10-13.2 mol L-1. The distribution of Cu-complexing ligand, indicated by values of the side reaction coefficient α', was similar to the Chl a distribution, suggesting that in situ biota production may be one main source of Cu-complexing organic ligand.

  8. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Bloody Cockle (Anadara senilis) from Ghana: Biokinetics and Human Bioaccessibility Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    A series of experimental studies has been carried out to study the kinetic of accumulation and human exposure to trace metals using the bloody cockle (Anadara senilis) as a model organism. This species is of ecological and economic importance in Ghana and other parts of Western Africa where they are commonly found. Trace metals mainly Mn, Co, Zn, Ag and Cd were studied using both laboratory mesocosm and field investigations. The laboratory experiments were carried out through the use of radiotracers: "5"4Mn, "5"7Co, "6"5Zn, "1"1"0"mAg and "1"0"9Cd, to study the kinetics of metal accumulation in the cockle through 2 different exposure pathways. The variability of metal bioaccumulation in the bloody cockle as a function of environmental and physiological conditions was also investigated. Metal subcellular fractionation, tissue distribution and simulating human digestion through the use of in vitro methodology were incorporated to understand the processes governing metal accumulation and human health risk assessment from the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Following a 2-hour single feeding and a 28-day depuration period, metals ingested with food (Isochrysis galbana or Skeletonema costatum) were moderate to highly assimilated in the cockle (11 to 72%), although, the degree of assimilation was dependant on the type of phytoplankton strain, the studied metals and the size of the cockle. Retention of assimilated metals was metal dependant being described as weak for Ag (T_b_1_/_2 of 2 to 6 days), moderate for Mn, Co and Zn (T_b_1_/_2 of 13 to 47 days) and strong for Cd (T_b_1_/_2 ≥ 97 days). Over a 28-day dissolved exposure period, bioconcentration kinetics of metals in two size classes of bloody cockles studied under different exposure conditions (high and low salinity) generally were best described by a saturation model assuming an apparent steady state concentration. The results showed strong variability on the kinetics of metal uptake among different size

  9. Investigating Planetesimal Evolution by Experiments with Fe-Ni Metallic Melts: Light Element Composition Effects on Trace Element Partitioning Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    As planetesimals were heated up in the early Solar System, the formation of Fe-Ni metallic melts was a common occurrence. During planetesimal differentiation, the denser Fe-Ni metallic melts separated from the less dense silicate components, though some meteorites suggest that their parent bodies only experienced partial differentiation. If the Fe-Ni metallic melts did form a central metallic core, the core eventually crystallized to a solid, some of which we sample as iron meteorites. In all of these planetesimal evolution processes, the composition of the Fe-Ni metallic melt influenced the process and the resulting trace element chemical signatures. In particular, the metallic melt's "light element" composition, those elements present in the metallic melt in a significant concentration but with lower atomic masses than Fe, can strongly affect trace element partitioning. Experimental studies have provided critical data to determine the effects of light elements in Fe-Ni metallic melts on trace element partitioning behavior. Here I focus on combining numerous experimental results to identify trace elements that provide unique insight into constraining the light element composition of early Solar System Fe-Ni metallic melts. Experimental studies have been conducted at 1 atm in a variety of Fe-Ni systems to investigate the effects of light elements on trace element partitioning behavior. A frequent experimental examination of the effects of light elements in metallic systems involves producing run products with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases. Such solid-metal-liquid-metal experiments have been conducted in the Fe-Ni binary system as well as Fe-Ni systems with S, P, and C. Experiments with O-bearing or Si-bearing Fe-Ni metallic melts do not lend themselves to experiments with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases, due to the phase diagrams of these elements, but experiments with two immiscible Fe-Ni metallic melts have provided insight into

  10. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  11. Seasonal comparison of trace metal residues in white-footed mice and soil from colliery stripmines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausbeck, J.S.; Husby, M.P.; McBee, K.

    1994-01-01

    Mine tailings of abandoned coal stripmines in Oklahoma and other regions of the US have been shown to contain slightly elevated levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Metalliferous stripmine spoil has been found to contain much higher levels of Cu and Zn than colliery stripmines, and many other trace metals including cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) among others. Although levels of trace metal contamination were lower for coal stripmines, research has shown small mammals exposed to low levels of trace metals may bioaccumulate trace metals. This study intended to determine the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in liver, kidney, and bone tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and examine the variance of these levels among sites and seasons. Preliminary results of soil analysis have indicated that mice collected from stripmine sites were exposed to slightly elevated levels of Zn and Cd in stripmine spoil collected from Okmulgee Co., OK. Kidney and liver tissues from mice collected at stripmine sites within this county have shown significantly greater levels of Cd and Zn than tissues collected from reference mice. Significant seasonal variation in renal and hepatic Zn concentrations was observed and possibly was related to a change in diet or reproductive activity

  12. Release kinetics and mechanisms of trace heavy metals from cement based material; Cinetiques et mecanismes de relargage des metaux lourds presents en traces dans les matrices cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudilou, E.

    2002-12-15

    Chemical species contained in a solid matrix may be transferred to the environment through water leaching. Previous studies of trace metals released from building materials (particularly cement-based ones) highlight an important analytical difficulty. The aim of this study is to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms involved in the release of trace heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) from industrial cement pastes (usually ranging from 20 to 300 ppm). The development of a dynamic leaching system, named CTG-LEACHCRETE, (used at pH=5, 20 C) which permits the evaluation of the kinetics of trace heavy metals is presented in the first part. Also, innovative solid analysis techniques (ICP-MS-Laser Ablation, local and Grazing Incidence X-rays Diffraction (GIXD) technique) were used to characterise the cement-degraded layers formed during leaching experiments. These techniques enable to monitor the mineralogical evolution and the distribution of trace metals in these areas. The confrontation of these two approaches, kinetic and solid analysis, coupled with a thorough investigation of previously developed models, lead to proposals concerning the mechanisms of release of the trace heavy metals studied. In all the cement pastes studied (CPA-CEM I, CPJ-CEM II/A and CLC-CEM V/A), chromium is trapped in ettringite by substitution SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}(U)CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and its release is then controlled by the dissolution of this hydrate. The behaviour of copper, nickel and zinc in degraded areas and in leachates, are correlated to the silicon of the hydrated calcium silicate (CSH), which imply that they are localised there. Lead, was never detected in the leachates. But it is also correlated to the silicon in the degraded layers. (author)

  13. Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on determination of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown near of Manyoni uranium deposit. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from five sites namely Mitoo Mbuga, farming area, Miyomboni, Tambukareli and near water pump. The concentrations of heavy ...

  14. Epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata as a sentinel for trace metal pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely spread lichen specie Flavoparmelia caperata is used in a biomonitoring study for atmospheric trace metal pollution in natural ecosystems in Southeastern Serbia. The concentration and distribution pattern of 21 metals in lichens were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The difference observed between metal deposition in peripheral and central parts of lichen thalli reflected air quality changes in the last and previous years. These findings were confirmed with principal component analysis. Our study demonstrated the accumulation of Ba, K, Mg, Na, Tl and Zn in peripheral parts of thalli, while As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Ni, Pb and Se were concentrated in central parts of thalli.

  15. Potential release of in vivo trace metals from metallic medical implants in the human body: from ions to nanoparticles--a systematic analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk

    2014-06-01

    Metal ion release from metallic materials, e.g. metallic alloys and pure metals, implanted into the human body in dental and orthopedic surgery is becoming a major cause for concern. This review briefly provides an overview of both metallic alloys and pure metals used in implant materials in dental and orthopedic surgery. Additionally, a short section is dedicated to important biomaterials and their corrosive behavior in both real solutions and various types of media that model human biological fluids and tissues. The present review gives an overview of analytical methods, techniques and different approaches applied to the measurement of in vivo trace metals released into body fluids and tissues from patients carrying metal-on-metal prostheses and metal dental implants. Reference levels of ion concentrations in body fluids and tissues that have been determined by a host of studies are compiled, reviewed and presented in this paper. Finally, a collection of published clinical data on in vivo released trace metals from metallic medical implants is included. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bromate and trace metal levels in bread loaves from outlets within Ile-Ife Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread loaves randomly sampled from nine outlets and bakeries within Ile-Ife were analysed to determine their safety levels for human consumption with respect to bromate and trace metal contents. Bromate determination was carried out via spectrophotometric method while trace metals in the digested bread samples were profiled using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Bromate levels in the analyzed bread samples ranged from 2.051 ± 0.011 μg/g to 66.224 ± 0.014 μg/g while the trace metal levels were of the order: 0.03–0.10 μg/g Co = 0.03–0.10 μg/g Pb < 0.23–0.46 μg/g Cu < 2.23–6.63 μg/g Zn < 25.83–75.53 μg/g Mn. This study revealed that many bread bakers around Ile-Ife had not fully complied with the bromate-free rule stipulated by NAFDAC contrary to the “bromate free” inscribed on the labels of the bread. The bread samples contained both essential and toxic trace metals to levels that could threaten the health of consumers over prolonged regular consumption.

  17. Trace metals bioaccumulation potentials of three indigenous grasses grown on polluted soils collected around mining areas in Pretoria, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, G. N.; Olowoyo, J. O.; Modise, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phyto remediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in re mediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three indigenous grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of these grasses were introduced into pots containing polluted soil samples after the addition of organic manure. The seeds of the grasses were allowed to germinate and grow to maturity before harvesting. The harvested grasses were later separated into shoots and roots and the trace metal contents were determined using ICP –MS. From all the grasses, the concentrations of trace metals in the roots were more than those recorded in the shoot with a significant difference (P Themeda trianda > Cynodon dactylon. The study concluded that the three grasses used were all able to bioaccumulate trace metals in a similar proportion from the polluted soils. However, since livestock feed on these grasses, they should not be allowed to feed on the grasses used in this study especially when harvested from a polluted soil due to their bioaccumulative potentials. (au)

  18. enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twelve (12) elements (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Sr, and Zr ) were detected in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) ..... Ni and V didn't show spatial variation (p>0.05). For K, ..... K.A. Wet deposition of trace metals to a remote.

  19. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R.C.; Baliarsingh, S.K.; Srinivasa, Rao B.; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K.; Sahu, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe > Ni > Mn > Pb > As > Zn > Cr > V > Se > Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe > Mn > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > V > Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. - Highlights: • First-hand report on trace metal concentration in zooplankton and seawater covering 2 years from this eco-sensitive region. • In seawater trace metals followed the rank order of Fe > Ni > Mn > Pb > As > Zn > Cr > V > Se > Cd. • In zooplankton the rank order was Fe > Mn > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > V > Se. • The bioaccumulation factor of Fe was highest followed by Zn. • Strong affinity, coexistence, and similar source of trace metals in the study area.

  20. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  1. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  2. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  3. Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiming; Qian, Xin, E-mail: xqian@nju.edu.cn; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yulei; Gao, Hailong

    2013-07-01

    The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied for partitioning and evaluating the mobility, availability and persistence of trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) in urban street dusts collected from different areas of Nanjing, China. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Sr (91.65%) > Pb (79.16%) > Zn (74.26%) > Cu (68.53%) > Co (45.98%) > Al (40.01%) ≈ V (38.45%) ≈ Ni (37.88%) > Cr (29.35%) > Cd (22.68%). Almost every trace metal had its highest total concentrations in the industrial area, except for Sr which had its highest concentration in the commercial area. Contamination factors (Cf), risk assessment code (RAC) and enrichment factor (Ef) were then calculated to further assess the environmental risk and provide a preliminary estimate of the main sources of trace metals in street dusts. Non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects due to exposure to urban street dusts were assessed for both children and adults. For non-carcinogenic effects, ingestion was the main route of exposure to street dusts for these metals, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1, and Pb exhibited the highest risk value (0.125) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for Cd, Co, Cr and Ni were all below the acceptable level (< 10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • This study assesses a comprehensive environmental risk of urban trace metal pollution. • This study evaluates human health risk combined with the speciation of trace metals. • This study points the critical contaminated metals that need to be paid special attention. • This study supplies useful information and reference on the application of BCR SPE method.

  4. The role of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical methods in dose-effect relationship studies for the setting of trace metal protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.; Edel, J.; Goetz, L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prepare a scientifically accurate health protection criteria documents for trace metals integrated multidisciplinary research is necessary. In particular, the rational for structuring the documents should be based primarily on the two major questions of exposure and response. Unfortunately, in a majority of cases there is a paucity of relevant data to the establishment of dose-effect relationships. This work intends to show the role that neutron activation analysis and radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity have in solving problems relevant for establishment dose-effect relationships for trace metals. Typical applications in the different research areas involved in the preparation of the protection criteria, from source and exposure to levels and forms of trace metals in humans, are presented. (author)

  5. Radionuclides and trace metals in surface air. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feely, H.W.; Toonkel, L.E.; Larsen, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1963, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), formerly the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL), has been conducting the Surface Air Sampling Program. This study is a direct outgrowth of a program initiated by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1957 and continued through 1962. The primary objective of this program is to study the spatial and temporal distribution of specific natural and man-made radioisotopes, and of trace metals in the surface air. Other special studies of surface air contamination have been performed during the course of the program

  6. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-12-15

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on chelation properties of ampicillin with trace metal ions and comparison with penicillin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, F.S.; Hameed, W.

    2003-01-01

    The penicillin is highly effective antibiotic with extremely wide margin of safety. Ampicillin e is the penicillin group of antibiotic in which side chain is phenyl group i.e. D-amino benzyl penicillin. The side chain determines many of anti bacterial and pharmacological characteristics. They inhibit the protein synthesis in bacterial cell wall. The chelating properties of the antibiotic may be used in the metal transport across the membrane. The present investigations are helpful in drug metabolism and their effects on minerals contents of the body. The complex formation between Ampicillin and penicillin with trace metal ions such as Fe(III), Cr(III), Al(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(III) and Zn(II) were studied by potentiometric titrations and spectrophotometric methods. Stoichiometry of these complexes were studied by mole ratio method. It was found that the Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions form most stable complexes near physiological pH and the mole ratio was 1:1. (author)

  9. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  10. Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron- oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.

  11. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  12. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  13. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    copper and lead sulpho-salts (Dzigbordi-Adjimah, 1988). ... The resulting solution was analysed for trace metals at the Institute of Mining and Mineral ..... found in the samples (Tables 3 and 4) may be due to the mineral-water interactions and.

  14. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  15. Effective removal of hazardous trace metals from recovery boiler fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Golmaei, Mohammad; Jernström, Eeva; Häkkinen, Antti

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study is to introduce a treatment sequence enabling straightforward and effective recovery of hazardous trace elements from recovery boiler fly ash (RBFA) by a novel method, and to demonstrate the subsequent removal of Cl and K with the existing crystallization technology. The treatment sequence comprises two stages: dissolution of most other RBFA components than the hazardous trace elements in water in Step 1 of the treatment, and crystallization of the process chemicals in Step 2. Solid-liquid separation has an important role in the treatment, due to the need to separate first the small solid residue containing the trace elements, and to separate the valuable crystals, containing Na and S, from the liquid rich in Cl and K. According to the results, nearly complete recovery of cadmium, lead and zinc can be reached even without pH adjustment. Some other metals, such as Mg and Mn, are removed together with the hazardous metals. Regarding the removal of Cl and K from the process, in this non-optimized case the removal efficiency was satisfactory: 60-70% for K when 80% of sodium was recovered, and close to 70% for Cl when 80% of sulfate was recovered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F.; Bonten, Luc T.C.; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still

  17. Feedback interactions between trace metal nutrients and phytoplankton in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSunda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are affected by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium. Of these, iron exerts the greatest limiting influence on carbon fixation rates and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N2 fixation rates, and thus exerts an important influence on ocean inventories of biologically available fixed nitrogen. Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in controlling the biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO2 pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO2 levels and CO2-linked global warming. Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese have a lesser effect on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among algal species. The interactions between trace metals and ocean plankton are reciprocal: not only do the metals affect the plankton, but the plankton regulate the distributions, chemical speciation, and cycling of these metals through cellular uptake and regeneration processes, downward flux of biogenic particles, cellular release of organic chelators, and mediation of redox reactions. This two way interaction has influenced not only the biology and chemistry of the modern ocean, but has had a profound influence on biogeochemistry of the ocean and earth system as a whole, and on the evolution marine and terrestrial biology over geologic history.

  18. Trace metal anomalies in bleached Porites coral at Meiji Reef, tropical South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Chen, Tianran

    2017-01-01

    Coral bleaching has generally been recognized as the main reason for tropical coral reef degradation, but there are few long-term records of coral bleaching events. In this study, trace metals including chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y), were analyzed in two Porites corals collected from Meiji Reef in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) to assess differences in trace metal concentrations in bleached compared with unbleached coral growth bands. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo generally showed irregular fluctuations in both corals. Bleached layers contained high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb. Unbleached layers showed moderately high concentrations of Mn and Cu only. The different distribution of trace metals in Porites may be attributable to different selectivity on the basis of vital utility or toxicity. Ti, V, Cr, and Mo are discriminated against by both coral polyps and zooxanthellae, but Mn, Cu, Sn, and Pb are accumulated by zooxanthellae and only Mn and Cu are accumulated by polyps as essential elements. The marked increase in Cu, Mn, Pb, and Sn are associated with bleaching processes, including mucus secretion, tissue retraction, and zooxanthellae expulsion and occlusion. Variation in these trace elements within the coral skeleton can be used as potential tracers of short-lived bleaching events.

  19. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...... health risks resulting from human consumption....... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  20. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Satoh, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Ito, R.; Kuramachi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe 3+ > Zn 2+ > Pb 2+ > Cd 2+ . (author)

  2. Trace metal contamination in mangrove sediments, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Cassia O.; Hamacher,Claudia; Wagener,Angela de Luca R.; Campos,Reinaldo C. de; Godoy,José M.

    2007-01-01

    The Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro has undergone profound alterations of its natural environmental conditions. Metal concentration increase in sediments has been reported to be among these alterations. Trace-metal contamination and availability were studied in sediments of 3 mangrove areas of the bay. Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Al concentrations were determined in segments of sediment cores, after treatment with 1 mol L-1 HCl and with concentrated HNO3. Fe and Mn were determined in the leach wit...

  3. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  4. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  5. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  6. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Huque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them.

  7. Biogeochemical and hydrological controls on fate and distribution of trace metals in oiled Gulf salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevan, J.; Natter, M.; Lee, M.; Keimowitz, A.; Okeke, B.; Savrda, C.; Saunders, J.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the release of approximately 5 million barrels of crude oil into the environment. Oil and its associated trace metals have been demonstrated to have a detrimental effect on coastal wetland ecosystems. Wetlands are particularly susceptible to oil contamination because they are composed largely of fine-grained sediments, which have a high capacity to adsorb organic matter and metals. The biogeochemical cycling of trace metals can be strongly influenced by microbial activity, specifically those of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria. Microbial activity may be enhanced by an increase in amounts of organic matter such as oil. This research incorporates an assessment of levels of trace metals and associated biogeochemical changes from ten coastal marshes in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. These sampling sites range in their pollution levels from pristine to highly contaminated. A total digestion analysis of wetland sediments shows higher concentrations of certain trace metals (e.g., Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr, Co, V, Ba, Hg, As) in heavily-oiled areas compared to less-affected and pristine sites. Due to chemical complexation among organic compounds and metals, crude oils often contain elevated levels (up to hundreds of mg/kg) of trace metals At the heavily-oiled Louisiana sites (e.g., Bay Jimmy, Bayou Dulac, Bay Batiste), elevated levels of metals and total organic carbon have been found in sediments down to depths of 30 cm. Clearly the contamination is not limited to shallow sediments and oil, along with various associated metals, may be invading into deeper (pre-industrial) portions of the marsh sediments. Pore-waters extracted from contaminated sediments are characterized by very high levels of reduced sulfur (up to 80 mg/kg), in contrast to fairly low ferrous iron concentrations (<0.02 mg/kg). The influx of oil into the wetlands might provide the initial substrate and

  8. Migration of trace heavy metals at the sea water/sediment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo; Tomiyama, Chisato

    1984-01-01

    Migration behavior of some trace heavy metals such as Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) at the sea water/sediment interface was investigated by tank experiments. The sea water which was doped with these metal ions (ppb to ppm levels) allowed to contact with the raw-, ignited- and autoclaved-marine sediments and the change of the concentration of each metal was traced at definite time intervals. At the end of the experiments, a core sample of the sediment was taken and analyzed for each metal in every 1 mm thick segment. On the other hand, the surface sediment was submitted to partial extraction with various kinds of reagents to estimate the chemical species of the metals captured in the sediment. While every metal ion was quickly adsorbed on surface of the raw sediment, a concentration gradient from surface to bottom of the water phase occurred in the ignited sediment system. The migration of manganese to the sediment phase was assumed to be concerned with bacterial activity in the sediment. Copper and zinc seemed to be adsorbed very quickly onto some fine sediment particles by the formation of organometallic complexes with some organic materials existing in the sediments. Cobalt migrated relatively fast downward within the sediment phase after its deposition. (author)

  9. First assessment of trace metal concentration in mangrove crab eggs and other tissues, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Vianna; Kütter, Vinicius Tavares; Marques, Eduardo Duarte; da Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-07-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is widespread in the Brazilian coast, which has an important role in nutrient cycling. This species reproduces in summer and females carry eggs about a month, when they maintain contact with water and sediments. It remains unclear if trace metals can be absorbed or adsorbed by the eggs during development. The present study aims to investigate, for the first time, trace metal concentrations in ovigerous female tissues and eggs of U. cordatus in two areas with different metal pollution levels in the Southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in two different mangroves, Guanabara Bay (GB) highly polluted environment and Paraíba do Sul River (PSR). In both populations, we observed significant increase of V, Cr, and Mn concentrations along eggs maturation. The higher metals averages were found in PSR population. This trend was reported since the 1990s and lower concentrations in GB marine organisms were attributed to reducing conditions, high organic load, and the presence of sulfide ions. These conditions restrict the bioavailability of metals in the bay, with exception of Mn. No significant differences were observed in gills and muscles. In both populations of the present study, V, Zn, As, and Pb were higher in eggs of initial stage, whereas Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were higher in hepatopancreas. Beside this, V, Cr, Mn, As, and Pb showed an increase concerning egg development. Thus, V, As, and Pb in eggs come from two sources previous discussed: females and environment. Zinc came mainly from females due to essential function. Those new information should be considered as one of the mechanisms of trace metal transfer to the trophic chain, between benthonic and pelagic environment.

  10. New method for mass spectrometric trace analysis of metals in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.; Bahr, U.; Palavinskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A first survey on the basic aspects and applications of a novel method for trace analyses of metals is given. The advantages of this methodology for analyses of trace metals which was developed by our group are: small sample amount, high sensitivity and selectivity, simple sample preparation for the measurement (no ashing) and reliability and precision of the results. The time consumption for one complete quantitative analysis lies below 30 min. The concentration of monoisotopic metals, as for example aluminium, cesium, manganese etc. is determined using a calibration curve. Using stable isotope dilution analysis quantification of metals with at least two stable isotopes further improved the precision of the results. If this technique is utilized, on one hand contamination of the environment by radioactive substances is avoided, on the other even the smallest changes in concentrations of trace metals are detected unambigeously. The accuracy of the resulting quantitative data has been confirmed test measurements with other analytical methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Although there is no doubt that the greatest analytical capacity of field desorption mass spectrometry is in the field of high-molecular weight natural products, it has been possible in the last years to modify the method for qualitative and quantitative investigations of more than 60 metals. (orig./EF) [de

  11. Preservation of NOM-metal complexes in a modern hyperalkaline stalagmite: Implications for speleothem trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartland, Adam; Fairchild, Ian J.; Müller, Wolfgang; Dominguez-Villar, David

    2014-03-01

    We report the first quantitative study of the capture of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and NOM-complexed trace metals (V, Co, Cu, Ni) in speleothems. This study combines published NOM-metal dripwater speciation measurements with high-resolution laser ablation ICPMS (LA-ICPMS) and sub-annual stable isotope ratio (δ18O and δ13C), fluorescence and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses of a fast-growing hyperalkaline stalagmite (pH ˜11) from Poole’s Cavern, Derbyshire UK, which formed between 1997 and 2008 AD. We suggest that the findings reported here elucidate trace element variations arising from colloidal transport and calcite precipitation rate changes observed in multiple, natural speleothems deposited at ca. pH 7-8. We find that NOM-metal(aq) complexes on the boundary between colloidal and dissolved (˜1 nm diameter) show an annual cyclicity which is inversely correlated with the alkaline earth metals and is explained by calcite precipitation rate changes (as recorded by kinetically-fractionated stable isotopes). This relates to the strength of the NOM-metal complexation reaction, resulting in very strongly bound metals (Co in this system) essentially recording NOM co-precipitation (ternary complexation). More specifically, empirical partition coefficient (Kd) values between surface-reactive metals (V, Co, Cu, Ni) [expressed as ratio of trace element to Ca ratios in calcite and in solution] arise from variations in the ‘free’ fraction of total metal in aqueous solution (fm). Hence, differences in the preservation of each metal in calcite can be explained quantitatively by their complexation behaviour with aqueous NOM. Differences between inorganic Kd values and field measurements for metal partitioning into calcite occur where [free metal] ≪ [total metal] due to complexation reactions between metals and organic ligands (and potentially inorganic colloids). It follows that where fm ≈ 0, apparent inorganic Kd app values are also ≈0, but the

  12. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, L.; Klimenko, N.; Rätsep, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 13 (2017), s. 4520-4525 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : white wine * Chardonnay * Vitis * Ukraine * vineyard * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  13. Over one hundred years of trace metal fluxes in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, C.C.M.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Farmer, J.G.; Wai, O.W.H.; Li, Y.S.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid economic development in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China in the last three decades has had a significant impact on the local environment. Estuarine sediment is a major sink for contaminants and nutrients in the surrounding ecosystem. The accumulation of trace metals in sediments may cause serious environmental problems in the aquatic system. Thirty sediment cores were collected in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in 2000 for a study on trace metal pollution in this region. Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in the four 210 Pb-dated sediment cores were determined to assess the fluxes in metal deposits over the last one hundred years. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment layers were generally elevated when compared with the sub-surface layers. There has been a significant increase in inputs of Cu, Pb and Zn in the PRE since the 1970s. The results also showed that different sampling locations in the estuary received slightly different types of inputs. Pb isotopic composition data indicated that the increased Pb in the recent sediments was of anthropogenic origin. The results of trace metal influxes showed that about 30% of total Pb and 15% of total Zn in the sediments in the 1990s were from anthropogenic sources. The combination of trace metal analysis, Pb isotopic composition and 210 Pb dating in an estuary can provide vital information on the long-term accumulation of metals in sediments

  14. Monitoring of Trace Metal Pollution in Meenachil River at Kottayam, Kerala (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu. V. Nair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Meenachil river at Kottayam has been studied with reference to toxic trace metals during pre and post monsoon seasons for 10 stations during May 2009-September 2009. The metals analyzed include Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Lead, Copper and Cadmium. Among the metals studied, iron, lead and cadmium showed higher concentrations above the permissible limit for drinking water prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards. Iron and lead showed higher concentration during post monsoon and the cadmium content was high during pre-monsoon. It was observed that the main causes of deterioration in water quality might be due to the discharge of domestic wastes, municipal wastes, terrestrial runoff from seepage sites, agricultural sites and also due to geological weathering process.

  15. Spatial distribution of trace metals in water resources impacted by PGM activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the aquatic environment from natural and anthropogenic sources (such as industrial effluents and mining wastes). Trace metals can accumulate in fish (which are often at the top of the aquatic food chain) either through water or the food chain (1), and metals...

  16. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortasi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of trace metals in ground water from the Ankobra basin revealed high levels of iron, manganese and aluminium. Approximately 40% of boreholes had total iron concentration exceeding 1000 μ 1 -1 (maximum WHO permissible limit). Aluminium concentration varied from 0.1 μ to 2510 μ 1 -1 with a median value of 10.0 μ 1 -1 . Approximately 20% of the boreholes had aluminium concentration exceeding the WHO maximum acceptable limit (200 μ 1 -1 ) for drinking water. Manganese concentration was in the range 6-2510 μ 1 -1 with a median of 356 μ 1 -1 . Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentrations higher that 500 μ 1 -1 , which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentrations of mercury was higher than 1.0 μ 1 -1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in insignificant concentration in the boreholes, include lead, arsenic, nickel and selenium. Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. (au)

  17. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  18. Accumulation of Trace Metals in Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis from Pattani Bay and the Setiu Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradit, Siriporn; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Towatana, Prawit; Saengmanee, Wuttipong

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.

  19. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  20. Trace metals content (contaminants) as initial indicator in the quality of heat treated palm oil whole extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fauzi, Noor Akhmazillah bt [Chemical and Bioprocess Department, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sarmidi, Mohd Roji [Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of different sterilization time on the trace metals concentration of palm oil whole extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. The kernels were then stripped from the sterilized fruits to get the pulp and later the pulp was pressed using small scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 20 minutes. The palm oil whole extract were then collected and trace metals analysis was conducted using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 40 minutes of sterilization with 19.9 {+-} 0.21 % (w/w). There was no significant different (p < 0.5) in total trace metals content between the degrees of the heat treatment. Na+ was found as the highest trace metals content in the extract with mean concentration ranging from 1.05 {+-} 0.03 ppm to 2.36 {+-} 0.01 ppm. 40 minutes of heating time was predicted to have good oil quality due to higher content in trace metals that inhibit the lipase enzyme activity.

  1. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •P CO 2 alters accumulation of Cd and Cu in clam cells. •Accumulation of Cd induces release of free Zn 2+ . •Accumulation of Cu induces an increase in free Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ . •Metal-induced oxidative stress is alleviated at high P CO 2 . •Toxicity of Cu in likely enhanced while that of Cd alleviated by high P CO 2 . -- Abstract: Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high P CO 2 (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between P CO 2 and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of P CO 2 (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants – cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated P CO 2 resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pH i ) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated P CO 2 significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated P CO 2 levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd 2+ concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn 2+ increased suggesting that Cd 2+ substitutes bound Zn 2+ in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn 2+ but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels

  2. Trace Metals And Organic Matter Diagenesis At The Oman Margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Trace Metals (e.g. Mn and Fe) play an important role as secondary oxidants in the degradation of sedimentary OM under sub-oxic conditions. Hence the remineralisation of organic constituents of sediments in the marine environment may significantly...

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  4. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, C.; Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low. • Low

  5. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, C., E-mail: cyril.marchand@ird.fr [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR 206/UMR 7590 IMPMC, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B. [AEL/LEA, 7 rue Loriot de Rouvray, 98800 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France)

    2016-08-15

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low.

  6. Levels of essential and potentially toxic trace metals in Antarctic macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia; Arisnabarreta, Sebastian Perez; Vodopivez, Cristian; Smichowski, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Antarctic algae were examined for their accumulation ability in the uptake of different metals and metalloids from the Antarctic aquatic environment. Macro algae were collected during the 2000 austral summer season at Jubany Station (Argentinean base) around Potter Cove, King George Island. The elements quantified were: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples and the elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A wide range of metal retention capacity among the different species was observed. The highest levels of trace elements were found in Monostroma hariotii and Phaeurus antarcticus, with concentrations up to 3095 μg g -1 for Fe. On the basis of the levels of trace elements observed in Monostroma hariotii and its wide distribution in the Antarctic Peninsula, this organism accomplishes a number of prerequisites to be considered as an adequate biomonitor for future studies

  7. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  8. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems; Transferts et mobilite des elements traces metalliques dans la colonne sedimentaire des hydrosystemes continentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-15

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  9. An appraisal of physicochemical parameters and some trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluent samples collected from the disposal point of five different companies in Trans-Amadi industrial area of Port Harcourt were analyzed to investigate effect on the environment. The analyzed effluent samples showed results of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals in the ranges : (pH 3.60 - 6.90), ...

  10. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  11. Assessment of trace metals using lichen transplant from automobile mechanic workshop in Ile-Ife metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwe, Anthony I; Adesanwo, Adeyemi T J; Olowoyo, Joshua O; Raimi, Idris O

    2014-04-01

    The level of air pollution around the automobile mechanic workshops has been generally overlooked. This study, examined the level of trace metals in automobile mechanic workshops and the suitability of using transplanted lichen thalli of Lepraria incana for measuring air pollution in such areas. Samples of the lichen thalli were transplanted into seven different sites and were attached to the bark of trees at each site. The samples were harvested from the sites after 3-month exposure. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn, and S content were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the trace metals concentrations across the sites (p trend in the concentration of these heavy metals suggests that activities in these workshops might become a major source of certain heavy metals in the environment and if the pollution activities persist, it might become worrisome over time.

  12. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  13. Fingerprinting Marcellus Shale waste products from Pb isotope and trace metal perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jason D.; Graney, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry drilled, uncontaminated cuttings from Marcellus Shale and surrounding units. • Unoxidized and oxidized samples leached short and long term with H 2 O or dilute HCl. • Pb isotope ratios have distinctly different values from Marcellus Shale samples. • Mo and other trace metals can be used as Marcellus Shale environmental tracers. • Marcellus Shale leachate concentrations can exceed EPA contaminant screening levels. - Abstract: Drill cuttings generated during unconventional natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A., generally contain a very large component of organic-rich black shale because of extensive lateral drilling into this target unit. In this study, element concentrations and Pb isotope ratios obtained from leached drill cuttings spanning 600 m of stratigraphic section were used to assess the potential for short and long term environmental impacts from Marcellus Shale waste materials, in comparison with material from surrounding formations. Leachates of the units above, below and within the Marcellus Shale yielded Cl/Br ratios of 100–150, similar to produced water values. Leachates from oxidized and unoxidized drill cuttings from the Marcellus Shale contain distinct suites of elevated trace metal concentrations, including Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V and Zn. The most elevated Mo, Ni, Sb, U, and V concentrations are found in leachates from the lower portion of the Marcellus Shale, the section typically exploited for natural gas production. In addition, lower 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios within the lower Marcellus Shale (0.661–0.733) provide a distinctive fingerprint from formations above (0.822–0.846) and below (0.796–0.810), reflecting 206 Pb produced as a result of in situ 238 U decay within this organic rich black shale. Trace metal concentrations from the Marcellus Shale leachates are similar to total metal concentrations from other black shales. These metal concentrations can exceed screening

  14. Assessment of acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from River Uppanar, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyamperumal, T.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2006-01-01

    An acid leachable technique is employed in core samples (C1, C2 and C3) to develop a baseline data on the sediment quality for trace metals of River Uppanar, Cuddalore, southeast coast of India. Acid leachable metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd) indicate peak values at the sulphidic phase and enrichment of metals in the surface layers are due to the anthropogenic activities. Association of trace metals with Fe, Mn indicates their adsorption onto Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and their correlation with S indicate that they are precipitated as metal sulphides. Factor analysis identified three possible types of geochemical associations and the supremacy of trace metals along with Fe, Mn, S and mud supports their geochemical associations. Factor analysis also signifies that anthropogenic activities have affected both the estuarine and fresh water regions of River Uppanar. - Both natural and anthropogenic factors are affecting metals in sediments

  15. Contamination from an affluent of Furnas reservoir by trace metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine concentrations and characterize trace metals distribution in an affluent of Furnas reservoir, Alfenas-MG. Water and sediment samples were taken monthly, 2010/10-2011/07 in five sites of Córrego do Pântano for subsequent determination of Pb, Cd and Zn levels by chemical analysis. The stream studied is in disagreement with Brazilian legislation for Class II water bodies (CONAMA 357. The highlights are the unsuitable concentrations of Pb for human consumption, according to Ministry of Health 2914 decree, providing risk for population.

  16. Characterisation of airborne particles in the assessment of air quality: a case study for trace metal determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Poh Seng Chee; Suhaimi Suratman; Noor Azhar Mohamed Shazili; Suhaimi Hamzah; Abd Khalik Wood; Syamsiah Abd Rahman; Mhd Radzi Abas

    2005-01-01

    A study to determine the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and trace metals concentration in the atmospheric particulate was done in Kuala Terengganu town. TSP was collected using high volume sampler. The sampled filter paper were subjected to microwave assisted acid digestion and the metals were determined using inductive couple plasma with optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). Results indicated a significant spatial variation but generally the TSP concentrations recorded in this study are still below the recommended Malaysia guideline for TSP. Some of the elemental composition of particulate aerosol is clearly correlation and enrichment analyses, the elements could be grouped into two; Pb, Cd and Zn group could be related to the vehicular emission sources whist the Al, Fe, Mn and Cr group appears to be crustal origin. It can also be concluded that the levels of Pb, Cd and Zn in the study area are generally lower than other cities in Malaysia. (Author)

  17. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-04-07

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  18. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CPUT

    trace metals from wastewater treatment plant effluents in Cape Town and .... Geographical locations and design .... The new. Bellville plant uses University of Cape Town design (UCT) ...... batteries, paints, fungicides, textiles, cosmetics, pulp,.

  19. Assessment and source identification of trace metals in the soils of greenhouse vegetable production in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong; Mao, Mingcui

    2013-11-01

    Worldwide concern about the occurrence of trace metals in greenhouse vegetable production soils (GVPS) is growing. In this study, a total of 385 surface GVPS samples were collected in Shouguang and four vegetable production bases in Nanjing, Eastern China, for the determination of As and Hg using atomic fluorescence spectrometry and Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geo-accumulation indices and factor analysis were used to investigate the accumulation and sources of the trace metals in soils in Eastern China. The results revealed that greenhouse production practices increased accumulation of the trace metals, particularly Cd, Zn, and Cu in soils and their accumulation became significant with increasing years of cultivation. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was also found in soils from organic greenhouses. The GVPS was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by As, Cu, Zn, and Pb but heavily polluted by Cd and Hg in some locations. Overall, accumulation of Cd, Zn, and Cu in GVPS was primarily associated with anthropogenic activities, particularly, application of manure. The high level of Hg found in some sites was related to historical heavy application of Hg containing pesticides. However, further identification of Hg sources is needed. To reduce accumulation of the trace metals in GVPS, organic fertilizer application should be suggested through development and implementation of reasonable and sustainable strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 12 Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Water samples, bottom sediments, Tilapia, and Cat Fish from Okumeshi River in Delta state of Nigeria were analysed ... Keywords: Trace metals, Fish Tissues, Water, Bottom sediments, Okumeshi River. Introduction ..... Grey Mangroove Avicemmia marina (Forsk). ... sewage treatment plant oulet pipe extension on.

  2. Trace metals behaviour during salt and fresh water mixing in the Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghermandi, G.; Campolieti, D.; Cecchi, R.; Costa, F.; Zaggia, L.; Zonta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation on trace metals behaviour in the estuarine system of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon) are described. Hydrodynamical and water chemical-physical measurements and PIXE concentrations analysis on size-fractionated samples emphasize the complexity of the processes occurring in the area of salt and fresh water mixing. Suspended load variations in the bottom layer of the water column, which may be mostly ascribed to resuspension, regulate the trace metal concentrations and seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of pollutants in shallow water areas of the estuary. The behaviour of dissolved metals is masked by the presence of suspended matter, but some relationships with chemical-physical variables are distinguishable, furnishing information on the processes affecting their concentration in the system. (orig.)

  3. Partitioning and mobility of trace metals in the Blesbokspruit: Impact assessment of dewatering of mine waters in the East Rand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.; Starke, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    A suite of trace metals was analyzed in water and sediment samples from the Blesbokspruit, a Ramsar certified riparian wetland, to assess the impact of mining on the sediment quality and the fate of trace metals in the environment. Limited mobility of trace metals was observed primarily because of their high partition coefficient in alkaline waters. Nickel was most mobile with a mean K d of 10 3.28 L kg -1 whereas Zr was least mobile with a mean K d of 10 5.47 L kg -1 . The overall trace metal mobility sequence, derived for the Blesbokspruit, in increasing order, is: Zr < Cr < Pb < Ba < V < Cu < Zn < Sr < Mn < U < Mo < Co < Ni. Once removed from the solution, most trace metals were preferentially associated with the carbonate and Fe-Mn oxide fraction followed by the exchangeable fraction of the sediments. Organic C played a limited role in trace metal uptake. Only Cu was primarily associated with the organic fraction whereas Ti and Zr were mostly found in the residual fraction. Compared to their regional background, Au and Ag were most enriched, at times by a factor of 20-400, in the sediments. Significant enrichment of U, Hg, V, Cr, Co, Cu and Zn was also observed in the sediments. The calculated geoaccumulation indices suggest that the sediments are very lightly to lightly polluted with respect to most trace metals and highly polluted with respect to Au and Ag. The metal pollution index (MPI) for the 20 sampled sites varied between 2.9 and 45.7. The highest MPI values were found at sites that were close to tailings dams. Sediment eco-toxicity was quantified by calculating the sediment quality guideline index (SQG-I). The calculated SQG-I values (0.09-0.69) suggest that the sediments at the study area have low to moderate potential for eco-toxicity

  4. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haili; Zhang Zhengwang; Chang Chongyan; Wang Yong

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels

  5. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D(ow), ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10(3.3)-10(5.3)mlg(-1). The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision.

  6. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organic and Inorganic Speciation of Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-02-16

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing acidification of the oceans. This results in changes to the concentrations of key chemical species such as hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These changes will affect the distribution of different forms of trace metals. Using IPCC data for pCO2 and pH under four future emissions scenarios (to the year 2100) we use a chemical speciation model to predict changes in the distribution of organic and inorganic forms of trace metals. Under a scenario where emissions peak after the year 2100, predicted free ion Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb concentrations increase by factors of up to approximately 21, 2.4, 1.5, and 2.0 respectively. Concentrations of organically complexed metal typically have a lower sensitivity to ocean acidification induced changes. Concentrations of organically complexed Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd fall by up to 10%, while those of organically complexed Fe, Co, and Ni rise by up to 14%. Although modest, these changes may have significance for the biological availability of metals given the close adaptation of marine microorganisms to their environment.

  7. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO2 into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The potential for leakage from these systems requires an understanding of how injection reservoirs interact with the overlying potable aquifers. Hydrothermal experiments were performed to evaluate metal mobilization and mechanisms of release in a carbonate storage reservoir and at the caprock-reservoir boundary. Experiments react synthetic Desert Creek limestone and/or Gothic Shale, formations in the Paradox Basin, Utah, with brine that is close to equilibrium with these rocks. A reaction temperature of 1600C accelerates the reaction kinetics without changing in-situ water-rock reactions. The experiments were allowed to reach steady state before injecting CO2. Changes in major and trace element water chemistry, dissolved carbon and sulfide, and pH were tracked throughout the experiments. CO2 injection decreases the pH by 1 to 2 units; concomitant mineral dissolution produces elevated Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the brine. Concentrations subsequently decrease to approximately steady state values after 120-330 hours, likely due to mineral precipitation as seen in SEM images and predicted by geochemical modeling. In experiments that emulate the caprock-reservoir boundary, final Fe (0.7ppb), an element of secondary concern for the EPA, and Pb (0.05ppb) concentrations exceed EPA limits, whereas Ba (0.140ppb), Cu (48ppb), and Zn (433ppb) values remain below EPA limits. In experiments that simulate deeper reservoir conditions, away from the caprock boundary, final Fe (3.5ppb) and Pb (0.017ppb) values indicate less mobilization than seen at the caprock-reservoir boundary, but values still exceed EPA limits. Barium concentrations always remain below the EPA limit of 2ppb, but are more readily mobilized in experiments replicating deeper reservoir conditions. In both systems, transition elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn behave in a

  8. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Anthropometric characteristics, total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), Vit. E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and trace metals (Se, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) were determined in 40 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ...

  9. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  10. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring hydrocarbons and trace metals in Beaufort Sea sediments and organisms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.; LeBlanc, L.; Trefry, J.; Marajh-Whittemore, P.; Brown, J.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Minerals Management Service's environmental studies of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a study was conducted in 1989 to monitor the marine environment for inputs of chemicals related to drilling and exploration. The 1989 Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program (BSMP) was designed to monitor sediments and selected benthic organisms for trace metals and hydrocarbons so as to infer any changes that might have resulted from drilling and production activities. A series of 49 stations were sampled during the program. The study area extended from Cape Halkett on the western end of Harrison Bay to Griffin Point, east of Barter Island. The sampling design combined an area-wide approach in which stations were treated as replicates of 8 specific geographic regions, with an activity-specific approach, which focused on the potential establishment of metal or hydrocarbon concentration gradients with distance from the Endicott Production Field in Prudhoe Bay. The analytical program focused on the analysis of the fine-fraction of the sediment for a series of trace metals and elements and the analysis of a suite of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk sediment. The total organic carbon (TOB) content and the grain size distribution in the sediments were determined as well. Benthic bivalve molluscs, representative of several feeding types were collected from those stations for which data previously existed from the 1984-1986 BSMP, and were analyzed for metals and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The benthic amphipods were collected, pooled by station or region, and analyzed as well

  12. Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T

    2010-03-01

    Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification and localization of trace metals in natural plankton using a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Fisher, N. S.; Jacobsen, C.; Maser, J.; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2003-01-01

    The accumulation of trace metals by planktonic protists influences the growth of primary producers, metal biogeochemical cycling, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Despite their importance, unequivocal measurements of trace element concentrations in individual plankton cells have not been possible to date. We have used the 2-ID-E side-branch hard x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to measure trace elements in individual marine plankton cells. This microprobe employs zoneplate optics to produce the sub-micron spatial resolution and low background fluorescence required to produce trace element maps of planktonic protist cells ranging in size from 3 to >50 (micro)m. We have developed preservation, rinsing, and mounting protocols that remove most of the salt from our marine samples, thus simplifying the identification of unknown cells and reducing high Cl-related background fluorescence. We have also developed spectral modeling techniques that account for the frequent overlap of adjacent fluorescence peaks and non-uniform detector response. Finally, we have used parallel soft x-ray transmission and epifluorescence microscopy images to estimate C normalized trace element concentrations, identify functional cell types (e.g., photosynthetic vs. non-photosynthetic), and correlate cell structures with spatial patterns in trace element fluorescence

  14. Quantification and localization of trace metals in natural plancton using a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Fisher, N. S.; Jacobsen, C.; Maser, J.; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2003-03-01

    The accumulation of trace metals by planktonic protists influences the growth of primary producers, metal biogeochemical cycling, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Despite their importance, unequivocal measurements of trace element concentrations in individual plankton cells have not been possible to date. We have used the 2-ID-E side-branch hard x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to measure trace elements in individual marine plankton cells. This microprobe employs zoneplate optics to produce the sub-micron spatial resolution and low background fluorescence required to produce trace element maps of planktonic protist cells ranging in size from 3 to >50 {micro}m. We have developed preservation, rinsing, and mounting protocols that remove most of the salt from our marine samples, thus simplifying the identification of unknown cells and reducing high Cl-related background fluorescence. We have also developed spectral modeling techniques that account for the frequent overlap of adjacent fluorescence peaks and non-uniform detector response. Finally, we have used parallel soft x-ray transmission and epifluorescence microscopy images to estimate C normalized trace element concentrations, identify functional cell types (e.g., photosynthetic vs. non-photosynthetic), and correlate cell structures with spatial patterns in trace element fluorescence.

  15. Levels of some Trace Metals in Macroalgae from the Red Sea in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul-Naga, Wafiqa Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) in ten macroalgae species from the Red Sea coastal water varied widely and also the trend of abundance of each metal also differed from one group to another. Concentration factors varied among species for iron (Fe) copper (Cu) manganese (Mn), but with iron (Fe) showing generally high concentration factors. Highly significant (P<0.05) relationships were found between manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), and, Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Moreover, moderate correlations were observed between manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), indicating that manganese (Mn) is the most accumulated metal in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae, dominance is moderate relative to other sea areas subjected to intensive pollution. That is, the results indicated a nonpolluted environment. (author)

  16. Geochemistry of trace metals in a fresh water sediment: Field results and diagenetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, R.W.; Cappellen, P. van; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Berg, G.A. van den; Slomp, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment-water interface, especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments

  17. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrault, Gilles; Bermond, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Assessment of the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment. → Use of a kinetic fractionation method to assess trace metal mobility in amended soils. → Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation. → IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. → Advantages of kinetic fractionation vs. extraction schemes performed at equilibrium. - Abstract: Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use.

  18. Statistical significance of biomonitoring of marine algae for trace metal levels in a coral environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinath, A.; Muraleedharan, N.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    towards essential elements, and the concentration of Fe seemed to be the highest in all the species, irrespective of their classification. The trace metal content reported in this study was much lower than the limit prescribed by Food and Agricultural...

  19. Investigation of exposure rates and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.T.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate exposure rates, and radionuclide and trace metal distributions along the Columbia River where it borders the Hanford Site. The last major field study was conducted in 1979. With recently renewed interest in various land use and resource protection alternatives, it is important to have data that represent current conditions. Radionuclides and trace metals were surveyed in Columbia River shoreline soils along the Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). The work was conducted as part of the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The survey consisted of taking exposure rate measurements and soil samples primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates

  20. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  1. Trace elements and heavy metals in hair of stage III breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderli Cihan, Yasemin; Sözen, Selim; Oztürk Yıldırım, Sema

    2011-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to compare the hair levels of 36 elements in 52 patients with stage III breast cancer to those of an equal number of healthy individuals. Principal component and cluster analysis were used for source of identification and apportionment of heavy metals and trace elements in these two groups. A higher average level of iron was found in samples from patients while controls had higher levels of calcium. Both patients and controls had elevated levels of tin, magnesium, zinc, and sodium. Almost all element values in cancer patients showed higher dispersion and asymmetry than in healthy controls. Between the two groups, there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of silver, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, cesium, gadolinium, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, scandium, selenium, and zinc (p heavy metals and trace elements in the hair of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. These results could be of significance in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  3. Arsenic and trace metals in river water and sediments from the southeast portion of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Eduardo V V; Bellato, Carlos R; Fontes, Maurício P F; Mello, Jaime W V

    2011-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle has been one of the most important gold production regions in Brazil since the end of the seventeenth century. There, arsenic occurs in close association with sulfide-rich auriferous rocks. The most abundant sulfide minerals are pyrite and arsenopyrite, yet trace metal sulfides occur in subordinate phases as well. Historical mining activities have been responsible for the release of As and trace metals to both aquatic and terrestrial environments close to mining sites in the region. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the distribution and mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in streams in the southeast portion of the Iron Quadrangle between the municipalities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, the oldest Brazilian Au mining province. Total concentrations of some trace metals and arsenic in water were determined. The four-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) was used to investigate the distribution of these elements in stream sediments. Arsenic concentration in water was > 10 μg L⁻¹ (maximum limit permitted by Brazilian environmental regulations for water destined for human consumption) at all sampling sites, varying between 36.7 and 68.3 μg L⁻¹. Sequential extraction in sediments showed high concentrations of As and trace metals associated with easily mobilized fractions.

  4. Trace metal mobilization in an experimental carbon sequestration scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Virginia [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Kaszuba, John [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Univeristy of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources, Larmaie, WY. 82070 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. Hydrothermal experiments investigate the release of harmful metals from two zones of a sequestration injection reservoir: at the cap-rock-reservoir boundary and deeper within the reservoir, away from the cap-rock. In both systems, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn behave in a similar manner, increasing in concentration with injection, but subsequently decreasing in concentration over time. SEM images and geochemical models indicate initial dissolution of minerals and precipitation of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates, metal sulfides (i.e. Fe, As, Ag, and Co sulfides), and anhydrite in both systems. The results suggest that Ba, Cu, and Zn will not be contaminants of concern, but Pb, Fe, and As may require careful attention. (authors)

  5. Accumulation of trace metals by aquatic macrophytes and their possible use in phytoremediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hillermannová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed research was to obtain knowledge on the ability of aquatic plants naturally growing at a site to absorb trace metals contained in bottom sediments and surface water. Furthermore, we compared differences in the accumulation of trace metals by the individual groups of aquatic plants (submerged and emergent and assessed a possible use of the individual plant species in phytoremediation techniques. Representative samples of water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes were taken from three anthropogenically loaded streams in six monitoring cycles in several collection profiles differing in the distance from a source of contamination. The samples were analysed for the total content of selected trace metals (As, Cd, Pb, Al, Hg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Cu. For comparison, one profile at an unloaded site was sampled as well. The obtained results were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis of data. Increased contents of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Zn were detected in sediments and plant biomass at loaded sites, namely 2–3× higher than at the comparing site. The contents of metals in surface water samples were altogether below the detection limit of the analytical method. When evaluating the individual plant species, we can state that the lowest contents of metals were detected in shore species (reed canary grass Phalaroides arundinacea, wood club-rush Scirpus silvaticus and red dock Rumex aquaticus; plant species growing in the very water current (water star-wort Callitriche sp. and flote-grass Glyceria fluitans exhibited mean contents of metals. In species forming mats (Fontinalis antipyretica and Cladophora sp., these contents were several times higher as compared to the previous species. The results of the performed research show that one of important factors, which influence the accumulation of trace metals in plants, is their ecological group (emergent – submerged affiliation and the species classification within this group

  6. Biomonitoring of trace metal elements by lichens of the Western Pyrenees.Study of elemental and isotopic signature of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Queipo Abad, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The lichens, organisms originated by symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus, have shown good properties as biomonitors of pollution from Trace Metal Elements. They can be used as indicators of local and long-range atmospheric pollution. The assessment of deposition of atmospheric pollutants results difficult to know their long term impact. This happens specially when the study is focalized in remote areas. In this project it has been developed the elemental and isotopic analy...

  7. Trace Metals and Mineral Composition of Harmattan Dust Haze in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... ABSTRACT: Trace metals and mineralogical composition of harmattan dust haze was carried out on samples collected at Ilorin (80 32'N, ... Sahara desert which transports the dust by wind. Junge (1979) reported that on the .... Schwela et al 2002, it was observed that road transport emission sources ...

  8. Resolving and modelling trace metal partitioning in a freshwater sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.; Boyer, P.; Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace metals in sediments pose toxicological risks to biota and may impair water quality. the sediment-water interface is the site where gradients in physical, chemical and biological properties are the greatest. Both chemical and microbiological transformation processes are responsible for cycling elements between water and sediments. (Author)

  9. Comparative study on TSPM levels, anions and trace metal concentrations at BARC during the years 2000-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Prathibha, P.; Kothai, G.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Venkat Raj, V.; Kumar, Shaji C.

    2003-01-01

    Both total and respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Mumbai have been identified as the single largest pollutant associated with the health impacts in the community. This study deals with the extensive monitoring work carried out at BARC, Trombay during the period 2000-2002. The paper also deals with the comparative status of the TSPM levels and select trace metal and anion concentrations. While Pb levels have stabilized over the years following the introduction of unleaded gasoline, sulphate as a major contributor in the fine fraction of SPM assumes importance. The possible source profiles are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Geochemistry of Dissolved Trace Metals in the Waters of Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Pacific Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forty two samples were acquired from the surface and bottom water profiles along 5 transects spread over Bahia Magdalena lagoon, Baja California Sur to assess the behavior of trace metals in a high influenced upwelling region on the Pacific coast. To elaborate the fate of metals, also the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen). Determination of the concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd As, Hg) were measured using Atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated high values of As, Ni and Co which is attributed to the local geology and phosphate deposits. Low values of Fe and Mn are attested to the oxic conditions of the lagoon which are responsible for the oxidation of Fe and Mn. The region witnesses raised temperatures (28.92ºC) and salinities of 35.2 PSU for its arid climatic conditions and high rates of evaporation. In general, the region presented minor quantities of dissolved trace metals due to dispersion and high intense interaction with the open sea. The results were also compared with other studies to understand the enrichment pattern in this side of the pacific coast which experiences various geothermal activities and upwelling phenomenon.

  11. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak U Benson

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria. The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  12. Fraction-specific controls on the trace element distribution in iron formations : Implications for trace metal stable isotope proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Paul B.H.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Mason, Paul R.D.; Henkel, Susann; Staubwasser, Michael; Fryer, Lindi; Poulton, Simon W.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron formations (IFs) are important geochemical repositories that provide constraints on atmospheric and ocean chemistry, prior to and during the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. Trace metal abundances and their Mo-Cr-U isotopic ratios have been widely used for investigating ocean redox processes

  13. Enrichment and sources of trace metals in roadside soils in Shanghai, China: A case study of two urban/rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Geng; Mao, Lingchen; Liu, Shuoxun; Mao, Yu; Ye, Hua; Huang, Tianshu; Li, Feipeng; Chen, Ling

    2018-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the main sources of urban pollution and could directly affect roadside soils. To understand the level of contamination and potential sources of trace metals in roadside soils of Shanghai, 10 trace metals (Sb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) from two urban/rural roads (Hutai Road and Wunign-Caoan Road) were analyzed in this study. Antimony, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn concentrations were higher than that of soil background values of Shanghai, whereas accumulation of Cr, Co and Mn were minimal. Significantly higher Sb, Cd, Pb contents were found in samples from urban areas than those from suburban area, suggesting the impact from urbanization. The concentrations of Sb and Cd in older road (Hutai) were higher than that in younger road (Wunign-Caoan). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that Sb, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly controlled by traffic activities (e.g. brake wear, tire wear, automobile exhaust) with high contamination levels found near traffic-intensive areas; Cr, Co, Ni and Mn derived primarily from soil parent materials; Hg was related to industrial activities. Besides, the enrichment of Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn showed a decreasing trend with distance to the road edges. According to the enrichment factors (EF s ), 78.5% of Sb, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were in moderate or significant pollution, indicating considerable traffic contribution. In particular, recently introduced in automotive technology, accumulation of Sb has been recognized in 42.9% samples of both roads. The accumulation of these traffic-derived metals causes potential negative impact to human health and ecological environment and should be concerned, especially the emerging trace elements like Sb. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis to the development of a monitoring system for trace metals in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbe, L.; Schnier, C.

    1976-03-01

    In view of the development of monitoring systems for trace metals in coastal waters, a research program has been started for a better understanding of interrelationships between input of trace metals, water chemistry, suspended matter, sediment and organisms. For multielement determinations neutron activation analysis has been chosen. Since environmental studies require the analysis of a large number of samples, the efficiency of the method is improved by automation of the acquisition and analysis of the γ-spectra from the Ge(Li) detectors. An automatic sample changer with counting device is described. First applications of the method in environmental research are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Comparison of trace metals in intake and discharge waters of power plants using clean techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvito, D.T.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the impact to receiving waters of trace metals potentially discharged from a once-through, non-contact cooling water system from a power plant, a study was conducted utilizing clean sampling and analytical techniques for a series of metals. Once-through, non-contact cooling water at power plants is frequently discharged back to the fresh or saline waterbody utilized for its intake water. This water is used to cool plant condensers. Intake and discharge data were collected and evaluated using paired t-tests. Study results indicate that there is no measurable contribution of metals from non-contact cooling water from this power plant

  16. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-01-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  17. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  18. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. Introduction. Ankobra basin is one of the main mining areas in Ghana. The major minerals mined in this area include gold, manganese, bauxite and diamond. Gold mining in this basin dates about 500 ...

  19. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  20. Trace metals in vegetables and fruits cultivated around the surroundings of Tummalapalle uranium mining site, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allabaksh Murad Basha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables (Tomato – Solanum lycopersicum, green chilli – Capsicum annum and bitter gourd – Momordica charantia and fruits (Banana – Musa acuminata colla, papaya – Carica papaya and mosambi – Citrus limetta from the cultivated areas around the Tummalapalle uranium mining site were analyzed for trace metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Be, V, Co, Cd and U using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. As per the estimated data, the concentrations of trace metals in vegetables and fruits are found in the range of 47.5–7.8 mg/kg for Al, 9.7–1.0 mg/kg for Cr, 3.8–1.0 mg/kg for Mn, 75.5–13.9 mg/kg for Fe, 1.4–0.2 mg/kg for Ni, 2.3–0.8 mg/kg for Cu, 9.2–3.1 mg/kg for Zn, 0.2–1.4 mg/kg for Pb, 19.2–1.9 μg/kg for Be, 96.1–15.8 μg/kg for V, 48.2–12.9 μg/kg for Co, 46.5–2.3 μg/kg for Cd and 16.4–2.7 μg/kg for U. The trace metals observed are compared to the literature reported values. Trace elemental data were subjected to statistical analysis to examine the interrelationship between the investigated trace elements and possible source identification of the trace metal contamination in vegetable and fruits. Daily intake of trace metals through ingestion of vegetables and fruits are also calculated.

  1. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  2. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  3. Spectrochemical determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Carmi, U.; Harrel, A.

    1978-02-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed for the determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite by DC arc excitation. The investigated sample is brought to a standard form of potassium-magnesium sulphate mixed with graphite. Detection limits of 1-10 ppm were determined for 27 elements; the dynamical detection range is 1-400 ppm

  4. Monsoon control on trace metal fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monsoon control on trace metal fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea ... at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks Volume 115 ... Annual Al fluxes at shallow and deep trap depths were 0.47 and 0.46 gm−2 in the ...

  5. Lead and other trace metals in preeclampsia: A case-control study in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Ramezanzadeh, Fateme; Dahaghin, Mojgan; Sakai, Tadashi; Morita, Yoko; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Sato, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2006-01-01

    To assess the effects of environmental exposures to trace metals on the incidence of preeclampsia, concentrations of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), manganese (Mn), mercury, cadmium, cobalt and zinc in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mother whole blood (MWB) were measured in 396 postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mother's ages ranged from 15 to 49 (mean 27) years. Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 31 subjects (7.8%). Levels of Pb, Sb and Mn in UCB were significantly higher in preeclampsia cases [mean+/-SD of 4.30+/-2.49μg/dl, 4.16+/-2.73 and 46.87+/-15.03μg/l, respectively] than in controls [3.52+/-2.09μg/dl, 3.17+/-2.68 and 40.32+/-15.19μg/l, respectively] (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that one unit increase in the common logarithms of UCB concentration of Pb, Sb or Mn led to increase in the risk of preeclampsia several-fold; unit risks (95% CI) were 12.96 (1.57-107.03), 6.11 (1.11-33.53) and 34.2 (1.81-648.04) for Pb, Sb and Mn, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that environmental exposure to Pb, Sb and Mn may increase the risk of preeclampsia in women without occupational exposure; levels of metals in UCB to be sensitive indicators of female reproductive toxicity as compared with those in mother MWB. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, especially on Sb and Mn

  6. Studies of trace element imbalances in Alzheimer's disease using sequential NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Markesbery, W.R.; Thompson, C.M.; Vance, D.E.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated in the literature that trace elements may be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurological diseases. Even if elemental imbalances do not prove to be causative factors, observed perturbations may be markers that could aid in diagnosis, or help elucidate pathological processes. In this paper the authors present new data for trace element levels in three areas of the human brain most severely affected by AD (hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis) and in AD hair and nail samples. In some cases the specific imbalances seen previously in the bulk brain analyses are amplified in these regions. Elevated bromine levels seen in AD brain are also observed in AD hair and nail. Significant alkali metal and mercury imbalances with respect to controls occur in AD nail samples. The role of these trace element alterations in the etiology of AD has still not been determined. However, some possible physiological effects include: membrane dysfunction (alkali metals), enzyme inhibition (mercury and bromine), and interference with neurotransmitter functions (mercury, bromine, and alkali metals). The simultaneous multielement capability of this sequential NAA procedure also permits interelement correlation studies. Elemental associations may help identify potential environmental factors that could contribute to the observed trace element imbalances

  7. Altitudinal patterns and controls of trace metal distribution in soils of a remote high mountain, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Xiang, Zhongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of regional human activity on trace metal accumulation in remote alpine ecosystems under long-distance atmospheric transport. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) in soils of the Mt. Luoji, Southwest China, were investigated along a large altitudinal gradient [2200-3850 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] to elaborate the key factors controlling their distribution by Pb isotopic composition and statistical models. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils (O and A horizons) were relatively low at the altitudes of 3500-3700 m a.s.l. The enrichment factors of trace metals in the surface soils increased with altitude. After normalization for soil organic matter, the concentrations of Cd still increased with altitude, whereas those of Pb and Zn did not show a clear altitudinal trend. The effects of vegetation and cold trapping (CTE) (pollutant enrichment by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude) mainly determined the distribution of Cd and Pb in the O horizon, whereas CTE and bedrock weathering (BW) controlled that of Zn. In the A horizon, the distribution of Cd and Pb depended on the vegetation regulation, whereas that of Zn was mainly related to BW. Human activity, including ores mining and fossil fuels combustion, increased the trace metal deposition in the surface soils. The anthropogenic percentage of Cd, Pb, and Zn quantified 92.4, 67.8, and 42.9% in the O horizon, and 74.5, 33.9, and 24.9% in the A horizon, respectively. The anthropogenic metals deposited at the high altitudes of Mt. Luoji reflected the impact of long-range atmospheric transport on this remote alpine ecosystem from southern and southwestern regions.

  8. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R C; Baliarsingh, S K; Rao B, Srinivasa; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K; Sahu, K C

    2016-10-15

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe>Ni>Mn>Pb>As>Zn>Cr>V>Se>Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe>Mn>Cd>As>Pb>Ni>Cr>Zn>V>Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  10. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  11. Relation between tobacco trace metals and soil type in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; Saad, Z.; Kazpard, V.; El Samarani, A; Nabhan, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the concentration of nutrients in soil and tobacco samples from different agricultural regions. We studied the influence of soil type on tobacco quality and the transfer and accumulation of trace metals in tobacco leaves. The results showed that human activities in the Nabatiyeh region had a none pronounced effect on one agricultural plot than on its neighbor. The transfer factor of elements between soil and tobacco plants showed that major constituents are leached and absorbed from the soil, whereas some trace elements are finely absorbed from the alkaline soil. Statistical analysis of the micro nutrients in soil and plants confirmed the existence of two principal factors that control the distribution of elements in different compartments. Four tobacco plots in different regions were also studied as a functions of their pedologic and geologic characteristics. The major elements varied in all regions, but were always ordered Ca > Mg > Na > K. The highest transfer factor for nutrients was found in young soil layers. In the Akkar region, clay nutrients form complexes with micronutrients. Thereby reducing their absorption by tobacco plants. (author)

  12. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B.R.

    1979-05-25

    Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

  13. Microscopic evaluation of trace metals in cloud droplets in an acid precipitation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Yan; Collett, Jeffrey L; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-05-07

    Mass concentrations of soluble trace metals and size, number, and mixing properties of nanometal particles in clouds determine their toxicity to ecosystems. Cloud water was found to be acidic, with a pH of 3.52, at Mt. Lu (elevation 1,165 m) in an acid precipitation region in South China. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for the first time demonstrates that the soluble metal concentrations and solid metal particle number are surprisingly high in acid clouds at Mt. Lu, where daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10 are 18 μg m(-3), 7 μg m(-3), and 22 μg m(-3). The soluble metals in cloudwater with the highest concentrations were zinc (Zn, 200 μg L(-1)), iron (Fe, 88 μg L(-1)), and lead (Pb, 77 μg L(-1)). TEM reveals that 76% of cloud residues include metal particles that range from 50 nm to 1 μm diameter with a median diameter of 250 nm. Four major metal-associated particle types are Pb-rich (35%), fly ash (27%), Fe-rich (23%), and Zn-rich (15%). Elemental mapping shows that minor soluble metals are distributed within sulfates of cloud residues. Emissions of fine metal particles from large, nonferrous industries and coal-fired power plants with tall stacks were transported upward to this high elevation. Our results suggest that the abundant trace metals in clouds aggravate the impacts of acid clouds or associated precipitation on the ecosystem and human health.

  14. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V

    1981-02-01

    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.

  15. Statistical analysis of trace metals in the plasma of cancer patients versus controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A.; Shah, Munir H.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma of cancer patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 118) were analysed for selected trace metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the plasma of cancer patients, mean concentrations of macronutrients/essential metals, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were 3971, 178, 44.1, 7.59, 4.38 and 3.90 ppm, respectively, while the mean metal levels in the plasma of controls were 3844, 151, 74.2, 18.0, 6.60 and 2.50 ppm, respectively. Average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn were noted to be significantly higher in the plasma of cancer patients compared with controls. Very strong mutual correlations (r > 0.70) in the plasma of cancer patients were observed between Fe-Mn, Ca-Mn, Ca-Ni, Ca-Co, Cd-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni, Mn-Zn, Cr-Li, Ca-Zn and Fe-Ni, whereas, Ca-Mn, Ca-Mg, Fe-Zn, Ca-Zn, Mg-Mn, Mg-Zn, Cd-Sb, Cd-Co, Cd-Zn, Co-Sb and Sb-Zn exhibited strong relationships (r > 0.50) in the plasma of controls, all were significant at p < 0.01. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data extracted five PCs, both for cancer patients and controls, but with considerably different loadings. The average metals levels in male and female donors of the two groups were also evaluated and in addition, the general role of trace metals in the carcinogenesis was discussed. The study indicated appreciably different pattern of metal distribution and mutual relationships in the plasma of cancer patients in comparison with controls

  16. Statistical analysis of trace metals in the plasma of cancer patients versus controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A. [Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H. [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com

    2008-05-30

    The plasma of cancer patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 118) were analysed for selected trace metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the plasma of cancer patients, mean concentrations of macronutrients/essential metals, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were 3971, 178, 44.1, 7.59, 4.38 and 3.90 ppm, respectively, while the mean metal levels in the plasma of controls were 3844, 151, 74.2, 18.0, 6.60 and 2.50 ppm, respectively. Average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn were noted to be significantly higher in the plasma of cancer patients compared with controls. Very strong mutual correlations (r > 0.70) in the plasma of cancer patients were observed between Fe-Mn, Ca-Mn, Ca-Ni, Ca-Co, Cd-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni, Mn-Zn, Cr-Li, Ca-Zn and Fe-Ni, whereas, Ca-Mn, Ca-Mg, Fe-Zn, Ca-Zn, Mg-Mn, Mg-Zn, Cd-Sb, Cd-Co, Cd-Zn, Co-Sb and Sb-Zn exhibited strong relationships (r > 0.50) in the plasma of controls, all were significant at p < 0.01. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data extracted five PCs, both for cancer patients and controls, but with considerably different loadings. The average metals levels in male and female donors of the two groups were also evaluated and in addition, the general role of trace metals in the carcinogenesis was discussed. The study indicated appreciably different pattern of metal distribution and mutual relationships in the plasma of cancer patients in comparison with controls.

  17. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl{sub 2}-soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. Modelling with dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  18. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl 2 -soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. → Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. → Modelling with dilute CaCl 2 extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl 2 extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of trace metals in Romania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique using NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, A.; Timofte, L.; Vata, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Oprea, C. D.; Culicov, O. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Romania, moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 272 network sites (20 x 20 km) and in different years between 1995 and 2000. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for determination of 37 major, minor and trace elements (e.g. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th and U) in moss samples. Copper, cadmium and lead were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In order to identify the sources of air pollution in Romania, the principal component analysis was applied on the overall data set, as well as on each data set. At least 74% of the total variance in data sets could be explained by four to six principal components, including soil dust, general pollution, sea-salt, foliar leaching and local point source categories. The highest concentrations of trace metals related to industrial activities were found in Transilvania Plateau (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni Cu, Zn As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, W and U) and in the South of Romania (Ni). Crustal enrichment factors, based on scandium, decrease in the order: Cd, Se, Sb, Pb, I, Cl, Br, Au, Ag, Zn, As, Cu, W, Mn, Zr, Hf, Mo, K, Rb, Ba, Cs, Ca, U, Mg, Th, Ce, La, Tb, Sm, Cr, Sr, Al, Ta, V, Yb, Fe, Ni, Co and Na. Comparison of the data from different surveyed regions revealed the differences in concentrations of air toxic elements related to specific industrial activities concerned. The trace metal levels in Romania were similar to those found by the other East-European countries participating in 2000 European moss survey, but significantly higher compared with Norway. (authors)

  20. Phytotoxicity of trace metals in spiked and field-contaminated soils: Linking soil-extractable metals with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamels, Fanny; Malevé, Jasmina; Sonnet, Philippe; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Smolders, Erik

    2014-11-01

    Soil tests have been widely developed to predict trace metal uptake by plants. The prediction of metal toxicity, however, has rarely been tested. The present study was set up to compare 8 established soil tests for diagnosing phytotoxicity in contaminated soils. Nine soils contaminated with Zn or Cu by metal mining, smelting, or processing were collected. Uncontaminated reference soils with similar soil properties were sampled, and series of increasing contamination were created by mixing each with the corresponding soil. In addition, each reference soil was spiked with either ZnCl2 or CuCl2 at several concentrations. Total metal toxicity to barley seedling growth in the field-contaminated soils was up to 30 times lower than that in corresponding spiked soils. Total metal (aqua regia-soluble) toxicity thresholds of 50% effective concentrations (EC50) varied by factors up to 260 (Zn) or 6 (Cu) among soils. For Zn, variations in EC50 thresholds decreased as aqua regia > 0.43 M HNO3  > 0.05 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) > 1 M NH4 NO3  > cobaltihexamine > diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) > 0.001 M CaCl2 , suggesting that the last extraction is the most robust phytotoxicity index for Zn. The EDTA extraction was the most robust for Cu-contaminated soils. The isotopically exchangeable fraction of the total soil metal in the field-contaminated soils markedly explained the lower toxicity compared with spiked soils. The isotope exchange method can be used to translate soil metal limits derived from soils spiked with metal salts to site-specific soil metal limits. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  2. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  3. Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural communities in Bauchi State, Nigeria*. E Ikeh, PN Durfee, RH Glew, R Amato, FJ Frost, DJ Vanderjagt. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 66-70. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. Bioavailability of metals-trace in sediments: a review; Biodisponibilidade de metais-traco em sedimentos: uma revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rafaela E. de A.V.; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Lima, Vanessa Lemos de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao, E-mail: rafaelarodriguesss@hotmail.com, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lemos.nessa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The chemical association of metals in sediments provides an indication of its release by physical, chemical and biological processes, with toxic effects under certain environmental conditions. Knowing about their chemical bonds in sediments, can recognize specific sources of pollution, and speciation of trace metals is important for bioavailability and toxicity to animals and plants. The accumulation of these particles in the sediment occur by the following mechanisms: a) adsorption to the finest particles; b) precipitating of the element in the form of compounds; c) co-precipitating of the element with iron and manganese oxides; d) complexation with organic matter; e) incorporation into the crystal lattice of minerals. Currently, five phases are considered when studying the bioavailability of trace elements in sediments: a) the exchangeable phase, MgCl{sub 2} (causes saltiness change); b) leachable phase, (acetic acid causes pH change); c) reducible phase (hydroxylamine hydrochloride causes release of the bound metals linked to Fe and Mn oxides); d) oxidized phase, the peroxide hydrogen (cause the degradation of organic matter); e) the residual pseudo-phase, the aqua regia (cause release of metals associated to minerals). The first three phases are considered the most bioavailable. In the last two fractions, the metals are linked to sediment constituents and not bioavailable. The organic phase is relatively stable and the metal present therein are removed under oxidative conditions. Metals present in the pseudo-phase residual measure the degree of environmental pollution, since great amount of metals at this stage indicates a lower degree of pollution.

  5. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  6. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea: use as a biological monitor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Marc

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within semi-closed areas like the Mediterranean Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in Mediterranean coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1 the spatial and 2 temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3 to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the Mediterranean Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue and in sheaths (dead tissue demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades, seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment

  7. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  8. Correlation study of trace metals in malignant and normal breast tissues by AAS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The study reports the application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for quantification of Fe, Cu and Zn in forty one formalin-fixed biopsy breast carcinoma tissue and adjoining fifteen normal tissue samples. These tissues samples were of category two breast carcinoma patients and of normal subjects. The qualitative comparison between the elements levels measured in the two types of specimens suggests significant elevation of these metals in the histopathological samples of carcinoma tissue. The samples were collected from women aged 19-51 years. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan and middle to high socioeconomic status with the exception of few. Findings of study depicts that these elements have an important role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (166.9 mg/L) in tissue samples of breast carcinoma patients (p < 0.01) than that in normal tissues samples (23.5 mg/L). In order to validate our method of analysis certified reference material Muscle Tissue Lyophilised (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for Fe, Cu and Zn. Determined concentrations were in good agreement with certified levels. The concentration distribution of trace elements Cu, Zn and Fe measured in the malignant tissues were found to be higher when compared to benign tissues, indicating the involvement of these metals in the breast malignancy. Results also indicate that excess iron may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. (Orig./A.B.)

  9. Biogeochemical Cycling of Nutrients and Trace Metals in the Sediment of Haringvliet Lake: Response to Salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavan, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines sediment redox processes associated with organic matter degradation and their impact on the cycling of nutrients (N, P) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn). Our study site, Haringvliet Lake, is located in the Rhine-Meuse River Delta in the southwest of The Netherlands. This

  10. Trace metals in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the Viburnum Trend resource mining District of Missouri--implementation of a direct-suspension sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C; Wronkiewicz, David J; Pavlowsky, Robert T; Shi, Honglan

    2013-09-01

    Fugitive dust from 18 unsurfaced roadways in Missouri were sampled using a novel cyclonic fugitive dust collector that was designed to obtain suspended bulk samples for analysis. The samples were analyzed for trace metals, Fe and Al, particle sizes, and mineralogy to characterize the similarities and differences between roadways. Thirteen roads were located in the Viburnum Trend (VT) mining district, where there has been a history of contaminant metal loading of local soils; while the remaining five roads were located southwest of the VT district in a similar rural setting, but without any mining or industrial process that might contribute to trace metal enrichment. Comparison of these two groups shows that trace metal concentration is higher for dusts collected in the VT district. Lead is the dominant trace metal found in VT district dusts representing on average 79% of the total trace metal concentration, and was found moderately to strongly enriched relative to unsurfaced roads in the non-VT area. Fugitive road dust concentrations calculated for the VT area substantially exceed the 2008 Federal ambient air standard of 0.15μgm(-3) for Pb. The pattern of trace metal contamination in fugitive dust from VT district roads is similar to trace metal concentrations patterns observed for soils measured more than 40years ago indicating that Pb contamination in the region is persistent as a long-term soil contaminant. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Distribution and seasonal variation of trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    The concentration and distribution of selected trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary were studied to determine the extent of anthropogenic inputs from mining activities and to estimate the effects of monsoon on geochemical...

  12. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, David X., E-mail: david.soto@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain); Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: > We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. > Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. > Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. > Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. > The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  13. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ

  14. Guidelines for the determination of selected trace metals in aerosols and in wet precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and analytical procedures suitable for the collection and analysis of representative samples of atmospheric aerosols and wet precipitation for selected trace metals. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Trace Metal and Ancillary Data in Puget Sound, 1980 - 1986 (NODC Accession 9100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In first of three data reports on the trace metal and ancillary data in Puget Sound and its watershed (Paulson et al., 1991a), all water column, sediment, and...

  16. Association between level of urinary trace heavy metals and obesity among children aged 6-19 years: NHANES 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wentao; Liu, Qian; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Hui; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhaoyan

    2017-04-01

    Global prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in all ages. Although traditional causes for obesity development have been studied widely, it is unclear whether environmental exposure of substances such as trace heavy metals affects obesity development among children and adolescents so far. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2011) were retrieved, and 6602 US children were analyzed in this study. Urinary level of nine trace heavy metals, including barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten, was analyzed for their association with the prevalence of obesity among children aged 6-19 years. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the associations adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, gender, urinary creatinine, PIR, serum cotinine, and television, video game, and computer usage. A remarkable association was found between barium exposure (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09-1.88; P obesity in children aged 6-19 years. Negative association was observed between cadmium (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.33-0.64; P obesity. All the negative associations were stronger in the 6-12 years group than in the 13-19 years group. The present study demonstrated that barium might increase the occurrence of obesity, but cadmium, cobalt, and lead caused weight loss among children. The results imply that trace heavy metals may represent critical risk factors for the development of obesity, especially in the area that the state of metal contamination is serious.

  17. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yacoub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL. The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES. The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Caylak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, trihalomethanes (THMs, and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace metals, chronic daily intakes (CDIs via ingestion and dermal contact, hazard quotient (HQ, and hazard index (HI were calculated by using statistical formulas. For ingestion pathway, the maximum HQ values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were higher than one. Considering dermal adsorption pathway, the mean and maximum HQ values were below one. HI values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were also higher than one. Each trace metal (As-non cancer, B, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Sb of the mean HI values were slightly below unity. Risks of As, PAHs, THMs, and benzene on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR. It is indicated that CRs of As and THMs were also found >10−5 in drinking water of Cankiri might exert potential carcinogenic risk for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers.

  19. Trace metal dynamics in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.

    Trace metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in zooplankton from the mixed layer were investigated at 8 coastal and 20 offshore stations in the western Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2003. The ecotoxicological importance...

  20. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  1. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Russell

    Full Text Available Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%. Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%. Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the

  2. Metal and trace elements assessment in sediments of Kakinada Bay, East Coast India, by INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Ratna Raju, M.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Naidu, T.Y.; Raju, V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic sediment is more homogeneous in grain-size (< 0.06 mm) distribution, and the fine particles are more capable of adsorbing pollutants than coarser fractions. Aquatic mediums are the receipt of the liquid effluents of the variety of industries, atmosphere changes and anthropogenic processes. Godavari river is one of the most important rivers in India and which is adjoining coast into the Bay of Bengal near Kakinada. The study area viz. Kakinada Bay (Godavari delta) rich in industries, appears to be fragile with thick pile of sediments dipping towards sea and underlain by faults. Hence any change in existing equilibrium would affect aquatic ecosystem. The objective of this study is to quantify the amount of trace, heavy metals ions present in sediments collected from Kakinada Bay, Andhra Pradesh, India. Five sites were selected along the coastal area covering the important potential pollutions sources at Godavari delta. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission techniques were carried out for trace and some metals determination

  3. Occurrence of Trace and Toxic metals in River Narmada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality has become a serious problem in developing countries. Almost 70% of Indian’s surface water resources have become contaminated due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The results reveals that out of nine water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 5 water quality stations (Amarkantak, Dindori, Manot, Barmanghat and Handia are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes in respect to trace & toxic metals. While Sandia, Hoshangabad, Mandleshwar and Garudeshwar stations were beyond the permissible limit due to presence of chromium, copper and iron metals. The major source of pollution to the Narmada river is the anthropogenic municipal solid waste and sewage from nearby towns/habitations, agricultural runoff and native soil erosion. The quality of the Narmada River is degraded due to the municipal and industrial discharges from the catchment.

  4. A STUDY OF LEAKAGE OF TRACE METALS FROM CORROSION OF THE MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHA MANSOURI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high portion of lead and copper concentration in municipal drinking water is related to the metallic structure of the distribution system and facets. The corrosive water in pipes and facets cause dissolution of the metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn into the water. Due to the lack of research work in this area, a study of the trace metals were performed in the drinking water distribution system in Zarin Shahr and Mobareke of Isfahan province. Methods: Based on the united states Environmental protection Agency (USEPA for the cities over than 50,000 population such as Zarin Shahr and Mobareke, 30 water samples from home facets with the minimum 6 hours retention time of water in pipes, were collected. Lead and cadmium concentration were determined using flameless Atomic Absorption. Cupper, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were determined using Atomic Absorption. Results: The average concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn in water distribution system fo Zarin Shahr were 5.7, 0.1, 80, 3042, 23065 and in Mobareke were 7.83, 0.8,210,3100, 253, 17µg respectively. The cocentration of Pb, Cd and Zn were zero at the beginning of the water samples from the municipal drinking water distribution system for both cities. Conclusion: The study showed that the corrosion by products (such as Pb, Cd and Zn was the results of dissolution of the galvanized pipes and brass facets. Lead concentration in over that 10 percent of the water samples in zarin shahr exceeded the drinking water standard level, which emphasize the evaluation and control of corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

  5. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Urquiza, Esmeralda; Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan; Wu, Bing; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2017-09-01

    Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide. Using mussel haemocytes, a well-known model system to assess nanomaterial toxicity, we simultaneously assessed zinc accumulation and multiple cellular response endpoints. We found that intracellular zinc uptake was strongly enhanced by inulin coating, in comparison to the uncoated nanoparticles, while no significant effects on cell death, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane integrity, production of reactive oxygen species or lysosome abundance were observed at concentrations up to 20 ppm. Since no significant increments in toxicity were observed, the coated nanomaterials may be useful to increase in vivo zinc uptake for nutritional applications.

  6. Past 140-year environmental record in the northern South China Sea: Evidence from coral skeletal trace metal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yinxian; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Huiling; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2014-01-01

    About 140-year changes in the trace metals in Porites coral samples from two locations in the northern South China Sea were investigated. Results of PCA analyses suggest that near the coast, terrestrial input impacted behavior of trace metals by 28.4%, impact of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) was 19.0%, contribution of war and infrastructure were 14.4% and 15.6% respectively. But for a location in the open sea, contribution of War and SST reached 33.2% and 16.5%, while activities of infrastructure and guano exploration reached 13.2% and 14.7%. While the spatiotemporal change model of Cu, Cd and Pb in seawater of the north area of South China Sea during 1986–1997 were reconstructed. It was found that in the sea area Cu and Cd contaminations were distributed near the coast while areas around Sanya, Hainan had high Pb levels because of the well-developed tourism related activities. -- Highlights: • Geochemical behaviors of trace elements in corals from South China Sea were investigated. • Terrestrial input, SST, war and infrastructure explain about 77.4% of elements behaviors in coral. • Changes of trace elements in coral of Xisha Islands were mainly impacted by local activities. • Spatial change of elements in seawater by was evaluated in 1986–1997 using distribution coefficient K D of coral. -- 140-year changes in the trace metals in corals from South China Sea were investigated. The spatiotemporal change model of the metals in seawater was reconstructed using coral record

  7. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, David X.; Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: → We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. → Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. → Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. → Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. → The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  8. Macrobenthic community in the Douro estuary: relations with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, A.P.; Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D.; Bordalo, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study used a novel approach to detect a clear signature of metal contamination and biological impacts in an estuary. - The relationship between macrobenthic community structure and natural characteristics of sediment and trace metal contamination were studied in the lower Douro estuary (Portugal, NW, Iberian Peninsula), using an innovative threefold approach (SQG, Sediment Quality Guidelines), metal normalization to Fe, and macrobenthic community structure. This study allowed detection of a clear signature of anthropogenic contamination, in terms of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the north bank of the estuary, which experiences high urban pressure. Using the SQG approach, metal concentrations above ERM (effects range--median) were observed only at one sampling station, but several stations had levels above ERL (effects range-low). The macrobenthic community had a low diversity, with only 19 species found in the entire estuarine area, dominated by opportunistic species. The granulometric distribution of the sediments (estimated from the combination of organic matter, Fe and Al) seemed to be the major structuring factor for the communities, establishing the natural macrobenthic distribution pattern. The metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr) seemed to act as a disturbing factor over the natural distribution, with deleterious consequences for the macrobenthic communities

  9. Monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as anthropogenic and socio-economic indicators of urban and industrial impact on surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya

    2014-05-01

    The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage

  10. Trace element distribution in different chemical fractions of False Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosental, R.

    1984-05-01

    Trace metals in the aquatic environment are generally concentrated on solid geochemical phases which eventually become incorporated into estuarine and marine sediments. The mechanism of trace metal concentration is believed to be adsorption on various geochemical phases, such as hydrous metal oxides, clays and organic matter. Metals in estuarine sediments can thus be expected to be partitioned between different phases, depending on the concentration of the phase and the strength of the adsorption bond. The bioavailability of sediment-bound metals to deposit-feeding organisms will depend on trace metal partitioning and the kinetics of biological metal uptake from each geochemical phase. The major objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure involving sequential chemical extractions for the partitioning of particulate trace metals in sediment samples, collected from False Bay. Eight metals were examined, i.e. Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. X-ray diffraction was also used in the study

  11. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weathering mantels are widespread worldwide and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved carbonate rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual content of associated trace elements in this type of weathering mantle. For instance, these enrichments can represent about five times the content of the underlying Bajocian to Oxfordian limestone/marl complexes, which have been relatively poorly studied compared to weathering mantle developed on magmatic bedrocks. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources (saprolite, Bajocian silty marls and limestones, atmospheric particles deposition...). Of special interest has also been the origin of trace metals and the processes causing their enrichments. Especially Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments shall help to identify mobile phases in the soil system. This may inform on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. Trace metal migration and enrichments were studied on a cambisol developing on an underlying Jurassic limestone. The base is strongly enriched among others in rare earth elements (ΣREE: 2640ppm) or redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (920ppm), Cr (700ppm), Zn (550ppm), As (260ppm), Co (45ppm

  12. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals and Organic Matter in Marine Lake as In Situ Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, M.; Fiket, Ž.; Cuculić, V.; Cukrov, N.; Geček, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine lakes are unique, isolated marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. Impact of organic matter cycling on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters and organic matter concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high organic carbon concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and high proportion of organic matter (up to 9%) and inorganic phases, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. Surrounding karstic background, with occasional occurrences of red soil characterize deposited sediments as coarse grained and carbonate rich, whose elemental composition is affected by bathymetry of the basin and overall biological production.

  13. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  14. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  15. Predicting trace metal solubility and fractionation in Urban soils from isotopic exchangeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, L.C.; Young, S.D.; Tye, A.M.; Bailey, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Metal-salt amended soils (MA, n = 23), and historically-contaminated urban soils from two English cities (Urban, n = 50), were investigated to assess the effects of soil properties and contaminant source on metal lability and solubility. A stable isotope dilution method, with and without a resin purification step, was used to measure the lability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. For all five metals in MA soils, lability (%E-values) could be reasonably well predicted from soil pH value with a simple logistic equation. However, there was evidence of continuing time-dependent fixation of Cd and Zn in the MA soils, following more than a decade of storage under air-dried conditions, mainly in high pH soils. All five metals in MA soils remained much more labile than in Urban soils, strongly indicating an effect of contaminant source on metal lability in the latter. Metal solubility was predicted for both sets of soil by the geochemical speciation model WHAM-VII, using E-value as an input variable. For soils with low metal solution concentrations, over-estimation of Cd, Ni and Zn solubility was associated with binding to the Fe oxide fraction while accurate prediction of Cu solubility was dependent on humic acid content. Lead solubility was most poorly described, especially in the Urban soils. Generally, slightly poorer estimation of metal solubility was observed in Urban soils, possibly due to a greater incidence of high pH values. The use of isotopically exchangeable metal to predict solubility is appropriate both for historically contaminated soils and where amendment with soluble forms of metal is used, as in toxicological trials. However, the major limitation to predicting solubility may lie with the accuracy of model input variables such as humic acid and Fe oxide contents where there is often a reliance on relatively crude analytical estimations of these variables. Trace metal reactivity in urban soils depends on both soil properties and the original source material

  16. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib

    2016-11-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  18. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  19. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Liu, Sa [Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-7360 (United States); Ye, Wenyuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers ' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E − 05 to 7.37E − 05 and 1.74E − 05 to 6.95E − 05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Ni had relatively higher bioaccessibility and mobility in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust. • Bioaccessible metal concentrations were higher in gasoline-fueled buses than those in CNG-fueled buses. • The carcinogenic risk probabilities to drivers were around the acceptable level.

  20. Adsorption and Detection of Hazardous Trace Gases by Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Michelle; Hausdorf, Steffen; Klein, Nicole; Mueller, Philipp; Smith, Martin W; Kaskel, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    The quest for advanced designer adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring hazardous trace gases has recently been more and more driven by the need to ensure clean air in indoor, outdoor, and industrial environments. How to increase safety with regard to personal protection in the event of hazardous gas exposure is a critical question for an ever-growing population spending most of their lifetime indoors, but is also crucial for the chemical industry in order to protect future generations of employees from potential hazards. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are already quite advanced and promising in terms of capacity and specific affinity to overcome limitations of current adsorbent materials for trace and toxic gas adsorption. Due to their advantageous features (e.g., high specific surface area, catalytic activity, tailorable pore sizes, structural diversity, and range of chemical and physical properties), MOFs offer a high potential as adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring of hazardous trace gases. Three advanced topics are considered here, in applying MOFs for selective adsorption: (i) toxic gas adsorption toward filtration for respiratory protection as well as indoor and cabin air, (ii) enrichment of hazardous gases using MOFs, and (iii) MOFs as sensors for toxic trace gases and explosives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enrichment of trace metals in water utilizing the coagulation of soybean protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musha, Soichiro; Takahashi, Yoshihisa.

    1975-01-01

    An enrichment of trace metals in water with a coagulated soybean protein and the complex-forming character of heavy metal ions with the soybean protein were investigated by means of emission spectrography. Fixed amounts of soybean milk (collector) and delta-gluconic lactone (coagulant) were added to a sample solution containing various metal ions, and then the mixture was heated to boiling in order to coagulate the protein. The coagulum (soybean curd) separated from the suspension with a centrifuge was burned to ashes with a low temperature plasma asher. Then metals enriched in the soybean curd were determined by means of emission spectrography. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.4--5.0 by adding suitable amounts of delta-gluconic lactone for the complete coagulation of the soybean protein. The proposed method can be applied to the collection and enrichment of various metal ions such as gold, silver, mercury, platinum, cadmium, beryllium, palladium, antimony, gallium, indium, cerium, lanthanum, thorium, yttrium, zirconium, etc. Those metals are not detectable in the original soybean. (auth.)

  2. Behaviour study of trace radioelements in the cycles of uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaux, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the presence of ultra-trace radioelements in the cycles of uranium conversion. Radiochemical methods for determining ultra-trace amounts of various elements in uranium have been perfected. These methods are based on the chromatographic separation of anionic complexes and on the measurement of various activities by alpha spectrometry. Thus, the source of these traces has been determined and a work of tracing has been carried out in the Malvesi site (uranium purification unit). This work has revealed an accumulation of these traces in the uranium purification column, consequently to their extraction by the TBP. A decontamination process of weakly contaminated uranium batches has been proposed using the Parex computer model and tested at the industrial scale. This process is based on the U(VI) extraction by the TBP/ISOPAR mixture and on the use of oxalic acid as the complexing agent of the tetravalent actinides in aqueous phase. It has been tested with success during a purification study of a batch of about 4 tons of uranium contaminated by traces of various radioelements. The preliminary study had taken into account the influence of metallic impurities (iron, nickel, copper) on the radioelements complexation by the oxalate ions. (O.M.)

  3. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  4. Effects of nutrient trace metal speciation on algal growth in the presence of the chelator [S,S]-EDDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schowanek, D.; McAvoy, D.; Versteeg, D.; Hanstveit, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the apparent toxicity of strong chelators in standard algal growth inhibition tests (e.g. method OECD 201, EC C.3., ISO 8692) is related to essential trace metal bioavailability. This hypothesis was investigated for the chelator [S,S]-ethylene diamine disuccinate

  5. Assessment of trace metal levels in size-resolved particulate matter in the area of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations at four sites in Leipzig (Germany) and its surrounding were assessed between the winter of 2013 and the summer of 2015. The measurements were performed in parallel at; traffic dominated (Leipzig - Mitte, LMI), traffic and residential dominated (Eisenbahnstrasse, EIB), urban background (TROPOS, TRO) and regional background (Melpitz, MEL) sites. In total, 19 trace metals, i.e. K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Sr, Sn, Sb, Co and Rb were analysed using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The major metals were Fe, K and Ca with concentrations ranging between; 31-440 ng/m3, 42-153 ng/m3 and 24-322 ng/m3, respectively, while the trace metals with the lowest concentrations were Co, Rb and Se with concentrations of; tire wear (Cu, Sb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Pb), biomass burning (K, Rb), oil and coal combustion (V, Zn, As, Pb). Crustal matter contributed 5-12% in winter and 8-19% in summer of the PM10 mass. Using Cu and Zn as markers for brake and tire wear, respectively, the estimated brake and tire wear contributions to the PM10 mass were 0.1-0.8% and 1.7-2.9%, respectively. The higher contributions were observed at the traffic sites while the lower contributions were observed at the regional background site. In total, non-exhaust emissions could account for about 10-22% of the PM10 mass in the summer and about 7-15% of the PM10 mass in the winter.

  6. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  7. Modelling the atmospheric transport of trace metals from Europe to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G; Weber, H; Grassl, H [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht G.m.b.H., Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of a research contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency the long range transport of trace metals over Europe and the deposition of trace metals into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are estimated using the EMEP- (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) trajectory model. The methodology for the model calculations is explained. Preliminary results for the total deposition of lead into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea show, that the calculated values are lower than previous estimates based on extrapolations from measurements at coastal sites and ship measurements in the southern Baltic Sea, respectively. (orig.).

  8. Determination of several trace metals in biological materials by PIXE analysis after solvent extraction and polystyrene-film collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Korenaga, Tatsumi; Suzuki, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    Traces of vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were quantitatively extracted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in benzene from a digested solution of biological materials and the metal-DDTC complexes were collected into a small amount of polystyrene foam produced by lyophilization of the benzene extract after addition of polystyrene. The polystyrene foam was dissolved in benzene and spread on Mylar film. After drying, a polystyrene film containing metal-DDTC complexes was produced on Mylar film, and then the polystyrene film was peeled from the Mylar film. This film was subjected to PIXE analysis. This method was applied to NBS SRM 1572 citrus leaves and a marine macroalgal sample, and 6 trace metals were simultaneously and accurately determined. (author)

  9. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  10. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  11. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The interaction of trace heavy metal with lipid monolayer in the sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Du, Lin; Tsona, Narcisse T; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-04-01

    Lipid molecules and trace heavy metals are enriched in sea surface microlayer and can be transferred into the sea spray aerosol. To better understand their impact on marine aerosol generation and evolution, we investigated the interaction of trace heavy metals including Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cd 2+ , and Co 2+ , with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. Phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer on heavy metal solutions was probed with surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms. The conformation order and orientation of DPPC alkyl chains were characterized by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The π-A isotherms show that Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ strongly interact with DPPC molecules, and induce condensation of the monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner. IRRAS spectra show that the formation of cation-DPPC complex gives rise to conformational changes and immobilization of the headgroups. The current results suggest that the enrichment of Zn 2+ in sea spray aerosols is due to strong binding to the DPPC film. The interaction of Fe 3+ with DPPC monolayers can significantly influence their surface organizations through the formation of lipid-coated particles. These results suggest that the sea surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface water. The organic and metal pollutants may transfer into the atmosphere by this interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  17. Trace metal distribution in the Arosa estuary (N.W. Spain): The application of a recently developed sequential extraction procedure for metal partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Cave, Mark R.; Hill, Steve J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the trace metal distribution in sediment samples from the Galician coast (Spain) has been performed. A multielement extraction method optimised via experimental design has been employed. The method uses centrifugation to pass the extractant solution at varying pH, through the sediment sample. The sequential leaches were collected and analysed by ICP-AES. Chemometric approaches were utilised to identify the composition of the physico-chemical components in order to characterise the sample. The samples collected at different sites could be classified according to their differences in metal bio-availability and important information regarding element distribution within the physico-chemical components is given. The method has proved to be a quick and reliable way to evaluate sediment samples for environmental geochemistry analysis. In addition, this approach has potential as fast screening method for the bio-availability of metals in the environment

  18. Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants.

  19. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  20. Calcium EDTA toxicity: renal excretion of endogenous trace metals and the effect of repletion on collagen degradation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braide, V B

    1984-01-01

    Studies on total hydroxyproline concentrations in urine of rats infused with toxic doses of CaEDTA at 6 mmol/kg per 24 hr for 48 hr or injected i.p. with the chelate at 4.8 mmol/kg/day for 10 days, indicate a two- to six-fold increase in urine excretion of the imino acid. This is due to increased degradation of collagen induced by CaEDTA. CaEDTA infusion was also shown to enhance urine excretion of some trace metals (Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe). Rats infused with CaEDTA for 36 hr showed a gradual fall in concentration of hydroxyproline in the urine, following cessation of chelate infusion. The decline in hydroxyproline concentrations was faster in rats receiving trace metal (Zn, Co, Mn or Ni) treatment during the post-CaEDTA infusion period; suggesting that the metals may affect collage, making the protein less susceptible to degradation in the body.

  1. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 14 C, 129 I, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and U), stable major components (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , H 3 BO 3 , K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 109 Cd, 51 Cr, 210 Pb, 203 Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, 125 I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by 99 Tc, 75 Se, and finally U, 14 C, and 110m Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Differential Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Mobilization of Soil-Borne Arsenic and Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia

    2017-08-21

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As. Apart from acidification and complexation, reductive dissolution played a dominant role in the dissolution of iron oxides in the presence of oxalic acid, while acidification tended to be more important for dissolving iron oxides in the presence of other organic acids. The unique capacity of oxalic acid to solubilize iron oxides tended to affect the mobilization of other elements in different ways. For Cu, Mn, and Zn, acidification-driven mobilization was likely to be dominant while complexation might play a major role in Pb mobilization. The formation of soluble Fe and Pb oxalate complexes could effectively prevent arsenate or arsenite from combining with these metals to form solid phases of Fe or Pb arsenate or arsenite.

  3. Definition of new trace-metal proxies for the controls on organic matter enrichment in marine sediments based on Mn, Co, Mo and Cd concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweere, T.; Van den Boorn, S.; Dickson, A.J.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace metal enrichments in sedimentary deposits are of prime interest because they are governed by processes that also control the production and preservation of organic matter. Consequently, trace metals have been used in reconstructions of the (palaeo)depositional environment of organic-rich

  4. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  5. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lena Q.; Dong Yan

    2004-01-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl 2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg -1 ), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg -1 ). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO 3 . The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. - Iron is important in controlling metal solubility and mobility in flooded soils

  6. Historical economic and environmental policies influencing trace metal inputs in Montevideo Bay, Río de la Plata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.; Brugnoli, E.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Muniz, P.; Ferreira, P.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Montevideo Bay is located in the middle zone of the Rio de la Plata, and since the foundation of the city, several key economic and environmental policies affected the industry, and thus, metal inputs into this ecosystem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentary geochemical record of Montevideo Bay, in order to determine the historical inputs of anthropogenic metals to the system. In addition, environmental and economic policies of the country were taken into account to infer the relationship between them and the historic metal input. Concentrations of aluminum, chromium, copper, lead, scandium and zinc were analyzed and the EF and SPI indices were calculated. The analysis showed that since Montevideo foundation, metal concentrations increased in accordance with industry development, and the indices as well as the metal concentration represent a reliable footprint of the history of different economic and environmental policies influencing historical industrial activities. - Highlights: • Trace metal record of a sediment core of Montevideo Bay/harbor was studied. • The historic inputs of metals in the area were inferred. • System degradation evolved from anthropogenic impacts. • A relationship between pollution and environmental/economic policies was discussed.

  7. Development of Hplc Techniques for the Analysis of Trace Metal Species in the Primary Coolant of a Pressurised Water Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Keiron Robert Philip

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The need to monitor corrosion products in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor (PWR), at a concentration of 10pg ml^{-1} is discussed. A review of trace and ultra-trace metal analysis, relevant to the specific requirements imposed by primary coolant chemistry, indicated that high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with preconcentration of sample was an ideal technique. A HPLC system was developed to determine trace metal species in simulated PWR primary coolant. In order to achieve the desired detection limit an on-line preconcentration system had to be developed. Separations were performed on Aminex A9 and Benson BC-X10 analytical columns. Detection was by post column reaction with Eriochrome Black T and Calmagite Linear calibrations of 2.5-100ng of cobalt (the main species of interest), were achieved using up to 200ml samples. The detection limit for a 200ml sample was 10pg ml^{-1}. In order to achieve the desired aim of on-line collection of species at 300^circ C, the use of inorganic ion-exchangers is essential. A novel application, utilising the attractive features of the inorganic ion-exchangers titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, zirconium arsenophosphate and pore controlled glass beads, was developed for the preconcentration of trace metal species at temperature and pressure. The performance of these exchangers, at ambient and 300^ circC was assessed by their inclusion in the developed analytical system and by the use of radioisotopes. The particular emphasis during the development has been upon accuracy, reproducibility of recovery, stability of reagents and system contamination, studied by the use of radioisotopes and response to post column reagents. This study in conjunction with work carried out at Winfrith, resulted in a monitoring system that could follow changes in coolant chemistry, on deposition and release of metal species in simulated PWR water loops. On

  8. Trace element studies in bioenvironmental samples using 3-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.; Willis, R.D.; Gutknecht, W.F.

    1974-01-01

    Trace metal compositions of a wide range of biological, environmental, medical and clinical samples were investigated using proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXEA). The x-rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector and spectra from over 3000 irradiations have been recorded on magnetic tape. The chi 2 fitting code TRACE developed at our laboratory was used in a semi-automatic mode to extract abundances of elements from S to Cd. Various methods of overcoming analytical problems and specimen preparation difficulties are reported. Results from some samples for typical studies are illustrated along with the reasons for interest in the sample types

  9. Impact of simulated acid rain on trace metals and aluminum leaching in latosol from Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang; Huaqin. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the most serious ecological and environmental problems worldwide. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon leaching of trace metals and aluminum (Al) from a soil. Soil pot leaching experiments were performed to investigate the impacts of SAR at five different pH levels (or treatments) over a 34-day period upon the...

  10. Sediments of the Lagoa Olho D'Agua: geochronology and accumulation of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorato, Eliane Valentim

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental impact of anthropic activities in the Lagoa Olho D'Agua, located in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County, Brazil, was carried out by assessing the vertical distribution of some trace metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, U, Zn and Zr) in dated sediment samples. Sediment cores were collected from thirteen locations at the northern, central and southern sections of the lagoon. The metal content in the samples was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Its organic carbon content was also determined and used to characterize the environment as, either oxic or anoxic environments can bias the trace element content of sediment samples. The influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics in the sedimentation process was also studied. The results obtained for the geochronology of sediments showed a pronounced increase in sedimentation rates in the period of 1970 - 1980 and 1980 - 1990 in the sampling stations ST-09, ST-10, ST-11, ST-12 e ST-13 (ca.480% in the 80's to 90's ) compared to ca. 90% increase observed in other sampling stations. This increase can be associated to the demographic growth of ca. 500% that occurred in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County in the 80's to 90's predominantly along the shoreline. The geochemistry analyses of sediment samples, on the other hand, showed that the severe degradation process the occurred in the lagoon in the last 30 years was caused by the release of pollutants from industrial facilities as well as by the discharge of untreated domestic sewage. These domestic sewage favorable the increase of the concentration of organic material in the lagoon, accentuating the adsorption process of the metals on the sediments, mainly Fe and Zr in the suspense particles. The accentuated increase observed in both Fe and Zr concentrations is compatible with period of built industries basic steel works foundries and painting, indicating the anthropogenic origin these metals. (author)

  11. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N.G.K.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of the Marine Research-Living Resource program at 24 stations in the Bay of Bengal (November, 2002) and 29 stations in the Arabian Sea (September-October, 2003) during the Cruises...

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  14. Trace metal contaminants in sediments and soils: comparison between ICP and XRF quantitative determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congiu A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A mineralization method HCl-free for heavy metals analysis in sediments and soils by DRC-ICP-MS was developed. The procedure, which uses concentrated nitric, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide, was applied for the analysis of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel and vanadium. The same samples were then analyzed, as pressed pellets, by wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WD-XRF using the dedicated PANalytical Pro Trace solution for the determination of trace elements. Comparison of ICP and XRF data showed good agreement for the elements under investigation, unless for chromium in soils, which recovery was not complete.

  15. Trace metal associations in the water column of South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Cloern, J.E.; Fries, T.L.; Davis, J.A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial distributions of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were followed along a longitudinal gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in South San Francisco Bay (herein referred to as the South Bay). Dissolved Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 24 to 66 nM, from 20 to 107 nM and from 1??2 to 4??7 nM, respectively, in samples collected on five dates beginning with the spring phytoplankton bloom and continuing through summer,1985. Dissolved Cu and Zn concentrations varied indirectly with salinity and directly with DOC concentration which ranged from 2??1 to 4??1 mg l-1. Available thermodynamic data strongly support the hypothesis that Cu speciation may be dominated by association with dissolved organic matter. Analogous control of Zn speciation by organic complexation was, however, not indicated in our computations. Computed free ion activity estimates for Cu, Zn and Cd were of the order of 10-10, 10-8 and 10-10 M, respectively. The availability of these metals may be among the factors regulating the growth of certain phytoplankton species within this region of the estuary. In contrast to dissolved Cu, dissolved Cd was directly related to the concentration of suspended particulate matter, suggesting a source of dissolved Cd coincident with elevated particle concentrations in the South Bay (e.g. runoff and solute desorption). Consistent with work in other estuaries, partitioning of all three trace metals onto suspended particulates was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with increases in particulate organic carbon associated with the phytoplankton bloom. These results for the South Bay indicate that sorption processes influence dissolved concentrations of these trace metals, the degree of this influence varies among metals, and processes controlling metal distribution in this estuary appear to be more element-specific than spatially- or temporally-specific. ?? 1989.

  16. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l -1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l -1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  19. An ICP-AES method for the determination of trace metals in uranium by solvent extraction using KSM-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Mary; Radhakrishnan, K.; Dhami, P.S.; Kulkarni, V.T.; Joshi, M.V.; Patwardhan, A.B.; Ramanujam, A.; Mathur, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the studies carried out for the determination of trace metallic impurities in uranium solutions. Uranium matrix is separated from the impurity elements by its selective extraction using 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (KSM-17, equivalent to PC88A). The aqueous phase is analysed for trace impurities by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The studies also include recovery of impurities at various acidities and spectral interferences of uranium over the analyte element channels. Based on the above studies, a method has been standardised for the analysis of nineteen elements in uranium solutions. The relative standard deviation of the method for various elements is in the range of +- 1-5%. (author). 7 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  20. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. Eight tests studied the fate of five ha...

  1. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  2. Determination of trace amounts of metals in saline water by energy-dispersive XRF (with the Na-DDTC preconcentration)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.; Bisiniek, K.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method for the determination of trace concentrations of metals in saline water is described. The analytical procedure involves the separation of metal ions of Cu(2), Zn(2), Hg(2) and Fe(3) by precipitation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method using Si/Li detector has been applied for the determination of metal ions closed in the DDTC deposition. (author)

  3. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  4. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlation...

  5. High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gaël; De Vleeschouwer, François; Bindler, Richard; Blaauw, Maarten; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  7. Trace metal concentrations are higher in cartilage than in bones of scaup and pochard wintering in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Salicki, Wieslaw; Kavetska, Katarzyna M.; Ligocki, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Bones and cartilage of two species of diving ducks: the scaup Aythya marila (n = 24) and the pochard A. ferina (n = 24) were studied. Scaup is protected in Poland where it spends only the winter, while pochard is a game bird, abundant and breeding in Poland. In winter, the two species form large flocks off the southern coast of the Baltic, particularly in the Szczecin Lagoon where they were collected for this study. The bones and cartilage (trachea) were assayed for concentrations (dry weight-based) of three essential metals: iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn); concentrations of the two toxic metals: lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were assayed as well. These hard tissues of the two species showed the following order of metal concentrations Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Cd. In scaup and pochard bones, the respective geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, and Cd were 94.4 and 102.0; 20.2 and 24.7; 6.2 and 9.6; 0.19 and 0.26; 0.114 and 0.162 mg/kg. The levels of all the metals in cartilage (Zn 149.1 and 165.8; Fe 58.4 and 116.3; Pb 10.6 and 14.9; Cu 1.41 and 3.31; Cd 0.144 and 0.175 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than in the bones of A. marila and A. ferina. However, statistically significant differences were found in respect to the essential metals only (Zn, Fe, Cu). The inter-species comparisons showed the two species to differ in their cartilage concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd and in their bone concentrations of Pb and Cd. In each case, the pochard exhibited higher concentrations of metals. This study showed distinct differences between trace element accumulation by two heavily mineralised avian body parts: leg bones (tarsometatarsus) and cartilage (trachea). The results are in agreement with data reported by other workers who analysed trace metals in cartilaginous and bone components of the femoral head in homoiotherm vertebrates, including humans. Therefore it is important that intra- and inter-species comparisons of hard biological components be based on

  8. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  9. Determination of the free ion concentration of trace metals in soil solution using a soil column Donnan membrane technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the free metal ion is difficult, especially for trace metals present in very small concentrations (less than micromolar) in natural systems. The recently developed Donnan membrane technique can measure the concentrations in solution in the presence of inorganic and organic

  10. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  11. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandois, L.; Nicolas, M.; VanderHeijden, G.; Probst, A.

    2010-01-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  12. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L; Nicolas, M; VanderHeijden, G; Probst, A

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (>95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace metal analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry and x-ray K-edge densitometry of forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonna Elizabeth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies on the determination of trace elements in samples with forensic importance. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the trace element composition of numerous lipstick samples. Lipstick samples were determined to be homogeneous. Most lipstick samples of similar colors were readily distinguishable at a 95% confidence interval based on trace element composition. Numerous strands of a multi-strand speaker cable were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The strands in this study are spatially heterogeneous in trace element composition. In actual forensic applications, the possibility of spatial heterogeneity must be considered, especially in cases where only small samples (e.g., copper wire fragments after an explosion) are available. The effects of many unpredictable variables, such as weather, temperature, and human activity, on the retention of gunshot residue (GSR) around projectile wounds were assessed with LAICP- MS. Skin samples around gunshot and stab wounds and larvae feeding in and around the wounds on decomposing pig carcasses were analyzed for elements consistent with GSR (Sb, Pb, Ba, and Cu). These elements were detected at higher levels in skin and larvae samples around the gunshot wounds compared to the stab wounds for an extended period of time throughout decomposition in both a winter and summer study. After decomposition, radiographic images of the pig bones containing possible damage from bullets revealed metallic particles embedded within a number of bones. Metallic particles within the bones were analyzed with x-ray, K-edge densitometry and determined to contain lead, indicating that bullet residue can be retained throughout decomposition and detected within bones containing projectile trauma.

  14. Biorefine: Recovery of nutrients and metallic trace elements from different wastes by chemical and biochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric; Fischer, Christophe; De Clercq, Lies; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Buysse, Jeroen; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs). Currently, sewage sludge, for example is usually used as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. Ashes originating from sludge incineration contain heavy metals and minerals in large quantities. Manure is mainly used in agriculture, although considerable...

  15. Modified batch anaerobic digestion assay for testing efficiencies of trace metal additives to enhance methane production of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulé, Mathieu; Bolduan, Rainer; Seidelt, Stephan; Schlagermann, Pascal; Bott, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to evaluate the methane yield of biogas substrates such as energy crops are usually carried out with undiluted inoculum. A BMP assay was performed on two energy crops (green cuttings and grass silage). Anaerobic digestion was performed both with and without supplementation of three commercial additives containing trace metals in liquid, solid or adsorbed form (on clay particles). In order to reveal positive effects of trace metal supplementation on the methane yield, besides undiluted inoculum, 3-fold and 10-fold dilutions of the inoculum were applied for substrate digestion. Diluted inoculum variants were supplemented with both mineral nutrients and pH-buffering substances to prevent a collapse of the digestion process. As expected, commercial additives had no effect on the digestion process performed with undiluted inoculum, while significant increases of methane production through trace element supplementation could be observed on the diluted variants. The effect of inoculum dilution may be twofold: (1) decrease in trace metal supplementation from the inoculum and (2) reduction in the initial number of bacterial cells. Bacteria require higher growth rates for substrate degradation and hence have higher trace element consumption. According to common knowledge of the biogas process, periods with volatile fatty acids accumulation and decreased pH may have occurred in the course ofanaerobic digestion. These effects may have led to inhibition, not only ofmethanogenes and acetogenes involved in the final phases of methane production, but also offibre-degrading bacterial strains involved in polymer hydrolysis. Further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. DGT as a useful monitoring tool for radionuclides and trace metals in environments impacted by uranium mining: Case study of the Sagnes wetland in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Martine; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Drozdzak, Jagoda; Gao, Yue; Nos, Jérémy; Descostes, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique was used to analyse U, (226)Ra and other trace metals in stream water and soil porewater in a wetland in France impacted by uranium mining. High resolution profiles of metals in soil porewater obtained by DGT could be measured for the first time up to a depth of 75 cm by the construction of a novel DGT holder. In stream water, the DGT technique was compared to speciation carried out by filtration (0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF) (500 kDa/100 kDa/10 kDa) and DGT porewater profiles were compared with piezometer data obtained in a parallel study. An increase in the trace concentrations of dissolved (0.45 μm) and particulate U, (226)Ra, and elements such as Al, Fe, Mn and Ba was observed in the stream water as it passes through the bog as a results of mobilization from the wetland. The porewater results indicate DGT labile metals species to be present in porewater and mobilization of uranium and other elements linked to the presence of enriched clays. In stream water, colloids and particles govern the behavior of U, Al and Fe, whereas Mn, Ba and Ra are essentially transported as truly dissolved metal species with DGT labile concentrations accounting for 100% of the dissolved fraction. The combined approaches of DGT and UF allow us to obtain a better understanding on the biogeochemical processes involved in the retention and mobility of U and (226)Ra in the wetland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of trace metals in tissues of Wallago attu (lanchi) from the Indus River as an indicator of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghanim, K A; Mahboob, Shahid; Seemab, Sadia; Sultana, S; Sultana, T; Al-Misned, Fahad; Ahmed, Z

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the bioaccumulation of selected four trace metals (Cd, Ni, Zn and Co) in four tissues (muscles, skin, gills and liver) of a freshwater fish Wallago attu (lanchi) from three different sites (upstream, middle stream and downstream) of the Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. Heavy metal contents in water samples and from different selected tissues of fish were examined by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The data were statistically compared to study the effects of the site and fish organs and their interaction on the bioaccumulation pattern of these metals at P  liver > skin > muscle. The order of bioaccumulation of these metals was Ni < Zn < Co < Cd. Heavy metal concentrations were increased during the dry season as compared to the wet season. The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish produced and marketed in Mianwali have concentrations below the standards of FEPA/WHO for these toxic metals.

  18. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O; Flegal, A Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  19. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley O Odigie

    Full Text Available The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1, [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1, [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1, [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1, and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1 in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  20. Trace metal incorporation in otoliths of a territorial coral reef fish (Abudefduf saxatilis as an environmental monitoring tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Reveles A. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace metal levels in the otolith external layer of newly Abudefduf saxatilis (Pomacentridae recruits, a common fish of the Caribbean coral reef, were examined as an indicator of recently occupied habitat from the most important coral reefs of the east of Venezuela (Mochima National Park and La Tortuga Island. These otoliths were analyzed trough an Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS fixed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The five trace metals analyzed (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were found at external layer of most evaluated otoliths at all localities, in which %weight of Pb/Ca and Hg/Ca showed the highest values. These results show the bioavailability of evaluated metals at Mochima National Park and La Tortuga Island, and their significant spatial variations on otoliths make evidence of different concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb in water and/or sediments of these locations.

  1. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  2. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. II. Trace metal concentrations in the Magela Creek billabongs at the end of the 1978 dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.H.R.; Hart, B.T.

    1981-12-01

    Billabongs downstream of the Ranger uranium mining operation have been identified as potential deposition areas for released trace metals. Samples were taken at the end of the dry season and analysed for total and filterable concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu and Zn. There was an increase in the concentrations of total Fe, Zn, Cd and Cu in the backflow and flood plain billabongs compared with the concentrations recorded during the wet season. The increase was most noticeable for iron

  3. Interpretation of complexometric titration data: An intercomparison of methods for estimating models of trace metal complexation by natural organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pižeta, I.; Sander, S.G.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Omanovic, D.; Baars, O.; Barbeau, K.A.; Buck, K.N.; Bundy, R.M.; Carrasco, G.; Croot, P.L.; Garnier, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Gledhill, M.; Hirose, K.; Kondo, Y.; Laglera, L.M.; Nuester, J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Takeda, S.; Twining, B.S.; Wells, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the common goal of more accurately and consistently quantifying ambient concentrations of free metal ions and natural organic ligands in aquatic ecosystems, researchers from 15 laboratories that routinely analyze trace metal speciation participated in an intercomparison of statistical methods

  4. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  5. Influence of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in a contaminated tidal freshwater marsh soil colonized with common reed (Phragmites australis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuchies, J.; Deckere, E. de; Bervoets, L.; Meynendonckx, J.; Regenmortel, S. van; Blust, R.; Meire, P.

    2008-01-01

    A historical input of trace metals into tidal marshes fringing the river Scheldt may be a cause for concern. Nevertheless, the specific physicochemical form, rather than the total concentration, determines the ecotoxicological risk of metals in the soil. In this study the effect of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in different compartments of the soil was investigated. As, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in sediment, pore water and in roots were determined along a depth profile. Total sediment metal concentrations were similar at different sites, reflecting pollution history. Pore water metal concentrations were generally higher under less flooded conditions (mean is (2.32 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mg Cd L -1 and (1.53 ± 0.03) x 10 -3 mg Cd L -1 ). Metal concentrations associated with roots (mean is 202.47 ± 2.83 mg Cd kg -1 and 69.39 ± 0.99 mg Cd kg -1 ) were up to 10 times higher than sediment (mean is 20.48 ± 0.19 mg Cd kg -1 and 20.42 ± 0.21 mg Cd kg -1 ) metal concentrations and higher under dryer conditions. Despite high metal concentrations associated with roots, the major part of the metals in the marsh soil is still associated with the sediment as the overall biomass of roots is small compared to the sediment. - Pore water metal concentrations and metal root plaque concentration are influenced by the tidal regime

  6. Investigation and evaluation of airborne pollution in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea) - subproject: Measurements of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the deposition and concentrations of atmospheric trace metals the annual input of some selected elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, V) into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was estimated. For the Baltic Sea, deposition measurements with a buoy system in the Kiel Bight and data from the EGAP(HELCOM)-monitoring network were used. Data from the measurement stations were extrapolated to related sub-basins according to the deposition fields obtained from model calculations (EMEP). For the North Sea, a mean atmospheric trace metal distribution was determined from numerous measurements at a coastal site and over the central North Sea and the annual input was calculated by multiplication with corresponding deposition velocities and scavenging ratios. A comparison of the deposition data based on measurements with those from model calculations show good agreement in the case of Pb in the Baltic Sea as well as in the North Sea. However, for Zn and Cd large discrepancies are observed. Additionally, deposition processes were studied. Scavenging ratios were determined and dry deposition velocities were estimated by the use of a new method for high time resolution measurements of atmospheric trace metal concentrations (impactor/TXRF). (orig.). 9 figs., 14 tabs [de

  7. Activation analysis of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Sato, S.; Terui, S.; Mitsugashira, T.

    1999-01-01

    The normal concentration levels of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, photon activation analysis, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the present work the concentrations of 13 elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Zn) were analyzed. (author)

  8. Minor and trace metals levels in human milk in north western cities of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahabbis, M. T.; Elkubat, M. S.; Kut, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of twelve minor and trace metals were determined by using (AAS, ES and ICP/MS) in breast milk obtained from 60 women living in north western cities of Libya. Samples were collected at one week up to two years after delivery. Women with age>21 years old to an age of <43 years old were investigated. (Author)

  9. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning.

  10. The distribution and speciation of trace metals in surface sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and the Daya Bay, Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujuan; Yan Yan; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the Daya Bay (DYB) were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical phase partitioning. The total concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the PRE were obviously higher than those in DYB. The maximum concentrations of trace metals in DYB occurred in the four sub-basins, especially in Dapeng Cove, while the concentrations of these metals in the western side of the PRE were higher than those in the east side. Such distribution pattern was primarily due to the different hydraulic conditions and inputs of anthropogenic trace metals. The chemical partitioning of metals analyzed by the BCR sequential extraction method showed that Cr, Ni, and Zn of both areas were present dominantly in the residual fraction, while Pb was found mostly in the non-residual fractions. The partitioning of Cu showed a significant difference between the two areas.

  11. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  12. The changes in trace metal contamination over the last decade in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; Liang, Ximei; Xu, Weihai; Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangdong

    2012-11-15

    Surface sediments can provide useful information on the recent pollution status of an estuary. One recent field survey was carried out in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China in 2011. The comparisons with previous surveys demonstrated that the concentrations of Ni and Pb in the PRE declined over the last decade, but the concentration of Cu increased in the same time frame. The significant decreases in the concentrations of Ni and Pb were probably due to a reduction of anthropogenic inputs, such as industrial wastewater, into the PRE environment, and the ban imposed on leaded gasoline. Statistical analyses have consistently demonstrated that the process of the sedimentation of fine particles was the dominant factor in controlling the transport and distribution of trace metals in the PRE. The riverine trace metals generally displayed a pattern of diffusion from the northwest to the southeast in the estuary. However, the riparian industrial activities at the east bank of the inner PRE caused significant metal contamination in sediments. In general, effective pollution control measures in the PRD region have decreased the levels of some trace metals in the entire PRE over the last decade with the exception of Cu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobility of nutrients and trace metals during weathering in the late Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jihua; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Hazen, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the geosphere and biosphere depends on the availability of bio-essential nutrients and trace metals. Consequently, the chemical and isotopic variability of trace elements in the sedimentary record have been widely used to infer the existence of early life and fluctuations in the near-surface environment on the early Earth, particularly fluctuations in the redox state of the atmosphere. In this study, we applied late Archean weathering models (Hao et al., 2017), developed to estimate the behavior of major elements and the composition of late Archean world average river water, to explore the behavior of nutrient and trace metals and their potential for riverine transport. We focused on P, Mn, Cr, and Cu during the weathering of olivine basalt. In our standard late Archean weathering model (pCO2,g = 10-1.5 bars, pH2,g = 10-5.0 bars), crustal apatite was totally dissolved by the acidic rainwater during weathering. Our model quantitatively links the pCO2,g of the atmosphere to phosphate levels transported by rivers. The development of late Archean river water (pH = 6.4) resulted in riverine phosphate of at least 1.7 μmolar, much higher than at the present-day. At the end of the early Proterozoic snowball Earth event when pCO2,g could be 0.01-0.10 bars, river water may have transported up to 70 μmolar phosphate, depending on the availability of apatite, thereby stimulating high levels of oxygenic photosynthesis in the marine environment. Crustal levels of Mn in olivine dissolved completely during weathering, except at large extents of weathering where Mn was stored as a component of a secondary carbonate mineral. The corresponding Mn content of river water, about 1.2 μmolar, is higher than in modern river water. Whiffs of 10-5 mole O2 gas or HNO3 kg-1 H2O resulted in the formation of pyrolusite (MnO2) and abundant hematite and simultaneous dramatic decreases in the concentration of Mn(II) in the river water. Chromite dissolution resulted in negligible

  14. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  15. Archaeological reconstruction of medieval lead production: Implications for ancient metal provenance studies and paleopollution tracing by Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Sandrine; Le-Carlier, Cecile; Carignan, Jean; Ploquin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The identification of metal provenance is often based on chemical and Pb isotope analyses of materials from the operating chain, mainly ores and metallic artefacts. Such analyses, however, have their limits. Some studies are unable to trace metallic artefacts or ingots to their ore sources, even in well-constrained archaeological contexts. Possible reasons for this difficulty are to be found among a variety of limiting factors: (i) problems of ore signatures, (ii) mixing of different ores (alloys), (iii) the use of additives during the metallurgical process, (iv) metal recycling and (v) possible Pb isotopic fractionation during metal production. This paper focuses on the issue of Pb isotope fractionation during smelting to address the issue of metal provenance. Through an experimental reconstruction of argentiferous Pb production in the medieval period, an attempt was made to better understand and interpret the Pb isotopic composition of ore smelting products. It is shown that the measured differences (outside the total external uncertainties of 0.005 (2*sd) for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios) in Pb signatures measured between ores, slag and smoke are not due to Pb mass fractionation processes, but to (1) ore heterogeneity (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.066) and (2) the use of additives during the metallurgical process (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.083). Even if these differences are due to causes (1) and/or (2), smoke from the ore reduction appears to reflect the ore mining area without a significant disturbance of its Pb signature for all the isotopic ratios (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb smokes-ores = 0.026). Thus, because the isotopic heterogeneity of the mining district and additives is averaged in slags, slag appears as the most relevant product to identify ancient metal provenance. Whereas aiming at identifying a given mine seems beyond the possibilities provided by the method, searching for the mining district through analysis of the smelting workshop materials should

  16. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  17. Determination of trace metals in coastal seawater around Okinawa and its multielement profiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Ishigaki, Teruyuki; Arakaki, Teruo; Yamada, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Mami; Kabe, Noriko

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, trace metals in coastal surface seawater around Okinawa were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with chelating disk preconcentration. As a result, the concentrations of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U were obtained in the range from 10 μgL -1 to 0.001 μgL -1 for 6 samples. In addition, multielement profiling analyses were carried out using analytical values obtained in order to elucidate the features of trace metals in each coastal sea area. For coastal surface seawater near an urban area, the analytical values for Zn, Cu, Mn, and Pb were higher by more than 10-fold the literature values for open-surface seawater, and those of Cd were also relatively high. Such a trend concerning the multi-element profile was almost similar to the literature values for coastal seawater of the main island of Japan. On the other hand, the analytical values of most elements for coastal surface seawater near a suburb area were in the range from 0.5 to 5 fold, compared to the literature values for open surface seawater. From multielement profiling analyses for nutrient type elements in marine chemistry, it was suggested that the concentrations of Zn and Cd in a coral sea area normalized to literature values for open surface-seawater were higher than those of Ni and Cu. (author)

  18. Metal supplementation to UASB bioreactors: from cell-metal interactions to full-scale application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Bartacek, Jan; Jansen, Stefan; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors are commonly used for anaerobic wastewater treatment. Trace metals need to be dosed to these bioreactors to maintain microbial metabolism and growth. The dosing needs to balance the supply of a minimum amount of micronutrients to support a desired microbial activity or growth rate with a maximum level of micronutrient supply above which the trace metals become inhibitory or toxic. In studies on granular sludge reactors, the required micronutrients are undefined and different metal formulations with differences in composition, concentration and species are used. Moreover, an appropriate quantification of the required nutrient dosing and suitable ranges during the entire operational period has been given little attention. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the interactions between trace metals and cells growing in anaerobic granules, which is the main type of biomass retention in anaerobic wastewater treatment reactors. The impact of trace metal limitation as well as overdosing (toxicity) on the biomass is overviewed and the consequences for reactor performance are detailed. Special attention is given to the influence of metal speciation in the liquid and solid phase on bioavailability. The currently used methods for trace metal dosing into wastewater treatment reactors are overviewed and ways of optimization are suggested.

  19. Metal supplementation to UASB bioreactors: from cell-metal interactions to full-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, Fernando G. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, ' Biotechnion' -Bomenweg 2, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Bartacek, Jan [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, ' Biotechnion' -Bomenweg 2, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Pollution Prevention and Control core, UNESCO-IHE, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft (Netherlands); Jansen, Stefan [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Colloid Science, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 6, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Lens, Piet N.L., E-mail: Piet.Lens@wur.nl [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, ' Biotechnion' -Bomenweg 2, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Pollution Prevention and Control core, UNESCO-IHE, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-06-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors are commonly used for anaerobic wastewater treatment. Trace metals need to be dosed to these bioreactors to maintain microbial metabolism and growth. The dosing needs to balance the supply of a minimum amount of micronutrients to support a desired microbial activity or growth rate with a maximum level of micronutrient supply above which the trace metals become inhibitory or toxic. In studies on granular sludge reactors, the required micronutrients are undefined and different metal formulations with differences in composition, concentration and species are used. Moreover, an appropriate quantification of the required nutrient dosing and suitable ranges during the entire operational period has been given little attention. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the interactions between trace metals and cells growing in anaerobic granules, which is the main type of biomass retention in anaerobic wastewater treatment reactors. The impact of trace metal limitation as well as overdosing (toxicity) on the biomass is overviewed and the consequences for reactor performance are detailed. Special attention is given to the influence of metal speciation in the liquid and solid phase on bioavailability. The currently used methods for trace metal dosing into wastewater treatment reactors are overviewed and ways of optimization are suggested.

  20. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro antiplasmodial activity, macronutrients and trace metals in the medicinal plants: Phyllanthus spp. and Alpinia conchigera Griff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, M S; Aiyub, Z; Bakar, N K A; Tohar, N; Musa, Y; Abdullah, N R; Ibrahim, H; Awang, K

    2015-03-01

    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices.

  2. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosabal, Maikel [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Couture, Patrice [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Hare, Landis [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Handling of hepatic metals consistently involved cytosolic, thermostable ligands. • Granule-like fractions are also involved in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl. • Despite these sequestration mechanisms, metal detoxification is incomplete. • Along the metal gradient, concentrations increase in metal-sensitive fractions. • This increase could represent a toxicological risk for the yellow eels. - Abstract: We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative “sensitive” fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes + lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in “sensitive” subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes + lysosomes. Among these “sensitive” fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in “sensitive” fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments.

  3. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  4. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  5. Trace-metal concentrations in African dust: effects of long-distance transport and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia; Lamothe, Paul; Morman, Suzette; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Gilkes, Robert; Prakongkep, Nattaporn

    2010-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel lose billions of tons of eroded mineral soils annually to the Americas and Caribbean, Europe and Asia via atmospheric transport. African dust was collected from a dust source region (Mali, West Africa) and from downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad-Tobago (TT) and U.S. Virgin Islands (VI)] and analysed for 32 trace-elements. Elemental composition of African dust samples was similar to that of average upper continental crust (UCC), with some enrichment or depletion of specific trace-elements. Pb enrichment was observed only in dust and dry deposition samples from the source region and was most likely from local use of leaded gasoline. Dust particles transported long-distances (VI and TT) exhibited increased enrichment of Mo and minor depletion of other elements relative to source region samples. This suggests that processes occurring during long-distance transport of dust produce enrichment/depletion of specific elements. Bioaccessibility of trace-metals in samples was tested in simulated human fluids (gastric and lung) and was found to be greater in downwind than source region samples, for some metals (e.g., As). The large surface to volume ratio of the dust particles (<2.5 µm) at downwind sites may be a factor.

  6. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  7. Trace Elements Removal from Waster water by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of Trace elements. The aim of this study was ... such as electroplating, metal finishing, textile, storage batteries, lead .... metals, Randomized Complete Block Design was used. Statistical ...

  8. Combined Application of QEM-SEM and Hard X-ray Microscopy to Determine Mineralogical Associations and Chemcial Speciation of Trace Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Grafe; M Landers; R Tappero; P Austin; B Gan; A Grabsch; C Klauber

    2011-12-31

    We describe the application of quantitative evaluation of mineralogy by scanning electron microscopy in combination with techniques commonly available at hard X-ray microprobes to define the mineralogical environment of a bauxite residue core segment with the more specific aim of determining the speciation of trace metals (e.g., Ti, V, Cr, and Mn) within the mineral matrix. Successful trace metal speciation in heterogeneous matrices, such as those encountered in soils or mineral residues, relies on a combination of techniques including spectroscopy, microscopy, diffraction, and wet chemical and physical experiments. Of substantial interest is the ability to define the mineralogy of a sample to infer redox behavior, pH buffering, and mineral-water interfaces that are likely to interact with trace metals through adsorption, coprecipitation, dissolution, or electron transfer reactions. Quantitative evaluation of mineralogy by scanning electron microscopy coupled with micro-focused X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (mXANES) spectroscopy provided detailed insights into the composition of mineral assemblages and their effect on trace metal speciation during this investigation. In the sample investigated, titanium occurs as poorly ordered ilmenite, as rutile, and is substituted in iron oxides. Manganese's spatial correlation to Ti is closely linked to ilmenite, where it appears to substitute for Fe and Ti in the ilmenite structure based on its mXANES signature. Vanadium is associated with ilmenite and goethite but always assumes the +4 oxidation state, whereas chromium is predominantly in the +3 oxidation state and solely associated with iron oxides (goethite and hematite) and appears to substitute for Fe in the goethite structure.

  9. Synthesis of iminodi(methylphosphonic acid)-type chitosan resin and its adsorption behavior for trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Satoko; Oshita, Koji; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    A chitosan-based resin possessing the iminodi(methyphosphonic acid) moiety (IDP-type chitrosan resin) was synthesized by using cross-linked chitosan as a base material. The adsorption behavior of trace metal ions on the IDP-type chitosan resin was systematically investigated using a mini-column (1 ml of the resin) packed with the resin. The concentrations of metal ions in the effluents were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The resin could adsorb four metals, such as In(III), Sn(II), Th(IV), and U(VI), by almost 100% over a wide pH range (1-7). Uranium(VI) and thorium could not be eluted with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (1-6 M); other metal ions were easily and readily eluted with 1 M nitric acid. The IDP-type chitosan resin synthesized in this work can be applied to the separation of U(VI) and Th(IV) from other metal ions. (author)

  10. Study on the application of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of metallic Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd traces in sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Dung; Doan Thanh Son; Tran Thi Ngoc Diep

    2004-01-01

    The trace amount of some heavy metallic elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in sea water samples were determined directly (without separation) and quantitatively by using Electro-Thermal Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS). The effect of mainly major constituents such as Na, Mg, Ca, K, and the mutual effect of the trace elements, which were present in the matrix on the absorption intensity of each analyzed element was studied. The adding of a certain chemical modification for each trace element was also investigated in order to eliminate the overall effect of the background during the pyrolysis and atomization. The sea water sample after fitrating through a membrane with 0.45 μm-hole size was injected in to the graphite tube via an autosampler (MPE50). The absorption intensity of each element was then measured on the VARIO-6 under the optimum parameters for spectrometer such as: maximum wavelength, current of hollow cathode lamp, and that for graphite furnace such as dry temperature, pyrolysis temperature, atomization temperature, ect. The analytical procedures were set-up and applied for the determination of these above mentioned elements in the synthesized sea water sample and in the real sea water samples with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  11. Speciation of trace elements in the environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Elements present at trace levels, often referred as trace elements, play an important role in the environment and in the functioning of life on our planet. Trace elements in environment present as free metal ions or incorporated into colloids or attached to particulate matter or exist in different physical and chemical forms. It is well established that some elements are highly toxic and some are essential, but can become toxic at higher doses. It is also now known that the forms of elements (speciation) and their amounts are more important than the chemical dose of the elements as their interaction depends on different species. For example, Cr(VI) ions are considered far more toxic than Cr(III), whereas As(III) is more toxic than As(V). Similarly, in the case of mercury, both methylmercury and inorganic mercury are toxic but they show different levels of toxicity. Thus the adverse effects depend on the nature of species of the elements and therefore speciation studies are of paramount importance in many areas like toxicology, environmental chemistry and geochemisty. In view of this, speciation studies is a challenge to analytical chemists as the measurement methodologies have to be carefully developed, validated and applied. The grand challenge is to obtain quality data ensuring traceability, as the data obtained will be used in modeling for predicting the environmental impacts. In this talk importance of speciation and challenges to environmental analytical chemists will be discussed along with the following three speciation studies on Cr, U and Hg which were carried out in our laboratories

  12. Polonium (²¹⁰Po), uranium (²³⁴U, ²³⁸U) isotopes and trace metals in mosses from Sobieszewo Island, northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryło, Alicja; Nowicki, Waldemar; Olszewski, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The activity of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides, as well as trace metals in mosses, collected from Sobieszewo Island area (northern Poland), were determined using the alpha spectrometry, AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) and OES-ICP (atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma). The concentrations of mercury (directly from the solid sample) were determined by the cold vapor technique of CV AAS. The obtained results revealed that the concentrations of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U in the two analyzed kinds of mosses: schrebers big red stem moss (Pleurozium schreberi) and broom moss (Dicranum scoparium) were similar. The higher polonium concentrations were found in broom moss (Dicranum scoparium), but uranium concentrations were relatively low for both species of analyzed mosses. Among the analyzed trace metals the highest concentration in mosses was recorded for iron, while the lowest for nickel, cadmium and mercury. The obtained studies showed that the sources of polonium and uranium isotopes, as well as trace metals in analyzed mosses are air city contaminations transported from Gdańsk and from existing in the vicinity the phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (near Gdańsk).

  13. Macro and micro plastics sorb and desorb metals and act as a point source of trace metals to coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, B; Bendell, L I

    2018-01-01

    Nine urban intertidal regions in Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, were sampled for plastic debris. Debris included macro and micro plastics and originated from a wide diversity of uses ranging from personal hygiene to solar cells. Debris was characterized for its polymer through standard physiochemical characteristics, then subject to a weak acid extraction to remove the metals, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead from the polymer. Recently manufactured low density polyethylene (LDPE), nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were subject to the same extraction. Data was statistically analyzed by appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests when needed with significance set at P Plastic debris will affect metals within coastal ecosystems by; 1) providing a sorption site (copper and lead), notably for PVC 2) desorption from the plastic i.e., the "inherent" load (cadmium and zinc) and 3) serving as a point source of acute trace metal exposure to coastal ecosystems. All three mechanisms will put coastal ecosystems at risk to the toxic effects of these metals.

  14. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  15. Trace/Heavy Metal Impact on Agricultural Soils from Commonly used Fertilizers of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.; Jolly, Y. N.

    2005-01-01

    On investigation of seven commonly used fertilizers of Bangladesh for evaluation of their trace/heavy metal impact on the agricultural soils it was observed that TSP, SSP and Cow-dung were more potential in supplying a broad range of these elements including toxin ones such as, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Pb, Cd. In phosphate fertilizers, the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb ranged from 106-129, 21.1-124, 12.2-16.1, 8.6-27.1, 8.2-12.5, 93.5-245, 8.4-12.1 mgkg -1 respectively. In cow-dung the respective contents of the same elements except Cd were 8.1, 820, 11.1, 6.1, 12.4, 72.2, 12.1 mg kg -1 . Zinc sulphate was also found to be a potential fertilizer capable of supplying Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, containing 182, 311, 63, 10.5, 300, 27.5, 28.1 mg kg -1 respectively. MP and Gypsum has shown to be of less potential in adding trace/heavy elements in soils. MP contained Mn, Fe, Br, Sr and its Mn concentration was 13.2 mg kg -1 . The elements, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr were measured in Gypsum where Cu and Fe concentrations were 15.3 and 13.2 mg kg -1 respectively. Urea was found to contain Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at low levels in comparison with other fertilizers. The trace/heavy metals load from chemical fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land per year was also calculated. The Maximum input of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 14.8, 23.2, 22.3, 646, 2.9, 4.9, 3.9, 2816, 2.2 and 4.5 g respectively.(author)

  16. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Yanling; Chen, Da; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Ǻke

    2017-06-01

    The present study measured concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in surface sediments and two benthic invertebrate species (Anodonta woodiana and Bellamya aeruginosa) collected from Dianshan Lake, located in the Yangtze River Delta. The Dianshan Lake acts as one of the most important drinking water sources to Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Concentrations of trace metals and metalloids ranged from 0.04 mg/kg for Cd to 288.0 mg/kg for Zn. Substantial bioaccumulation in invertebrates was observed for Zn and Cu based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) measurements. The results revealed that concentrations of metals and metalloids in sediments from Dianshan Lake were at the lower end of the range of levels found in other regions of China. The assessment of three significantly inter-related evaluation indices, including the geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), potential ecological risk factor (Er i ), and mean probable effect concentration quotients (Q m-PEC ), suggested that sediment-associated trace elements exhibited no considerable ecological risks in the studied watershed. However, the target hazard quotient and hazard index analysis suggested that selected elements (particularly As) accumulation in edible tissues of benthic invertebrates could pose potential health risks to local populations, especially fishermen. Given that wild aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and bivalves) constitute the diet of local populations as popular food/protein choices, further investigations are needed to better elucidate human health risks from metal and metalloid exposure via edible freshwater organisms.

  18. Metal and trace element assessment of estuary sediments from Santos, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia B.B.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understanding geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metal analyses and their distribution in marine sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports result concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirteen bottom sediment samples (SV0501 to SV0513) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao, Vicente de Carvalho and Santos' Bay, in the summer of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For total mercury determination cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS) was employed. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared with NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values). In general, the samples located near the Cubatao region showed higher concentrations for all elements analyzed probably due to the high impact of industrial activities. (author)

  19. Metal and trace element assessment of estuary sediments from Santos, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ducamorim@yahoo.com.br; defavaro@ipen.br; Berbel, Glaucia B.B.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos - LABNUT]. E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    In order to better understanding geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metal analyses and their distribution in marine sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports result concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirteen bottom sediment samples (SV0501 to SV0513) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao, Vicente de Carvalho and Santos' Bay, in the summer of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For total mercury determination cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS) was employed. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared with NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values). In general, the samples located near the Cubatao region showed higher concentrations for all elements analyzed probably due to the high impact of industrial activities. (author)

  20. Selected trace metal levels in common vegetables grown in NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, K.; Jaffar, M.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen vegetables procured from local markets of Peshawar and its suburbs were analyzed using wet digestion atomic absorption method for Fe, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The families investigated were: Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Umbelliferae and Zingiberaceae. The heavy metal data are reported at 99%(- + 2S) confidence level for triplicate measurements on sub samples of a given sample with an overall reproducibility of 2% compared with standard material samples. Comparison of averages through t-test indicates that each vegetable group is distinctly different from the other in terms of metal content. Maximum iron was present in garlic, at 4.585 mu g/g, dry weight (edible part-stem) of the Liliacease family. Arsenic was found to be below detection limit in all the vegetable groups. Lead levels were quite low, maximum concentration (0.0200 mu g/g, dry weight) was found in karaila (edible part-fruit). Mercury levels were relatively higher, with maximum concentration (2.590 mu g/g, dry weight) in gem (edible part-stem). The levels of nickel were moderately higher, being maximum (2.375 mu g/g dry weight) in karaila. The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within laid down internationally for safe human consumption, with only a few exceptions. (author)

  1. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of sediment trace metal records as paleoproductivity and paleoxygenation proxies in the upwelling center off Concepción, Chile (36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Lange, Carina; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Salamanca, Marco A.; Maldonado, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the records of several trace metals sensitive to redox conditions in continental shelf sediments off Concepción, Chile (36°S). The continental margin off Concepción (36°S; 73°W) lies beneath an important upwelling center characterized by high primary production rates and, consequently, high fluxes of organic matter. In spring and summer, this material settles to the seafloor where it decays, producing periods of very low oxygen content in bottom waters (oxygen minimum zone develops at ∼100-400 m water depth, where dissolved oxygen levels are oxygen at the bottom increases drastically (>1 mL L -1). The goals of this study were to determine the input of trace metals to the sediment and to decipher how this information can be used to reveal variations in primary productivity or bottom oxygenation. Gravity cores collected at two stations - VG06-2 over the mid-shelf station (88 m water depth, upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone) and VG06-3 over the outer shelf (120 m water depth, within the oxygen minimum zone) - were sampled for high resolution profiles (1 cm) of trace metals, biogenic opal, stable isotopes, and total organic carbon. The results suggest that the variability in the trace metal distribution on the continental shelf off Concepción is determined by redox conditions and the organic carbon flux to the bottom. Some sections of the sediment cores from the outer shelf showed appreciable authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 5-10, 2-5, and 10-16 respectively) along with heavier values of δ 15N, suggesting periods of suboxic conditions. During these periods, fluxes of organic material to the bottom were higher, as indicated by elevated TOC and opal contents. Alternating periods of higher and lower trace metal contents were not observed mid-shelf as they were on the outer shelf. Rather, the mid-shelf samples showed authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 1-6, 4-5, and 10-20, respectively) throughout the core except in a

  3. Determination of trace elements in cockle Anadara Granosa L. using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Noorddin

    1994-01-01

    This study determines the trace metal content in Anadara Granosa L., a popular seafood amongst South-East-Asians. Using the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) identification has been made of the presence of 17 trace metals including elements which are classified as toxic (As, Br, Cs) and those which are rare-earths (Eu, Ce, Lu, Tb, Yb). (author)

  4. Influence of dams on sediment continuity: A study case of a natural metallic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémion, Franck; Bordas, François; Mourier, Brice; Lenain, Jean-François; Kestens, Tim; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra

    2016-03-15

    Sediments play an important role on the quality of aquatic ecosystems, notably in the reservoir areas where they can either be a sink or a source of contaminants, depending on the management and hydrological conditions. The physicochemical properties of 25 surface sediments samples of a reservoir catchment (Vaussaire, Cantal, France) were studied. Results show a strong influence of dam presence, notably on the grain size and organic matter (OM) contents. The concentrations of trace metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were also measured and compared with worldwide reservoir concentrations and international sediment quality guideline levels in order to assess the intensity of the metallic contamination. Cr and Ni are the trace elements presenting the significantly highest values at the catchment scale. Enrichment Factors (EF), calculated using both local and national backgrounds, show that metals have mainly a natural origin, explaining especially the Cr and Ni values, linked with the composition of parental rocks. Unexpectedly, all the observed metal concentrations are lower in the reservoir than upstream and downstream, which might be related to the high fresh OM inputs in the reservoir, diluting the global metallic contamination. Multivariate statistical analyses, carried out in order to identify the relationship between the studied metals and sediment characteristics, tend to support this hypothesis, confirming the unusually low influence of such poorly-degraded OM on trace element accumulation in the reservoir. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis for trace metal assessment of sediments in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragbirsingh, Y.; Norville, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is a semi-enclosed shallow basin with increasing coastal development activities along Trinidad's west coast. Sediments present a host for trace metal pollutants from overlying waters, therefore determination of their content is critical in evaluating and detecting sources of marine pollution. This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of geochemical assessment for trace metals in coastal sediments of the Gulf of Paria. This GIS approach facilitates interpretation of the spatial relationships among key environmental processes. The GIS development involves the integration of spatial and attribute data pertaining to bathymetry, current systems, topography, rivers, land use/land cover and coastal sediments. It employs spatial interpolation and retrieval operations to analyze the total trace metal concentrations of aluminum, copper and lead in the sediments and the clay-enriched sediments, to determine whether they are related to sediment type or are affected by the discharge from anthropogenic sources. Spatial distribution modeling of element concentrations are produced to indicate contamination plumes from possible anthropogenic sources such as rivers entering the Gulf of Paria, and to reveal potential hot spots and dispersion patterns. A direct spatial correlation between clay-enriched sediments and high concentrations of aluminum and lead is detected, however regions of high concentrations of copper and lead indicate a relationship to anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of GIS for visualization, spatial query and overlay of geochemical analysis is demonstrated [es

  6. Trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater by ICP-MS using on line preconcentration and matrix elimination with chelating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaı, M; Rosin, C; Tousset, N; Nicolai, Y

    1999-09-13

    The main difficulties of trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater stem from their very low concentration (mug/l to sub-mug/l), and, by contrast, the high salt content (up to 38 g/l in the Mediterranean Sea). ICP-MS allows multi-elemental analysis and offers great sensitivity, but may be strongly affected by matrix effects induced by high salt contents (> 1 g/l). To perform trace metals analysis both in riverine, estuarine and seawater, we have developed a hyphenated method: ion chelation chromatography coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Iminodiacetate resin, Metpac CC-1 (Dionex), was used to concentrate most of the trace metals, and to separate them from alkaline and alkaline-earth metals. Behaviour of 17 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, In, Zn, V, Tl, Bi, Ag and Sn) towards the resin was qualitatively investigated. A method validation, partly derived from AFNOR standard XPT 90-210, was carried out on 12 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, Bi and In). Replicate measurements of multi-elemental standard solutions were used to check linearity, and to determine repeatability and detection limits. Method accuracy was then assessed by analysing two certified materials: a synthetic freshwater (SRM 1643d), and a natural filtered coastal seawater (NRCC CASS-3). An application assay of natural samples from the Rhône river (France) was eventually carried out, and the analytical results were found to be consistent with previous works.

  7. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  8. Dissolved trace metals (Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, Al, and Mn) around the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; Planquette, Hélène; Idrus, Farah; Roberts, Keiron

    2013-10-01

    A phytoplankton bloom shown to be naturally iron (Fe) induced occurs north of the Crozet Islands (Southern Ocean) every year, providing an ideal opportunity to study dissolved trace metal distributions within an island system located in a high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) region. We present water column profiles of dissolved nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) obtained as part of the NERC CROZEX program during austral summer (2004-2005). Two stations (M3 and M1) were sampled downstream (north) of Crozet in the bloom area and near the islands, along with a control station (M2) in the HNLC zone upstream (south) of the islands. The general range found was for Ni, 4.64-6.31 nM; Zn, 1.59-7.75 nM; Co, 24-49 pM; Cd, 135-673 pM; Pb, 6-22 pM; Al, 0.13-2.15 nM; and Mn, 0.07-0.64 nM. Vertical profiles indicate little island influence to the south with values in the range of other trace metal deprived regions of the Southern Ocean. Significant removal of Ni and Cd was observed in the bloom and Zn was moderately correlated with reactive silicate (Si) indicating diatom control over the internal cycling of this metal. Higher concentrations of Zn and Cd were observed near the islands. Pb, Al, and Mn distributions also suggest small but significant atmospheric dust supply particularly in the northern region.

  9. A hard tissue cephalometric comparative study between hand tracing and computerized tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the angular and linear hard tissue cephalometric measurements using hand-tracing and computerized tracings with Nemoceph and Dolphin software systems. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 cephalograms were randomly chosen for study with the following criteria, cephalograms of patients with good contrast, no distortion, and minimal radiographic artifacts were considered using the digital method (Kodak 8000 C with 12 angular and nine linear parameters selected for the study. Comparisons were determined by post-hoc test using Tukey HSD method. The N-Par tests were performed using Kruskal-Walli′s method. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc. Results: The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in the angular and linear measurements recorded. The P values were significant at 0.05 levels for two parameters, Co-A and Co-Gn with the hand-tracing method. This was significant in ANOVA and post-hoc test by Tukey HSD method. Conclusions: This study of comparison provides support for transition from digital hand to computerized tracing methodology. In fact, digital computerized tracings were easier and less time consuming, with the same reliability irrespective of each method of tracing.

  10. Humic substances in natural waters and their complexation with trace metals and radionuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Livermore, D.; Seitz, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) occur in surface waters and groundwaters in concentrations ranging from less than 1 mg(C)/L to more than 100 mg(C)/L. Humic substances are strong complexing agents for many trace metals in the environment and are also capable of forming stable soluble complexes or chelates with radionuclides. Concentrations of humic materials as low as 1 mg(C)/L can produce a detectable increase in the mobility of some actinide elements by forming soluble complexes that inhibit sorption of the radionuclides onto rock materials. The stability of trace metal- or radionuclide-organic complexes is commonly measured by an empirically determined conditional stability constant (K'), which is based on the ratio of complexed metal (radionuclide) in solution to the product concentration of uncomplexed metal and humic complexant. Larger values of stability constants indicate greater complex stability. The stability of radionuclide-organic complexes is affected both by concentration variables and envionmental factors. In general, complexing is favored by increased of radionuclide, increased pH, and decreased ionic strength. Actinide elements are generally most soluble in their higher oxidation states. Radionuclides can also form stable, insoluble complexes with humic materials that tend to reduce radionuclide mobility. These insoluble complexes may be radionuclide-humate colloids that subsequently precipitate from solution, or complexes of radionuclides and humic substances that sorb to clay minerals or other soil particulates strongly enough to immobilize the radionuclides. Colloid formation appears to be favored by increased radionuclide concentration and lowered pH; however, the conditions that favor formation of insoluble complexes that sorb to particulates are still poorly understood. 129 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs

  11. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radionuclides in marine organisms (particularly Tapes decussatus L.) in the Izmir bay area, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.; Uysal, H.

    1976-01-01

    The shell fish Tapes decussatus has economic importance as a product from Izmir bay. The concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Hg, Cd) in this organism have been determined in relation to different localities with polluted and non-polluted waters. Measurement of levels and trends of these trace elements are important in the context of public health. Seasonal as well as spatial variation of 65 Zn and 115 Cd in the organs and tissues of T. decussatus were determined. A comparison of the concentration of trace elements in natural conditions with that in laboratory conditions was made using radioisotopes. The concentrations of trace elements in T. decussatus varied according to the tissues and organs of the body, the size of the animal, the locality of sampling and the season of the year. Bio-concentrations of radioactive 65 Zn and 115 Cd were also observed to vary according to the tissues and organs of the animal. Pathways of the trace elements were also studied using radioisotopes ( 65 Zn and 115 Cd). The effects of toxicity of the stable elements on their uptake and loss were also determined. The toxic effects of different concentrations on the uptake and loss of 65 Zn and 115 Cd were studied. (author)

  12. Bioaccumulation of thallium and other trace metals in Biscutella laevigata nearby a decommissioned zinc-lead mine (Northeastern Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Elena; Petranich, Elisa; Adami, Gianpiero; Baracchini, Elena; Crosera, Matteo; Emili, Andrea; Lenaz, Davide; Higueras, Pablo; Covelli, Stefano

    2017-01-15

    The mineral body exploited in Salafossa (Eastern Dolomites) was one of the largest lead/zinc-containing mineral deposits in Europe. Both metals were mainly present as sulphides (sphalerite, ZnS and galena, PbS). Mining activity started around 1550, but it was only around 1960 that the richest veins of the minerals were discovered. The mine closed in 1985, and concentrations of several trace metals, such as thallium (Tl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), were detected in the soils and plant samples (Biscutella laevigata L.) that were collected from eighteen sites selected outside the mine. B. laevigata is a pseudometallophyta species, and it often grows near mining areas where the soil's metal concentrations are significantly higher than those of soil with a natural geochemical background. The total metal concentrations in the plant tissue (roots and leaves of Biscutella laevigata) and in the soil samples - both bulk-soil and the B. laevigata root system (rhizo-soil) - were determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The metal extractability and leachability of the soil samples were estimated using soil extractions with DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). In addition, metal mobility caused by rainwater runoff was estimated by using a leaching test with a dilute solution of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 . The results showed that metals were present in a chemical form available for uptake by the plants' roots. In fact, high concentrations of the metals were also found in the plant tissue (roots and leaves) of B. laevigata, and these concentrations were higher than those whose soils present natural geochemical background levels in the corresponding rhizo-soil. Thus, B. laevigata has shown a marked ability to bioaccumulate trace metals, especially Tl and, to a lesser extent, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn, and it can influence metal mobility in the rhizo-soil. To assess the uptake and translocation processes of the trace

  13. Trace metal chemistry and silicification of microorganisms in geothermal sinter, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, E.J.; Brown, K.L.; Campbell, K.A. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology; Cady, S.L. [Portland State University, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2001-08-01

    As part of a pilot study investigating the role of microorganisms in the immobilisation ol As, Sb, B, Tl and Ug, the inorganic geochemistry of seven different active sinter deposits and their contact fluids were characterised. A comprehensive series of sequential extractions for a suite of trace elements was carried out on siliceous sinter and a mixed silica-carbonate sinter. The extractions showed whether metals were loosely exchangeable or bound to carbonate, oxide, organic or crystalline fractions. Hyperthermophilic microbial communities associated with sinters deposited from high temperature (92-94{sup o}C) fluids at a variety of geothermal sources were investigated using SEM. The rapidity and style of silicification of the hyperthermophiles can be correlated with the dissolved silica content of the fluid. Although high concentrations of Hg and TI were found associated with the organic fraction of the sinters, there was no evidence to suggest that any of the heavy metals were associated preferentially with the hyperthermophiles at the high temperature (92-94{sup o}C) ends of the terrestrial thermal spring ecosystems studied. (author)

  14. Assessment of trace metals pollution in estuarine sediments using SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the investigation of trace metals geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sergipe river estuary, northeast Brazil. Analyses were carried out by Flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS). Principal component analysis was applied to results to identify any groupings among the different sampling sites. In order to determine the extent of contamination, taking into account natural variability within the region, metal concentrations were normalized relative to aluminium. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn contamination was observed in sediments from the area receiving highest inputs of domestic wastes, while cadmium contamination occurred in sediments from the region affected by highest inflows of industrial effluents. Possible toxicity related to these metals was examined using the relationship simultaneously extracted metals/acid volatile sulfide and by comparing sediment chemical data with sediment quality guidelines ERL-ERM values. Results obtained using the two methods were in agreement and indicated that adverse effects on aquatic biota should rarely occur.

  15. The Effect of Organism Size on the Content of Certain Trace Metals in Marine Zooplancton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Individual species of euphausiids and pelagic shrimp, collected at the same time and place, were sorted into different size groups and analyzed for several biologically important trace metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation. Other specimens from these samples were dissected into gross anatomical parts and analyzed in the same way. Molts collected from zooplankters maintained live in the laboratory were also analyzed for metals. Results for the different size-group experiments showed that in general the concentrations of zinc, iron, and manganese were inversely correlated with dry body weight. Depending upon the crustacean species, metal concentrations in smaller individuals ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 times greater than those in larger individuals of the same species. Copper concentration on the other hand, tended to be a direct function of dry weight. Concentrations of zinc, iron, and manganese were generally higher in molts and dissected exoskeletons than in muscle tissue, however, the opposite was true for copper. The amount of material shed by euphausiids in molting ranged from 4.7 to 10.9% of dry body weight with smaller animals tending to lose a greater percentage of body weight than the larger specimens. These molts, in which ash accounted for about 40-50% of the dry weight, contained 15-20, 19-45, 28-40, and 15% of the total body zinc, iron, cobalt and manganese, respectively. Only 5% of the total body copper content was associated with the molt. In addition, molts from smaller crustaceans had higher concentrations of zinc and iron than those from larger species. With the exception of copper, it appears that a relatively large fraction of the animal's metal content is associated with the older inert chitin, indicating that much of the trace metal measured in small planktonic crustaceans is merely sorbed to the surface and is not physiologically necessary. In an ecological sense, the rapid molting frequency of these Crustacea

  16. A Multi-Scale Study on the Role of Trace Metals on Physiological and Pathological Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelkamp, Derek

    The work in this thesis provides mulit-scale contributions towards understanding the effects of trace metals on the pathological mineralization process relating to both the development of healthy bone tissue, the diseased state of osteoporosis, and microcalcifications which develop in breast cancers. A protein level study was performed on ECM protein fibronectin, which plays a role in cell adhesion. The protein studies showed zinc interactions with fibronectin and its fragment, anastellin, to influence protein structure. Zinc is also shown to decrease cell migration in vitro, which may be influenced by changes in fibronectin ECM structure. The effects of osteoporosis on micronutrient composition in vivo were examined using the technique of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) in an ovariectomized rat model. Compared to healthy bone, subtle difference are observed in zinc and iron in osteoporotic rat bones, showing micronutrients may play an important role in healthy bone regulation. Effects of micronutrient zinc was used to inhibit microcalcification formation in breast cancers. Microcalcifications have been linked malignancy of breast cancers, but the process of microcalcification formation has yet to be well understood. In this work, exogenous zinc is used to inhibit microcalcification formation, and metastatic potential in both a 2D and 3D spheroid environment. A novel in vitro self-assembled three dimensional multi-cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model for the study of breast cancer microcalcifications was developed for this experiment. A MCTS model for studying breast cancer microcalcifications has potential to be used in drug discovery, or for basic research applications studying mechanisms of microcalcification formation, which are still not fully understood. Taken together this study uses a multi-scale approach to gain a better understanding of micronutrients involved in pathological mineralization.

  17. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Trace metal fluxes to ferromanganese nodules from the western Baltic Sea as a record for long-term environmental changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawatsch, S.; Garbe-Schonberg, C.D.; Lechtenberg, F.; Manceau, A.; Tamura, N.; Kulik, D.A.; Suess, E.; Kersten, M.

    2002-03-12

    Trace element profiles in ferromanganese nodules from the western Baltic Sea were analyzed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray radiation techniques (fluorescence: mSXRF, and diffraction: mXRD) at high spatial resolution in growth direction. Of the trace elements studied (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Co, Mo, Ba), Zn showed the most significant enrichment, with values in the outermost surface layers of up to six-fold higher than those found in older core parts. The high-resolution Zn profiles provide the necessary temporal resolution for a dating method analogous to dendrochronology. Profiles in various samples collected during two decades were matched and the overlapping sections used for estimation of the accretion rates. Assuming a continuous accretion of these relatively fast growing nodules (on average 20 mm a-1) over the last century, the Zn enrichment was thus assessed to have commenced around 1860/70 in nodules from the Kiel Bight and in 1880/90 from Mecklenburg Bight, reflecting the enhanced heavy metal emissions with rising industrialization in Europe. Apart from the obvious success with Zn, only As and Co show significant but only 1.5-fold enrichments in the most recent growth layers of the nodules. Other anthropogenic trace metals like Cu and Cd are not at all enriched, which, together with the distinct early-diagenetic Fe/Mn banding, weakens the potential of the nodules for retrospective monitoring.

  19. Trace metal fluxes to ferromanganese nodules from the western Baltic Sea as a record for long-term environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlawatsch, S.; Garbe-Schonberg, C.D.; Lechtenberg, F.; Manceau, A.; Tamura, N.; Kulik, D.A.; Suess, E.; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    Trace element profiles in ferromanganese nodules from the western Baltic Sea were analyzed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray radiation techniques (fluorescence: mSXRF, and diffraction: mXRD) at high spatial resolution in growth direction. Of the trace elements studied (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Co, Mo, Ba), Zn showed the most significant enrichment, with values in the outermost surface layers of up to six-fold higher than those found in older core parts. The high-resolution Zn profiles provide the necessary temporal resolution for a dating method analogous to dendrochronology. Profiles in various samples collected during two decades were matched and the overlapping sections used for estimation of the accretion rates. Assuming a continuous accretion of these relatively fast growing nodules (on average 20 mm a-1) over the last century, the Zn enrichment was thus assessed to have commenced around 1860/70 in nodules from the Kiel Bight and in 1880/90 from Mecklenburg Bight, reflecting the enhanced heavy metal emissions with rising industrialization in Europe. Apart from the obvious success with Zn, only As and Co show significant but only 1.5-fold enrichments in the most recent growth layers of the nodules. Other anthropogenic trace metals like Cu and Cd are not at all enriched, which, together with the distinct early-diagenetic Fe/Mn banding, weakens the potential of the nodules for retrospective monitoring

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  1. A Market Basket Survey of Horticultural Fruits for Arsenic and Trace Metal Contamination in Southeast Nigeria and Potential Health Risk Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Damian Ezeonyejiaku; Maximilian Obinna Obiakor

    2017-01-01

    Background. Elevated arsenic and trace metal contamination of the terrestrial food chain represents one of the most significant environmental risk exposures for human populations in developing countries. Metalloid and metal contamination in horticultural crop produce such as fruit is a public health concern in Nigeria. Local fruits are cheap sources of vitamins and minerals for the resident population and pose an important dietary threat of metal(loid) toxicity through consumption. Objecti...

  2. Lead isotopes and trace metal ratios of aerosols as tracers of Pb pollution sources in Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida; Paul, Debajyoti; Tyagi, Swati; Sengupta, Deep

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic flux of Pb in the Earth's surface is almost an order of magnitude higher than its corresponding natural flux [1]. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb- isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, an industrial city in northern India. The Pb concentration in the airborne particulate matter varies between 14-216 ng/m3, while the other heavy metals vary by factor of 10 or less, e.g. Cd=0.3-3 ng/m3, As=0.4-3.5 ng/m3, Zn=36-161 ng/m3, and Cu=3-22 ng/m3. The 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/207Pb vary between 1.112 - 1.129, 2.123-2.141, and 2.409-2.424 respectively, and are highly correlated with each other (R2>0.9). Pb isotopes and trace metal data reveals that coal combustion is the major source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere, with limited contribution from mining and smelting processes. We further conclude that combination of Pb isotope ratios and V/Pb ratios are powerful tracers for Pb source apportionment studies, which is otherwise difficult to differentiate based only on Pb systematics [1] Sen and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2012), Environ. Sci. Technol.(46), 8601-8609

  3. Temporal and spatial trends for trace metals in streams and rivers across Sweden (1996–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fölster

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term data series (1996 through 2009 for trace metals were analyzed from a large number of streams and rivers across Sweden varying in tributary watershed size from 0.05 to 48 193 km2. The final data set included 139 stream sites with data for arsenic (As, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and vanadium (V. Between 7 % and 46 % of the sites analyzed showed significant trends according to the seasonal Kendall test. However, in contrast to previous studies and depositional patterns, a substantial portion of the trends were positive, especially for V (100 %, As (95 %, and Pb (68 %. Other metals (Zn and Cr generally decreased, were mixed (Ni and Zn, or had very few trends (Co over the study period. Trends by region were also analyzed and some showed significant variation between the north and south of Sweden. Regional trends for both Cu and Pb were positive (60 % and 93 %, respectively in the southern region but strongly negative (93 % and 75 %, respectively in the northern region. Kendall's τ coefficients were used to determine dependence between metals and potential in-stream drivers including total organic carbon (TOC, iron (Fe, pH, and sulphate (SO42−. TOC and Fe correlated positively and strongly with As, V, Pb, and Co while pH and SO42− generally correlated weakly, or not at all with the metals studied.

  4. Portable detection of trace metals in airborne particulates and sediments via μPADs and smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Dong, Hui; Zheng, Jianping; Sun, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM), a key indicator of air pollution by natural and anthropogenic activities, contributes to a wide spectrum of diseases that lead to a shortening of life expectancy. It has been recognized that trace metals in airborne PM are highly toxic and can be correlated with lesion in respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunological, and hematological systems. Traditional methods for trace metal assay require sophisticated instrumentations and highly trained operators in centralized laboratories. In this work, by integrating the technologies of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, additive manufacturing, smartphone, and colorimetric sensing, we developed the first smartphone based paper microfluidic platform for portable, disposable, and quantitative measurements of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in ambient air and street sediments. On a single A4-sized paper, 48 devices were fabricated in under 30 s with a total cost of ∼$1.9. On each device, 12 reaction units were patterned and used for colorimetric tests. Particulate samples from urban ambient air and street sediments were collected, processed, and analyzed. Signals of the on-chip complexation product were recorded using a smartphone camera and processed by a self-developed app on an iOS system. For precisely controlling the object distance, chip position, and luminance, a hand-held 3D cellphone housing was designed and printed. The detection limits of Co, Cu, and Fe were determined to be 8.2, 45.8, and 186.0 ng, while the linear dynamic ranges were calculated to be 8.2-81.6, 45.8-4.58 × 10 2 , and 1.86 × 10 2 -1.86 × 10 3  ng, representing a practically relevant device performance with a significant reduction in the detection cost and time consumption. Trace metals in ambient air and sediments of two cities in China have been quantified portably, thus demonstrating the utility of our system in improving strategies for air pollution control in low-resource settings.

  5. Partitioning of trace metals in the chemical fractions of bed-load sediments of Nahr-Ibrahim river, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfali, Samira I.; Davies, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Sediments are the ultimate sink of trace elements. The total metal analysis may only give information concerning possible enrichment of metals. The analysis of metal partitioning in the different chemical components of sediments (exchangeable, carbonate, easily reducible, moderately reducible, organic and residual); give a detailed information on the way in which these metals are bound to sediments, their mobilization capacity and their ability to affect water quality under different environmental conditions. The studied river basin is dominated by limestone formation, the enrichment of metals in the carbonate sediment fraction is a high probability. The objective of the study was to determine the percentage of the total metal content (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb) in the six chemical fractions of the bed load sediments of Nahr-Ibrahim river during the dry season and verify the role of carbonate for metal sediment deposition. Bed load sediments were sampled at five locations 13Km stretch, upstream from river mouth at two dates, August and October 1996. the dried samples were sieved into three mechanical fractions (1180-250 μm, 250-75 μm and <75 μm). A sequential chemical extraction was carried on each sized sample sediment, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined on the extracts by AAS. The reported data showed that Fe in mainly in the residual fraction, Mn in the residual and carbonate fraction, Zn in the residual, carbonate and Fe oxide fraction, Cu in the residual, carbonate and organic fraction, Pb in the carbonate fraction. The carbonate fraction in sediments played the major common role for metal sediment deposition

  6. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  7. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the properties of soil solution in the rhizosphere of developing radish plants were investigated. Variations in these properties were expected to affect the distribution and speciation of metals in the soil and soil solution. Applications of essential nutrients were linked to plant...... transpiration rates and prevented excess addition of nutrient ions, so that subtle changes in soil solution composition would not be obscured. Soil solution pH, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the concentrations of major and trace elements in solution were found to vary over time. Strict...... existing in the uncomplexed state. Changes in the concentrations of uncomplexed Cd and Zn with time gave the best correlations with changes in plant uptake of these metals over time, supporting the hypothesis that plants mainly absorb the free metal ion from soil solution....

  8. Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world to exchange research notes of subjects dealing with the biogeochemistry of trace elements. The conference proceedings included 456 papers, of which 34 have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. Each presentation included an introduction to a study, materials and methods, results and discussion and a conclusion. The conference was divided into special oral symposia (SO), general oral sessions (GO), a special poster session (SP) and a general poster session (GP). A wide range of topics were presented including: biosorption of trace elements and the bioavailability of metals for uptake and effects; chemical remediation; adsorption reactions on soils and sediments; fractionation of metals in soils; diagenetic transformations; arsenic content and distribution; metal speciation; the role of metal-organic interactions; phytoremediation; contents and distribution in soils and waters; soil amendments; mercury and human and animal health; mercury in the environment; aqueous speciation; phyto-, microbial and chemical remediation tools for metal contaminated soils and groundwater; geochemical surface controls on trace element fate; temporal trends of trace metals in biota; biomonitoring; transport in soils and waters; analytical techniques; metal/mineral interactions with microorganisms; the chemistry of trace elements in fly ash; ecotoxicology; groundwater; and, soil amendments. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Trace metal variations in the shells of Ensis siliqua record pollution and environmental conditions in the sea to the west of mainland Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Nicholas J.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, Wales (United Kingdom)]. E-mail Nick.Pearce@aber.ac.uk; Mann, Victoria L. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Shells of the pod razor shell (Ensis siliqua) from 13 locations around the west coast of mainland Britain have been analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for a range of trace metals including Zn, Cd, Pb, U, Ba, Sr and Mg. The trace metal record in these shells is a proxy record for changes in seawater chemistry during the 1990s. Regional variations exist in the median concentrations of the analysed metals. Barium concentrations are related to increased productivity from sewage sludge dumping at sea. Strontium shows a local relationship to salinity, but there is no clear relationship over the study area, instead high Sr is often associated with high Ba, and may reflect ontogenetic factors such as growth rate. Magnesium shows a seasonal variation within individual shells and can be used to calculate sea surface temperatures from groups of shells. Contaminant metals show a clear regional relationship with known sources, thus high Pb and Zn are typically associated with former metal mining areas (e.g. Cardigan Bay, Anglesey), and high Pb, Zn, Cd and U are associated with industrial activity in Liverpool Bay. Anomalies such as the high U in shells from northern Scotland cannot at present be explained. A seasonal variation of Pb is also seen in Cardigan Bay and Liverpool Bay, relating to increased winter fluxes of these metals to the marine environment. The regional distribution of these metals is consistent with known sources of contamination and patterns of seawater migration around the coast of Britain.

  10. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  11. Removal of trace metals and improvement of dredged sediment dewaterability by bioleaching combined with Fenton-like reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Twardowska, Irena; Wei, Shuhe; Sun, Lina; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jianyu; Cai, Jianchao

    2015-05-15

    Bioleaching by Aspergillus niger strain SY1 combined with Fenton-like reaction was optimized to improve trace metal removal and dewaterability of dredged sediments. The major optimized parameters were the duration of bioleaching and H₂O₂ dose in Fenton-like process (5 days and 2g H₂O₂/L, respectively). Bioleaching resulted in the removal of ≈90% of Cd, ≈60% of Zn and Cu, ≈20% of Pb, and in decrease of sediment pH from 6.6 to 2.5 due to organic acids produced by A. niger. After addition of H₂O₂, Fenton-like reaction was initiated and further metal removal occurred. Overall efficiency of the combined process comprised: (i) reduction of Cd content in sediment by 99.5%, Cu and Zn by >70% and Pb by 39% as a result of metal release bound in all mobilizable fractions; (ii) decrease of sediment capillary suction time (CST) from 98.2s to 10.1s (by 89.8%) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) from 37.4×10(12)m/kg to 6.2×10(12)m/kg (by 83.8%), due to reducing amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by 68.7% and bound water content by 79.1%. The combined process was found to be an efficient method to remove trace metals and improve dewaterability of contaminated dredged sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of dissolved trace metals to land use/land cover and their source apportionment using a receptor model in a subtropic river, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-06-15

    Water samples were collected for determination of dissolved trace metals in 56 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River, China. Multivariate statistical analyses including correlation analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression models, and principal component and factor analysis (PCA/FA) were employed to examine the land use influences on trace metals, and a receptor model of factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was used for source identification/apportionment of anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface water of the River. Our results revealed that land use was an important factor in water metals in the snow melt flow period and land use in the riparian zone was not a better predictor of metals than land use away from the river. Urbanization in a watershed and vegetation along river networks could better explain metals, and agriculture, regardless of its relative location, however slightly explained metal variables in the upper Han River. FA-MLR analysis identified five source types of metals, and mining, fossil fuel combustion, and vehicle exhaust were the dominant pollutions in the surface waters. The results demonstrated great impacts of human activities on metal concentrations in the subtropical river of China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of trace metals in Cladophora glomerata: C. glomerata as a potential biological monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeny, W.L.; Breck, W.G.; Vanloon, G.W.; Page, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method has been developed for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in Cladophora glomerata. The method has been applied to samples taken in August from a remote island in Lake Ontario (Main Duck) and a shore site near Kingston, Ontario (Deadman Bay). It is postulated that C. glomerata can act as a biological monitor, concentrating the trace metals present in the aqueous environment with a reasonably constant CF for each element.

  14. Determination of trace elements and heavy metals in sediment using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidahmed, Muataz Ahmed Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 30 sediment samples were taken randomly from the area of Suba south of Khartoum state. Trace elements and heavy metal were determined in sediments samples using x-ray fluoresce spectroscopy (X RF). K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Zr were determined by X RF. Standard Reference Material (SRM) from international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-7) has been used to achieve accuracy of X RF method. Measured values were found in agreements with certified values. The average elemental concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Zr were 5882.7, 20703.3, 6264.3, 460.97, 26713.3, 7.7, 43.4, 18.6, 28.6, 144.8, and 173.06, respectively. Correlation between elements was performed also cluster analysis was used to check the similarly between the samples result. The result of study were compared with previous studies and the concentrations of some elements found to be similar.(Author)

  15. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  16. Microparticles and human health: particulate materials, trace metals elements and black carbon in aerosols collected at Andravoahangy-Antananarivo, Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Harinoely, M.; Ravoson, H. N.; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Ramaherison, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is to determine the concentrations of microparticles having diameter inferior to 10 μm (PM 10 ), the metal trace elements and the black carbon in the aerosols sampled in Andravoahangy-Antananarivo, Madagascar in 2008. The air sampler GENT is used to collect aerosol samples. The total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of simultaneous way all metallic trace elements contained in the aerosols. The M43D reflectometer permits to measure the reflectances in order to determine the black carbon concentrations. The results show that the average concentrations of the particulate matters PM 2,5-10 are higher than those of PM 2,5 . The average concentrations of PM 10 in the aerosols are exceeding the World Health Organisation (WHO) and European Union guidelines, set at 50 μg.m -3 and those of PM 2,5 are higher than the 2005 WHO (25 μg.m-3) and the United States Environment Protection Agency (35 μg.m -3 ) guidelines. Consequently, air quality in Andravoahangy does not respect these daily guidelines. The identified metallic trace elements in the aerosols are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The concentrations of black carbon are higher in the fine particles. The maximum value is 9.12 μg.m -3 . [fr

  17. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  18. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  19. Distribution, provenance and early diagenesis of major and trace metals in sediment cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V.P.; Chakraborty, P.

    Major elements and trace metals were analyzed in four sediment cores recovered along a transect in the Mandovi estuary for their distribution, provenance and early diagenesis. The sediments were clayey silts in cores from the upper/lower estuary...

  20. Selected Trace Metals and Organic Compounds and Bioavailability of Selected Organic Compounds in Soils, Hackberry Flat, Tillman County, Oklahoma, 1994-95

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Mark F

    1997-01-01

    .... S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Geological Survey, examined the soils of Hackberry Flat to determine trace metal concentrations, presence of selected...

  1. Trace metals adhered to urban sediments. Results from fieldwork in Poços de Caldas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Silveira, Alexandre; Júnior, José; Poleto, Cristiano; de Lima, João; Gonçalves, Flávio; Alvarenga, Lívia

    2016-04-01

    The urbanization process has consequences such as the introduction of new sources of pollution and changes in the natural environment, like increase of impervious areas that accumulate pollutants between rainfall events. The pollution caused by the washing of accumulated sediment on the gutters, ultimately carried to water bodies through the stormwater drainage system, stands out in this process. This study aimed to quantify and characterize the sediments accumulated in the gutters of roads in an urban area of Poços de Caldas (MG), Brazil. Fieldwork took place during the period of 21.05.2013 to 27.08.2013. Main goal was to investigate the process of accumulation of dry sediments on impervious surfaces and find how this process relates with the urban occupation. More specific goals were to quantify the average mass and characterize the granulometric distribution of accumulated sediments, and identify the occurrence of trace metals Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cu and Pb in the fraction of sediments with diameter smaller or equal to 63μm. The samples were weighed to find the aggregate mass and then sieved through meshes of 63μm, 125μm, 250μm, 600μm, 1180μm, and 2000μm for the granulometric analysis. Samples of the sediment fraction smaller than 63μm of diameter were subjected to analysis by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the identification of trace metals. We found that the aggregate mass of accumulated sediments varies in time and space and is particularly influenced by the land use of the sampling areas. Areas under construction produced more sediments than built areas or areas without construction. This study may serve as an input for creating diffuse pollution control and mitigation strategies towards the reduction of accumulated pollutants in the urban environment of Poços de Caldas. Pb and Zn shown the highest concentrations. The heavy metal concentration decreases after wet

  2. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  3. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  4. Past 140-year environmental record in the northern South China Sea: evidence from coral skeletal trace metal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinxian; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Huiling; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2014-02-01

    About 140-year changes in the trace metals in Porites coral samples from two locations in the northern South China Sea were investigated. Results of PCA analyses suggest that near the coast, terrestrial input impacted behavior of trace metals by 28.4%, impact of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) was 19.0%, contribution of war and infrastructure were 14.4% and 15.6% respectively. But for a location in the open sea, contribution of War and SST reached 33.2% and 16.5%, while activities of infrastructure and guano exploration reached 13.2% and 14.7%. While the spatiotemporal change model of Cu, Cd and Pb in seawater of the north area of South China Sea during 1986-1997 were reconstructed. It was found that in the sea area Cu and Cd contaminations were distributed near the coast while areas around Sanya, Hainan had high Pb levels because of the well-developed tourism related activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolved trace metals in the water column of Reloncaví Fjord, Chile Metales trazas disueltos en la columna de agua en el fiordo Reloncaví, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ahumada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the concentration of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb in the water column of Reloncaví Fjord. Sampling was performed during the CIMAR 12 Fiordos cruise in 2006. A total of 36 passive samplers or DGTs (diffusion gradient in thin films were anchored at four stations along the longitudinal axis of the fjord. The DGTs were deployed at three depths per station and left there for 48 h. The metal contents on each thin film were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were highest in the surface layer at the head of the estuary, which is directly influenced by Petrohué River. Characteristic sequences of the studied metals were defined in the area with the greatest continental influence (Z(5-25m = Cu >Mn> Fe > Ni >Pb> Cr > Cd > Co and in the area with a marine or coastal influence (Z(5-25m = Fe > Cu>Mn> Ni >Pb> Cr > Cd > Co. A similar metal sequence was found in the deepest layer: Z(40-m = Fe >Mn> Cu >Pb> Ni > Cd > Cr > Co. The passive sampling technique using DGTs to determine dissolved trace metals in the sea water provided robust information on the concentrations of the ten metals analyzed.Se analiza la concentración de metales trazas disueltos (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni y Pb, en la columna de agua del fiordo Reloncaví. El muestreo se realizó durante la campaña CIMAR 12 Fiordos, 2006. Para ello se fondeó en cuatro estaciones y en tres profundidades, un total de 36 muestreadores pasivos o DGT (láminas de gradiente de difusión a lo largo del eje longitudinal del fiordo, durante 48 h. El contenido de metales en cada lámina fue analizado mediante espectroscopía de emisión atómica con acoplamiento inductivo de plasma. Las mayores concentraciones se observaron en la superficie de la columna de agua, en la cabeza del estuario, directamente influenciada por el río Petrohué. Se definió para el área una secuencia de los metales estudiados característica, para la

  6. Biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS): a valuable tool for the study of trace elements in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Richard W; Feiters, Martin C

    2008-10-01

    Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) the binding modes (type and number of ligands, distances and geometry) and oxidation states of metals and other trace elements in crystalline as well as non-crystalline samples can be revealed. The method may be applied to biological systems as a 'stand-alone' technique, but it is particularly powerful when used alongside other X-ray and spectroscopic techniques and computational approaches. In this review, we highlight how biological XAS is being used in concert with crystallography, spectroscopy and computational chemistry to study metalloproteins in crystals, and report recent applications on relatively rare trace elements utilised by living organisms and metals involved in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Solar UV-treatment of water samples for stripping-voltammetric determination of trace heavy metals in Awash river, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report about testing a new mobile and sustainable water sample digestion method in a preliminary field trial in Ethiopia. In order to determine heavy metals at the ultra-trace level by stripping voltammetric techniques in water samples from Awash River, we applied our new method of solar UV-assisted sample pretreatment to destroy the relevant interfering dissolved organic matter. The field tests revealed that 24 h of solar UV irradiation were sufficient to achieve the same sample pretreatment results as with classic digestion method based on intense and hard UV. Analytical results of this study suggest that both a hydroelectric power station and agrichemical applications at Koka Lake have increased the levels of the investigated metals zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, and uranium.

  8. Trace metal concentrations in mussels in the outfall zones of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.T.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Many trace elements (TE) like Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, occur naturally in marine environments and these TE accomplish decisive functions in humans to maintain good health. Living organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis are a rich source of TE and are grown extensively near the industrial water outfalls. Some of these TE tend to be pollutants when their elevated levels produce deleterious effects on the ecological system. As chemical analysis for TE toxicity are expensive, organisms like Mytilus galloprovincialis can be used as monitors of environmental contamination. Most studies reported so far are directed towards the effect of a single environmental factor on marine bivalves. However in the areas receiving mixed effluents from various point and non-point sources, the studies on combined effect of two or more stresses would be a more practical approach. In this paper, We investigate the heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis to provide information on the pollution of water bodies by thermal and nuclear power plants for the choice of sites from where edible mussels can be harvested. We also propose a chemometric approach developed by us using information theory to mitigate trace element toxicity in the edible part of Mytilus galloprovincialis harvested in these sites. (author)

  9. Determination of trace metals and analysis of arsenic species in tropical marine fishes from Spratly islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxi; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Fenghua; Wang, Shuai; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2017-09-15

    Trace metal contents in 38 species of tropical marine fishes harvested from the Spratly islands of China were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The average levels of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U in the fish samples were 1.683, 0.350, 0.367, 2.954, 36.615, 0.087, 0.319, 1.566, 21.946, 20.845, 2.526, 3.583, 0.225, 0.140, and 0.061mg·kg -1 , respectively; Fe, Zn, and As were found at high concentrations. The trace metals exhibited significant positive correlation between each other, with r value of 0.610-0.852. Further analysis indicated that AsB (8.560-31.020mg·kg -1 ) was the dominant arsenic species in the fish samples and accounted for 31.48% to 47.24% of the total arsenic. As(III) and As(V) were detected at low concentrations, indicating minimal arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    2015-10-25

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  11. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pinedo-Gonzá lez, Paulina; West, A. Joshua; Tovar-Sá nchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marañ ó n, Emilio; Cermeñ o, Pedro; Gonzá lez, Natalia; Sobrino, Cristina; Huete-Ortega, Marí a; Ferná ndez, Ana; Ló pez-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Vidal, Montserrat; Blasco, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Sañ udo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  12. Comprehensive large-scale investigation and assessment of trace metal in the coastal sediments of Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjun; Gao, Xuelu; Gu, Yanbin; Wang, Ruirui; Xie, Pengfei; Liang, Miao; Ming, Hongxia; Su, Jie

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is characterized as a semi-closed sea with limited water exchange ability, which has been regarded as one of the most contaminated regions in China and has attracted public attention over the past decades. In recent years, the rapid industrialization and urbanization around the coastal region has resulted in a severe pollution pressure in the Bohai Sea. Although efforts from official government and scientific experts have been made to protect and restore the marine ecosystem, satisfactory achievements were not gained. Moreover, partial coastal areas in the Bohai Sea seemingly remain heavily polluted. In this study, we focused on five coastal regions around the Bohai Sea to study the spatial distribution pattern of trace elements in the sediments and their ecological risk. A total of 108 sediment samples were analyzed to determine the contamination degree of trace elements (Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Hg). Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were utilized to assess the pollution extent of these metals. Spatial distribution patterns revealed that the sedimentary environments of coastal Bohai were in good condition, except Jinzhou Bay, according to the Marine Sediment Quality of China. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were considerably higher than the average upper crust value and presented high potential ecological risk and considerable potential ecological risk, respectively. The overall environment quality of the coastal Bohai Sea does not seem to pose an extremely serious threat in terms of metal pollution. Thus, the government should continue implementing pollution control programs in the Bohai Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yanase, Ayako; Barrie, Leonard A

    2017-08-15

    The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition. During the polar sunrise from mid-March to mid-April, benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[e]pyrene ratios significantly dropped, and the ratios diminished further from late April to May onward. These results suggest that PAHs transported over the Arctic are subjected to strong photochemical degradation at polar sunrise. Although aromatic ketones decreased in spring, concentrations of some aromatic acids such as benzoic and phthalic acids increased during the course of polar sunrise, suggesting that aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized to result in aromatic acids. However, PAHs do not act as the major source for low molecular weight (LMW) diacids such as oxalic acid that are largely formed at polar sunrise in the arctic atmosphere because PAHs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less abundant than LMW diacids. Correlations of trace metals with organics, their sources, and the possible role of trace transition metals are explained.

  14. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  15. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metals concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consists of residential areas, kindergarten/school and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012–2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90 and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71 and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than the reference area and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk. PMID:27230155

  16. Sulfate reduction during the acidification of sucrose at pH 5 under thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. I: Effect of trace metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, S.I.C.; Capela, M.I.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the effect of supplying trace metals (7.5 mu M Fe and 0.5 mu M Co, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Se, Mo and W) on sulfate reduction and acidification in thermophilic (55 degrees C) UASB reactors fed with sucrose (4 gCOD (I-reactor d)(-1)) operated at a reactor mixed liquor pH controlled at 5.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Trace Elements in Rice Field at Prafi District Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aplena Elen S. Bless

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial variability of trace elements in rice Ḁeld is necessary to obtain soil quality information to en-hance rice production. ἀis study was aimed to measure concentration and distribution of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cd in two diᴀerent sites (SP1, SP2 of PraḀ rice Ḁeld in Manokwari West Papua. ἀe representative 26 soil samples were analysed for their available trace metal concentration (DTPA, soil pH, and C-organic and soil texture. ἀe result indicated that Fe toxicity and Zn deḀcient problems were encountered in both sites.  Rice Ḁeld in SP2 was more deḀcient in Zn than SP1. Site with the highest trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cd concentration had low soil pH and high C-organic. Acidic soil has higher solubility of metals; while high C-organic could improve the formation of dissolve organic carbon-metal binding, hence it improving the trace metals concentration in soil solution.

  18. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  19. The impact of urban expansion and agricultural legacies on trace metal accumulation in fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coxon, T.M.; Odhiambo, B.K.; Giancarlo, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies. Eight "2"1"0Pb and "1"3"7Cs dated sediment cores and seventy two sediment grab samples were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of Al, Ca, Mg, Cr, Cd, As, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the waterways of the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay basin. The sediment cores for trace metal historical fluctuation analysis were obtained in lower fluvial-estuarine environments and reservoirs in the upper reaches of the basin. The trace metal profiles revealed high basal enrichment factors (EF) of between 0.05 and 40.24, which are interpreted to represent early nineteenth century agricultural activity and primary resource extraction. Surficial enrichment factors on both cores and surface grab samples ranged from 0.01 (Cu) to 1421 (Cd), with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd enrichments a plausible consequence of modern urban expansion and industrial development along major transportation corridors. Contemporary surficial enrichments of As, Se, and Cr also ranged between 0 and 137, with the higher values likely influenced by lithological and atmospheric sources. Pearson correlation analyses suggest mining and agricultural legacies, coupled with aerosol deposition, are responsible for high metal concentrations in western lakes and headwater reaches of fluvial systems, while metal accumulation in estuarine reaches of the major rivers can be attributed to urban effluence and the remobilization of legacy sediments. - Highlights:

  20. The impact of urban expansion and agricultural legacies on trace metal accumulation in fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coxon, T.M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue Fredericksburg, Virginia 22401 (United States); Odhiambo, B.K., E-mail: bkisila@umw.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue Fredericksburg, Virginia 22401 (United States); Giancarlo, L.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA 22401 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies. Eight {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dated sediment cores and seventy two sediment grab samples were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of Al, Ca, Mg, Cr, Cd, As, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the waterways of the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay basin. The sediment cores for trace metal historical fluctuation analysis were obtained in lower fluvial-estuarine environments and reservoirs in the upper reaches of the basin. The trace metal profiles revealed high basal enrichment factors (EF) of between 0.05 and 40.24, which are interpreted to represent early nineteenth century agricultural activity and primary resource extraction. Surficial enrichment factors on both cores and surface grab samples ranged from 0.01 (Cu) to 1421 (Cd), with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd enrichments a plausible consequence of modern urban expansion and industrial development along major transportation corridors. Contemporary surficial enrichments of As, Se, and Cr also ranged between 0 and 137, with the higher values likely influenced by lithological and atmospheric sources. Pearson correlation analyses suggest mining and agricultural legacies, coupled with aerosol deposition, are responsible for high metal concentrations in western lakes and headwater reaches of fluvial systems, while metal accumulation in estuarine reaches of the major rivers can be attributed to urban effluence and the remobilization of legacy sediments

  1. Variations in atmospheric PM trace metal content in Spanish towns: Illustrating the chemical complexity of the inorganic urban aerosol cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; Artiñano, Begoña; de la Rosa, Jesús; Gibbons, Wes

    The majority of the Spanish urban population breathe air containing inhalable ambient airborne particles at average concentrations of 30-46 μg m -3 (PM 10) and 20-30 μg m -3 (PM 2.5). Even though the average weight of inhaled urban aerosol is commonly similar, however, there can be large chemical differences between the ambient dusts from different towns, including the more bioreactive elements such as some metals. In this context, we compare the source-apportioned trace metal content of airborne PM 10 and PM 2.5 collected daily over a 1-year period from six population centres in Spain: Barcelona, Alcobendas, Llodio, Huelva, Tarragona and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Total average trace metal (ΣTM) PM 10 and PM 2.5 contents vary by up to a factor of around 3, reaching a maximum of ΣTM 10 811 ng m -3 and ΣTM 2.5 503 ng m -3 at Llodio, an industrial but humid site with the lowest PM 10 mass levels but high contamination by Zn, Pb, Mn, Sn, Ni and Cr. In contrast, pollution at Huelva, although another industrially influenced site, instead emphasises Cu and As, whereas Barcelona, where traffic emissions and resuspension contribute to some of the highest average PM 10 levels in Spain, has unusually raised levels of Ti, V and Ba. Such variations in both daily and annual average PM bulk chemistry, particularly in potentially toxic trace metals concentrated in the finer aerosols (such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Ni), predict that PM health effects on resident populations from different towns are unlikely to be the same.

  2. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  3. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  4. Analysis of trace metals in sodium by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Geetha, R.; Thiruvengadasamy, A.; Mathews, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of trace metallic impurities in sodium is normally carried out by distilling off the sodium in vacuuum and analysing the residue by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). This paper describes the direct determination of the following impurities (viz.) Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Cu in sodium without going through the distillation step. Here sodium is simply dissolved and the solution is subjected to analysis by AAS using flameless atomisation in a graphite furnace. The method of standard additions is employed. Preliminary experiments were carried out to study the matrix effect of sodium on the atomic absorption of cobalt. It has been found that if pyrolysis is done at 1250 0 C for 20 seconds prior to atomisation, the bulk of the sodium nitrate matrix could be successfully removed. The use of the optimum pyrolysis temperatures for the various elements listed above and the matrix interference on the absorbances of these analytes are discussed in this paper. The precision and accuracy of our analytical procedure is also presented. (orig.)

  5. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent extraction with thiothenoyltrifluoroacetone and fluorined β-diketones for the determination of metal traces in waters by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauniaux, M.; Meyer, M. de; Lejeune, W.; Levert, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of metal elements: aluminium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc as traces in water. The elements are extracted as metal chelates of fluorinated (β-ketones (trifluoracetyl-acetone, thenoyl trifluoroacetone) or thiothenoyl trifluoroacetone with ethyle propionate. They are measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy of the organic extraction. The calibration curves are linear between 0 and 100 μg/l at least. Sensitivities vary from 1 PPB to about 10 PPB according to the metals. The method can be applied for other elements. (author)

  7. Study of trace metals in phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to determine U, Th and other constituent elements in mineral matrices by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been widely developed. The precise knowledge of these constituent elements is very important for the nuclear technology development. This justifies the use of a technique capable to extract information from small samples. The present work aimed the study of the phosphorites deriving from the State of Pernambuco (PE, Brazil). Its uranium concentration corresponds to one of the highest values found in industrial exploration of phosphate rocks. An experimental methodology based on the INAA associated to the cluster technique was developed. Concentrations of 22 different elements present in the ore were determined with less than 10% uncertainty. The results have shown high correlations in behavior between uranium and rare earth metals. However, the inverse was noted in relation to transition metals. These results indicate the applicability of this method to determine concentrations as well as to classify correlated element groups in mineral matrices. (Author) [pt

  8. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  9. Diffusive exchange of trace elements between basaltic-andesite and dacitic melt: Insights into potential metal fractionation during magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, A.; Ruprecht, P.; Simon, A. C.; Holtz, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mafic magma recharge is a common process that triggers physical and chemical mixing in magmatic systems and drives their evolution, resulting in, e.g., hybridization and volcanic eruptions. Once magma-magma contact is initiated, rapid heat-flux commonly leads to the formation of a cooling-induced crystal mush on the mafic side of the interface. Here, on a local scale (µm to cm), at the magma-magma interface, melt-melt diffusive exchange is required to approach equilibrium. Significant chemical potential gradients drive a complex, multi-element mass flux between the two systems (Liang, 2010). This diffusive-equilibration often controls crystal dissolution rates within the boundary layers and, thus, the formation of interconnected melt or fluid networks. Such networks provide important pathways for the transport of volatiles and trace metals from the mafic recharge magma to the felsic host magma, where the latter may feed volcanic activities and ore deposits. While major element diffusion in silicate melts is mostly well understood, even in complex systems, the available data for many trace element metals are limited (Liang, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). Differences in diffusivity in a dynamic, mixing environment can cause trace element fractionation, in particular during crystallization and volatile exsolution and separation. This may affect trace element signatures in phenocrysts and magmatic volatile phases that can form near a magma-magma boundary. As a result, the chemistry of volcanic gases and magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits may be partially controlled by such mixing phenomena. We performed melt-melt diffusion-couple experiments at 150 MPa, 1100°C, FMQ, FMQ+1 and FMQ+3 (FMQ: fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen fugacity buffer). Hydrated, sulfur-bearing cylinders of dacite and basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 20 h. Major and trace element gradients were measured by using laser-ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe analyses. The results we will

  10. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  11. Mobility of trace metals associated with urban particles exposed to natural waters of various salinities from the Gironde Estuary, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Joerg; Blanc, Gerard [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Norra, Stefan [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Klein, Daniel [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    2009-08-15

    extracted by means of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, estuarine freshwaters and waters of two different salinities (S=15 and S=31). Analysis of trace elements was carried out by means of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, single particles from road sediments were characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM analysis clearly showed that some particles contained fairly high concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Extractions of materials investigated by varying acidities and salinities documented that the potentially bioavailable fractions extracted by concentrated HNO{sub 3} may cover wide concentration ranges. Natural estuarine waters of various salinities (S=0.5; S=15; S=31) extracted high proportions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles, especially for high-salinity water (S=31). Extractions with freshwater revealed the lowest concentrations of desorbed trace elements. Particulate Mo, Pb and V showed similar or lower mobility in saline water compared with freshwater, depending on the sample type. Discussion: Trace element mobility in estuarine waters varied according to the type of urban particles and depended on salinity for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. This is of high importance for towns located directly at the coast or for cities like Bordeaux, where water courses crossing the agglomerations are connected to saline water masses. Since trace elements desorbed from particles in saline waters may become highly bioavailable, they bear a potential risk for organisms. Comprehensive studies on the behaviour of urban particles in estuarine waters and the related potential environmental impact are still missing. Conclusions: Saline waters mobilise relatively high amounts of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles suggesting considerable metal fluxes from riverine urban systems into coastal waters. Although estimates of trace metal inputs by urban bulk deposition (urban dust) and other types of urban particles

  12. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-29

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  14. The effect of trace elements on the metabolism of methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth and metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms, duo to their roles in key enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways. The requirement of trace metals has been recognized. But, proper dosing of these metals in anaerobic treatment system as nutrient still is a

  15. Tracing the cosmic metal evolution in the low-redshift intergalactic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Shull, J. [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHA, UK. (United Kingdom); Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M., E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we measured the abundances of six ions (C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, N V, and O VI) in the low-redshift (z ≤ 0.4) intergalactic medium (IGM). Both C IV and Si IV have increased in abundance by a factor of ∼10 from z ≈ 5.5 to the present. We derive ion mass densities, ρ{sub ion} ≡ Ω{sub ion}ρ{sub cr}, with Ω{sub ion} expressed relative to the closure density. Our models of mass-abundance ratios, (Si III/Si IV) =0.67{sub −0.19}{sup +0.35}, (C III/C IV) =0.70{sub −0.20}{sup +0.43}, and (Ω{sub C} {sub III}+Ω{sub C} {sub IV})/(Ω{sub Si} {sub III}+Ω{sub Si} {sub IV})=4.9{sub −1.1}{sup +2.2}, are consistent with the photoionization parameter log U = –1.5 ± 0.4, hydrogen photoionization rate Γ{sub H} = (8 ± 2) × 10{sup –14} s{sup –1} at z < 0.4, and specific intensity I {sub 0} = (3 ± 1) × 10{sup –23} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} sr{sup –1} at the Lyman limit. Consistent ionization corrections for C and Si are scaled to an ionizing photon flux Φ{sub 0} = 10{sup 4} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, baryon overdensity Δ {sub b} ≈ 200 ± 50, and ''alpha-enhancement'' (Si/C enhanced to three times its solar ratio). We compare these metal abundances to the expected IGM enrichment and abundances in higher photoionized states of carbon (C V) and silicon (Si V, Si VI, and Si VII). Our ionization modeling infers IGM metal densities of (5.4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in the photoionized Lyα forest traced by the C and Si ions and (9.1 ± 0.6) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in hotter gas traced by O VI. Combining both phases, the heavy elements in the IGM have mass density ρ {sub Z} = (1.5 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} or Ω {sub Z} ≈ 10{sup –5}. This represents 10% ± 5% of the metals produced by (6 ± 2) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} of integrated star formation with yield y{sub m} = 0

  16. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, Larissa-A. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)]. E-mail: ftld@uaf.edu; Follmann, Erich H. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Thomas, Dana L. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-6660 (United States); Sheffield, Gay G. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99701-1599 (United States); Rosa, Cheryl [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Duffy, Lawrence K. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon ({delta} {sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta} {sup 15}N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on {delta} {sup 15}N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean {delta} {sup 15}N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of

  17. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehn, Larissa-A.; Follmann, Erich H.; Thomas, Dana L.; Sheffield, Gay G.; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on δ 15 N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean δ 15 N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace metals

  18. Depth Profiling (ICP-MS Study of Toxic Metal Buildup in Concrete Matrices: Potential Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential of concrete material to accumulate toxic trace elements using ablative laser technology (ICP-MS. Concrete existing in offshore structures submerged in seawater acts as a sink for hazardous metals, which could be gradually released into the ocean creating pollution and anoxic conditions for marine life. Ablative laser technology is a valuable tool for depth profiling concrete to evaluate the distribution of toxic metals and locate internal areas where such metals accumulate. Upon rapid degradation of concrete these “hotspots” could be suddenly released, thus posing a distinct threat to aquatic life. Our work simulated offshore drilling conditions by immersing concrete blocks in seawater and investigating accumulated toxic trace metals (As, Be, Cd, Hg, Os, Pb in cored samples by laser ablation. The experimental results showed distinct inhomogeneity in metal distribution. The data suggest that conditions within the concrete structure are favorable for random metal accumulation at certain points. The exact mechanism for this behavior is not clear at this stage and has considerable scope for extended research including modeling and remedial studies.

  19. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oursel, B; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Mounier, S; Omanović, D; Lucas, Y

    2013-04-15

    Quantification and characterization of chronic inputs of trace metals and organic carbon in a coastal Mediterranean area (the city of Marseille) during the dry season was carried out. The 625 km(2) watershed includes two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) just before their outlet into the sea. Dissolved and particulate Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and organic carbon concentrations in the rivers were comparable to those in other Mediterranean coastal areas, whereas at the outlet, 2- to 18-fold higher concentrations reflected the impact of the TWW. A non-conservative behavior observed for most of the studied metals in the mixing zone was validated by a remobilization experiment performed in the laboratory. The results showed that sorption/desorption processes could occur with slow kinetics with respect to the mixing time in the plume, indicating non-equilibrium in the dissolved/particulate metal distribution. Thus, a sample filtration immediately after sampling is strictly required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Smith, B.D.; Valls, T.A. del; Rainbow, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 deg. C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants (± SE) (l g -1 d -1 ) of 1.21 ± 0.11 (Ag), 0.026 ± 0.002 (Zn) and 0.012 ± 0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants (± SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037 ± 0.002 and 0.033 ± 0.006 d -1 whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003 ± 0.002 d -1 ). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042 ± 0.004 and 0.056 ± 0.012 d -1 for Zn and 0.044 ± 0.012 and 0.069 ± 0.016 d -1 for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the fast-exchanging compartment after the water

  1. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: a case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Faivre, Bruno; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; van den Brink, Nico W; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-08-15

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels i