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  1. Die Hervormde Teologiese Studies na vyftig jaar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDEND. In die tweede helfte van die jaar 1943 het die Hervormde Teologiese Studies die eerste maal verskyn. Dit was die produk van lang besinning en beplanning. Die dryfkrag agter die totstandkoming was prof dr S P Engeibrecht, 'n man wie se idealisme en toewyding aan die kerk groot dinge vir die kerk en ook die ...

  2. Studie: Die Generation Y und deren organisatorische Implikationen

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie betrifft die Gen. Y und ihre spezifischen Anforderungen an die Unternehmensorganisation. Im Ergebnis einer durchgeführten Befragung ist festzuhalten, dass die Gen. Y die Kernkompetenzen eines Managers verstärkt einfordert und eine hohe Betreuungsintensität verlangt. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Führungsspanne, Planung und Kontrolle von Aufgaben, die Gestaltung der vertikalen und horizontalen Prozesse sowie die Zusammensetzung von Teamarbeitsformen. Projektarbeit sowie ...

  3. Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities. Design: This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality. Results: Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes. Conclusions: In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained.

  4. Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Paul; Collinson, Mark A.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Hargreaves, James; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities. Design This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality. Results Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes. Conclusions In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained. PMID:25416322

  5. Patristiek en die studie van die Nuwe Testament | Stander | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patristics and the study of the New Testament This article consists of two main parts. In the first part the importance of the study of Patristics is discussed. The author underscores Outler's logion that 'by itself, the New Testament is not a field of inquiry'. The heading of the second part is Instrumenta Studiorum. In this section ...

  6. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  7. 'n Verkennende studie met die oog op die identifísering en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De Klerk 1977:74-75). ... de leermodel bepaalde gevolgtrekkings gemaak. ..... Maslow word die basiese vraag tot die leerproses - hoekom leer mense, ... Gagne se piramide van leervorme bied inderdaad 'n werkbare en sinvolle integrasie.

  8. die kerk, maatskappy en vrye verenigings: 'n studie van die kerkorde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engelhard en Hofman 2001; PKN 2003). Die begrip “moderne gedifferensieerde samelewing”, saamgelees met 'n selfstandigheid in eie bevoegdheid, kom net so van Dooyeweerd af (1957:379; 1963:81). NGK-KO 1962 neem vorm aan in 'n tyd waarin. Dooyeweerd akademies op die kruin van die golf is – gemeet aan sy.

  9. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  10. Numerical Studies of Low Cycle Fatigue in Forward Extrusion Dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ø

    2000-01-01

    of describing the elastic-plastic material behaviour under cyclic loadings is used to study the effects of different pre-stressing concepts on the accumulation of plastic strain and the development of fatigue damage. The results show, that the accumulation of plastic strain in the critical region can......Forward extrusion dies typically fail due to transverse fatigue cracks or wear. Fatigue cracks are initiated in regions where the material is subjected to repeated plastic deformations, e.g. the transition radius in a forward extrusion die, in the present work, a material model capable...... be controlled by means of the pre-stressing system or the geometry of the die insert. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954... estate tax as defined in section 2011(d) does not apply to the transfer of the taxable estate of a..., disease, or injury suffered while serving in such a combat zone and while in line of duty, by reason of a...

  12. Quality of dying in nursing home residents dying with dementia: does advanced care planning matter? A nationwide postmortem study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Vandervoort

    Full Text Available Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1 advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2 the existence of written advance general practitioner orders are related to the quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia.Cross-sectional study of deaths (2010 using random cluster-sampling. Representative sample of nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Deaths of residents with dementia in a three-month period were reported; for each the nurse most involved in care, GP and closest relative completed structured questionnaires.We identified 101 deaths of residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate. A written advance patient directive was present for 17.5%, GP-orders for 56.7%. Controlling for socio-demographic/clinical characteristics in multivariate regression analyses, chances of having a higher mean rating of emotional well-being (less fear and anxiety on the Comfort Assessment in Dying with Dementia scale were three times higher with a written advance patient directive and more specifically when having a do-not-resuscitate order (AOR 3.45; CI,1.1-11 than for those without either (AOR 2.99; CI,1.1-8.3. We found no association between verbal communication or having a GP order and quality of dying.For nursing home residents with dementia there is a strong association between having a written advance directive and quality of dying. Where wishes are written, relatives report lower levels of emotional distress at the end of life. These results underpin the importance of advance care planning for people with dementia and beginning this process as early as possible.

  13. Ontwikkelingsekonomie — Bestek en metode vir die studie daarvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Weber

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Kennis van die probleme van onderontwikkelde gebiede is baie oud. Sodra verskille in ontwikkeldheid, hetsy op militêre, ekonomiese of ander gebiede duidelik word, en as sodanig erken word, wys die probleme van die minderontwikkelde gebiede hulself uit. Die ekonomiese geskiedenis is vol sodanige erkende verskille o.a. Hellenistiese kultuursentra, Imperiale Rome, Byzantium en sy florerende stadstaat; Noord- en Wes- Europa na die ontdekking van die nuwe wêreld en die vasstelling van effektiewe marinekommunikasie tussen Wes- Europa, Amerika en Oos-Asië.

  14. Wie bewerten die Fluggäste den Klimaeinsatz und die Klimakommunikation von Fluggesellschaften? - eine empirische Studie der Haltungen deutscher und dänischer Flugreisenden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    . Wittmer (2010) hat die Haltung der Fluggäste der SWISS quantitativ untersucht und festgestellt, dass der Klimaeinsatz die Fluggäste anspricht und die Kommunikation darüber positiv auf das Image einwirkt. Diese Studie trägt jedoch den bei Larsen & Pedersen (2010) aufgedeckten Unterschieden nicht Rechnung......, sind: - Inwieweit unterscheiden sich die Passagierhaltungen bezüglich der Klimakommunikation und der erwarteten Klima-Einsatzgebiete? - Inwieweit beeinflusst die Klimakommunikation der Fluggesellschaften ihr Image und ihre Identität? Die auf bisherigen Untersuchungen gegründete Hypothese ist, dass die...

  15. 29 CFR 4022.103 - Who will get benefits if I die when payments for future periods under a certain-and-continuous or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who will get benefits if I die when payments for future... Payments Owed for Future Periods After Death § 4022.103 Who will get benefits if I die when payments for....103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND...

  16. 'n Redaksionele voonvoord tot die Hervorrade Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hy is nie net 'n geëerde oud-redaksielid nie, maar was self vanaf 1957 tot 1971 verantwoordelik vir die versorging van die tydskrif en het ook vanaf 1982 tot 1985 as redaksiesekretaris opgetree. Hierbenewens is prof Pont dié medewerker wat verreweg die meeste artikels in HTS laat publiseer het, te wete ses en sestig tot ...

  17. Die meting van neurolinguistiese programmering se verteenwoordigende stelsels: 'n Eksploratiewe studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Bester

    2000-06-01

    Opsomming 'n Oorsig van die Sielkunde-literatuur wys daarop dat verskeie outeurs saamstem oor die bestaan van Neurolinguistiese Programmering (NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels. Tot onlangs toe is geen studie oor die bestaan van n omvattende meetinstrument vir NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels in die literatuur gerapporteer nie. Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om vas te stel of dit wenslik is om NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels met 'n omvattende normatiewe vraelys te meet. Drie konstrukte is voorveronderstel en 'n "Vraelys oor Sensoriese Modaliteite", bestaande uit 84 items, is gekonstrueer. Hierdie vraelys is afgeneem op studente (N=338 van drie verskillende tersiere instellings. hTweede faktorontleding op die 18 subtellings van n eerste faktorontleding, het twee faktore opgelewer wat nie die drie verteenwoordigende stelsels suiwer weergee nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  18. Environmental research concept for the period 2000 - 2003; Forschungskonzept Umwelt fuer die Jahre 2000 bis 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document published by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) describes the concept for environmental research in Switzerland during the period 2000 - 2003. In a first part, the general state of environmental research is examined and the various public and private institutions involved are introduced. In the second part, the priorities for the period 2000 - 2003 are stated. The main points of focus, including the protection of the diversity of biological and landscape resources and their sustainable use, the protection of mankind and the environment from harmful substances and organisms, human behaviour, economical incentives and teaching systems, are discussed. Also, the targets of international agreements on environmental protection and the instruments to be used to implement them are examined. Finally, the report discusses the implementation of the declared research priorities and introduces the commission that is to watch over these activities. Figures are quoted on the funding necessary for the work and the importance of interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary co-operation is stressed.

  19. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without

  20. Why do older people oppose physician-assisted dying? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Wilson, Maria K R; Rae, Nicola; Johnson, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Physician-assisted dying at the end of life has become a significant issue of public discussion. While legally available in a number of countries and jurisdictions, it remains controversial and illegal in New Zealand. The study aimed to explore the reasons some healthy older New Zealanders oppose physician-assisted dying in order to inform current debate. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by the authors after some edits had been made by respondents. In all, 11 older participants (over 65 years) who responded to advertisements placed in Grey Power magazines and a University of Auckland email list were interviewed for around 1 h and asked a number of open-ended questions. Four central themes opposing physician-assisted dying were identified from the interviews: one's personal experience with health care and dying and death, religious reasoning and beliefs, slippery slope worries and concern about potential abuses if physician-assisted dying were legalised. An important finding of the study suggests that how some older individuals think about physician-assisted dying is strongly influenced by their past experiences of dying and death. While some participants had witnessed good, well-managed dying and death experiences which confirmed for them the view that physician-assisted dying was unnecessary, those who had witnessed poor dying and death experiences opposed physician-assisted dying on the grounds that such practices could come to be abused by others.

  1. A comparative evaluation of linear dimensional accuracy of the dies obtained using three conceptually different die systems in the fabrication of implant prosthesis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the linear dimensional accuracy between the implant master die and three conceptually different die systems such as Pindex system, Accu-trac precision die system, and Conventional brass dowel pin system. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of implant master die were made with polyether impression material. Ten experimental implant casts were fabricated for each of the three different die systems tested: Accu-trac precision die tray system, Pindex system, and conventional brass dowel pin system. The solid experimental casts were sectioned and then removed from the die system 30 times. Linear distances between all six possible distances were measured from one centre of the transfer coping to the other, using a co-ordinate measuring machine in millimeters up to accuracy of 0.5 microns. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Binomial non parametric test using SPSS version 15. Results: Significant differences were found for distance A-B (P = 0.002, A-C ( P = 0.002, A-D (P value = 0.002, and B-D ( P = 0.021 in Conventional Dowel pin system however for Accu-trac precision die tray system, it was significant only for distance A-D (P = 0.002 but for Pindex system it was non-significant for all the distances measured. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of Pindex system is recommended when sectioned dies are needed for a multi implant retained prosthesis.

  2. Die subtiele aanleg en moontlikhede van die nominale styl: 'n Studie in Nuwe-Testamentiese Grieks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Boshoff

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The subtle nature and possibilities of the nominal style: A study New Testament Greek Nominalization as a figure of speech in the New Testament Greek, or any other literature has not yet come to its full value. Nominatization occurs when events in the deep structure are presented in the aurface structuring in nominal form. The nominal form is chosen for the sake of certain fed. The method used to determine the specific contribution of the nominal form is to compare the nominal form with its verbal variant. Five functions of style have been determined for the nominal form: Acceptance ation, Spatialization, Degrading, Manifestation of courtesy and Profiling.

  3. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  4. P. J. N. Smal, Die Universalisme in die Psalms. Academisch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    dat die historiese element in Israel se Godsopenbaring en daarmee die insig in sy betekenis te kort gedoen word. Die betekenis van die studie vir die historia revelationis is daardeur gering; as duidelike „tydlose” sistematisering van Outestamentiese gegewens oor die betrokke onder- werpe, soos die laaste hoofstuk, bl.

  5. die rol van die unieverdedigingsmag in die onderdrukking van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agv regeringsoptrede nie.39. Siotsom. In die geskiedenis van die Unieverdedigings- mag word die gebeure random die 1914-staking oorskadu deur die Rebellie en Suid-Afrika se deelname aan die Eerste Wereldoorlog. Tog was dit 'n belangrike mylpaal in die geskiedenis van die organisasie, omdat dit sy eerste optrede ...

  6. Study of radial die-wall pressure changes during pharmaceutical powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-04-01

    In tablet manufacturing, less attention is paid to the measurement of die-wall pressure than to force-displacement diagrams. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate radial stress change during pharmaceutical compaction. The Presster(TM), a tablet-press replicator, was used to characterize compaction behavior of microcrystalline cellulose (viscoelastic), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brittle), direct compressible mannitol (plastic), pre-gelatinized starch (plastic/elastic), and spray dried lactose monohydrate (plastic/brittle) by measuring radial die-wall pressure; therefore powders were compacted at different (pre) compaction pressures as well as different speeds. Residual die-wall pressure (RDP) and maximum die-wall pressure (MDP) were measured. Various tablet physical properties were correlated to radial die-wall pressure. With increasing compaction pressure, RDP and MDP (P compaction behavior of materials and detecting friction phenomena in the early stage of development.

  7. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  8. Determinants of care outcomes for patients who die in hospital in Ireland: a retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Kieran

    2015-04-18

    More people die in hospital than in any other setting which is why it is important to study the outcomes of hospital care at end of life. This study analyses what influenced outcomes in a sample of patients who died in hospital in Ireland in 2008\\/9. The study was undertaken as part of the Irish Hospice Foundation\\'s Hospice Friendly Hospitals Programme (2007-2012).

  9. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  10. ʼn Studie van die gesondheid van die Olifantsrivier soos weerspieël deur die makro-invertebraatbiodiversiteit en geselekteerde abiotiese faktore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Riviere in Suid-Afrika is ‘n belangrike waterbron en onderhou ‘n ryk biodiversiteit van fauna en flora. Toenemende druk op hierdie riviere en hulle opvanggebiede kan ʼn enorme impak op die lewe wat hulle onderhou, uitoefen.

  11. A study on die wear model of warm and hot forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Park, I. W.; Jae, J. S.; Kang, S. S.

    1998-05-01

    Factors influencing service lives of tools in warm and hot forging processes are wear, mechanical fatigue, plastic deformation and thermal fatigue, etc. Wear is the predominant factor for tool failure among these. To predict tool life by wear, Archard's model where hardness is considered as constant or function of temperature is generally applied. Usually hardness of die is a function of not only temperature but operating time of die. To consider softening of die by repeated operation it is necessary to express hardness of die by a function of temperature and time. In this study wear coefficients were measured for various temperatures and heat treatment for H13 tool steel. Also by experiment of reheating of die, die softening curves were obtained. From experimental results, relationships between tempering parameters and hardness were established to investigate effects of hardness decrease by the effect of temperatures and time. Finally modified Archard's wear model in which hardness is considered to be a function of main tempering curve was proposed. And finite element analyses were conducted by adopting suggested wear model. By comparisons of simulations and real profiles of worn die, proposed wear model was verified.

  12. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  13. Traditional and Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, and Bereavement Beliefs and Practices: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Joseph B.

    1998-01-01

    Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota. The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summariz...

  14. Der Einfluss von Mixed Emotions auf die Werbewirkung : eine experimentelle Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans H.; Donnevert, Tobias; Exler, Stefanie; Hobusch, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Emotionale Appelle haben heutzutage einen festen Platz in der Werbung. Neben rein positiven sowie rein negativen Emotionen werden auch Mixed Emotions verstärkt eingesetzt. Die Erforschung der konsumentenverhaltensrelevanten Wirkungen von Mixed Emotions, die das gleichzeitige oder sequentielle Erleben gegensätzlicher Emotionen bezeichnen, steckt jedoch noch in den Kinderschuhen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird daher der Einfluss von Mixed Emotions auf zentrale psychographische Werbewirku...

  15. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  16. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... survey may be distributed in waves for convenience. The Grace Period Study survey will be an electronic... information that is used for sampling purposes will be maintained in a separate file from the quantitative...

  17. Nurses attitudes towards death, dying patients and euthanasia: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Melike Ayça; Öz, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    Attitudes of nurses towards death and related concepts influence end-of-life care. Determining nurses' views and attitudes towards these concepts and the factors that affect them are necessary to ensure quality end-of-life care. The purpose of this study was to determine nurses' views and attitudes about death, dying patient, euthanasia and the relationships between nurses' characteristics. Participants consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in this descriptive study from 25 hospitals (n = 340) which has a paediatric or adult intensive care unit and located within the boundaries of Ankara, Turkey. 'Nurse Information Form' and 'Attitude Scale about Euthanasia, Death and Dying Patients (DAS)' were used as data collection tool. Ethical consideration: Written permissions were received from the 'Noninterventional Clinical Researches Ethics Board' of authors' university and education councils of each hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. It is found that there are statistically significant difference among the factors of marital status, having a child, years of experience, bereavement experience, affected by working with dying patient, definition of euthanasia, views about patients who are appropriate for euthanasia, views about patients who desire to die and feeling need for counselling on these concepts according to the mean total score of nurses' attitudes about euthanasia, death and dying patient (p euthanasia and work with dying patient. This is reflected in their attitude. In order to gain positive attitude towards death, dying patient and euthanasia, the implementation of training and consulting services to nurses at appropriate intervals during both education and professional life are required.

  18. Die nabyheid van die Koninkryk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Snyman

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanweë die belangrikheid daarvan volg hier ’n breër bespreking van die proefskrif van dr. Tjaart van der Walt oor die nabyheid van die Koninkryk as wat in ’n gewone resensie kan geskied. Die vraagstuk wat onder oë gesien word is so oud as die kerk en die teologie, soms minder en soms meer op die voorgrond. Tans kan gesê word, staan dit in die middelpunt. Daarby is dit nie maar ’n akademiese vraagstuk nie, maar ’n vraagstuk waarvoor elke nadenkende leser van die Skrif te staan kom.

  19. Study of protective coatings for aluminum die casting molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Ildiko, E-mail: ildiko.peter@polito.it; Rosso, Mario; Gobber, Federico Simone

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Development and characterization of some protective coatings on steel substrate, realized by plasma spray techniques, were presented. • The substrate material used is a Cr–Mo–V based hot work tool steel. • The main attention is on the study of wear and on the characterization of the interface, because of their key role in determining the resistance of the coating layer. • Simulation of friction and wear processes is performed by pin-on-disk test and the tested samples are observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: In this paper, the development and characterization of some protective coatings on steel substrate are presented. The coatings are realized by plasma spray techniques. The substrate material used is a Cr–Mo–V based hot work tool steel, initially submitted to vacuum heat treatment to achieve homogeneous hardness. The main attention is focused on the study of wear and on the characterization of the interface between the substrate material and the coating layer, because of their key role in determining the resistance of the coating layer. Simulation of friction and wear processes is performed by pin-on-disk test and the tested samples are observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Alsacia L

    2008-01-01

    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  1. Energy research programme on photovoltaics for the 2008 - 2011 period; Energieforschungsprogramm Photovoltaik fuer die Jahre 2008 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2008-09-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the Swiss Energy Research Programme on Photovoltaics for the period 2008 - 2011. The programme is to continue the tried and tested concept of previous years and will involve all the important players in the Swiss photovoltaics area. The report reviews the situation at the international level and the situation in Switzerland. Future developments are discussed. Financing aspects are looked at and the main focal points for the period are listed, including solar cells, solar modules and building integration, electrical system technology, international co-operation and pilot and demonstration projects. In a chapter on national co-operation, competence centres and industry are looked at and co-operation with other Swiss federal and cantonal institutions as well as with private institutions and the electricity industry is reviewed. Operational aspects of the programme such as project submission and assessment, project management and controlling are discussed. Information and communication work, including seminars, conferences and the Internet are discussed. The report is concluded with lists of research and development projects as will as pilot and demonstration projects, references and internet links. Appendices include a review of photovoltaic technologies, an extract from the Swiss Energy Research Concept for 2008 - 2011, a review of the various factors and competencies involved and an overview of international programmes and networks.

  2. Influence of Training on First-Year Nursing Department Students' Attitudes on Death and Caring for Dying Patients: A Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Birgül

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.

  3. Telemedicine’s potential to support good dying in Nigeria: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gurp, J.; Soyannwo, O.; Odebunmi, K.; Dania, S.; van Selm, M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Vissers, K.; Hasselaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN)

  4. Dying in Hospital with Dementia and Pneumonia: A Nationwide Study Using Death Certificate Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houttekier, D.; Reyniers, T.; Deliens, L.; Den Noortgate, N.; Cohen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For people with dementia dying from pneumonia, hospitalization at the end of life may be of little benefit and result in unfavourable outcomes such as hospital death. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and factors associated with hospital death in people

  5. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  6. EUNUG IN DIE ANTIEKE NABYE OOSTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rang. In Assiries beteken die woord “hoof-eunug”. Soos reeds vermeld (by 2), vorm die eunug 'n belangrike deel van die Assiriese burokrasie. Dokumente dui aan ... rang in die Babiloniese weermag, en so 'n amptenaar het saam met die rabsag ..... baie laat, in die inter-testamentêre periode, gebruik is vir 'n gekastreerde.

  7. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  8. Does ethnicity affect where people with cancer die? A population-based 10 year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Koffman

    Full Text Available Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a 'tracer' to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD.To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer.Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001-2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS. Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death.76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%, Europe(5.4% and Caribbean(4.3%. Most deaths(52.5% occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%. During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36-0.64%]p<0.001, Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64-1.30%]p<0.001, Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94-1.20%]p<0.001 and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72-1.30%]p<0.001. However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR1.12[95%CI1.08-1.15]p<0.001 and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07-1.16]p<0.001. Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68-0.80] p<0.001, Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74-0.93]p<0.001, and 'other' geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82-0.98]p<0.001. Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85-0.98]p<0.001.Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from patient-centred preferences, or other environment or service-related factors. This knowledge

  9. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle van Gurp

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice.Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN and the University College Hospital (UCH in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks.The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical-technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria's palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education 'lite' scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication.Nigerian health care professionals' concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve palliative care in Africa. Telemedicine can only help

  10. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gurp, Jelle; Soyannwo, Olaitan; Odebunmi, Kehinde; Dania, Simpa; van Selm, Martine; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN) and the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks. The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical-technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria's palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education 'lite' scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication. Nigerian health care professionals' concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve palliative care in Africa. Telemedicine can only help if low

  11. Radioecological studies in early period of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Ryushi

    2004-01-01

    Japanese tuna-fishing boat Fukuryumaru No.5 was exposed to heavy radioactive fallout due to the nuclear test explosion carried out by U.S.A. at Bikini Atoll of Marshal Islands in the central part of Pacific Ocean on March 1, 1954. Following this accident, radioactivity was detected in various environmental samples including rain, marine fishes and agricultural crops. Science Council of Japan organized the new research group of many scientists in the field of fisheries, agricultural, medical and biological studies and radiation protection studies. Government of Japan established National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in 1957. In this Institute various radioecological studies have been carried out. In this paper, some of these radioecological studies carried out in early period of NIRS are described. (author)

  12. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  13. [Studies on flomoxef in the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N; Fukunaga, K; Kunii, K; Kobayashi, I

    1991-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical studies on flomoxef (FMOX) in the perinatal period were carried out with the following summary of the results. Antibacterial effects of FMOX on the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MIC 400 micrograms/ml), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, MIC 0.78 microgram/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC 3.13 micrograms/ml and MIC 0.20 microgram/ml) in amniotic fluid were determined and it was found that the activity of FMOX was enhanced in the amniotic fluid. FMOX rapidly penetrated into tissues and sera of pregnant women upon intravenous injection and its maternal serum concentrations reached their peak levels shortly after administration. Placental penetration of FMOX to the fetus was good and, after single intravenous injection of 1 g, the concentrations of FMOX in the umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid exceeded MICs against major causative organisms of perinatal infections. These results indicate that single intravenous injection of FMOX 1 g twice a day is effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of perinatal infections. Injection of FMOX for the treatment of 14 cases of puerperal infections showed excellent clinical effectiveness with 100% clinical effect and 81.8% bacteriological response. No side-effect was observed in any case. All of these results suggested clinical usefulness of FMOX in the perinatal period.

  14. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  15. Die omvang en aard van afwesigheid in die werkplek: ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse gevalstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Du Plessis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope and nature of absenteeism in the workplace: A South African case study. The objective of the study was to develop quantitative measures for monitoring trends of absenteeism in a company within the meat industry and to assess qualitatively the possible existence of a collective culture of absenteeism within the organisation. The scope and frequency of absenteeism, costs incurred due to absenteeism, and individual absenteeism patterns of 145 employees, were studied over a period of one year. It was found that 2900 planned and 912 unplanned leave workdays that were lost, resulted in direct costs of R895,054.55. Five employees who were absent most often accounted for 18.60% of the unplanned leave taken. The extraordinary levels of absenteeism found in this case study were ascribed to specific employees. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om kwantitatiewe metings vir die monitering van afwesigheidstendense vir ‘n maatskappy in die vleisbedryf te ontwikkel en om die moontlike bestaan van ‘n kollektiewe afwesigheidskultuur kwalitatief te ondersoek. Die omvang, frekwensie en koste van afwesigheid, asook individuele afwesigheidspatrone, is bestudeer vir 145 werknemers oor ‘n tydperk van een jaar. Daar is bevind dat 2900 beplande en 912 onbeplande verlofwerkdae wat verloor is, die maatskappy R895,054.55 gekos het. Vyf werknemers wat die meeste afwesig was, was verantwoordelik vir 18,60% van die onbeplande verlof geneem. Die uitsonderlike vlakke van afwesigheid in hierdie gevalstudie is toegeskryf aan spesifieke werknemers.

  16. Blanke vroue-arbeid in die Unie van Suid-Afrika : 'n sosiologiese studie, met spesiale verwysing na die grootstedelike gebiede van die land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsloo, Maria Johanna Magdalena

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a sociological analysis of the phenomenon of European female-labour in the Union of South Africa, with special reference to the industrial areas of the country. The inspiration for this undertaking can be summed up in two main points: (i) That female-labour is

  17. Die funksie van die belydenis in die struktuur van die kerk en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ter wille van die argument wat in hierdie voordrag na vore gebring word, word vier sodanige konstituerende elemente van die kerklike struktuur onderskei, te wete die belydenis, die teologie, die verkondi- ging (meer bepaald die prediking) en die kerkorde (kerkwet volgens ons terminologie). Ons gaan nou elkeen hiervan ...

  18. Cultural beliefs about a patient's right time to die: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S; Cortez, Josie D; Hazuda, Helen P

    2009-11-01

    Generalist physicians must often counsel patients or their families about the right time to die, but feel ill-prepared to do so. Patient beliefs may help guide the discussions. Because little prior research addresses such beliefs, we investigated them in this exploratory, hypothesis-generating study. Anticipating culture as a key influence, we interviewed 26 Mexican Americans (MAs), 18 Euro-Americans (EAs), and 14 African Americans (AAs) and content-analyzed their responses. Nearly all subjects regardless of ethnic group or gender said God determines (at least partially) a patient's right time to die, and serious disease signals it. Yet subjects differed by ethnic group over other signals for that time. Patient suffering and dependence on "artificial" life support signaled it for the MAs; patient acceptance of death signaled it for the EAs; and patient suffering and family presence at or before the death signaled it for the AAs. Subjects also differed by gender over other beliefs. In all ethnic groups more men than women said the time of death is unpredictable; but more women than men said the time of death is preset, and family suffering signals it. Furthermore, most MA women--but few others--explicitly declared that family have an important say in determining a patient's right time to die. No confounding occurred by religion. Americans may share some beliefs about the right time to die but differ by ethnic group or gender over other beliefs about that time. Quality end-of-life care requires accommodating such differences whenever reasonable.

  19. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Chul; Kang, Jong Hun; Kim, Sang Sik

    2016-01-01

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts

  20. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Chul [Gyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Hun [Jungwon Univ., Goisan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sik [Gyeongsang Natiional Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts.

  1. Is Email Business Dying?: A Study on Evolution of Email Spam Over Fifteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, which contains 5.5 million spam emails over 15 years (1998 – 2013. We statistically analyze emails contents including header information (e.g. content type and embedded items (e.g. URL links. Also, we investigate topic drift using topic modeling technique. Moreover, we perform network analysis on sender-to-receiver IP routing networks. Our study shows the dynamic nature of email spam over one and a half decades and demonstrate that the email spam business is not dying but more capricious.

  2. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  3. A Case Study in Analysing Digitised Archive Data: Authors at the Comédie-Italienne, 1760-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Goodman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ‘big data’ in the humanities is becoming increasingly prevalent, as researchers try to exploit the capacities of modern computing to provide new perspectives on and access to more traditional forms of documentation. In this vein, two major projects currently seek to digitise and analyse the financial records of the major Parisian theatres in the eighteenth century, creating searchable databases that promise to bring the information to worldwide audiences and allow entirely new types of analysis. This article uses a small-scale study of a subset of the Comédie-Italienne’s administrative records in the period 1760-70 to explore the potential benefits and challenges of such enterprises. It makes new data on audience, takings and authorial payments for this decade freely available to readers, and examines the process of capturing and rationalising data drawn from early modern records. To demonstrate the potential of the larger projects, this subset of data is then used both to reconsider the commercial status of the Comédie-Italienne with respect to its French counterpart, and to provide the first account of the finances of the authors who wrote for the Italian troupe. Finally, this article argues that despite the many and varied benefits of digitisation and computational manipulation of archive data, in order for such projects to make a serious contribution to scholarship, it is vital that the material, contingent, human element of original records is not lost.

  4. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  5. Digilanid C by die behandeling van hartlyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyman, Hendrik Willem

    1942-01-01

    In die voorafgaande word 'n literatuur studie oor die ontwikkeling en huidige stand van die chemie en farmakologie van die Digitalis purpurea en Digitalis lanata gegee, waarin spesiaal gelet word op die chemiese samestelling en farmakologiese aktiwiteit van die Digitalis lanata glikoside. Daarna

  6. Supportive and palliative care needs of families of children who die from cancer: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterosso, Leanne; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2008-01-01

    To obtain feedback from parents of children who died from cancer about their understanding of palliative care, their experiences of palliative and supportive care received during their child's illness, and their palliative and supportive care needs. A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. 24 parents from Perth (n = 10), Melbourne (n = 5), Brisbane (n = 5) and Sydney (n = 4). Five Australian tertiary paediatric oncology centres. Results Parents whose children died from cancer live within a context of chronic uncertainty and apprehension. Parents construed palliative care negatively as an independent process at the end of their children's lives rather than as a component of a wider and continuous process where children and their families are offered both curative and palliative care throughout the cancer trajectory. The concept of palliative care was perceived to be misunderstood by key health professionals involved in the care of the child and family. The importance and therapeutic value of authentic and honest relationships between health professionals and parents, and between health professionals and children were highlighted as a critical aspect of care. Also highlighted was the need to include children and adolescents in decision making, and for the delivery of compassionate end-of-life care that is sensitive to the developmental needs of the children, their parents and siblings. There is a need for health professionals to better understand the concept of palliative care, and factors that contribute to honest, open, authentic and therapeutic relationships of those concerned in the care of the dying child. This will facilitate a better understanding by both parents and their children with cancer, and acceptance of the integration of palliative and supportive care in routine cancer care.

  7. Characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents who died by suicide: A study of psychological autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; León-Garibay, Alejandra Giovanna; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; López-Narváez, Lilia; Frésan, Ana

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, suicide in children and adolescents has increased considerably, becoming the second cause of death in this age group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that could precipitate deaths by suicide in children and adolescents. Using the psychological autopsy method, we studied 28 suicide cases of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old. Socio-demographic factors, characteristics of the suicide and family history were documented. The proportion of deaths by suicide was the same in females and males (50% each). Most of the suicides were performed at the child/adolescent's home (78.6%) and no history of previous suicide attempts were registered (85.7%). Also, the majority of suicidal individuals came from a dysfunctional family (60.7%). Our results identified characteristics of children and adolescents that had died by suicide, such as dying at their homes and coming from dysfunctional families. Knowing the characteristics of children and adolescents that had ended their lives by suicide should be considered in future studies to help developing preventive programs and strategies for treating suicidal behaviors in Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. STUDY OF THE flat die pellet mills kinematic diagram with active cylindrical press rolLS

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    Osokin Anton Vladislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though being widely spread, the designs of such machines as flat die pellet mills have hardly been comprehensively theoretically studied. At the same time, the kinematic motion of the ring die pellet mill executive parts have been studied quite thoroughly. The machine executive parts kinematics determines the nature of their motion and velocity parameters, as well as the energy costs for the unit operation of the assembly. In addition, a detailed analysis of the facility kinematic diagram enables a rational approach to the design process for a new equipment. In view of this, this paper proposes a classification of flat matrix granulators over the kinematic diagrams of the executive parts interactions. We performed an analytical study of the kinematic diagram flat matrix granulator with active cylindrical press rolls. We considered the forces acting on the press roll during its operation. We determined the kinematic parameters and their interrelation with the design parameters of the press roll. We obtained the analytical equations for the of the neutral cross-section determination - the most characteristic section of the press-roll granulator

  9. Oorsigartikel – F. Gerrit Immink se prakties–teologiese studie van die geloofspraktyk: Liturgiese vernuwing in die Protestantse tradisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik (Hennie J.C. Pieterse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a review article on the three most important books by F. Gerrit Immink in practical theology. His approach to this discipline is studying faith praxis of the Protestantse Kerk in Nederland (Protestant Church in the Netherlands which is a church in the Reformed tradition. In his first book he explained his approach to practical theology in a discussion with the action theory and hermeneutical-communucative approaches. His choice for the study of faith praxis opens the way for a more theological approach to him in which communication between God and people is an important aspect. His second book forms the central part of this article. He uses the concept performance in the liturgy which is adopted from the theater world. In the performance by means of the execution of the liturgy by the congregation (preacher, organ, music, singing, praying they all get involved in the message from the Bible of that Sunday, they are touched by it, it has an effect on them, and they get a new perspective on the problems of everyday life. This is possible through the work of the Holy Spirit. The epiclese prayers in the liturgy are prayers for the enlightening and work by the Spirit. He discusses singing, praying, preaching, baptism and Holy Communion in detail. The main idea is that the performance in the liturgy does something to you, it has an effect on you, something happens to you. To my mind there is no need to choose between the ritual approach and the approach he is putting on the table. The approaches can enrich each other.

  10. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah

    2015-05-01

    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  11. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE PERSONEELFUNKSIE IN DIE SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stel (kortdiensstelsel). Met die uitbreek van die oorlog in 1939 het die. Unieverdedigingsmag uit 40% Staandemag en. 60% aktiewe Burgermag bestaan. Op 22 Sept. 1939 is magtiging aan die Aktiewe Burgermag- eenhede verleen om vrywilligers vir die duur van die oorlog te aanvaar. Agv beswaar dat die Verdedigingswet.

  12. Die Formatestadt

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Trojan

    2013-01-01

    Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch?) war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  13. Die Formatestadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Trojan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch? war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  14. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  15. Medizinstudierende Eltern – die Dichotomie der Erfahrungswelten [Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iden, Kirstin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept.Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010, which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”. Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis.Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved.Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies.[german] Einleitung: In dem vorliegenden Artikel wird die persönliche Studien- und Lebenssituation von Studierenden mit Kindern am Fachbereich Medizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

  16. Psychotherapie und Spiritualität : eine qualitative Studie über die Integration spiritueller Konzepte und Methoden in die psychotherapeutische Arbeitsweise

    OpenAIRE

    Hundt, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Anhand biographischer Interviews werden die Motive von sechs Psychotherapeuten untersucht, sich einem spirituell orientierten Weg zuzuwenden und spirituelle Werte und Methoden in ihr westliches Therapiekonzept zu integrieren. Auffälligstes Ergebnis ist die Argumentation der Notwendigkeit von Spiritualität bzw. Religiosität für den therapeutischen Prozess, verbunden mit einer großen Offenheit für das Weltbild des Klienten. Die befragten Therapeuten lehnten es ab, eine spirituelle Perspektive v...

  17. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  18. [The meaning of dying with dignity from caregivers perspective: a phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Masero, Olivia; Ortega-Galán, Ángela M; Carmona-Rega, M Inés; Ruiz-Fernández, M Dolores; Cabrera-Troya, José; García-Cisneros, Rogelio; Medina, Fernando Relinque

    To explore the meaning of dying with dignity from the perspective of the direct witnesses who have accompanied this process in dying people from Andalusia. Phenomenological study conducted in different centres, which including analysing the transcriptions of the dialogues from discussion groups with 40 participants in five provinces in Southern Spain. The data was analysed using the Van Manen proposal and Atlas Ti 7.0 program was applied as a software tool. Being in the company of loved ones is noted as a key element in the perception of a dignified death. The following elements, according to a priority order, were also pointed out: relief of suffering, a good professional care, decision making ability, and the opportunity to consider their spiritual dimension. Achievement of their Living Wills is hardly mentioned. The essential elements defined in the Death with Dignity Law, 2/2010 are confirmed as being true (without suffering, with company, respecting living wills, having possibilities of the farewell, and the transcendental meaning of the death process). Caregivers, at the end of life, give priority to psychological aspects, underlying the need of company, a farewell of the loved ones, and a good professional care on the physical aspects. The promotion of the dignified Death Law and Living Wills are still being developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  20. Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hecke Ettiene

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far is the influence of the availability of nursing homes. Methods We conducted a survey of deaths, between January 1999 and December 2000 in a small densely populated area in Belgium, with a high availability of nursing homes (within 5 to 10 km of the place of residence of every elderly. We determined the incidence of total mortality (of subjects >60 years from local official death registers that we consulted via the priest or the mortician of the local parish, to ask where the decedent had died and whether the deceased had lived in a nursing home. We compared the distribution of the places of death between parishes with a nursing home and with parishes without nursing home. Results 240 women and 217 men died during the two years study period. Only 22% died at home, while the majority (78% died in an institutional setting, either a hospital (50% or a nursing home (28%. Place of death was influenced by individual factors (age and gender and the availability of a nursing home in the 'own' parish. The chance of in-hospital death was 65% higher for men (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 14 to 138%; p = 0.008 and decreased by 4% (CI: -5.1% to -2.5%; p Conclusion Demographic, but especially social-contextual factors determine where elderly will end their life. The majority of elderly in Flanders die in an institution. Age, gender and living situation are predictors of the place of death but the embedment of a nursing home in the local community seems to be a key predictor.

  1. Dimensional control of die castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Aniruddha Ajit

    The demand for net shape die castings, which require little or no machining, is steadily increasing. Stringent customer requirements are forcing die casters to deliver high quality castings in increasingly short lead times. Dimensional conformance to customer specifications is an inherent part of die casting quality. The dimensional attributes of a die casting are essentially dependent upon many factors--the quality of the die and the degree of control over the process variables being the two major sources of dimensional error in die castings. This study focused on investigating the nature and the causes of dimensional error in die castings. The two major components of dimensional error i.e., dimensional variability and die allowance were studied. The major effort of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the effects of casting geometry and process variables on die casting dimensional variability and die allowance. This was accomplished by detailed dimensional data collection at production die casting sites. Robust feature characterization schemes were developed to describe complex casting geometry in quantitative terms. Empirical modeling was utilized to quantify the effects of the casting variables on dimensional variability and die allowance for die casting features. A number of casting geometry and process variables were found to affect dimensional variability in die castings. The dimensional variability was evaluated by comparisons with current published dimensional tolerance standards. The casting geometry was found to play a significant role in influencing the die allowance of the features measured. The predictive models developed for dimensional variability and die allowance were evaluated to test their effectiveness. Finally, the relative impact of all the components of dimensional error in die castings was put into perspective, and general guidelines for effective dimensional control in the die casting plant were laid out. The results of

  2. Die funksie van die skeppingstradisie in die boek Jeremia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gedeeites voor wat sterk ooreenkomste toon met die beskrywings van die skep pingsgebeure in die boek Jeremia. • Volgpns Von Rad (1957:144-146) het daar wel 'n groep bestaan wat belange ge- had liet by die oorlewering van die skeppingstradisies. Dit was waarskynlik die. Sadokitiese priesters wat om twee redes aan ...

  3. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun-Jin [Oh-Sung Co. Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  4. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min; Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  5. The studies on ash dying (Fraxinus excelsior L. in the Włoszczowa Forest Unit stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowalski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out in the Włoszczowa Forest Unit, in 9 ash stands differing in respect of age, origin (natural, artificial, site and in the nursery on 3 quarters differing due to a silvicultural method (transplanted and not transplanted and seedlings age. In each stand an analysis of disease symptoms was carried out on 100 trees (2 - 20 years old stands or 50 trees (21 - 80 years old stands growing side by side in central part of the stand, while in the nursery in each block 200 seedlings were analyzed (4 sectors with 50 seedlings each. From the infected seedlings and trees 120 fragments of dead branches, living branches with cankers, and dead roots were taken. Identification of fungi was made on the basis of fructification and over 300 isolations of fungi on malt agar medium. The most frequent disease symptoms in ash stands were: the dead top (34.7% trees, the dying of whole branches (83.5%, the dying of the top of branches (20.1%, the occurrence of healed (36.0% and unhealed cankers (18.9% and the slime flux (23.7% on the trunk, also the chlorosis of leaves (7.5% and their atrophy (11.2%. Most of the types of disease symptoms appeared irrespectively of the tree age, origin and site, sometimes showing only a difference in the frequency of occurrence. On the seedlings in the nursery the shoot discolouration, healed and unhealed cankers on shoots and necrosis of a part of leaves were recorded most frequently. Disease symptoms occurred more frequently on 4-year-old seedlings in comparison with 3-year-old. In respect of transplanted seedlings the leaves dying was more frequent. Within cankers and on dead tops of shoots the most frequent were: Alternaria alternata, Chalara sp., Cytospora ambiens, Diplodia mutila, Fusarium lateritium, Gloeosporidiella turgida, Phomopsis controversa and Phomopsis scobina. In sparsely found dead roots of living trees appeared mostly: Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Phialocephala

  6. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  7. Suicide assisted by right-to-die associations: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Junker, Christoph; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    In Switzerland, assisted suicide is legal but there is concern that vulnerable or disadvantaged groups are more likely to die in this way than other people. We examined socio-economic factors associated with assisted suicide. We linked the suicides assisted by right-to-die associations during 2003-08 to a census-based longitudinal study of the Swiss population. We used Cox and logistic regression models to examine associations with gender, age, marital status, education, religion, type of household, urbanization, neighbourhood socio-economic position and other variables. Separate analyses were done for younger (25 to 64 years) and older (65 to 94 years) people. Analyses were based on 5 004 403 Swiss residents and 1301 assisted suicides (439 in the younger and 862 in the older group). In 1093 (84.0%) assisted suicides, an underlying cause was recorded; cancer was the most common cause (508, 46.5%). In both age groups, assisted suicide was more likely in women than in men, those living alone compared with those living with others and in those with no religious affiliation compared with Protestants or Catholics. The rate was also higher in more educated people, in urban compared with rural areas and in neighbourhoods of higher socio-economic position. In older people, assisted suicide was more likely in the divorced compared with the married; in younger people, having children was associated with a lower rate. Assisted suicide in Switzerland was associated with female gender and situations that may indicate greater vulnerability such as living alone or being divorced, but also with higher education and higher socio-economic position.

  8. Study the effect of elevated dies temperature on aluminium and steel round deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Yeong Wei; Azuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Round deep drawing operation can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. To reduce the cost of processes while expecting an acceptable result, round deep drawing can be done at elevated temperature. There are 3 common problems which are fracture, wrinkling and earing of deep drawing a round cup. The main objective is to investigate the effect of dies temperature on aluminium and steel round deep drawing; with a sub-objective of eliminate fracture and reducing wrinkling effect. Experimental method is conducted with 3 different techniques on heating the die. The techniques are heating both upper and lower dies, heating only the upper dies, and heating only the lower dies. 4 different temperatures has been chosen throughout the experiment. The experimental result then will be compared with finite element analysis software. There is a positive result from steel material on heating both upper and lower dies, where the simulation result shows comparable as experimental result. Heating both upper and lower dies will be the best among 3 types of heating techniques. (paper)

  9. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  10. Study of die-away time for a slab type passive neutron detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, S.; Gubbi, G.K.; Dange, S.P.; Ali, M.Y.; Tomar, B.S.; Basu, T.K.; Anand, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A slab type passive neutron detector coincidence counting system has been fabricated to estimate the plutonium content in nuclear materials. The present work focuses on the measurement of the die-away time of the system. The results obtained by carrying out neutron counting experiments, using the slab detector and a PC-based data acquisition system, are compared to the die-away time estimated by using Monte Carlo N-particle Transport (MCNP) code for the detector configuration. These results are presented along with the parameters and method for measuring the die-away time both experimentally and theoretically. Results of this validity check are in good agreement

  11. Is Email Business Dying?: A Study on Evolution of Email Spam Over Fifteen Years

    OpenAIRE

    De Wang; Danesh Irani; Calton Pu

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, ...

  12. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  13. Antiretroviral therapy status among people who died of AIDS-related causes from 2009 to 2013 in Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcelo Araújo; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; de Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa; Mesquita, Fabio; Ford, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    To describe the antiretroviral therapy status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who died of AIDS-related causes between 2009 and 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study. Data were obtained by linking the mortality information system and the national ART dispensing database. Trends were modelled using linear regression analysis. A total of 61 425 AIDS-related deaths were registered in Brazil between 2009 and 2013. Median age at death was 41 years (IQR: 33-49), and 65.7% (40 337) of deaths were among men; 47.2% (29 004) of PLHIV who died during the study period had never started treatment, 7.0% (4274) had discontinued it, 15.9% (9775) were on ART for 6 months or less and 29.9% (18 372) were on ART for more than 6 months. Only 1.3% of PLHIV were on third-line ARV regimens when they died. AIDS-related mortality remains a challenge even in a context of sustained universal access to antiretroviral treatment due to failure of service provision, not to therapy failure. Robust health policies closing gaps in the HIV continuum of care are crucial to further reduce mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Klinische Studie zur Messung der Dimensionsstabilität von digitalen Ganzkieferabformungen und die Entwicklung einer neuen Messmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhr, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Digitale Abformungen mit intraoralen Scannern haben klinisch bereits bewiesen, dass sie einzelne Zähne detail- und dimensionsgenau aufnehmen und in dieser Hinsicht eine Alternative zur konventionellen zahnärztlichen Abformung bieten können. Ob dies klinisch auch mit dem Scannen gesamter Zahnreihen möglich ist, wurde bislang nicht untersucht. Sowohl für konventionelle wie auch für digitale Abformungen gibt es keine In-vivo-Studie, die eine Methode zur Überprüfung der dimensionsgetreuen Übertra...

  15. [The right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Morales-Gil, Isabel María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Crespillo-García, Eva; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perceptions and beliefs of doctors and nurses, and the barriers and facilitators they must address as regards the right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital, and to consider the applicability of the provisions of Law 2/2010 of 8 April in this respect. A qualitative descriptive study, based on the focus group technique, using discourse analysis of the views of doctors and nurses responsible for the health care of terminal cancer and non-cancer patients in an acute-care hospital. The results obtained show that there are diverse obstacles to assure the rights of terminal patients, and to ensure the proper performance of their duties by healthcare professionals and institutions. The nature and impact of these difficulties depend on the characteristics of the patients and their families, the health workers involved, the organisation of health care, and cultural factors. The study highlights the need to improve the process of communication with patients and their families, to facilitate shared decision making and to establish measures to clarify issues such as palliative sedation and treatment limitation. It is necessary to improve the applicability of the law on living wills and dignified death in non-cancer specialist areas. Further training is needed regarding ethical, spiritual and anthropological aspects of care in these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  17. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmelman Jonathan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have.

  18. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  19. Comparative study on laser welding and TIG welding of semi-solid high pressure die cast A356 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available components. The low porosity levels in SSM high pressure die castings (HPDC) improves the weldability of these components. The aim of the current research was to perform a comparative study of laser and TIG welding of SSM HPDC aluminium alloy A356. SSM...

  20. James Henry Greathead en die Londense Moltrein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel ondersoek die oorsprong en vroeë geskiedenis van die toestel genaamd die ‘Greathead Skild’, ‘n belangrike nuwigheid in Viktoriaanse ingenieurwetenskap, wat van deurslaggewende belang was in die konstruksie van die Londense Moltrein. Die doel is om die basis te ontleed waarop, baie jare later, ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse ingenieur wye openbare erkenning in die vorm van ‘n standbeeld vir die ‘ontwerp’ van die Skild geniet het. Uit die perspektief van kulturele studies beskou, hoe moet ons uitvinding verstaan, gegewe dat ander briljante ingenieurs ook betrokke was? Hierdie vraag word ontleed met die gebruik van die konsep ‘extelligence’ (Stewart and Cohen 1997, in samehang met ander kontemporêre en geskiedkundige weergawes, insluitend Greathead se eie rekord van sy prestasies in die verrigtinge van die Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurs en voorgelê in The City and South London Railway (1896, onder redaksie van James Forrest. Hierdie artikel is die eerste keer as referaat aangebied by die konferensie oor ‘Nuuthede en Innovasie in die Negentiende Eeu’ aan die Noordwes-Universiteit, Mei 2016.

  1. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  2. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  3. Living and dying: responsibility for end-of-life care in care homes without on-site nursing provision - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Melanie; Goodman, Claire; Froggatt, Katherine; Mathie, Elspeth; Gage, Heather; Manthorpe, Jill; Barclay, Stephen; Crang, Clare; Iliffe, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the expectations and experiences of end-of-life care of older people resident in care homes, and how care home staff and the healthcare practitioners who visited the care home interpreted their role. A mixed-method design was used. The everyday experience of 121 residents from six care homes in the East of England were tracked; 63 residents, 30 care home staff with assorted roles and 19 National Health Service staff from different disciplines were interviewed. The review of care home notes demonstrated that residents had a wide range of healthcare problems. Length of time in the care homes, functional ability or episodes of ill-health were not necessarily meaningful indicators to staff that a resident was about to die. General Practitioner and district nursing services provided a frequent but episodic service to individual residents. There were two recurring themes that affected how staff engaged with the process of advance care planning with residents; 'talking about dying' and 'integrating living and dying'. All participants stated that they were committed to providing end-of-life care and supporting residents to die in the care home, if wanted. However, the process was complicated by an ongoing lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities in providing end-of-life care, doubts from care home and primary healthcare staff about their capacity to work together when residents' trajectories to death were unclear. The findings suggest that to support this population, there is a need for a pattern of working between health and care staff that can encourage review and discussion between multiple participants over sustained periods of time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise / deur Johan Smit

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Die Suid-Afrikaanse rooivleisindustrie is lomp en wyd. Een van die redes vir hierdie toedrag van sake is die verskeie rolspelers in die industrie. 'n Moontlike oplossing vir hierdie probleem is die vertikale integrasie-sisteem gerugsteun deur 'n lewensvatbare franchise in die kleinhandelsektor. Die studie fokus op die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise. Daar moet egter ook bepaal word of 'n slaghuis wei gefranchise kan word, voordat die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise be...

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodh, N R; Kumar, C N Vijay; Pradeep, M R; Naik, Ravi; Mahesh, C S; Kumari, Manju R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants. Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group. The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

  6. a study of attitudes of nurses toward death and dying in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    disease/illness. Transition to the terminal stage of care is tension packed and care burden enormous. The nurses should therefore muster the necessary resources to ensure effective control of pain and other symptoms (palliative care) Anarado (2010). The attitudes of nurses toward death and dying patients may influence to.

  7. Modeling the Smartphone Game to Improve Players Focus Case Study of Game Dumb Ways to Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Purnamasari

    2014-10-01

    There are a need to find some characteristics of a game which has positive effects for the players. Those characteristics can be formulated as the example of a good game. This paper will analyze the opinion and produce the conclusion from a survey of playing "Dumb Ways to Die to generate a positive game model.

  8. Natural Body Posture of Preference in the Dying Process : An Explorative Observational Study in a hospicesetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboeket-Crul, Cathelijne; Thien, Nynke; Teunissen, SCCM

    2016-01-01

    Background: All people have different postures while sleeping. Most people will prefer a lateral position. In the last days and hours before dying, patients are usually to be found in a supine position. In literature so far it has never been questioned whether the supine position is the most

  9. Study of possible chaotic, quasi-periodic and periodic structures in quantum dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Existence of chaotic, quasi-periodic, and periodic structures of dust-ion acoustic waves is studied in quantum dusty plasmas through dynamical system approach. A system of coupled differential equations is derived from the fluid model and subsequently, variational matrix is obtained. The characteristic equation is obtained at the equilibrium point, and the behavior of nonlinear waves is studied numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The behavior of the dynamical system changes significantly when any of plasma parameters, such as the dust concentration parameter, temperature ratio, or the quantum diffraction parameter, is varied. The change of the characteristic of solution of the system is extensively studied. It is found that the system changes its behavior from chaotic pattern to limit cycle behavior

  10. Die hervertolking van die paradigma in verband met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kerkorde van De Mist en die Algemene Reglement van 1816, wat onderskeidelik vir die Kaapse Kerk en die .... Een van die eerstes was Sam Freiherr von Pufendorf (1632-1694) wat in sy werk De habitu religionis ..... Koning was weer aan bewind (vgl Diepenhorst sj:74w; De Visser 1926/1927 lll:202w). 43.1 JD Janssen ...

  11. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjek, objek, leerstof en die metodiek van die senior kategese. Bloemfontein: Algemene Jeugkommissie Sondagskoolboekhandel. de rAAd oer ned ger kerken in Zuid AfrikA. 1921. De zevende vergadering: handelinge. 1925. De negende vergadering: handelinge. de villierS, d. W. 1957. Die Kategese in die Ned. Geref.

  12. die sinodale verband van die nederduitse gereformeerde kerk in die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    Strauss. Die sinodale verband van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk. 122 die Vrystaatse Sinode anti-veranderingsgesind of eerder gesond-behoudend of gereformeerd-gematig? Veral as dit .... howe) in moeilike omstandighede gebring is (NG Kerk in die OVS 1865-1912:5). In 'n brief op 8 Augustus 1864 ontken Ds.

  13. Die kerkregtelike posisie van die ouderling en diaken in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drie dekades die Kerkreg gevestig as 'n selfstandige vak in die teologiese curriculum, maar ook 'n baie groot rol gespeel daarin dat die beginsels van die kerk like reg beter begryp word. Naas sy wetenskaplike bydrae word met eweveel genoegdoening gedink aan sy bcsondere persoonlikheid, sy werkvermoe, sy humor-.

  14. Incidence of Suicide Among Persons Who Had a Parent Who Died During Their Childhood: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Li, Jiong; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Obel, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    Parental death from suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide in the bereaved child, but little is known about the long-term risks of suicide after parental death from other causes. A better understanding of this association may improve suicide prevention efforts. To examine the long-term risks of suicide after parental death and how the risk trajectories differed by cause of parental death while accounting for major potential confounding variables. A population-based matched cohort study was performed using information from nationwide registers (data from 1968 to 2008) in 3 Scandinavian countries (for a total of 7,302,033 persons). We identified 189,094 children (2.6%) who had a parent who died before the child reached 18 years of age (ie, the bereaved cohort). Each bereaved child was matched by sex and age to 10 children who did not have a parent who died before they reached 18 years of age (for a total of 1,890,940 children) (ie, the reference cohort). Both cohorts were followed for up to 40 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR), while accounting for age at parental death, sex, time since bereavement, maternal/paternal death, birth order, family history of psychiatric illness, and socioeconomic status. Data analyses were finalized June 24, 2015. The main exposure was death of a parent within the first 18 years of life. Incidence of suicide among persons who had a parent who died during their childhood. During follow-up, 265 bereaved persons (0.14%) and 1342 nonbereaved persons (0.07%) died of suicide (IRR = 2.02 [95% CI, 1.75-2.34]); IRR = 3.44 (95% CI, 2.61-4.52) for children who had a parent who died of suicide, and IRR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.49-2.09) for children who had a parent who died of other causes. The IRR tended to be higher for children who had a parent who died before they reached 6 years of age, and the IRR remained high for at least 25 years. During 25 years of follow-up, the absolute risk

  15. Rezension zu: Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Künkel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.

  16. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  17. Home to die from the intensive care unit: A qualitative descriptive study of the family's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amy L; Van Wissen, Kim A

    2017-12-01

    Many people would choose to die at home, and this can be an option for intensive care patients. However, there is limited exploration of the impact on the family. To gain insight into family members' experiences when an adult intensive care unit patient is taken home to die. Methodology is qualitative description, utilising purposeful sampling, unstructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four participants, from two different families were interviewed. The setting was a tertiary level Intensive Care Unit in New Zealand. The experience was described as a kaleidoscope of events with two main themes: 'value' family member's found in the patient going home, and their experience of the 'process'. 'Value' subthemes: going home being the patient's own decision, home as an end-of-life environment, and the patient's positive response to being at home. 'Process' subthemes: care and support received, stress of a family member being in intensive care, feeling that everything happened quickly, and concerns and uncertainties. Going home to die from the intensive care unit can be a positive but challenging experience for the family. Full collaboration between the patient, family and staff is essential, to ensure the family are appropriately supported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Riglyne vir die onderwys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. du Plooy

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available In die afgelope vyftig jaar sedert die Unie tot stand gekom het, is veel op die gebied van onderwys tot stand gebring. Dit is heel natuurlik dat ’n mens sou vra: Wat van die toekoms?

  19. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna R. du Toit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  20. Studies of the quality and cost-effectiveness of a novel conceptof open-die forged powerplant main shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory concept of open-die forging of windmill main shaft is described. Comparative study of the new technology based on the concept of cogging hollow shaft on mandrel featuring material savings and higher quality of a finished part versus traditional production chain of this component is presented, indicating benefits and technological setbacks of industrial implementation. Results of industrial sampling aided with numerical simulation form guidelines for technological realization.

  1. Comparative study of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis from idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis: An experience from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kalita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is paucity of reports on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP from India. We report the patients with TPP and compare them with idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (IHPP. Materials and Methods: Patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP treated during the past 11 years were evaluated retrospectively. Their demographic parameters, family history, clinical features, precipitating factors, severity of weakness, laboratory parameters and rapidity of recovery were recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of TPP and IHPP were compared. Results: During the study period, we managed 52 patients with HPP; nine (17.3% of whom had TPP and 27 (52% had IHPP. The demographic, precipitating factors, number of attacks and severity of limb weakness were similar between the TPP and IHPP groups, except in the IHPP group, bulbar weakness was present in four and respiratory paralysis in six, needing artificial ventilation in two patients. Serum potassium was significantly lower in TPP (2.21 ± 0.49 compared with IHPP (2.67 ± 0.59, P = 0.04. Four patients with TPP had subclinical thyrotoxicosis and two had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Rebound hyperkalemia occurred in both TPP and IHPP (three versus eight patients. The recovery was faster in IHPP (26.7 ± 15.4 h compared with TPP (34.0 ± 14.0 h, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: TPP constitutes 17.3% of HPP, and absence of clinical features of thyrotoxicosis and subclinical hyperthyroidism in TPP is not uncommon. Clinical features, demographic profile and rebound hyperkalemia are similar in both TPP and IHPP. The serum potassium level is significantly low in the TPP compared with the IHPP group.

  2. Die partypolitiek en die toekoms van die Afrikaanse volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Treurnicht

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Reeds in 1853 het die Zuid Afrikaan hom soos volg uitgelaat: „Dis ’n dwaling wat ons reeds meermale bestry het dat ons as Britse onderdane verplig sou wees, om die Britse nasionaliteit ons s’n te maak. Die Kolonis van Hollandse oorsprong kan geen Engelsman word nie, en moet ook geen Nederlander wil wees nie. Wanneer hy weet om sy standpunt te waardeer, dan sal hy as verligte kolonis die grondtrekke van die Engelse volkskarakter met dié van die Nederlandse harmonies leer verenig en daardeur word wat hy as Kapenaar moet word.”

  3. Die Defects and Die Corrections in Metal Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad Zahid Qamar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a very popular and multi-faceted manufacturing process. A large number of products for the automotive, aerospace, and construction sectors are produced through aluminum extrusion. Many defects in the extruded products occur because of the conditions of the dies and tooling. The problems in dies can be due to material issues, design and manufacturing, or severe usage. They can be avoided by maintaining the billet quality, by controlling the extrusion process parameters, and through routine maintenance. Die problems that occur on a day-to-day basis are mostly repairable and are rectified through various types of die correction operations. These defects and repair operations have not been reported in detail in the published literature. The current paper presents an in-depth description of repairable die defects and related die correction operations in metal extrusion. All major die defects are defined and classified, and their causes, preventive measures, and die correction operations are described. A brief frequency-based statistical study of die defects is also carried out to identify the most frequent die corrections. This work can be of direct benefit to plant engineers and operators and to researchers and academics in the field of metal extrusion.

  4. Energy research programmes on hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramme Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A.; Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2007-12-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the concept for research in Switzerland in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011. The starting position is noted with a short review of the vision of a 'hydrogen economy'. The present-day production of hydrogen for non-energetic purposes is noted and the current state-of-the-art is discussed. The potential in Switzerland for the production of hydrogen and the use of fuel cells is discussed, as are research efforts and pilot projects in these areas. Private and public expenditure in the area is reviewed. The aims and the focal points of research during the period 2008 - 2011 are discussed, as are potentials both in Switzerland as well as world-wide. Further topics dealt with include system integration and hydrogen storage, service life, reliability and cost factors.

  5. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  6. Calvyn en die kerklike orde: Enkele opmerkings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om dié saak verder te belig word ook van die latere uitsprake van Calvyn in hierdie verband in berekening gebring. Met hierdie beperkte studie word dus in die eerste plek die feit in herinnering geroep dat dit vanjaar 450 jaar gelede is dat Calvyn se. Institusie die eerste maal in Basel verskyn het. Terselfdertyd word hier-.

  7. Period variation studies of six contact binaries in M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmini, Jagirdar; Shanti Priya, Devarapalli

    2018-04-01

    We present the first period study of six contact binaries in the closest globular cluster M4 the data collected from June 1995‑June 2009 and Oct 2012‑Sept 2013. New times of minima are determined for all the six variables and eclipse timing (O-C) diagrams along with the quadratic fit are presented. For all the variables, the study of (O-C) variations reveals changes in the periods. In addition, the fundamental parameters for four of the contact binaries obtained using the Wilson-Devinney code (v2003) are presented. Planned observations of these binaries using the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) and the 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) operated by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES; Nainital) can throw light on their evolutionary status from long term period variation studies.

  8. Die Britse owerheid en die onderwys op Heidelberg gedurende die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of Christian National Education (CNE) Schools stimulated the concept of mother tongue education. Oor die klaskamerpraktyk en die werklike gehalte van onderrig tydens die kampskooltydperk is daar min bekend. Heidelberg wat na 1902 in 'n belangrike onderwyssentrum in Transvaal ontwikkel het, het ...

  9. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digdhede teen 1980 uit 'n kudde van 30 rnilj.skape ge- produseer moet word. Tweedens sal die faktore ... die Republiek van Suid-Mrika teen 1980 in totaal 28 milj. sal wees. Indien die produsente dit as 'n ..... Appendix Table 4 in Digestive Physiology and nutrition of ruminants Vol. 3 Ed. and Publ. D.C. Church, Oregon State ...

  10. DIE ROL VAN DIE TAALWETENSKAP IN DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aanslag op die sogenaamde "Intentional Fallacy", heelwat verder. n. Mens sou hier eintlik ook op die invloed van Lacan se toepassing van. De Sacs sure op Freud moet wys, en op Macherey se Theory of Literary. Production. Barthes is naamlik besig om repressie teen te werk, en die teks as produksieproses in stede van ...

  11. Server hardware dependability: effect of periodic switching on and off; Auswirkungen von periodischem Ein- und Ausschalten auf die Server-Hardware-Zuverlaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, M.

    2003-07-01

    This final report discusses investigations made on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy that have shown a large potential for energy savings by switching off servers during idle periods. User concerns such as those concerning the possible effects of intermittent operation on hardware reliability are discussed. On the basis of the RDF 2000 Model evaluated in this project, the predicted failure rates of components of a typical SME (small and medium enterprise) server are presented that were calculated for the three operational modes 'continuous operation', 'on and idle', and 'on and off'. The failure rate model described takes account of the influence of temperature on failure rates as well as thermo-mechanical effects caused by changes in loading and temperature that also have a substantial impact on the failure rates of electronic components.

  12. An Experiment Study on Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling NAK80 Die Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces that the high speed milling experiments on NAK80 die steel was carried out on the DMU 60 mono BLOCK five axis linkage high speed CNC machining center tool by the TiAlN coated tools, in order to research the effect of milling parameters on surface roughness Ra. The results showed that the Ra value increased with the decrease of milling speed vc, increased with the axial depth of milling ap, and feed per tooth fz and radial depth of milling ae. On the basis of the single factor experiment results, the mathematics model for between surface roughness and milling parameters were established by linear regression analysis.

  13. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  14. A Period Study of the Near Contact Binary EG Cep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available New eight times of minimum light of the near-contact binary EG Cep were presented. All times of minimum light for EG Cep, including ours, were collected and analyzed to study it's orbital period variation. It was found that the orbital period have varied in a cyclical way superposed on an upward parabola. A secular period increase of 3.22 times 10^{-8} d/y was calculated. Under the assumption of a conservative mass transfer, it implied that the stellar gaseous material of about 3.18 times 10^{-8} rm M_odot /year is transferring from the less massive secondary component to the primary. The cyclical period variation was interpreted as light-time effect due to an unseen third body in the system. The resultant period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of the light time orbit were calculated to be 38.^{rm y}4, 0.^{rm d}0034 and 0.29, respectively. The mass range of the tertiary proposed in the system is deduced to be quite small as 0.10M_{odot} leq M_3 leq 0.21M_{odot} for i_3 g!

  15. die ontstaan en die ontwikkeling van die skoolkadette-stelsel in die rsa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toe algemene diensplig ingestel is. Die diens- plig het intussen sy volle beslag gekry en in. Weermagkringe het die gedagte posgevat dat skoolkadette. 'n deeglike ondersoek vereis ten einde die skoolgaande seun vir sy komende nasionale diensplig te orienteer. Tydens kadetopleldlng leer die seuns al die fynere kunsles ...

  16. Van die Gasredakteur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cherish and teach.'1. Die Fakulteit Geneeskunde van die Universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat het pragtig gegroei ge- durende die eerste 21 jaar van sy bestaan. Die entoesiasme, doelgerigtheid, harde werk en inisia- tiewe van 'n groot aantal persone was hiervoor verantwoordelik. 'If we see a bit more clearly than they, it is ...

  17. Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    die omgewing van Velddrif en Laaiplek, ook noordwaarts verby Lambertsbaai tot by. Doringbaai en Strandfontein. “Haar seeverhale is Sussie (Kotze) se belangrikste bydrae tot die Afrikaanse letterkunde”, sê Kotzé-Myburgh in die voorwoord van die versamelbundel. Die leser word herinner aan Kotze se debuutroman, ...

  18. Die uitbeelding van die vrou in Huisgenoot (1963 en 2013: ’n Multimodale diskoersanalise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann H. Marais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Die standpunt dat die mens en die media in ’n verhouding van wedersydse beïnvloeding staan, sowel as die studie wat die kulturele konseptualisering van vroulikheid in twee Huisgenoot-uitgawes (1953 en 2003 ondersoek, geld as uitgangspunt vir dié studie. Hierdie studie het ten doel om te bepaal of daar ’n verskil is in die uitbeelding van die vrou in die Huisgenoot uitgawes van onderskeidelik 1963 en 2013. Volgens navorsing werk die visuele beeld en geskrewe teks saam om ’n boodskap oor te dra. Multimodale diskoersanalise (MDA word juis gebruik om beide visuele beeld en geskrewe teks te bestudeer. Sodoende word die metode van intersemiotiese komplementariteit binne MDA in hierdie studie gebruik. Die studie kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die uitbeelding van die ideale vrou se verantwoordelikhede uitgebrei is, maar dat die vrou se rol tóg tot sekere ruimtes beperk word, soos die sigbaarheid van die moeder-stereotipe weerspieël.

  19. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1723-1790) sy vertrekpunt neem, ontwikkel, as oorwinnaars uit die Franse Revolu .... Die onmiddellike sukses van Adam Smith se 'Wealth of Nations' was .... alle vorme van sosialisme niks anders as 'kommunisme' (Wassenaar 1977:12) nie.

  20. Brief Study and Spanish Translation of Die Kunst das Clavier zu Spielen by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (Berlin, Henning, 1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Nieves Pascual León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the fi rst Spanish version of F. W. Marpurg’s treaty Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen, which had been restricted for the common Spanish-speaking reader since its fi rst appearance in 1750. This philological translation of the treaty (with the facsimile of the fi rst edition and its Spanish translation on the opposite page is instroduced by a brief study of the text’s various editions published during the author’s life, and pretends to offer an initial approach to the treaty, to facilitate the public’s access to the work and to contribute to its full disclosure.

  1. Die faktore gemeenskaplik aan die selfondersoekvraelys van Holland en die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Swanevelder

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors common to the Self Directed Search of Holland (SDS and the new South African Vocational Interest Inventory (SAVII. The new South African Vocational Interest Inventory was locally developed with the purpose to create a single vocational interest inventory for all population groups in the RSA. In this study the common factors underlying the SDS and the SAVII were determined with the aid of interbattery factor analysis. The results indicate that there are six common factors underlying the two instruments for both the standard nine boys and girls, and that these factors agree with the six factors built into the SDS by Holland. Opsomming Die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys (SABBV is plaaslik ontwikkel met die doel om 'n enkele beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys vir alle bevolkingsgroepe binne die RSA, daar te stel. In hierdie studie is daar ondersoek ingestel na die gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die SABBV en die Selfondersoekvraelys (SOV van Holland met behulp van 'n interbatteryfaktorontleding. Daar is bevind dat daar ses gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die twee instrumente is vir sowel standerd nege seuns as dogters, en dat hierdie faktore ooreenstem met die ses faktore wat deur Holland in die SOV ingebou is.

  2. Die dogmatiese binding van die prediking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genoemde probleemstelling wat ons homileties na riglyne wil soek, sonder die pretensie dat finale oplossings gevind sal word. Om hierdie probleem te ontleed is dit nodig om eers kortliks 'n begripsbepaling van die begrippe dogma, binding en prediking te maak. Vanuit die begripsbepaling kan ons dan probeer vasstel wat ...

  3. DIE PERSOON VAN VREDE IN DIE SENDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aan dat 'n lewe onder die gesag van God tot volle vrede lei: “In coming under the rule of Yahweh, moreover, life was made whole and safe.” Dit is spesifiek in die tempel waar die volheid van God se vrede ondervind word (1997:662):. The temple is indeed the place where Israel entered into Yahweh's full zone of shalom.

  4. Level of consciousness in dying patients. The role of palliative sedation: a longitudinal prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Patricia; Menten, Johan; Schotsmans, Paul; Broeckaert, Bert

    2012-05-01

    Patients suffering from a terminal illness often are confronted with severe symptoms during the last phase of their lives. Palliative sedation, although one of the options of last resort, remains a much debated and controversial issue and is often referred to as a form of slow euthanasia or euthanasia in disguise. A prospective longitudinal and descriptive design was used. Each patient admitted in one of the 8 participating units was included if they met the inclusion criteria and gave written informed consent. 266 patients were included. The incidence of palliative sedation was 7;5%. For the group of sedated patients results show that 90% entered the palliative care unit being fully conscious. Two patients were comatose upon arrival. 90% of the patients remained fully conscious up to the day palliative sedation was started. When looking at the effect of palliative sedation on the level of consciousness the analysis strongly suggest that the palliative sedation - as expected- has an impact on the GCS score. Irrespective of the dichotomization of the score the probability of having a lower GCS increases substantially once sedation is initiated. Additionally, results show that once palliative sedation is administered, the level of consciousness gradually goes down up until the day of death. Palliative sedation is nor slow euthanasia nor an ambivalent practice. It is an intentional medical treatment which is administered in a proportional way when refractory suffering occurs. It occurs in extraordinary situations and at the very end of the dying process.

  5. Die attach dimension and material on thermal conductivity study for high power COB LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukunaselan, K.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Mahmed, N.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Suppiah, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    High power LED began to gain popularity in the semiconductor market due to its efficiency and luminance. Nonetheless, along with the increased in efficiency, there was an increased in the junction temperature too. The alleviating junction temperature is undesirable since the performances and lifetime will be degraded over time. Therefore, it is crucial to solve this thermal problem by maximizing the heat dissipation to the ambience. Improvising the die attach (DA) layer would be the best option because this layer is sandwiched between the chip (heat source) and the substrate (channel to the ambient). In this paper, the impact of thickness and thermal conductivity onto the junction temperature and Von Mises stress is analyzed. Results obtained showed that the junction temperature is directly proportional to the thickness but the stress was inversely proportional to the thickness of the DA. The thermal conductivity of the materials did affect the junction temperature as there was not much changes once the thermal conductivity reached 20W/mK. However, no significant changes were observed on the Von Mises stress caused by the thermal conductivity. Material with the second highest thermal conductivity had the lowest stress, whereas the highest conductivity material had the highest stress value at 20 µm. Overall, silver sinter provided the best thermal dissipation compared to the other materials.

  6. Dying cancer patients' own opinions on euthanasia: an expression of autonomy? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Deliberations on euthanasia are mostly theoretical, and often lack first-hand perspectives of the affected persons. Sixty-six patients suffering from cancer in a palliative phase were interviewed about their perspectives of euthanasia in relation to autonomy. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The informants expressed different positions on euthanasia, ranging from support to opposition, but the majority were undecided due to the complexity of the problem. The informants' perspectives on euthanasia in relation to autonomy focused on decision making, being affected by (1) power and (2) trust. Legalization of euthanasia was perceived as either (a) increasing patient autonomy by patient empowerment, or (b) decreasing patient autonomy by increasing the medical power of the health care staff, which could be frightening. The informants experienced dependence on others, and expressed various levels of trust in others' intentions, ranging from full trust to complete mistrust. Dying cancer patients perceive that they cannot feel completely independent, which affects true autonomous decision making. Further, when considering legalization of euthanasia, the perspectives of patients fearing the effects of legalization should also be taken into account, not only those of patients opting for it.

  7. Interspecific studies of circadian genes period and timeless in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Shumaila; Pegoraro, Mirko; Nouroz, Faisal; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-03-30

    The level of rescue of clock function in genetically arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster hosts using interspecific clock gene transformation was used to study the putative intermolecular coevolution between interacting clock proteins. Among them PER and TIM are the two important negative regulators of the circadian clock feedback loop. We transformed either the D. pseudoobscura per or tim transgenes into the corresponding arrhythmic D. melanogaster mutant (per01 or tim01) and observed >50% rhythmicity but the period of activity rhythm was either longer (D. pseudoobscura-per) or shorter than 24 h (D. pseudoobscura-tim) compared to controls. By introducing both transgenes simultaneously into double mutants, we observed that the period of the activity rhythm was rescued by the pair of hemizygous transgenes (~24 h). These flies also showed a more optimal level of temperature compensation for the period. Under LD 12:12 these flies have a D. pseudoobscura like activity profile with the absence of morning anticipation as well as a very prominent earlier evening peak of activity rhythm. These observation are consistent with the view that TIM and PER form a heterospecific coevolved module at least for the circadian period of activity rhythms. However the strength of rhythmicity was reduced by having both transgenes present, so while evidence for a coevolution between PER and TIM is observed for some characters it is not for others. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of flomoxef in the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S; Hirayama, H; Oh, K; Tamate, K; Sengoku, K; Ishikawa, M; Shimizu, T; Haga, H; Hasegawa, T; Takada, H

    1993-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies on flomoxef (FMOX) in the perinatal period were carried out and following results were obtained 1. The pharmacokinetic parameter T1/2's of FMOX in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid in mothers after single intravenous injection of 1 g (n = 46) and 2 g (n = 34) were 1.11, 9.24, 9.24 hours and 2.54, 12.49, 12.49 hours, respectively. Cmax's and Tmax's of umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid were 12.71, 11.77 micrograms/ml and 0.57, 3.35 hours upon single dose of 1 g i.v., and 35.17, 12.37 micrograms/ml and 0.32, 3.42 hours upon single dose of 2 g i.v., respectively. 2. Clinical usefulness were evaluated in 93 cases including were various infections in pregnancy and puerperal period. In pregnancy cases, clinical efficacy rate was 95.5% (21/22), and 100% in puerperal period. Bacteriological response rate was 84.6% (eradicated: 29, decreased: 4, unchanged: 2, replaced: 4 and unknown: 8 cases). No severe side effects nor clinical laboratory test results were observed in any cases. From above basic and clinical results, we conclude that FMOX is a useful and safe agent for various infections in pregnancy and puerperal period.

  9. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfang, Yu; Qi, Zheng; Yufang, Zheng

    1988-02-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100/sup 0/C in steps of 100/sup 0/C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000/sup 0/C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  10. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Qi; Zheng Yufang; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou

    1988-01-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100 0 C in steps of 100 0 C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000 0 C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  11. n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... Die eerste maal wat dit as deel van die teks van 1 Johannes aangehaal word, is in die. 4de eeu in 'n Latynse teks, Liber Apologeticus (hf 4). Eers aan die einde van die 16de eeu is dit in 'n amptelike Katolieke uitgawe van die Vulgaat ingesluit. Die doel van die Johannesbriewe. Waarom is die Briewe ...

  12. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  13. Die Ware Buch und die Philologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hurch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Die im 19. Jahrhundert sich verändernden Produktionsbedingungen für Druckwerke (Buchdruck, Satz, Papier, Bindung wirkten katalysierend auf die Fachkonstitution und Institutionalisierung der Philologien. Hier steht der tatsächliche Buchmarkt im Vordergrund der Darstellung, das Käuferpublikum und die Voraussetzungen des Vertriebs. Dazu gehören auch die Rezension als entstehende Textsorte und die rasch arbeitenden Rezensionsorgane. F.-R. Hausmann wurde in den letzten Jahren unentbehrlicher Mitarbeiter dieses im Rahmen des Grazer Schuchardt-Projekts "Netzwerk des Wissens" angesiedelten Ansatzes.

  14. Die stand van wiskundeonderwys in Afrikaanse skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Stols

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoërordedenkvaardighede is noodsaaklike basiese vaardighede vir die een-en-twintigste eeu aangesien rekenaars berekeninge en algoritmes baie vinniger en akkurater kan doen as mense. Dit beteken dat skole leerders moet toerus om logies te dink, patrone te ontdek, bewyse te lewer, asook om nieroetineprobleme op te los. Hierdie fasette wat as hoërordedenke geklassifiseer word, is die kern van wiskundige denke en ontwikkeling. Suid-Afrika neem aan verskeie internasionaal vergelykende studies deel. Met behulp van hierdie vergelykende studies kan bepaal word hoe die Afrikaanse wiskundeleerders in Suid-Afrika se prestasie met dié van leerders in ander lande vergelyk en ook wat die tekortkominge in die wiskundeonderwys is. Volgens die 2003-TIMSS-uitslae is die probleem in Afrikaanse skole juis dié vrae wat hoërordedenke vereis. Dit beteken dat die Afrikaanse skole ’n doelbewuste poging sal moet aanwend om hoërordedenke te ontwikkel. Die 1999-TIMSS-videostudie toon dat die lande wat die beste presteer, soos Japan, tydens onderrig meer tyd wy aan die ontwikkeling van begripsvorming en aan die oplos van moeiliker probleme. Die fokus in die presterende lande is op die ontwikkeling van hoërordedenke deur probleemoplossing. Daar word dus minder tyd afgestaan aan herhaling van roetine- of soortgelyke oefeninge wat ’n rekenaar ook kan doen. Die omgekeerde hiervan is ’n tipiese verskynsel in Afrikaanse skole, waar ’n onderwyser byvoorbeeld een of meer voorbeelde op die bord doen waarna die leerders ’n hele aantal soortgelyke roetine-oefeninge doen.

  15. A study of the inferred interplanetary magnetic field polarity periodicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthakis, J.; Tritakis, V.P.; Zerefos, Ch.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed Power Spectrum Analysis applied on the daily polarities of the inferred interplanetary magnetic field, published by Svalgaard, has pointed out that the main periodicity apparent in these data is 27-28 days, which suggests a recurrency of a 2-sector structure. There is also a secondary periodicity of 13-14 days which mainly appears in the yers of the descending branch of the solar cycle and superimposes on the 2-sector structure, transforming it into a 4-sector structure. A strict statistical study of the correlation between the predominant polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field and the heliographic latitude of the Earth, also known as the Rosenberg-Coleman effect, pointed out that perhaps there is a faint correspondence between these two elements, but one cannot speak of a systematic effect. (Auth.)

  16. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Lodewyckx

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  17. Thermal Neutron Die-Way-Time Studies for P and DGNAA of Radioactive Waste Drums at the MEDINA Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Frank; Mauerhofer, Eric [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In Germany, radioactive waste with negligible heat production has to pass through a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Additionally to its radioactive components, the waste may contain non-radioactive chemically toxic substances that can adversely affect human health and pollute the environment, especially the ground water. After an adequate decay time, the waste radioactivity will become harmless but the non-radioactive substances will persist over time. In principle, these hazardous substances may be quantified from traceability and quality controls performed during the production of the waste packages. As a consequence, a research and development program was initiated in 2007 with the aim to develop a nondestructive analytical technique for radioactive waste packages based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P and DGNAA) employing a DT-neutron generator in pulsed mode. In a preliminary study it was experimentally demonstrated that P and DGNAA is suitable to determine the chemical composition of large samples. In 2010 a facility called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of nonradioactive, toxic elements and substances in 200-l steel drums. The determination of hazardous substances and elements is generally achieved measuring the prompt gamma-rays induced by thermal neutrons. Additional information about the composition of the waste matrix could be derived measuring the delayed gamma-rays from short life activation products. However a sensitive detection of these delayed gamma-rays requires that thermal neutrons have almost vanished. Therefore, the thermal neutron die-away-time has to be known in order to achieve an optimal discrimination between prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra acquisition. Measurements Thermal neutron

  18. Die medikausering van die samelewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pretorius

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Until a decade or two ago there existed a widely held belief that mankind had slowly but surely been rid of its diseases by medical science. According to this view advances in medicine coincided with the transformation in human health. After an initial period of wonder about the marvels of medical science, certain doubts came into being: the honeymoon period with the marvels of medical technology showed signs of disillusionment. Criticism was voiced which ranged from mere statements that the successes of medical technology were less spectacular than was widely held, to very sharp criticism of the institution of medicine. Criticism came not only from outside the medical profession - social scientists, jurists, politicians, social critics, etc. - but also from inside - from medical scientists and doctors - who denounced both the autonomy and authority of the medical professional, and what was termed the medicalisation of society. The most pugnacious of these critics, Ivan Illich, said of the medical establishment that it had become a major threat to health.

  19. Die vrede van Münster / Westfale en die betekenis daarvan vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedenis egter is die Vrede van Münster as epogmakende gebeure tot dusver nie net in die algemeen verwaarloos nie, maar boonop is die direkte verband tussen hierdie sentrale historiese baken aan die een kant en aan die ander kant die vestiging van die VOC se verversingspos aan die ...

  20. A study of 3-dimensionally periodic carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Datta, Timir; Arammash, Fouzi

    2012-02-01

    Electronic structures with intricate periodic 3-dimensional arrangements at the submicron scale were investigated. These may be fabricated using artificial porous opal substrates as the templates in which the targeted conducting medium is introduced. In the past these materials were reported to show interesting electronic behaviors. [Michael Bleiweiss, et al ``Localization and Related Phenomena in Multiply Connected Nanostructured,'' BAPS, Z30.011, Nanostructured Materials Session, March 2001, Seattle]. Several materials were studied in particular disordered carbon which has been reported to show quantum transport including fractional hall steps. The results of these measurements, including the observation of localization phenomena, will be discussed. Comparisons will be made with literature data.

  1. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  2. Tegnologie en die mens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omgewingsbesoedeling, volgend op industrialisasie en verstedeliking, gee uit- ing tot krete van wanhoop en frustrasie. Die maatskaplike ontwrigting agv outomatisasie het die begrippe van vervreemding en naam- loosheid op die voorgrond van sosiale be- wustheid geplaas. • Die Neutrale Siening. Tegnologie was nag. 34.

  3. GODSBEELDE IN DIE LITURGIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Mei 2010 ... Biezeveld, de Boer, Brümmer, Muis. 2001; Brown 2006; Durand 2007). ... Wanneer sal hy weer in God se teenwoordigheid verskyn (vers 3)? Dié vraag is vol onsekerheid. (Schuman 2004:8). Sy onsekerheid ... God se volk en die enkeling in die geskiedenis het al die trou van God ervaar waarop die digter ...

  4. A Study of the First Year of the End-of-Life Clinic for Physician-Assisted Dying in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijdewind, Marianne C; Willems, Dick L; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Right to Die NL, an organization in the Netherlands that advocates for the option of euthanasia, founded the End-of-Life Clinic in 2012 to provide euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide for patients who meet all legal requirements but whose regular physicians rejected their request. Many patients whose requests are rejected have less common situations, such as a psychiatric or psychological condition, dementia, or being tired of living. To study outcomes of requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide received by the clinic and factors associated with granting or rejecting requests. Analysis of application forms and registration files from March 1, 2012, to March 1, 2013, the clinic's first year of operation, for 645 patients who applied to the clinic with a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and whose cases were concluded during the study period. A request could be granted, rejected, or withdrawn or the patient could have died before a final decision was reached. We analyzed bivariate and multivariate associations with medical conditions, type of suffering, and sociodemographic variables. Of the 645 requests made by patients, 162 requests (25.1%) were granted, 300 requests (46.5%) were refused, 124 patients (19.2%) died before the request could be assessed, and 59 patients (9.1%) withdrew their requests. Patients with a somatic condition (113 of 344 [32.8%]) or with cognitive decline (21 of 56 [37.5%]) had the highest percentage of granted requests. Patients with a psychological condition had the smallest percentage of granted requests. Six (5.0%) of 121 requests from patients with a psychological condition were granted, as were 11 (27.5%) of 40 requests from patients who were tired of living. Physicians in the Netherlands have more reservations about less common reasons that patients request euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, such as psychological conditions and being tired of living, than the medical staff working for the End

  5. Varswateralge en die ekonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Scott

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel bespreek die ekonomiese belong wat varswateralge alreeds het en hul moontlike verdere ontginning in die toekoms. Sowel gewenste as ongewenste aspekte word oorweeg en hoofsaaklik met voorbeelde uit Suid-Afrika geïllustreer. Die oormatige ontwikkeling van ongewenste alge in varswater verlaag die watergehalte dear verskeie chemiese veranderinge, wat kan wissel van smake en geure tot die produksie van verbindings wat gesondheidsgevare vir mens of dier inhou. Verwydering van ongewenste alge dra aansienlik by tot die koste van waterbehandeling. Oormatige alggroei belemmer ontspanningsgebruike en kan eiendomswaardes langs rivier- en damoewers beïnvloed.

  6. Die spacer thickness reproduction for central incisor crown fabrication with combined computer-aided design and 3D printing technology: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lisa N; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Cho, Seok-Hwan; Berzins, David W; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-05-01

    The inability to control die spacer thickness has been reported. However, little information is available on the congruency between the computer-aided design parameters for die spacer thickness and the actual printout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the die spacer thickness achieved by combining computer-aided design and 3-dimensional printing technology. An ivorine maxillary central incisor was prepared for a ceramic crown. The prepared tooth was duplicated by using polyvinyl siloxane duplicating silicone, and 80 die-stone models were produced from Type IV dental stone. The dies were randomly divided into 5 groups with assigned die spacer thicknesses of 25 μm, 45 μm, 65 μm, 85 μm, and 105 μm (n=16). The printed resin copings, obtained from a printer (ProJet DP 3000; 3D Systems), were cemented onto their respective die-stone models with self-adhesive resin cement and stored at room temperature until sectioning into halves in a buccolingual direction. The internal gap was measured at 5 defined locations per side of the sectioned die. Images of the printed resin coping/die-stone model internal gap dimensions were obtained with an inverted bright field metallurgical microscope at ×100 magnification. The acquired digital image was calibrated, and measurements were made using image analysis software. Mixed models (α=.05) were used to evaluate accuracy. A false discovery rate at 5% was used to adjust for multiple testing. Coefficient of variation was used to determine the precision for each group and was evaluated statistically with the Wald test (α=.05). The accuracy, expressed in terms of the mean differences between the prescribed die spacer thickness and the measured internal gap (standard deviation), was 50 μm (11) for the 25 μm group simulated die spacer thickness, 30 μm (10) for the 45 μm group, 15 μm (14) for the 65 μm group, 3 μm (23) for the 85 μm group, and -10 μm (32) for the 105 μm group. The

  7. Prediking aan die hand van die metafoor van fiksieskryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    HTS 64(3) 2008 siening van die self en waarheid. In die pre-moderne paradigma kan die dominante metafoor verstaan word aan die hand van 'n spieël wat die lig uit 'n transendente oorsprong weerkaats, terwyl die moderne paradigma uitgedruk word met die metafoor van 'n lamp wat 'n eie, oorspronklike lig binne die self.

  8. e .Kuraioriufn. DIE W ETENSKAPLIKE BETEKENIS VAN DIE W ERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ENGELBRECHT ver antwoordelik vir die Ou-Testamentiese vakke en Hebreeus. Die aan stelling van 'n derde professor het noodsaaklik geword, want dit sou. 85 .... De .Spreuken ran 5a/o?no omvat die nuwe vertaling en die ekse gese van die eerste 24 hoofstukke van die Spreukeboek. Die geskoold- heid in die Semitiese ...

  9. Die dialogiese prinsipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de Klerk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Met die dialogiese prinsipe word daardie beginsel bedoel, waarin die tweerigtingverkeer of kommunikasie onder, of met, of deur die mense op 'n heel besondere gesprekmatige wyse gere�l word. Tot die wese van die dialogiese prinsipe behoort "als Grundvoraussetzung das Ernstnehmen des Gesprachspartners und das darin enthaltene zuhoren-konnen. Dialog ist also etwas anderes als Disput oder Diskussion. Er setzt gegenseitiges Vertrauen und Hochachtung voraus."

  10. Die identifisering van maatstawwe vir die navorsingsprestasie van akademici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Labuschagne

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of criteria for academic research performance. At South African universities, the achievement of objectives is usually measured in terms of so-called "process criteria" (e.g. pass rates, instead of performance criteria which reflect the quality of academic personnel. Stimulated by the need to identify valid indices of research performance, as a component of academic performance, this study investigated the dimensionality of several criteria, identified from empirical and literature studies. It was found that various valid criteria could be represented by six constructs, viz.: the stature of the researcher as scientist; scientific contributions; enhancement of own profession; community development; participation in research projects; and giving advice to persons or institutions outside the university. Opsomming By Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite word doelwitbereiking gewoonlik aan die hand van sogenaamde "prosesmaat-stawwe" (bv. slaagsyfers in plaas van prestasiemaatstawwe wat die gehalte van akademiese personeel weerspieel, gemeet. Na aanleiding van 'n behoefte aan die identifisering van geldige rigtingwysers vir navorsingsprestasie as 'n komponent van akademiese prestasie, is daar ondersoek ingestel na die dimensionaliteit van verskillende maatstawwe wat vooraf deur middel van empiriese- en literatuurstudies geidentifiseer is. Daar is gevind dat verskeie geldige maatstawwe deur ses konstrukte verteenwoordig word, te wete: die statuur van die navorser as wetenskaplike, wetenskaplike bydraes, uitbouing van eie professie, gemeenskapsontwikkeling, deelname aan navorsingsprojekte en advieslewering aan persone of instellings buite die Universiteit.

  11. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  12. Kant’s Studies in Ukrainian Philosophy of Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Tytarenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing is devoted to the brief review of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy studies and receptions of his philosophical concepts within the Ukrainian philosophy of Soviet period. Such attempt is actually pertinent because nowadays we definitely need to reconsider the soviet philosophical heritage for better understanding the real value of any philosophical conclusions and worldview-concerning statements which were made in the times of soviet ideology hegemony. Additionally, mentioned reconsidering is presently urgent because Ukrainian intellectual culture is now looking for its identity and is trying to identify the stillremaining ideological totalitarian elements which spoil the originality and objectiveness of its products. The present review attempts to identify which totalitarian intentions and prejudices were used to interpret and evaluate the Immanuel Kant’s heritage in the texts written by several selected Ukrainian philosophers of the Soviet period. Nevertheless, it’s obvious that absolutely impossible to avoid talking about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophical position interpretation by the same authors. Kant’s and Hegel’s soviet-Ukrainian interpretations were often connected, because there was a general trend of soviet Marxist history of philosophy to interpret Kant as the “worse” version of Hegel. To fulfill the general image of Kant’s philosophy interpretation in Ukrainian philosophy and its future perspectives, this paper also delivers some common information about the whole historical path of Kant’s interpretations and receptions

  13. Awareness of dementia by family carers of nursing home residents dying with dementia: a post-death study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Yolanda W H; Albers, Gwenda; Deliens, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van den Block, Lieve

    2015-01-01

    High-quality palliative care for people with dementia should be patient-centered, family-focused, and include well-informed and shared decision-making, as affirmed in a recent white paper on dementia from the European Association for Palliative Care. To describe how often family carers of nursing home residents who died with dementia are aware that their relative has dementia, and study resident, family carer, and care characteristics associated with awareness. Post-death study using random cluster sampling. Structured questionnaires were completed by family carers, nursing staff, and general practitioners of deceased nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium (2010). Of 190 residents who died with dementia, 53.2% of family carers responded. In 28% of cases, family carers indicated they were unaware their relative had dementia. Awareness by family carers was related to more advanced stages of dementia 1 month before death (odds ratio = 5.4), with 48% of family carers being unaware when dementia was mild and 20% unaware when dementia was advanced. The longer the onset of dementia after admission to a nursing home, the less likely family carers were aware (odds ratio = 0.94). Family carers are often unaware that their relative has dementia, that is, in one-fourth of cases of dementia and one-fifth of advanced dementia, posing considerable challenges for optimal care provision and end-of-life decision-making. Considering that family carers of residents who develop dementia later after admission to a nursing home are less likely to be aware, there is room for improving communication strategies toward family carers of nursing home residents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN AFDELING LOGISTIEK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Aug 1978 ... dan ook aangebied, Agv die probleem wat ont- staan het met die gebrek aan goedgekeurde poste vir die Afdeling en as gevolg van die ver- wagte vertraging met die ondersoek van die. DOS-span, het die Afdeling Logistiek en Afde- ling Personeel oorleg gepleeg en laasgenoemde het ingestem dat die ...

  15. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  16. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  17. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  18. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B B

    1988-12-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  19. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  20. Die relevansie van die boek Prediker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook in die dogmatiek te bespeur is nie. 'n Vinnige oorsig oor die teksverwysings van. 'n paar wydgelese dogmatiekhandboeke kan dit bevestig. In Karl Barth se omvang- ryke Kirchliche Dogmatik word Prediker slegs vyf en dertig maal aangehaal en slegs sewe maal word teksgedeeltes bespreek. Emil Brunner haal Prediker ...

  1. Moderator veranderlikes en differensiele geldigheid van die aansoekvorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Bod

    1977-11-01

    Empiriese studies toon dat die Geweegde Aansoekvorm (G.A.V. 'n doeltreffende voorspellingsinstrument in personeelseleksie is. Daar is egter studies wat voorspel dat die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. in die literatuur aansienlik oorbeklemtoon word. Teenstrydig met die beginsels van klassieke psigometriese teorie word voorgestel dat moderator veranderlikes vir hierdie paradoks verantwoordelik is. Hierdie studie toon hoe die biografiese korrelate van dienstyd as moderators fungeer en empiriese bewys van die modererende effek op die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. word gelewer. Daar word voorgestel dat ‘n nuwe benadering tot die ontwikkeling van die G.A.V. noodsaaklik is ten einde die effek van moderators te benut.

  2. Long-period and short-period variations of ionospheric parameters studied from complex observations performed on Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso, B; Lobachevskii, L A; Potapova, N I; Freizon, I A; Shapiro, B S

    1980-09-01

    Cuban data from 1978 are used to study long-period (i.e., diurnal) variations of Doppler shift on a 3000 km path at frequencies of 10 and 15 MHz these variations are related to variations of parameters on the ionospheric path. Short-period variations were also studied on the basis of Doppler shift data and vertical sounding data in the 0.000111-0.00113 Hz frequency range. The relation between the observed variations and internal gravity waves are discussed.

  3. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrakking, A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Looman, C.W.; Delden, van J.J.M.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. STUDY DESIGN: We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's

  4. Factors associated with dying at the place of wish: a cross-country comparison of cancer patients with the EURO SENTI-MELC Study 2009-2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Miccinesi, G.; Beccaro, M.; Vanthomme, K.; Donker, G.A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Alonso, T.V.A.V; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den

    2013-01-01

    Aims: 1) To study demographic and clinical factors associated with dying at a preferred place for cancer patients 2) To study cross-country differences in the intensity of factors Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2009-2010 via representative nationwide networks of general

  5. The German uranium miners study. Knowledge for radiation protection; Die deutsche Uranbergarbeiterstudie. Erkenntnisse fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Schnelzer, Maria [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany). Fachbereicih fuer Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2015-07-01

    The Wismut cohort comprises about 60.000 former Wismut employees. Due the size and the large surveillance time from 1946 to 2013 the German uranium miners study is of high significance and worldwide unique.

  6. Treating palliative care patients with pain with the body tambura: A prospective case study at St. Joseph′s hospice for dying destitute in Dindigul South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Body Tambura is a recently invented stringed instrument that is used for receptive music therapy designed to be placed and attached on the human body. The aim of this study was to record perceived effects of a treatment with the Body Tambura on palliative care patients with special reference to pain. Materials and Methods: A prospective case study was carried out with patients of St. Joseph′s Hospice for Dying Destitute in Dindigul/South India. Patients were treated with a treatment after baseline assessment and also on the next day. Outcomes were measured quantitatively by using a numeric rating scale (0-10, 10 maximum intensity of pain felt at baseline, directly after treatment, and the day after the treatment to determine the intensity of the pain. Results: Ten patients (five women and five men participated in the study. The majority described the therapy as a pleasant experience. The pain intensity at baseline was reduced from 8.3 ± standard deviation (SD 1.16 to 4.6 ± 1.52 at day 1 and from 4.6 ± 2.07 to 2.4 ± 1.58 at day 2. Conclusion: A clinically relevant pain reduction was described as short time outcome; the therapy was received and perceived well. Forthcoming research should include a control group, randomization, a larger number of participants, and a longer period of treatment.

  7. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  8. DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE HUIDIGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE. HUIDIGE SITUASIE. Sending is 'n deel van die vervulling van die apostoliese opdrag van die kerk. Dit geskied op grond van en in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods. \\C'oord. Teologiese besinning is daarom die eerste en grondliggende vereiste by die ontwerp van 'n ...

  9. Die vier Social-Media-Typen in der Wissenschaft. Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrzinski, Ulrike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] ZB MED and its partners within the Leibniz Research Alliance Scienc participated in a nationwide study involving academics and researchers from universities and Leibniz Association research institutions. The purpose was to examine the use of social media tools. One of the key goals was to learn more about the usage patterns and behaviours of target groups, and the study has provided some important pointers to assist in this task. The preliminary part of the study identified four types of social media user who display significantly different patterns of behaviour in their use of and attitudes toward social web applications. The poster shows the figures for researchers working in the fields of medicine and life sciences – the main user group of ZB MED.

  10. Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

  11. Sodomie, gender studies und die baltische Geschichte : Anmerkungen zu einer schwedischen Dissertation / Aivar Põldvee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldvee, Aivar, 1962-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Sjödin Lindenskoug, Susanna. Manlighetens bortre gräns : tidelagsrättegångar i Livland åren 1685-1709. (Stockholms Studie in history, 94 ; Södertörn doctoral dissertations, 55). Stockholm, 2011

  12. (2008) SWJ:21-25 Comparative Studies On the Dying rate Migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DYEING RATE MIGRATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF AZO DYES. DERIVED FROM ..... The dyeing of Cellulose Fibres Publication thrust,. London. Standard methods for determination of fastness properties of textiles and leather, 4th Edition. 1978. Soceity of dyers and ...

  13. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sy moet hierdie opdrag uitvoer deur mid del van die Prediking d.w.s. deur middel van die Woord-vorm, maar ook deur die bediening van die sakramente, dws. deur middel van die vorm van die Daad. Maar nou wil God nie hê dat die Kerk slegs één maal die Evangelie sal predik en die mense sal doop om hulle daarna.

  14. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  15. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  16. Die kortikale Verarbeitung semantischer Domänen : eine ERP-Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    From a semantic point of view concrete nouns can be divided into different categories or domains such as living - non-living as well as into different lexical hierarchies (e.g. dog - beagle). Psycholinguistic and aphasiological case studies as well as neurophysiological investigations have shown that distinct semantic categories can be selectively damaged or show advantages in processing. However, these mental lexicon structures are still sketchy with regard to psycho- and neurolinguistics. I...

  17. Study of the upper die clamping conditions in the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrés, D.; Dymáček, Petr

    86A, DEC (2016), s. 117-123 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Finite element method * Parametric study * High temperature * Creep Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167844216301835

  18. Significance of acceleration period in a dynamic strength testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W L; Su, F C; Chou, Y L

    1994-06-01

    The acceleration period that occurs during isokinetic tests may provide valuable information regarding neuromuscular readiness to produce maximal contraction. The purpose of this study was to collect the normative data of acceleration time during isokinetic knee testing, to calculate the acceleration work (Wacc), and to determine the errors (ERexp, ERwork, ERpower) due to ignoring Wacc during explosiveness, total work, and average power measurements. Seven male and 13 female subjects attended the test by using the Cybex 325 system and electronic stroboscope machine for 10 testing speeds (30-300 degrees/sec). A three-way ANOVA was used to assess gender, direction, and speed factors on acceleration time, Wacc, and errors. The results indicated that acceleration time was significantly affected by speed and direction; Wacc and ERexp by speed, direction, and gender; and ERwork and ERpower by speed and gender. The errors appeared to increase when testing the female subjects, during the knee flexion test, or when speed increased. To increase validity in clinical testing, it is important to consider the acceleration phase effect, especially in higher velocity isokinetic testing or for weaker muscle groups.

  19. Regression periods in infancy: a case study from Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadurní, Marta; Rostan, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    Based on Rijt-Plooij and Plooij's (1992) research on emergence of regression periods in the first two years of life, the presence of such periods in a group of 18 babies (10 boys and 8 girls, aged between 3 weeks and 14 months) from a Catalonian population was analyzed. The measurements were a questionnaire filled in by the infants' mothers, a semi-structured weekly tape-recorded interview, and observations in their homes. The procedure and the instruments used in the project follow those proposed by Rijt-Plooij and Plooij. Our results confirm the existence of the regression periods in the first year of children's life. Inter-coder agreement for trained coders was 78.2% and within-coder agreement was 90.1%. In the discussion, the possible meaning and relevance of regression periods in order to understand development from a psychobiological and social framework is commented upon.

  20. Families' experiences with patients who died after assisted suicide: a retrospective interview study in southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, C; Pott, M; Payne, S

    2013-06-01

    In Switzerland, if certain conditions are met, assisted suicide is not prosecuted. International debate suggests that requests for hasten death are often altered by the provision of palliative care. Aims of the study were to explore patients' reasons for choice of assisted suicide and family perceptions of the interactions with health care professionals. This is a qualitative study upon 11 relatives of 8 patients cared for by a palliative care team, deceased of assisted suicide. Pain and symptom burden were not regarded by patients as key reasons to seek assisted suicide: existential distress and fear of loss of control were the determinants. Most patients had made pre-illness decisions to use assisted suicide. A general need for perceived control and fear of dependency were reported as a common characteristic of these patients. Patients held misunderstandings about the nature and purpose of palliative care, and the interviewed indicated that patients did not regard provision of palliative care services as influential in preventing their decision. Assisted suicide was preferred despite provision of palliative care. Better understanding of the importance placed on perceived control and anticipated dependency is needed. Further research is needed to develop appropriate support for patients contemplating assisted suicide.

  1. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  2. Die Erfindung des Manuskripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benne, Christian

    Die Entstehung der literarischen Moderne ging seit dem 18. Jahrhundert damit einher, dass die Anzahl literarischer Manuskripte ebenso wuchs wie deren Bedeutung. Der Buchdruck hatte die Handschrift keineswegs überflüssig gemacht, sondern provozierte im Gegenteil einen neuen, am Autographen...

  3. "Please. Don't. Die.": A Grounded Theory Study of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Justin; Snobelen, Paul; Tavares, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important determinant of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are highly variable. In an effort to promote bystander CPR, the procedure has been streamlined, and ultrashort teaching modalities have been introduced. CPR has been increasingly reconceptualized as simple, safe, and easy to perform; however, current methods of CPR instruction may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the various logistical, conceptual, and emotional challenges of resuscitating a victim of cardiac arrest. We adopted a constructivist grounded theory methodology to qualitatively explore bystander CPR and invited lay rescuers who had recently (ie, within 1 week) intervened in an OHCA to participate in semistructured interviews and focus groups. We used constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation to derive a midrange explanatory theory of bystander CPR. We constructed a 3-stage theoretical model describing a common experiential process for lay rescuer intervention in OHCA: Being called to act is disturbing, causing panic, shock, and disbelief that must ultimately be overcome. Taking action to save the victim is complicated by several misconceptions about cardiac arrest, where victims are mistakenly believed to be choking, and agonal respirations are misinterpreted to mean the victim is alive. Making sense of the experience is challenging, at least in the short term, where lay rescuers have to contend with self-doubt, unanswered questions, and uncomfortable emotional reactions to a traumatic event. Our study suggests that current CPR training programs may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the reality of an OHCA and identifies several key knowledge gaps that should be addressed. The long-term psychological consequences of bystander intervention in OHCA remain poorly understood and warrant further study. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Num 20: 1; Jos 24: 30; Hand 5: 5 - 11). Selfs van die ... Gebruike rondom die begrafnis het van geslag tot geslag gewissel. De Vaux ... der geskied deur die hoorders 'te onderrig, te vermaan, te vertroos en te bestraf, soos dit in elke geval ..... gehandhaaf hoef te word, veral in die lig van die feit dat die predikant die kerklike.

  5. Exploring Canadian Physicians' Experiences Providing Medical Assistance in Dying: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Narges; Hopwood, Marie-Clare; Lokuge, Bhadra; Kurahashi, Allison; Tobin, Anastasia; Isenberg, Sarina; Husain, Amna

    2018-05-15

    MAiD allows a practitioner to administer or prescribe medication for the purpose of ending a patient's life. In 2016, Canada was the latest country, following several European countries and American states, to legalize physician-assisted death. Although some studies report on physician attitudes towards MAiD or describe patient characteristics, there are few that explore the professional challenges faced by physicians who provide MAiD. To explore the professional challenges faced by Canadian physicians who provide MAiD. Sixteen physicians from across Canada who provide MAiD completed in-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews. An inductive thematic analysis approach guided data collection and the iterative, interpretive analysis of interview transcripts. Three members of the research team systematically co-coded interview transcripts and the emerging themes were developed with the broader research team. NVivo was used to manage the coded data. Participants described three challenges associated with providing MAiD: 1) their relationships with other MAiD providers were enhanced and relationships with objecting colleagues were sometimes strained, 2) they received inadequate financial compensation for time, and, 3) they experienced increased workload, resulting in sacrifices to personal time. Although these providers did not intend to stop providing MAiD at the time of the interview, they indicated their concerns about whether they would be able to sustain this service over time. Physicians described relationship, financial, and workload challenges to providing MAiD. We provide several recommendations to address these challenges and help ensure the sustainability of MAiD in countries that provide this service. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  7. Morir con dignidad: Estudio sobre voluntades anticipadas Dying with dignity: A study of living wills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nebot

    2010-12-01

    draw up a living will, to analyze physicians´ knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. Method: A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain, a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate, and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. Results: A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1. Most (73.8% used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99% and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%. Although 61 physicians (72.6% frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit livingwills. Conclusions: Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions.

  8. die pers as bron oor die geskiedenis van die eerste vrydeidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dood agv wonde wat hy tydens die slag opgedoen het. Dit was vir die Britse volk onaanvaarbaar dat slegs twee Boere gedood is nadat daar tussen. 20 000 en 30 000 rondtes op die Boere afgevuur is. Die pers kon net nie die ware syfers publiseer nie, want dit sou na 'n onwaarheid Iyk. Het die. Britse volk egter die Boere ...

  9. die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die nuwe testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voorbeeld eers een maal deur die bril van die vorm- en redaksiekritiek na die Evangelies gekyk het, dink jy vir altyd anders oor hulle tot- standkoming. Inderdaad, nuwe metodes lei tot nuwe perspektiewe! Dit is dan ook waar die fokus van hierdie artikel val: die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die Nuwe ...

  10. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  11. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR “DIE PUNCH” DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. Methods: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. Results: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. Conclusion: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. PMID:27027079

  12. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad, India. Daily satellite datasets of DMSP-OLS were processed for night-time forest fires over ...

  13. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period: a multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, R; Serrano, R; Pons-Estel, G J; Ceberio-Hualde, L; Shoenfeld, Y; de Ramón, E; Buonaiuto, V; Jacobsen, S; Zeher, M M; Tarr, T; Tincani, A; Taglietti, M; Theodossiades, G; Nomikou, E; Galeazzi, M; Bellisai, F; Meroni, P L; Derksen, R H W M; de Groot, P G D; Baleva, M; Mosca, M; Bombardieri, S; Houssiau, F; Gris, J-C; Quéré, I; Hachulla, E; Vasconcelos, C; Fernández-Nebro, A; Haro, M; Amoura, Z; Miyara, M; Tektonidou, M; Espinosa, G; Bertolaccini, M L; Khamashta, M A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS patients from 13 European countries. All had medical histories documented when entered into the study and were followed prospectively during the ensuing 10 years. 53.1% of the patients had primary APS, 36.2% had APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and 10.7% APS associated with other diseases. Thrombotic events appeared in 166 (16.6%) patients during the first 5-year period and in 115 (14.4%) during the second 5-year period. The most common events were strokes, transient ischaemic attacks, deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolism. 127 (15.5%) women became pregnant (188 pregnancies) and 72.9% of pregnancies succeeded in having one or more live births. The most common obstetric complication was early pregnancy loss (16.5% of the pregnancies). Intrauterine growth restriction (26.3% of the total live births) and prematurity (48.2%) were the most frequent fetal morbidities. 93 (9.3%) patients died and the most frequent causes of death were severe thrombosis (36.5%) and infections (26.9%). Nine (0.9%) cases of catastrophic APS occurred and 5 (55.6%) of them died. The survival probability at 10 years was 90.7%. Patients with APS still develop significant morbidity and mortality despite current treatment. It is imperative to increase the efforts in determining optimal prognostic markers and therapeutic measures to prevent these complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. End-of-Life Care and Circumstances of Death in Patients Dying As a Result of Cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Abarshi-Fatiregun, E.A.B.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  15. End-of-life care and circumstances of death in patients dying as a result of cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: a retrospective comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; Block, L. van den; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; Casteren, V. van; Abarshi, E.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  16. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  17. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of voluntary, controllable labour turnover. Labour turnover for individuals can be classified as voluntary or non-voluntary, whereas labour turnover in organisations can be categorised as controllable or non-controllable. Data on total labour turnover in a particular service organisation indicated the existence of a possible problem. Voluntary, controllable labour turnover between 1 January 1988 and 31 March 1991 for technicians only within this particular organisation was closely scrutinised by calculating the direct recruitment, training, and separation costs for this period. The replacement costs of the technical population alone (N = 1594 for the last-mentioned period were approximately R94 million and could possibly increase to as high as R470 million if the hidden costs are also considered. If these costs are projected to the period 1980-1991 in which there were 60284 voluntary leavers, the total labour turnover costs for this organisation could be astronomical. It is clear from the above that preventative strategies by management could reduce the negative consequences of labour turnover and improve the prospects of a positive outcome. Opsomming Arbeidomset kan vir individue as vrywillig of nie-vrywillig geklassifiseer word; daarenteen kan arbeidomset vir organisasies as beheerbaar of nie-beheerbaar gekategoriseer word. Gegewens oor totale arbeidomset in "n bepaalde diensorganisasie het op die bestaan van 'n moontlike probleem gewys. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset van slegs tegnici is vir die periode 1 Januarie 1988 tot 31 Maart 1991 in die betrokke organisasie nader ondersoek, deur die direkte verkrygings-, opieidings- en skeidingskoste van tegniciverlaters vir hierdie tydperk te bereken. Die vervangingskoste van slegs die tegnicipopulasie (N = 1594 vir die laasgenoemde tydperk het sowat R94 miljoen beloop en kon selfs so hoog soos R470 miljoen wees as die verskuilde kostes ook verreken is. Indien hierdie kostes

  18. Spanische Identität unter der Voraussetzung des trikulturellen Mittelalters: zu Fabian Sevillas StudieDie ‚Drei Kulturen‘ und die spanische Identität“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henrik Witthaus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabian Sevilla, Die „Drei Kulturen“ und die spanische Identität: ein Konflikt bei Américo Castro und in der spanischsprachigen Narrativik der Moderne, Siegener Forschungen zur romanischen Literatur- und Medienwissenschaft 26 (Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 2014, 372 S.

  19. oor die inhoud en boodskap van die heidelbergse kategismus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smit. Oor die Inhoud en Boodskap van die Heidelbergse Kategismus. 52. Uiteraard sal dié tema saamhang met die bedoelinge agter die opstel van die Kategismus. Ook die vraag na moontlike bedoelinge of motiewe is egter 'n ingewikkelder vraag as wat miskien gedink mag word. Uiteraard was daar agter elke kategismus ...

  20. Thomas Erastus oor die struktuur van die gemeenskap'^

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    óók aansprake en regte het, is die opvatting dat sowel die burgerlike gemeenskap as die kerk 'n perfecta societas sibi sufficiens is, nié werklik aanvaar nie. Die Middeleeuse gemeenskap was die corpus christianum,. 'n gemeenskap wat nie deur fisiese of politieke grense beperk was nie. Sy grense het gelê waar die grense ...

  1. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oaar moet onderskei word tussen die doelstellings van opvoedende onderwys en die einddoel wat bereik word deur die nastrewing van hierdie doelstellings. Gunter praat van die naderliggende doelstellings (1981, b1.105). \\/at die enddoel van opvoedende onderwys bet ref, gaan die meeste opvoedkundi ges akkoord dat ...

  2. ’n Oorsig van die bepaling van die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit van verskeie antituberkulosemiddels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Donald

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit (VBA van ’n antituberkulosemiddel is die daaglikse afname van M tuberculosis in log10 kolonievormende eenhede per ml sputum, tydens die eerste twee dae van behandeling met die middel. Dit weerspieël die vermoë van ’n middel om aktief metaboliserende organismes in tuberkulose-longholtes te dood. Dit is ’n relatief goedkoop metode om in ’n klein groep pasiënte die antituberkulose-aktiwiteit van ’n middel, binne maande, in vivo te evalueer. Hierdie artikel som ons ondervinding op tydens sewe gepubliseerde VBA-studies, en die bronne van variasie in die prosedure word identifiseer. Die pasiënte in hierdie studies was gemiddeld 33 jaar oud, met ’n gemiddelde gewig van 50 kg en 55% het ekstensiewe of massiewe longaantasting gehad. Die hoogste VBA-waardes (0,50-0,66 is gevind in pasiënte wat isoniasied ontvang het, en die laagste waardes (0,05 en 0,09 respektiewelik was gevind in pasiënte wat die aminoglikosiede amikasien en paromomisien, albei in doserings van 15 mg/kg liggaamsgewig, ontvang het. Die algehele variasie in die VBA van 248 pasiënte was 0,0312, en die variasie toegeskryf aan die proses van sputumproduksie en -versameling was 0,0223. Dit blyk dat die verskillende aspekte van sputumproduksie en -versameling, betrokke by die lewering van ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster, ’n groter bydrae maak tot variasie tydens die prosedure as die laboratoriumaspekte van die tegniek. Die keuring van pasiënte vir insluiting in VBA-studies, en hulle vermoë om saam te werk om ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster te produseer, is van deurslaggewende belang in die suksesvolle voltooiing van VBA-studies.

  3. Ein (neuer Blick auf die Konkurrenz unter Frauenforscherinnen A (New Look at Competition Among Women Scholars in Women’s Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Mischau

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Solidarität unter Frauenforscherinnen wird bis heute als politisch-ideologisches Postulat der Frauenforschung aufrechterhalten, obwohl im Zuge einer zunehmenden Institutionalisierung und Professionalisierung bei einer gleichzeitig nahezu unveränderten Marginalisierung der Frauenforschung an deutschen Hochschulen eine stärker werdende Konkurrenz auch unter Frauenforscherinnen zu beobachten ist. Sünne Andresen geht der Frage nach den möglichen Ursachen von Konkurrenz unter Frauenforscherinnen in der Hochschule nach. Diese Fragestellung ist in der Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung nicht neu, wenngleich sie bislang eher allgemein auf die Konkurrenz unter Wissenschaftlerinnen bezogen worden ist. Innovativ ist jedoch, dass die Autorin hierfür den subjektwissenschaftlichen Ansatz der Kritischen Psychologie und die Habitus-Feld-Konzeption Bourdieus als theoretischen Bezugsrahmen auswählt und damit deutlich über die vorherrschenden subjektzentrierten oder strukturtheoretischen Erklärungsansätze hinausgeht. Die empirische Basis ihrer Studie sind sechs qualitative Interviews mit Habilitandinnen der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Fächer, die sich auf die Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung spezialisiert haben. Insgesamt arbeitet die Autorin interessante Aspekte möglicher Ursachen des Konkurrenzverhaltens unter und der Konkurrenzerfahrungen von Frauenforscherinnen heraus. Sie bleibt der Leserin aber mindestens genauso viele Antworten schuldig, wie sie durch die dargestellten „empirischen Ergebnisse" zu geben vermag.Until the present day, solidarity among feminist scholars is upheld as an ideological-political postulate in this particular scholarly community. These views continue to be upheld despite the increasing institutionalisation and professionalisation of research in women’s studies research. These institutional changes result in an increased sense of competition among feminist scholars, while women’s studies continue to

  4. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  5. Die verhouding tussen vertroue en diversiteitsklimaat by 'n Suid-Afrikaanse universiteit

    OpenAIRE

    McCallaghan, Sean; Heyns, Marita

    2016-01-01

    Hierdie studie stel ondersoek in na die verwantskap tussen vertroue en die diversiteitsklimaat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse tersiêre inrigting. 'n Kwantitatiewe benadering met behulp van 'n nie-waarskynlikheidsgerieflikheidsteekproef (N=350) is gevolg. Die vraelys wat in die studie gebruik is, maak gebruik van 'n kombinasie van drie vooraf-gevalideerde instrumente. Die resultate dui aan dat die werknemers saamstem dat die instelling bereid is tot diversiteitsbestuur en die uitskakeling van diskri...

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die

  7. die ontstaan van vrouelugverenigings in suid-afrika voor die tweede

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aangestel. Ander eenhede het later gevolg. Drle van die Vrouehulplugmag se lelersflgure staan voor die VHLM se kleure wat gewy Is In Durban op 18 Mei 1940. Die vroue Is vlnr mal (meil E. Percival-Hart, It-kol (mev) D. Dunning en mal (mel) M. Egerton-Bird. 24. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, ...

  8. Symptoms, unbearability and the nature of suffering in terminal cancer patients dying at home: a prospective primary care study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, C.D.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; van der Wal, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary care physicians provide palliative home care. In cancer patients dying at home in the Netherlands (45% of all cancer patients) euthanasia in about one out of every seven patients indicates unbearable suffering. Symptom prevalence, relationship between intensity of symptoms and

  9. Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    23 Jun 2009 ... metafories, of spesifiek verwysend, te werk gegaan is. Tyd sou mens die hoofmotief van die bundel noem, tyd en geheue wat verbygaan: 1 en 2; en die einde van die storie wat gekom het: “fluit-fluit my storie is uit”. (Die tema van verbygaan word weer opgeneem in 8 en 9: die stories wat nooit meer gehoor ...

  10. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die verband kan genoem word dat die Russe nog grotendeels gebruik maak van 'n metode waarvolgens water in die oliestratum gepomp word om 'n opwaartse druk van ru-olie te verseker; een nadeel hiervan is dat die water mettertyd deur die oliehoudende laag ontsnap en agv die drukverlies isvoortgesette ontginning.

  11. Die singulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  12. Sleep-induced periodic breathing and apnea: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Gottschalk, A; Pack, A I

    1991-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms that lead to sleep-disordered breathing, we have developed a mathematical model that allows for dynamic interactions among the chemical control of respiration, changes in sleep-waking state, and changes in upper airway patency. The increase in steady-state arterial PCO2 accompanying sleep is shown to be inversely related to the ventilatory response to CO2. Chemical control of respiration becomes less stable during the light stage of sleep, despite a reduction in chemoresponsiveness, due to a concomitant increase in "plant gain" (i.e., responsiveness of blood gases to ventilatory changes). The withdrawal of the "wakefulness drive" during sleep onset represents a strong perturbation to respiratory control: higher magnitudes and rates of withdrawal of this drive favor instability. These results may account for the higher incidence of periodic breathing observed during light sleep and sleep onset. Periodic ventilation can also result from repetitive alternations between sleep onset and arousal. The potential for instability is further compounded if the possibility of upper airway occlusion is also included. In systems with high controller gains, instability is mediated primarily through chemoreflex overcompensation. However, in systems with depressed chemoresponsiveness, rapid sleep onset and large blood gas fluctuations trigger repetitive episodes of arousal and hyperpnea alternating with apneas that may or may not be obstructive. Between these extremes, more complex patterns can arise from the interaction between chemoreflex-mediated oscillations of shorter-cycle-duration (approximately 36 s) and longer-wavelength (approximately 60-80 s) state-driven oscillations.

  13. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives' Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient's Death: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Bruinsma

    Full Text Available Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient's perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives' wellbeing.An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice 'Laurens Cadenza' (both in Rotterdam between 2010 and 2013.Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14-32 months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives' satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient's death.The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives' evaluation of the patient's dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient's death.

  14. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives’ Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient’s Death: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, M. L.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient’s perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives’ wellbeing. Methods An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice ‘Laurens Cadenza’ (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Results Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14–32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives’ satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient’s death. Conclusions The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives’ evaluation of the patient’s dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient’s death. PMID:26871717

  15. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives' Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient's Death: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, S M; van der Heide, A; van der Lee, M L; Vergouwe, Y; Rietjens, J A C

    2016-01-01

    Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient's perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives' wellbeing. An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice 'Laurens Cadenza' (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14-32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives' satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient's death. The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives' evaluation of the patient's dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient's death.

  16. Evaluation of the Luting Cement Space for Provisional Restoration by using Various Coats of Die Spacer Materials-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiramana, Sandeep; Siddineni, Krishna Chaitanya; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev; Gade, Phani Krishna; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Kondaka, Sudheer; Hussain, Zakir; Paluri, Geetha Bhavani

    2014-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate the space provided for the temporary luting cement, after the application of various coats of die spacers, during the fabrication of provisional crowns and bridges. A total of 50 specimens of dental stone with provisional crowns on all these samples were prepared and were divided into five groups based on the application of various coats of different die spacers. Later these specimens were sectioned buccolingually and were observed using a stereomicroscope under 100X magnification. The images thus obtained were evaluated and noted for the amount of space between the inner surface of the provisional crown and the specimens at five different locations using Image Pro 6.0 Express software and the values were subjected to one-way ANOVA test, and unpaired t-test. There was a significant increase of luting space thickness with various die spacer applications than the specimens of control group. Specimens of double coat applications of silver and gold die spacers showed higher luting cement space than the separating media application specimens.

  17. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

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    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  18. Die sterwende kindjie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  19. Mu opioid receptor availability in people with psychiatric disorders who died by suicide: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarr Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mu opioid receptors have previously been shown to be altered in people with affective disorders who died as a result of suicide. We wished to determine whether these changes were more widespread and independent of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Mu receptor levels were determined using [3 H]DAMGO binding in BA24 from 51 control subjects; 38 people with schizophrenia (12 suicides; 20 people with major depressive disorder (15 suicides; 13 people with bipolar disorder (5 suicides and 9 people who had no history of psychiatric disorders but who died as a result of suicide. Mu receptor levels were further determined in BA9 and caudate-putamen from 38 people with schizophrenia and 20 control subjects using [3 H]DAMGO binding and, in all three regions, using Western blots. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison Test or, where data either didn’t approximate to a binomial distribution or the sample size was too small to determine distribution, a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Test. Results [3 H]DAMGO binding density was lower in people who had died as a result of suicide (p3 H]DAMGO binding densities, but not mu protein levels, were significantly decreased in BA9 from people with schizophrenia who died as a result of suicide (p Conclusions Overall these data suggest that mu opioid receptor availability is decreased in the brains of people with schizophrenia who died as a result of suicide, which would be consistent with increased levels of endogenous ligands occupying these receptors.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  1. Place of death in the population dying from diseases indicative of palliative care need: a cross-national population-level study in 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Morin, Lucas; Addington-Hall, Julia; Miccinesi, Guido; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Naylor, Wayne; Ruiz Ramos, Miguel; Van den Block, Lieve; Wilson, Donna M; Loucka, Martin; Csikos, Agnes; Rhee, Yong Joo; Teno, Joan; Deliens, Luc; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Studying where people die across countries can serve as an evidence base for health policy on end-of-life care. This study describes the place of death of people who died from diseases indicative of palliative care need in 14 countries, the association of place of death with cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability characteristics in each country and the extent to which these characteristics explain country differences in the place of death. Death certificate data for all deaths in 2008 (age ≥1 year) in Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain (Andalusia), the USA and Wales caused by cancer, heart/renal/liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diseases of the nervous system or HIV/AIDS were linked with national or regional healthcare statistics (N=2,220,997). 13% (Canada) to 53% (Mexico) of people died at home and 25% (the Netherlands) to 85% (South Korea) died in hospital. The strength and direction of associations between home death and cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability factors differed between countries. Differences between countries in home versus hospital death were only partly explained by differences in these factors. The large differences between countries in and beyond Europe in the place of death of people in potential need of palliative care are not entirely attributable to sociodemographic characteristics, cause of death or availability of healthcare resources, which suggests that countries' palliative and end-of-life care policies may influence where people die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Nina Degele: Gender/Queer Studies. München: UTB Fink 2008. — Franziska Schößler: Einführung in die Gender Studies. Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nina Degele und Franziska Schößler treiben mit ihren Einführungsbüchern in die Gender Studies beziehungsweise in die Gender/Queer Studies die Disziplinierung dieser neuen Wissensfelder voran. Ausgehend von ihren jeweiligen Herkunftsdisziplinen (Soziologie und Literaturwissenschaft legen sie übersichtliche Überblicke vor, die explizit für die Hochschullehre konzipiert sind. Beide Bücher leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Kanonisierung der Gender Studies als akademisches Fach, bleiben aber in ihrer Konzeption stark den Herkunftsdisziplinen ihrer Verfasserinnen verhaftet. Hier stößt die viel beschworene Interdisziplinarität der Gender Studies an ihre Grenzen.Nina Degele and Franziska Schößler promote the disciplinary establishment of new fields of knowledge with their introductory books in Gender Studies and Gender/Queer Studies. Using their individual home disciplines (sociology and literary studies as a starting point, they present clear overviews of these new fields of knowledge explicitly conceived for use in higher education. Both books contribute to the canonization of Gender Studies as an academic discipline, however they remain in their conception strongly attached to the home disciplines of their authors. It is here that the often-touted interdisciplinarity of Gender Studies reaches its limits.

  3. IN KRITIESE BESKOUING VAN INLEIDING TOT DIE SEMANTIEK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit laat twee interpretasie- moontlikhede oop: "later" kan of beteken "later in Syntactic Structures. (Chomsky 1957)", of "tussen Syntactic Structures en Katz en Fodor (1963) se The Structure of a Semantic Theory". Laasgenoemde werk is naamlik die eerste wat deur De Klerk as deel van die tweede periode, "die aanloop tot.

  4. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

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    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  5. The Angry Dying Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  6. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

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    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  7. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE JEUG IN VOORTREKKERTYDPERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dien. Die planke en velie moes keer dat die assegaaie die mense tref. Voor die geveg het die vrouens en groter dogters koeels gegiet. Tydens die geveg het die seuns gehelp skiet terwyl die vrouens en dogters die gewere vir die mans gelaai het. Van die dogters soos Nellie. Botha (11 jaar oud) en haar sussie Fya (15 jaar.

  8. Dogmatiek en Christelike Etiek binne die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their influence on the study of Dogmatics and Ethics in the Department. The article concludes with a vision for ... heid door systematische ordening' (Berkhof 1982:14) aan die een kant en om diens aan die kerklike verkondiging aan die ander kant gaan, sal bogenoemde twee sake beslis nie uit die cog verloor kan word nie.

  9. Die uitbouing van die Bybelse kanon in antieke Judaïsme en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... die oer-Christelike boodskap tot by sy Ou Testamentiese wortels, die geskrifte van Israel wat cum grano salis die 'Bybel' van die oer-Christendom geword het en die blywende verwysingspunt van die Christelike boodskap is. Erkenning. Hierdie artikel is vertaal na Afrikaans deur Prof. Jan G. van der Watt.

  10. Die opleiding van bedryfsielkundiges aan die universiteit van Fort Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Botha

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Departement Bedryfsielkunde aan die Universiteit van Fort Hare is 'n relatiewe jong departement en het eers in 1965 tot stand gekom. Voor hierdie datum is Bedryfsielkunde as 'n kort kursus deur die departement van suiwer Sielkunde aangebied en een van die destydse dosente, Dr. W. Backer, het die inisiatief geneem om 'n selfstandige departement van Bedryfsielkunde in die Fakulteit van Ekonomiese Wetenskappe op die been te bring.

  11. What fits best minor actinides as a die material?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinfray, J.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconolite might be the die material used to confine actinides definitively. Cea's teams have been investigating the ability of zirconolite to trap actinide atoms in its own crystal structure. These studies have been performed with 239 Pu that presents the same ability to set chemical links with the constituents of the die as 3 minor actinides do. Crystal materials like zirconolite are more sensitive to self irradiation than glass. The next step of the characterization of zirconolite is to evaluate its capacity to sustain self alpha irradiation. In order to do so, 238 Pu is used since its relatively short period (T = 87 years) allows an acceleration of the process : damages cumulated in the die material in 2 years will be equivalent to those produced by minor actinides for millions years. The results will be known in 2004. (A.C.)

  12. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in the perinatal period infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimura, T; Morisaki, N; Funayama, T

    1991-06-01

    We conducted clinical efficacy and safety tests of flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) in the perinatal infections and obtained the following results. 1. A total of 25 patients was treated: 16 patients with intrauterine infections, 2 patients with pelvioperitonitis, 4 patients with urinary tract infections and 3 patients with other infections. FMOX was injected at a daily dose of 2-4 g for 3-15 days (6-60 g for total dose) by intravenous drip infusion, intravenous injection or their combination. 2. The clinical efficacy rate was 96.0% of 25 patients: excellent in 4 cases (16.0%), good in 20 cases (80.0%) and poor in 1 case (4.0%). Bacteriological effects obtained were: eradicated in 14/16 cases (87.5%) replaced in 3 cases. 3. There were no subjective or objective side effects, nor were any abnormal laboratory test values attributable to the drug. From these findings, we consider that FMOX treatment appears to obtain good clinical and bacteriological responses and in safe in perinatal period infections.

  13. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  14. Oor die Bybel in die Afrikaanse digkuns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    another. As a matter of fact, the development of Afri kaans, the instrument of the poet, has been significantly influenced the Afrikaans translation of the Bible. Belie ... ook gesê het: Saam met ons literatuur, so oud as hy is. Die eerste Afrikaanse digter by wie ons omvattende Bybelse invloed kry, is. Totius, een van ons vroegste ...

  15. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mittel alters, bis er zur Ruhe kommt bei den kanonischen Schriften der. Urzeit der christlichen Ära (Barth ... (ego tamen dimoveri non possum ab amore compendii, CO 10, 403). Deur die boodskap van die .... Idem ergo spiritus qui per os prophetarum loquutus est, in corda nostra penetret necesse est, ut persuadeat fideliter ...

  16. KERKWEES IN DIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Theologica is an accredited South. African journal publishing ... SciELO South Africa. REDAKSIE/ ... 'n persoon belydenis van geloof af wat instemming met die betrokke kerk se ...... Ek was na my ongeluk buite aksie en op Clarens. 'n Mede-lid ...... Die “formation of new confessions, change to current confessions, and.

  17. Dying with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    S P Kalantri

    2003-01-01

    The concept of dignity has beeen one of the ambiguous concepts in biomedical ethics. Thus the ambiguous nature of this concept has been extended to what it means to die with dignity. This research work is an investigation into the complexity in the understanding of "dying with dignity" in Applied Ethics.

  18. The day Madiba died

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... shibien en ma is nie happy nie. Susan Gaigher se allegoriese fanta- sie- oftewel wetenskapsfiksieverhale. “Martine se teepot” (46–55) en “Maslow”. (56–67) is verfrissend. Gaigher is een van die min skrywers in die bundel wat 'n kenmerkende en oorspronklike stem laat klink. 'n Mens sal 'n Gaigher-verhaal.

  19. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  20. Mu opioid receptor availability in people with psychiatric disorders who died by suicide: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Money, Tammie Terese; Pavey, Geoffrey; Neo, Jaclyn; Dean, Brian

    2012-08-28

    Mu opioid receptors have previously been shown to be altered in people with affective disorders who died as a result of suicide. We wished to determine whether these changes were more widespread and independent of psychiatric diagnoses. Mu receptor levels were determined using [3 H]DAMGO binding in BA24 from 51 control subjects; 38 people with schizophrenia (12 suicides); 20 people with major depressive disorder (15 suicides); 13 people with bipolar disorder (5 suicides) and 9 people who had no history of psychiatric disorders but who died as a result of suicide. Mu receptor levels were further determined in BA9 and caudate-putamen from 38 people with schizophrenia and 20 control subjects using [3 H]DAMGO binding and, in all three regions, using Western blots. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test or, where data either didn't approximate to a binomial distribution or the sample size was too small to determine distribution, a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test. [3 H]DAMGO binding density was lower in people who had died as a result of suicide (pendogenous ligands occupying these receptors.

  1. Paradigmas en progressie in die teologie: *n Perspektief op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die metodologie as besinningsterrein word egter al belangriker. Gedurende die tweede week van April 1988 het teoloë van dwarsoor Suid-. Afrika by die nuwe gebou van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing in. Pretoria byeen gekom vir 'n kongres van amper drie dae met die tema Paradigma.'> 476. ISSN 0259 ...

  2. die korrelasie tussen die gemiddelde daaglikse toename van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Regressielyn is uit die gegewens bereken deur 'n beswaarde regressieanaliese en die 80 persent-voorspellings- bande is bepaal. Die punte wat ver buite die normale ver- spreidingsband geval hetkon almal met goeie rede as abnor- maal beskou word (sien tabel 1) en is nie ingesluit by die statistiese berekenings nie.

  3. amp' van die ouderling in die Nuwe Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesus self het geen kerk gestig nie en daarom, veral omdat die Jesus-beweging inter mums ten opsigte van die Joodse godsdiens van sy tyd tot stand gekom het, het ...... Die klem val dus nie op die npoTCTT0fievo<; se rang of outoriteit nie, maar op sy pastorale funksie in die huishouding of huisgemeente (kyk Reicke.

  4. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  5. Zukunftssicherung für die Zeit nach der Krise

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Karl-Friedrich; Wehner, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Die Studie berichtet zusammenfassend über die Ergebnisse der 9. HR-Expertenbefragung mit der Zeitschrift „Personalwirtschaft“ zum Thema „Employer Branding“. Berichtet wird über die Verbreitung des Employer Branding, die dabei verfolgten Ziele und die Instrumente, mit denen ein erfolgreiches Employer Branding realisiert werden kann. Eng damit verbunden sind ergänzende Fragen nach den Einflussfaktoren und den Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten der Arbeitgebermarke sowie nach den eingesetzten Methoden zur...

  6. Statues Also Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  7. Feasibility study for new ecolabels for the product group: Wood pellet firings. Final report; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B.

    2002-07-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  8. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  9. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-10-01

    Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974-2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia.

  10. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974–2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia. PMID:28398131

  11. Die toekoms en ons roeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Om te weet wat ons roeping in die toekoms sal wees, moet ons eers besef wat in ons eie tyd aan die gang is en langs watter lyne die dinge beweeg. Dit is ons plig om te let op die tekens van die tye in die lig van die profetiese Woord. En dan wil ons dadelik beklemtoon dat ons in Suid-Afrika nie in die waan moet lewe dat ons hier onbekommerd en onaangetas deur die wêreldgebeure ons roeping en bestemming kan uitwerk nie.

  12. A study on periodic safety verification on MOV performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Du Eon; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Jae Seob; Kang, Hyeon Taek; Lee, Jeong Min; Song, Kyu Jo; Shin, Wan Sun; Lee, Taek Sang [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objectives of this study, therefore, are to define the optimized valve diagnostic variances which early detect the abnormal conditions during the surveillance of the valve and consequently reduce the radiation exposure. The major direction of the development is to detect in advance the valve degradation by monitoring the motor current and power signals which can be obtained remotely at Motor Control Center (MCC). A series of valve operation experiments have been performed under several kinds of abnormal conditions by using the test apparatus which consists of a 3-inch gate valve, a motor(0.33 Hp, 460V, 0.8A, 1560rpm), actuator(SMB-000-2 type), some measuring devices(power analyzer, oscilloscope, data recorder and current transformer, AC current and voltage transducer) and connection cables.

  13. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  14. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

  15. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (De Vaux 1961:108). Was die begrafnis 'n familie of 'n kerklike aangeleentheid? Hierdie vraag word nie in die Bybel beantwoord nie. Abraham het sy vrou begrawe (Gen 23: 19-. 20). Isak en Ismael ..... ver gekom om die begrafnis 'n kerklike aangeleentheid te maak nie. Hierdie stap .... trou aan die sorg van God. * Die kerk ...

  16. Metodes in die Christelike etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic question in Christian ethics is not primarily. 'What should I do?' The basic question is rather ' ... should therefore be accepted as being part of the method used in Christian ethics. 1. INLEIDEND ..... aan die kant van die onderdrukte' verkondig word, word die Christen opgeroep om horn te skaar aan die kant van die ...

  17. Multicultural Benefits and Challenges for International Students During Period of Their Study: Case Study in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Bin Basri, Baharak Talebloo

    2015-01-01

    Current researches on internationalization claim €œstudying overseas€ as a set of potential that assist the augmentation of €œglobalization€. This article presents the Multicultural Benefits and challenges for International Students during Period of their Study in university Putra Malaysia. Qualitative method and convenience sampling was applied. Semi-structured interview and in depth interviews were conducted on 20 postgraduate students from various fields of study. The result of study sho...

  18. Die teologiese skool in die P.U.K vir C.H.O.: met die betekenis van die teologiese skool vir die Christelike wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Postma

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Teologiese Skool van die Gereformeerde Kerk gedink op 29 November 1944 sy vyf-en-sewentigjarige bestaan.Die Raad en Senaat van die P.U.K. vir C.H.O. wil ook langs hierdie weg die Teologiese Skool van harte gelukwens en die versekering gee dat daar by die outoriteite van die P.U.K. ’n diepgevoelde dankbaarheid heers dat hierdie inrigting sovele jare deur onse God en Vader gedra en gespaar is.

  19. Die Frage nach Gerechtigkeit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jäggle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: In the first part six stages in the author’s path of life are described, which have influenced his engagement with justice. The second part gives an insight into his religious educational work, in which the issue of justice was especially significant on the example of ‘religion in the context of migration’ and of the ecumenic initiative ‘lebens.werte.schule’ (school worth living. The vision of the Kingdom of God and the necessity of participation become apparent. DEUTSCH: Im ersten Teil werden sechs Stationen am Lebensweg des Autors beschrieben, die seine Auseinandersetzung mit Gerechtigkeit geprägt haben. Der zweite Teil gibt Einblick in seine religionspädagogische Arbeit, in der die Frage nach Gerechtigkeit besonders bedeutsam war am Beispiel ‚Religion im Kontext Migration‘ und der ökumenischen Initiative ‚lebens.werte.schule‘. Die Vision vom Reich Gottes und die Notwendigkeit von Partizipation werden dabei deutlich.

  20. Die EG-Kabotageverordnung

    OpenAIRE

    Basedow, Jürgen

    1990-01-01

    Die EG-Kabotageverordnung : e. Schritt zur Verwirklichung d. Dienstleistungsfreiheit im Straßengüterverkehr / Jürgen Basedow ; Ansgar Held. - In: Europäische Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht. 1. 1990. S. 305-308

  1. Die Bibliothek des Bezirksmuseums Josefstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ettl

    2015-01-01

    Josefstadt in Wien werden die Herkunft der Bibliotheksbestände und die beengte Raumsituation beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Erfassung der Medien mittels der Bibliothekssoftware „Biblioweb“ eingegangen.

  2. Die Freunde im und die Freude am Fernsehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Ovcina Cajacob

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht darin, die Wirkungen von Popstars und Popbands auf Jugendliche (13- bis 17-Jährige zu erforschen. Im Mittelpunkt der Interessen steht die Frage, welche Wirkungen aus der Rezeption von Musiksendungen (bzw. Videoclips von Musiksendern entstehen und welche Charakteristika innerhalb der aufgebauten Beziehungen zu den Stars bemerkbar sind. Andererseits wurden die Unterschiede und Parallelen zwischen parasozialen Beziehungen zu den Stars und orthosozialen Beziehungen aufgezeigt. Im Zusammenhang mit der empirischen Untersuchung bezieht sich die Autorin auf den Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach, wobei die bedürfnissbefriedigenden Wirkungen von Musikkanälen und den dazu gehörigen Popstars im Mittelpunkt stehen. Mit Hilfe des Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach wird angenommen, dass das Konsumieren der Musiksendungen und der Musikstars von den Jugendlichen gezielt zur Befriedigung bestimmter Bedürfnisse eingesetzt wird.The objective of this study is to explore the effects of pop stars on adolescents (aged between 13 and 17. The focus of interest is the question what effect music channels (i.e. video clips from music channels produce and what characteristics are noticeable from the formed relationship between adolescents and pop stars. On the other side, parallels and differences have been drawn between the para-social relationships to pop stars and ortho-social relationships. In connection with empirical study, the author also refers to Uses-and Gratification-Approach where the need satisfying effects of music channels and pop stars are in focus. With the help of Uses-and Gratification-Approach it will be assumed, that aim of watching music channels and therefore pop stars will be pointed toward the gratification of specific needs.

  3. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  4. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  5. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type 1) within the product group: wood pellet heating systems; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  6. Die invloed van gesondheidsopvoeding op die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by leerders in ’n skistosoom - endemiese gebied in die Limpopoprovinsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Wolmarans

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie studie is geselekteerde direkte en indirekte onderrigmetodes geëvalueer ten opsigte vanhulle potensiaal om die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by skoolgaande kinders, woonagtigin ’n landelike omgewing in ’n skistosoom-endemiese gebied, te verlaag. Twee direkte (poppekas enblaaibord en drie indirekte (plakkaat, kennisgewingbord en onderrig via ouers of voogdeonderrigmetodes is geëvalueer.Skistosoombesmette leerders is met behulp van parasitologiese metodes geïdentifiseer en aan ’nvraelys in hul moerdertaal onderwerp om onder andere op hoogte van hulle kennis ten opsigte vanskistosomose te kom en te bepaal hoe die infrastruktuur tot hulle beskikking wat water en sanitasiebetref, daar uitsien. Leerders is met behulp van plaaslike gesondheidspersoneel vir die siekte behandelen daarna op verskeie geleenthede in samewerking met plaaslike onderwysers aan die verskillendeonderrigmetodes blootgestel.’n Aansienlike toename in die leerders se kennis aangaande skistosomose is reeds na die tweedeonderrigsessie waargeneem. Ten spyte van die feit dat die leerders in ’n skistosoom-endemiesegebied woonagtig was, het slegs 2% die siekte met ’n natuurlike waterhabitat soos ’n rivier geassosieer.Daar is verder gevind dat relevante amptelike strukture soos klinieke, geneeshere en skole byna geenrol speel in die verskaffing van inligting van wat die siekte behels en hoe dit oorgedra word nie.Betekenisvolle afnames in die kumulatiewe prevalensie van besmetting het by al die groepe, wat aandie onderskeie onderrigmetodes blootgestel was gedurende die ondersoek, voorgekom, wanneer ditmet die kontrolewaarde waar die leerders geen onderrig ontvang het nie, vergelyk is. Statistiesevergelykings tussen die verskillende onderrigmetodes het getoon dat die poppekas, blaaibord enplakkaat die effektiefste was om die prevalensie te verlaag, terwyl die gebruik van ouers of voogdedie minste effektief was. Alhoewel die kumulatiewe prevalensie van

  7. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  8. Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En dis 'n klein treetjie van klagte na aanklag en na protes teen die gode, die heersers wat die mens vernietig deur hom oor sy ware lewe te bedrieg. Die ideologie eis dan ook dienooreenkomstig die bevryding en emansipasie van die mens van die gode en van God (1983: 118—119). Volgens die Jahwis is dit die slang wat, ...

  9. Pyramids and Prejudice: A Study of Cultural Discrimination in Lauretta Ngcobo’s And they didn’t die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia I. Akh uemokhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A South African classic, Lauretta Ngcobo’s novel, And they didn’t die, explores the nexus of hegemony, culture, and transformation under apartheid rule. Edward Said’s thesis on the hierarchy of culture provides the conceptual framework for an analysis of politico-cultural agency in Ngcobo’s novel. Three characters in the narrative—Siyalo, Jezile, and Lungu—are used to comment on the cultural dynamics inherent in three different but interlocking sites: the nine-to-five working environment, rural Bantu culture, and the ambiguous location of “African Whiteness.” The paper establishes that the life of each character betrays culture’s negative discriminating power and the amplification of negativity by State policy

  10. Wie is die goeie Samaritane? Eienskappe van vrywilligers in Suid-Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Krugell, Waldo

    2010-01-01

    Mense wat vrywillig en sonder betaling hul arbeid aanbied vir die produksie van goedere en dienste waaruit ander voordeel trek, speel 'n belangrike rol in die ekonomie en gemeenskap. As vrywilligers beter verstaan word, kan hul kragte dalk beter gemobiliseer word. Die vraag is dus: Wie is die goeie Samaritane? Hierdie studie ondersoek die eienskappe van vrywilligers in Suid-Afrika met behulp van data uit die Arbeidsmagopname van September 2007. Die resultate toon dat vrywilligers in Suid-Afri...

  11. High mortality among children with gastroschisis after the neonatal period: A long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risby, Kirsten; Husby, Steffen; Qvist, Niels; Jakobsen, Marianne S

    2017-03-01

    During the last decades neonatal outcomes for children born with gastroschisis have improved significantly. Survival rates >90% have been reported. Early prenatal diagnosis and increased survival enforce the need for valid data for long-term outcome in the pre- and postnatal counseling of parents with a child with gastroschisis. Long-term follow-up on all newborns with gastroschisis at Odense University Hospital (OUH) from January 1 1997-December 31 2009. Follow-up included neonatal chart review for neonatal background factors, including whether a GORE ® DUALMESH was used for staged closure, electronic questionnaires, interview and laboratory investigations. Cases were divided into complex and simple cases according to the definition by Molik et al. (2001). Survival status was determined by the national personal identification number registry. Because of the consistency of the registration, survival status was obtained from all children participating in the study. A total of 71 infants (7 complex and 64 simple) were included. Overall seven out of the 71 children (9.9%, median age: 52days (25-75% percentile 0-978days) had died at the time of follow-up. Three died during the neonatal period and four died after the neonatal period. Parenteral nutrition (PN) induced liver failure and suspected adhesive small bowel obstruction were the causes of deaths after the neonatal period. Overall mortality was high in the "complex" group compared to the simple group (3/7 (42.9%) vs 4/64 (6.3%), p = 0.04). Forty (62.5%) of the surviving children consented to participate in the follow-up. A total of 12 children had had suspected adhesive small bowel obstruction. Prevalence of small bowel obstruction was not related to the number of operations needed for neonatal closure of the defect. Staged closure was done in 5/12 (41.7%) who developed small bowel obstruction vs 11/35 (31.43%) without small bowel obstruction, p=0.518. A GORE ® DUALMESH was used in 16 children (22.5%). Of these

  12. Die benutting van vraelyste met die oog op meer effektiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    effektiewe stresbeheer as een van die temas te hanteer. Op grond van die navorsing deur onder andere Lawson (1985) en Taylor (1999) sou ek graag die proses van differensiasie2 ook by genoemde lys voeg as tema vir bespreking tydens huweliksvoorbereiding. 2 Differensiasie kan beskryf word as die losmaakproses ...

  13. die aard van wetgewende diskresies by die suid-afrikaanse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In enige moderne demokrasie is daar een of ander vorm van skeiding van magte tussen die wetgewende, uitvoerende en regsprekende gesag. Hierdie skeiding van magte, die sogenaamde trias politica, kan sover teruggevoer word as 1215, met die ondertekening van die Magna Carta deur Koning John van Engeland.

  14. die doeltreffendheid van die afrikaanse woordelys en spelreels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sluiting by die reel vir die verdubbeling van medeklinkers na 'n kort, be- klemtoonde klinker, woorde soos ballet, ballon, terras, terrein, dissipel en dissipline slegs met een konsonant na die eerste vokaal gespel moes word, omdat daardie voorafgaande vokaal onbeklemtoon is. Ook hierdie uit- sondering op die reel word ...

  15. Die aanspraak op Goddelike steun in 'n konfliksituasie volgens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laws, and ethical or political principles. A synchronic investigation of relevant Old ... die toneel gebring met die vraag: 'aan wie se kant is God' (vgl bv The road to. Damascus 1979:6)? Volgens .... betrekking tot die Ou Testament: Hoe moet ons vasstel wie se kant God nou regtig kies, of wie veg aan die kant van God en wie ...

  16. Die evaluering van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus met behulp van die posmandjie-tegniek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. de Jager

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a management training course by using the in-basket technique. A management training course was evaluated for effectiveness by using two specially compiled in-basket exercises equivalent in complexity. Outcome evaluation was performed so as to determine whether learning transfer took place, ie., whether management skills in the application of planning, organising and control manifest in the work context afterwards. Significant differences were found between the experimental and the control group and were investigated by means of the "Univariate procedure". This management training course could effectively be measured with the behaviour assessment approach using two groups, where only the one group was exposed to a management training course to assess whether management behaviour changed as a result of learning transfer. This study utilises the in-basket technique as an instrument for training course evaluation. Opsomming Die effektiwiteit van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus is geevalueer aan die hand van gedragverandering soos gemeet deur twee posmandjies van dieselfde moeilikheidsgraad. Uitkomsevaluering is gedoen om te bepaal of leeroordrag plaasgevind het, met ander woorde/ of the nuut aangeleerde bestuursvaardighede in die toepassing van die bestuursdimensies beplanning, organisering en beheer wel na die tyd in die konteks van werkgedrag manifesteer. Beduidende verskille tussen die eksperimentele en die kontrole groep is gevind. Dit is ondersoek met behulp van enkelveranderiike-variansie-ontleding. Die bestuursopleidingskursus kon effektief vanuit die gedragbeoordelingsbcnadering gemeet word by twee groepe, waar slegs die een groep aan 'n bestuursopleidingskursus blootgestel word om te kon bepaal of bestuursgedrag verander het. Die studie benut die posmandjie-tegniek as kursusevalueringsinstmment.

  17. Die verband tussen waargenome leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van der Heyde

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context remains a contemporary theme in the work environment and seemingly has a substantial influence on organisational success. This study attempted to ascertain the relationship between leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context. Two hundred and thirty (N=230 individuals, grouped into 56 teams from four South African companies participated in the study. The superordinate’s leadership style as well as the level of outonomy in the specific group was measured. Apart from the useful information obtained in comparison with international research, especially in terms of leadership data, the study did conclusively point out a significant correlation between leadership style and autonomy in team context. Opsomming Leierskap en selfgerigte spanfunksionering bly kontemporêre temas in die bedryfsmilieu, wat oënskynlik organisasiesukses wesenlik kan beïnvloed. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die waargenome verband tussen leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband te bepaal. Tweehondered-en-dertig (N=230 individue, gegroepeer in 56 spanne vanuit vier Suid-Afrikaanse maatksappye het aan die studie deelgeneem. ‘n Meting van sowel die bogeskikte se leierskapstyl en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband is verkry. Afgesien van bruikbare inligting rondom veral die leierskapdata in vergelyking met internasionale navorsing, het die studie ‘n beduidende verband tussen leierskapstyl en outonomie binne spanverband uitgewys.

  18. Die design and process optimization of die cast V6 engine blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum, particularly for engine blocks, has grown considerably in the past ten years, and continues to rise in the automotive industry. In order to enhance the quality and engineering functionality of die cast engine blocks, die design and processes have to be optimized. In this study, a computer simulation software, MAGMAsoft, as an advanced tool for optimizing die design and casting process, was emplooyed to virtually visualize cavity filling and patterns of a V6 engine block. The original die design and process was simulated first to establish a baseline. A reality check was used to verify the predicted results. Then, the die modification with a different unner system was made by using a CAD software, Unigraphics (UG. The simulation on combinations of the modified die design and revised process was performed to examine the effect of die modification and process change on flow filling of V6 engine blocks. The simulated prediction indicateds that the enhancement of cavity filling due to the die and process modification minimizeds the occurrence of defects during casting, and consequently improves the quality of blocks. The results of mechanical testing show a significant increase in fatigue strengths, and a moderately improvement on tensile properties for the blocks die cast with the new die design and prpocess in comparison with those produced by the original ones.

  19. Comparison Re-invented: Adaptation of Universal Methods to African Studies (Conference Report Die Wiederentdeckung des Vergleichs: Zur Anwendung universeller Methoden in der Afrikaforschung (Konferenzbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzisca Zanker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a combination of specific, empirical research projects with different theoretical backgrounds, a workshop discussed one methodological aspect often somewhat overlooked in African Studies: comparison. Participants addressed several questions, along with presenting overviews of how different disciplines within African Studies approach comparison in their research and naming specific challenges within individual research projects. The questions examined included: Why is explicit comparative research so rare in African Studies? Is comparative research more difficult in the African context than in other regions? Does it benefit our research? Should scholars strive to generalise beyond individual cases? Do studies in our field require an explicit comparative design, or will implicit comparison suffice? Cross-discipline communication should help us to move forward in this methodological debate, though in the end the subject matter and specific research question will lead to the appropriate comparative approach, not the other way round.Mit Blick auf einige empirische Forschungsprojekte mit jeweils unterschiedlichem theoretischem Hintergrund wurde im Rahmen eines Workshops ein methodologischer Aspekt debattiert, der in der Afrikaforschung wenig Beachtung erfährt: der Vergleich. Die Teilnehmer(innen entwickelten Fragestellungen, stellten jeweils dar, inwieweit in den verschiedene Disziplinen der Afrikaforschung der Vergleich als Methode eingesetzt wird, und benannten spezifische Herausforderungen in diesem Zusammenhang für einzelne Forschungsprojekte. Unter anderem wurden folgende Fragen erörtert: Warum ist die explizit vergleichende Methode in der Afrikaforschung so selten? Ist vergleichende Forschung im Kontext Afrikas schwieriger anwendbar als in der Forschung zu anderen Regionen? Verbessert sie unsere Forschungsresultate? Sollten sich Forscher um Generalisierungen jenseits der Einzelfallstudien bemühen? Ist in der Afrikaforschung eine

  20. Awareness of Dying Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently The New York Times reported: “VERY ILL CHILDREN TOLD OF DISEASE; Leukemia Patients at N.I.H. Not Shielded From Truth. . . . A child should always be told the truth, even when he has an incurable disease such as leukemia, according to two researchers who interviewed 51 children hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, for treat¬ment of leukemia.” This kind of news item reflects the growing concern among researchers and public about matters which touch on morality as much as on the technical aspects of medi¬cine. The rapidly increasing proportion of elderly people in the American population presents a range of personal and social questions; not the least is how they view their newly won longevity (often including anticipated years of chronic disease as well as their attitudes toward death. In consequence, many geriatric specialists are beginning to study American attitudes toward death, while others, spurred on by what seems a sense-less prolonging of life within hospital walls by medical tech¬nology run wild, are raising questions about death and dying in American life.

  1. Die huwelik as identiteitsmerker in die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Gen 2:18). Uit die woorde van Genesis 2:24 dat man en vrou een sal wees, lei die derde formulier af dat dit “getuig dat die huwelik 'n allesinsluitende gemeenskap is ..... die formule gebruik word: “Hier volg die vertelling oor X se nageslag.” (Gen ..... verwys daarna as “intertwining the principal value concepts of tradition”.

  2. Die doeltreffendheid van talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Ann P. Gainsford

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oriëntasie: Die identifisering, behoud en ontwikkeling van talent moet doeltreffend bestuur word. Navorsingsdoelwit: Die studie het ten doel om die doeltreffendheid van bestaande talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies in die finansiële, vervoer- en mynbousektore te evalueer.Motivering vir die studie: Streng wetgewing (soos regstellende aksie en die swak ekonomiese situasie in Suid-Afrika veroorsaak dat goeie presteerders as baie waardevol beskou word en behou moet word. Indien organisasies nie oor ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram beskik nie, sal hulle waarskynlik talentvolle werknemers verloor.Navorsingsontwerp, -benadering en -metode: Hierdie studie maak van ’n kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp gebruik. Deur middel van toevallige steekproefneming is 117 werknemers in die onderskeie sektore ingesluit. Die ANOVA-toets en Tukey se paarsgewyse vergelykingstegniek is aangewend om die verskille tussen die drie sektore te bepaal.Resultate: Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat die organisasies wat aan die studie deelgeneem het grootliks al die noodsaaklike komponente in die talentbestuursprogramme insluit. Die uitsondering is egter talentbestuursagteware, wat oor die algemeen nie in die talentbestuursprogramme ingesluit is nie. Verdere resultate dui daarop dat die oorgrote meerderheid van die respondente nie baie tevrede is met die komponente van die talentbestuursprogramme in hul organisasies nie. Die respondente van die mynbousektor het die laagste tevredenheidsvlakke ten opsigte van die talentbestuursprogram getoon. Die resultate dui verder daarop dat die finansiële sektor se talentbestuursprogram meer doeltreffend as dié van die mynbousektor is.Praktiese/bestuursimplikasies: ’n Omvattende lys van komponente van ’n talentbestuursprogram is ontwikkel om organisasies te ondersteun in die ontwerp en implementering van ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram.Bydrae/waardetoevoeging: Die resultate van

  3. Narratiwiteit en die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDING. Die literêre benadering tot die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe word algemeen as 'n alternatiewe paradigma in die Bybelwetenskappe aanvaar. Oor die filosofiese uit- gangspunte wat hierdie nuwe paradigma ten grondslag lê, bestaan daar egter nog weinig eenstemmigheid. Heelwat probleme van filosofiese en ...

  4. Eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teurlinckx

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Nooit sou die Franse jeug — en die van Europa en verder — in dié mate deur die eksistensialisme be'invloed gewees het nie, indien hierdie filosofie in wysgerige traktate sou begrawe gelê het. Die eksistensialiste het die koning van die filosofiese verhaal, Voltaire, met sukses op sy Candide- en Zadig-pad gevolg en hulle teorieë in letterkundige werke, ver- hale, romans en ook toneelstukke kwytgeraak, wat baie gelees is en waaruit ook ander literatore kragte en inspirasie geput het. Omrede daarvan is daar inderdaad baie eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde, maar ’n eintlike eksistensialistiese letterkunde was daar nie, en ’n Eksistensialistiese Letterkun­ dige skool het nooit bestaan nie. Ook sit hierdie eksistensialiste nie langs dieselfde vuur nie. Die Christelike eksistensialis Gabriel Marcel het op 21 April van hierdie jaar uitgevaar teen die „Sartriane” na aanleiding van die opvoering van Les Paravents, Die W indskerms van Jean Genêt in ’n Paryse staatsondersteunde teater. „Mens mag seker wees”, skryf Marcel in Les Nouvelles Littéraires, „dat die hele sartriaanse parogie sal skreeu: groot meesterwerk”. Voortgaande op sy distansiëring kan die literêre eksistensialiste in drie groepe ingedeel word: 1. Die Sartriane; 2. Die Christelike Eksistensialiste; 3. Die Onafhanklikes.

  5. Verslaggewing oor volhoubaarheid in die mynbousektor: die identifisering van kritieke aan geleenthede

    OpenAIRE

    Viviers, S; Boudler, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Hierdie studie ondersoek tendense in die volhoubaarheidsverslaggewing deur vyf prominente mynmaatskappye wat op die JSE genoteer is. Die 2005-, 2006-, 2007- en 2008- jaar- en volhoubaarheidsverslae van hierdie maatskappye is ontleed deur middel van inhoudsanalise. Sleutelwoorde wat verband hou met ekonomiese bemagtiging, MIV/VIGS, ander gesondheid- en veiligheidsaangeleenthede en omgewingsimpak sowel as opleiding en onderwys, is getel. Hierdie aangeleenthede is ook gekategoriseer in terme van...

  6. Gaining consensus on family carer needs when caring for someone dying at home to develop the Carers' Alert Thermometer (CAT): a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, Katherine; O'Brien, Mary R; Roe, Brenda; Gandy, Rob; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Nolan, Mike; Jack, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    To report a multi-phase modified Delphi study conducted with carers and professionals to identify the priority areas for inclusion in an alert screening tool for carers providing support to someone dying at home. Internationally, there is a growing emphasis on increasing choice for patients who wish to die at home which relies heavily on care provided by the unpaid family carers. Family carers can have high levels of unmet needs comprising their psychological and physical health and their ability to provide effective care and support. Development of an alert tool to identify carers' needs in everyday practice required identification and consensus of the priority areas of need for inclusion. Multi-phase modified Delphi study and instrument development. Qualitative and quantitative data collection took place between 2011-2013 with 111 carers and 93 professionals to identify carers' needs and gain consensus on the priority areas for inclusion in the alert tool. An expert panel stage and final evidence review post-Delphi were used. The Delphi panels had high levels of agreement and consensus. Ten areas of carer need across two themes of 'the current caring situation' and 'the carer's own health and well-being' were prioritized for inclusion in the alert tool. An optional end-of-life planning question was included following the final stages. The results provide evidence of carers' needs to be assessed, areas for consideration in the education of those who support carers and someone dying at home and targeting of services, while demonstrating the usefulness and adaptability of the Delphi method. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  8. Study on the Surface Microstructure of a Modified STD61 Steel Mold Used for the Die Casting Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kang, Minwoo; Lee, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Kook [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Jon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Suk; Kim, Byung-Hoon [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The surface microstructure and crack formation of an aluminum die-casting mold were investigated. The mold was made of a modified STD61 steel, and was used for more than 165,000 cycles. The mold surface consisted of four layers; an oxidized layer, a decarburized layer, a network carbide layer and a tempered martensite matrix. The depth down to the hardest network carbide layer was ⁓200 μm. Inside the matrix, M{sub 3}C transition carbides were dissolved so that solute C joined pre-existing M{sub 2}3C{sub 6} and MC carbides to make them coarse. About 60% of thermal fatigue cracks had a depth less than 200 μm due to the hard network carbide layer, which obstructed the propagation of cracks. Cracks of over 200 μm were filled with oxide wedges of Al and Si which was which flown from the molten alloy as well as the Fe oxide.

  9. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  10. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline-(4-phenylphenoxyaluminum, originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  11. Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene

    2009-07-01

    most older people living in nursing homes die there. An empirically based model of dignity has been developed, which forms the basis of a brief psychotherapy to help promote dignity and reduce distress at the end of life. to explore the generalisability of the dignity model to older people in nursing homes. qualitative interviews were used to explore views on maintaining dignity of 18 residents of nursing homes. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. The analysis was both deductive (arising from the dignity model) and inductive (arising from participants' views). the main categories of the dignity model were broadly supported: illness-related concerns, social aspects of the illness experience and dignity conserving repertoire. However, subthemes relating to death were not supported and two new themes emerged. Some residents saw their symptoms and loss of function as due to old age rather than illness. Although residents did not appear to experience distress due to thoughts of impending death, they were distressed by the multiple losses they had experienced. these findings add to our understanding of the concerns of older people in care homes on maintaining dignity and suggest that dignity therapy may bolster their sense of dignity.

  12. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raupp@kit.edu; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm [Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hummel, Helga [Philips Technologie GmbH Innovative Technologies, Aachen (Germany); Bruns, Michael [Institute for Applied Materials and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  13. Die afrikaner en sy pers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Scholtz

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die versoek w at van u inrigting tot my gekom het om buitengewone professor in die Persw etenskap te word, was vir my deels vererend, m aar deels het dit my in 'n moeilike posisie gestel. Dit was vir my vererend, om dat dit gekom het van 'n universiteit m et wie se Christelik- Nasionale koers ek my ten voile kan vereenselwig. Dit was dan ook vir my vererend, om dat ek daardeur in staat gestel kan w ord om die volk w aartoe ek behoort, op 'n vir my nuwe terrein te dien. As sodanig is dit vir my im m ers m oontlik om ook ’n beskeie bydrae te lewer tot die geestelike vorm ing van die jeug van ons volk. Dit het my m oeilik geval om, w aar ek reeds die m iddeljarige leeftyd bereik het, nou vir die eerste maal as dosent op te tree, aangesien ek daarvan in die verlede nie die m inste kennis en ervaring opgedoen het nie. As joernalis rig ek my im m ers tot die breë publiek deur middel van die pen. As dosent m oet ek my deur middel van die mond tot die studente rig. Dit lê voor die hand dat die eise w at so aan my gestel word, totaal anders is as dié waar- aan ek oor 'n tydperk van m eer as 'n kw arteeu as joer­ nalis gewoond geraak het.

  14. Die vestiging van die Kerk in Natal, die Vrystaat en Transvaal na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as eerste predikant van die Voortrekkers laat orden en bevestig. Daama het verskeie kerksake van tyd tot tyd aandag geniet. Met betrekking tot die bevestiging van huwelike stel Retief 'n meer ordelike reëling daar, naamlik dat die gebooie van voomemende egpa- re van nou af drie maal in die kerk afgekondig moes wrord ...

  15. 'n Ondersoek na die potensiaal-bepaling van werknemers in die landbousektor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into determining the potential of workers in the agricultural sector. Industrial Psychological principles and concepts are not being applied extensively in the agricultural sector. Against this background an attempt was made to scientifically identify potential and predict job performance amongst farm labourers. Using the PAQ method of job analysis, critical attributes were identified and a satisfactorily valid battery of tests was developed. The results of this study underlines the importance of the identification of the potential of farm labourers as a first step in the personnel management process. It also serves as a source of information that could be used by farmers for counselling purposes. Opsomming Wat die toepassing van Bedryfsielkundige beginsels en konsepte betref bestaan daar in die landboubedryf nog groot leemtes. Teen hierdie agtergrond is 'n poging aangewend om op 'n wetenskaplike wyse die potensiaal van plaasarbeiders te bepaal. Deur middel van die WOV-metode van posontleding is kritieke attribute by workers geidentifiseer en kon 'n toetsbattery met aanvaarbare geldigheid saamgestel word. Die resultate van die studie bevestig dat die identifisering van die potensiaal van plaaswerkers 'n noodsaaklike eerste stap in die personeelbestuursproses is. Dit kan ook met groot vrug as voorligtingshulpmiddel deur boere gebruik word.

  16. Kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruikshindernisse ten opsigte van die riglyne vir die ontwikkeling en validering van personeelkeuringsprosedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boolsen

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures: knowledge, usage and obstacles. Selection is a key human resources function in any organization. Expected changes in South African Labour Law combined with the importance of advancing organizational efficiency lead in 1992 to the publication of the Guidelines on the Development and Validation of Personnel Selection Procedures. The study in question is aimed at a description of the current knowledge base, usage patterns and usage obstacles vis-a-vis the Guidelines of a specific group of human resource specialists in South Africa. Recommendation based on the research findings are made. Opsomming Keuring is 'n sleutel menslike hulpbronbestuursfunksie in enige onderneming. Verwagte veranderinge in Suid-Afrikaanse Arbeidswetgewing en die noodsaaklikheid van die bevordering van organisatoriese doeltreffendheid lei in 1992 tot die publikasie van die Riglyne vir die Ontwikkeling en Validering van Personeelkeuringsprosedures. Die onderhawige studie is gerig op 'n beskrywing van die heersende kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruiks- hindernisse vis-a-vis die Riglyne by 'n spesifieke groep menslike hulpbronkundiges in Suid-Afrika. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  17. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  18. When Somebody Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle became useless. The container is gone, but what's inside — the water — remains. The part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part ...

  19. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  20. Modelle in die onderrig van fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. Smit

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Die rol van modelle in die onderrig van fisika is sedert die vroeë tagtigerjare erken. In die onderrig word die absent op die kwantitaiewe aspekte van die vak geplaas, terwyl die kwatitatiewe aspekte min aandag kry.

  1. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... stelling van 'n higiene afdeling het in 'n belang- rike behoefte voorsien. Die pligte van die SAGO het dus op hierdie stadium die ondersoek van soldate, die sanita- sie van kampe, die verpleging van pasiente in militere hospitale en die opleiding van lede be- hels. 'n Hoogtepunt was die opening van die.

  2. The impact of the social and physical environments on parent-healthcare provider relationships when a child dies in PICU: Findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen

    2017-12-30

    This study explores the influences of the paediatric intensive care environment on relationships between parents and healthcare providers when children are dying. It forms part of a larger study, investigating parental experiences of the death of their child in intensive care. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six bereaved parents. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and memoing techniques common to grounded theory. The physical and social environment of the intensive care unit influenced the quality of the parent-healthcare provider relationship. When a welcoming, open environment existed, parents tended to feel respected as equal and included members of their child's care team. In contrast, environments that restricted parental presence or lacked resources for parental self-care could leave parents feeling like 'watchers', excluded from their child's care. The paediatric intensive care unit environment either welcomes and includes parents of dying children into the care team, or demotes them to the status of 'watcher'. Such environments significantly influence the relationships parents form with healthcare staff, their ability to engage in elements of their parental role, and their experiences as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Die transvaalse ontwerp-ordonnansie oor die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available In ’n Buitengewone Provinsiale Koerant van die Provinsie Transvaal is onder datum 25 Junie 1952 gepubliseer ’n „Ontwerp-Ordonnansie tot samevatting en wysiging van die Wette betreffende die Sentrale Beheer van die Onderwys, die Plaaslike Beheer van Skole, Godsdiensonderrig in Openbare Skole, Taal en die Onderwys, Onderwyspersoneel, Verpligte Onderwys, Toelating van Leerlinge tot Skole, Klasse of Inrigtings, Openbare Onderwys, Private Skole, Onderwys vir Kleurlinge en Asiate en Onderwys vir Naturelle, en om vir sake in verband daarmee voorsiening te maak” .

  4. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v a k t a a l k w a l i £ i k a s i e s ) neem d i e I n s t i t u t t a l l e take waar ter u i t b r e i d i n g van kennis van die Duitse taal in die buiteland. Sedert 1964 publiseer die. Institut die tydskrif Deutsch als Fremdsprache met die bylae Sprachpraxis, asook 'n handboek met die titel Deutsch - eln Lehrbuch Eur Auslander (Duits.

  5. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying.

  6. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied

  7. Reflections on Teaching Periodic Table Concepts: A Case Study of Selected Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, Hamza Omari

    2017-01-01

    The Periodic Table of Elements is central to the study of modern Physics and Chemistry. It is however, considered by teachers as difficult to teach. This paper reports on a case study exploring reflections on teaching periodic table concepts in five secondary schools from South Africa. Qualitative methodology of interviews and document analysis…

  8. Patient Survival Periods and Death Causes Following Surgical Treatment of Mammary Gland Tumours Depending on Histological Type of Tumour: Retrospective Study of 221 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lorenzová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study evaluated a canine patient group operated on for mammary neoplasms (221 females. After surgical treatment, the animals were divided based on histological findings into groups and subgroups according to the WHO system. In the individual groups and subgroups the length of their survival following a mammary tumour surgery and death causes were followed. Of their total number, 164 tumours were malignant, 39 were benign and 18 were mammary hyperplasias. With regard to malignant tumours, invasive tubular carcinoma (20.81% was identified most frequently; fibroadenoma reached the highest occurrence (10.41% as regards benign tumours. The length of survival in females with malignant tumours ranged from 12 to 37.4 months, depending on histological subtypes. In females with benign mammary neoplasms the length of survival ranged from 39.1 to 59.3 months and in animals with hyperplasia it was 50.2 months. As a result of mammary tumour, 41 females (25% died in the malignant tumour group, none died in the benign tumour group and 2 females (11.1% died in the hyperplasia group. The survival periods in surgically treated patients with mammary tumours were shorter for solid and complex carcinomas, compared to patients affected with the remainder of the histological subtypes. The longest survival period following operation was recorded in the group suffering from adenoma. The least favourable illness prognosis for patients with mammary tumours in respect to linking the death cause to the mammary tumour was for those having invasive papillary carcinoma. The most favourable illness prognosis was for patients with benign tumours and non-invasive tubular carcinoma. A frequent death cause in females with mammary tumours was another illness unrelated to mammary tumours.

  9. Die verband tussen werkbetrokkenheid en werkprestasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Bleeker

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between work involvement and work performance. The primary goal of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the work involvement scores and work performance ratings of employees. A secondary goal was to determine whether work involvement could predict future work performance. The ‘‘Alienation-Involvement Scale’’ together with the ‘‘Comprehensive Structured Interviewing for Potential’’, were applied to a sample of convenience of 200 employees in job levels of workers, teamleaders and managers in a large manufacturing organisation. Opsomming Die primere doel van die studie was om vas te stel of daar ’n verband bestaan tussen die werkbetrokkenheidtellings en die werkprestasie-beoordelings van werkers.’n Sekondere oogmerk was om te bepaal of werkbetrokkenheid toekomstige werkprestasie kan voorspel. Die ‘‘Alienation-Involvement Scale’’ saam met die ‘‘Comprehensive Structured Interviewing for Potential’’ is op ’n gerieflikheidsteekproef van 200 werknemers op die posvlakke vanwerkers, spanleiers en bestuurders in ’n goot vervaardigingsonderneming toegepas.

  10. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-01-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology. PMID:9431426

  11. Noodlottige kindermishandeling: 'n literatuuroorsig en die profiel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literatuuroorsig en bespreking. Literatuuroorsig. 'n Studie wat in The Children's Hospital in Camperdown, Australië, onderneem is,3 toon dat die meerderheid slagoffers van noodlottige kindermishandeling (9 van 17 gevalle) jonger as een jaar oud was, terwyl die res van die slagoffers almal jonger as drie jaar oud was.

  12. Tien jaar arts : een longitudinaal onderzoek naar de loopbaan van artsen die hun studie begonnen in Groningen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Reinders, J.J.; Agsteribbe, J.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the career development of two cohorts of medical graduates from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Structured interviews. METHOD: For all 333 graduates who commenced undergraduate medical training in 1982 and 1983, data were collected for the period 1993-2000

  13. Die Entnahmemorbidität und Resensibilisierung des Acromiopectorallappens im Vergleich zum Pectoralis-Major-Lappen in der rekonstruktiven Mund-, Kiefer-, Gesichtschirurgie: Retrospektive Studie 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Selva

    2015-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Rolle der gestielten Lappen, am Beispiel des Acromiopectoral- und Pectoralis-Major-Lappens, in der modernen Mund-, Kiefer-, Gesichtschirurgie in einer Ära, in der mikrochirurgisch revaskularisierten, freien Transplantaten meist der Vorzug gegeben wird. Insbesondere wird auf die Einheilung und Resensibilisierung des Acromiopectoral- und Pectoralis-Major-Lappens in der Empfängerregion des Kopf-/Halsbereiches eingegangen. Es wurde die Leben...

  14. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  15. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  16. 'n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die invloed van aspekte van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 26: No1, 1998. 15 ...... van byvoorbeeld die televisie en gedrukte media 'n invloed op die .... fashion promotion and advertising. New York. ... Consumer behaviour to-.

  17. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  18. End-of-life care: nurses' experiences in caring for dying patients with profound learning disabilities--a descriptive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Ng, J

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study identifies areas of expertise and deficits in the specific knowledge and practical skills of nurses in the care of dying patients with profound learning disabilities in one NHS Primary Care Trust in the UK. In response to these findings, we have developed a simple observational checklist applicable to profound learning disability nursing to identify disease-related personality and physiological changes. The method consists of a descriptive case study of five nurses qualified in learning disabilities nursing, using semi-structured interviews. The disease trajectory was used as a framework of reference to guide the data analysis. Themes showed were 'certainty of knowing' about disease-related changes in patients' habits and behaviour and 'uncertainty and ambiguity' in the patho-physiology of advanced diseases and disease progression. This study interprets a lack of patho-physiological knowledge in both malignant and non-malignant diseases leading to delayed diagnosis and timely intervention. Timeliness of observation and intervention are emphasised.

  19. Die stryd teen die voorpposte: 1-2 Februarié 1941 | Du Plessis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Die stryd teen die voorpposte: 1-2 ...

  20. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    vergewe. Dit sou in orde gewees het as daar gestaan het, ReMomë- j^onta^is hepta?ds. wat die grieks is vir sewentig maal sewe. Die uitdrukking. heMom&ontabis heptd sien hoogswaarskynlik op Gen. 4 : 24 (LXX) waar. Lameg meedeel dat hy sewe-en-sewentig-maal gewreek sal word. Daar sit die Afr. Vert, die uitdrukking ...

  1. Dying for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  2. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  3. Verbal autopsy as a tool for identifying children dying of sickle cell disease: a validation study conducted in Kilifi district, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is associated with high early mortality. In the absence of newborn screening, most deaths among children with SCD go unrecognized and unrecorded. As a result, SCD does not receive the attention it deserves as a leading cause of death among children in SSA. In the current study, we explored the potential utility of verbal autopsy (VA) as a tool for attributing underlying cause of death (COD) in children to SCD. Methods We used the 2007 WHO Sample Vital Registration with Verbal Autopsy (SAVVY) VA tool to determine COD among child residents of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), Kenya, who died between January 2008 and April 2011. VAs were coded both by physician review (physician coded verbal autopsy, PCVA) using COD categories based on the WHO International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD-10) and by using the InterVA-4 probabilistic model after extracting data according to the 2012 WHO VA standard. Both of these methods were validated against one of two gold standards: hospital ICD-10 physician-assigned COD for children who died in Kilifi District Hospital (KDH) and, where available, laboratory confirmed SCD status for those who died in the community. Results Overall, 6% and 5% of deaths were attributed to SCD on the basis of PCVA and the InterVA-4 model, respectively. Of the total deaths, 22% occurred in hospital, where the agreement coefficient (AC1) for SCD between PCVA and hospital physician diagnosis was 95.5%, and agreement between InterVA-4 and hospital physician diagnosis was 96.9%. Confirmatory laboratory evidence of SCD status was available for 15% of deaths, in which the AC1 against PCVA was 87.5%. Conclusions Other recent studies and provisional data from this study, outlining the importance of SCD as a cause of death in children in many parts of the developing world, contributed to the inclusion of specific SCD

  4. Forecasting demand for single-period products : A case study in the apparel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostard, Julien; Teunter, Ruud; de Koster, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The problem considered is that of forecasting demand for single-period products before the period starts. We study this problem for the case of a mail order apparel company that needs to order its products pre-season. The lack of historical demand data implies that other sources of data are needed.

  5. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    aangetoon het, 'n huis in Kapernaum gehad en hierdie geskiedenis speel in Kapernaum of daar digby af. Jesus en sy dissipele het namelik, volgens 6:35 geland by Gennesaret, net suid van Kapernaum Die gevolgtrekking word ondersteun deur Joh. 6:17 waarvolgens die dissi pele na die spysiging op Kapernaum gevaar ...

  6. 'n Verkenning van die soorte vennootskappe in die Amerikaanse reg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Amerikaanse literatuur word talle verwysings gevind na die vennootskap in mynbou ("mining partnership"), familievennootskap ("family partnership", vennootskap in vaste eiendom ("partnership in real estate") en vennootskap vir boerdery ("farming partnership"). Hierdie onderskeiding is primer gebaseer op die tipe ...

  7. Die 'postmoderne' stempel in die Nuwe-Testamentiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    georiënteerde teorie en kritiek wat volgens Moore opbou tot 'n herhaling binne. Bybelnavorsing. Dit het reeds by Immanuel Kant begin. Sedert Kant is dit proble- maties cm die objek van kennis te beskou as iets wat kennis objektief in sigself bevat. Objektiwisme is prys gegee. Dialektiek het in die plek daarvan gekom. Die.

  8. duele verse sowel as die somtotaal die leser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... selfs 'n landkaart afgedruk) terwyl dit ter- selfdertyd ver bo die lokale uitstyg. Die digter is sterk bewus van sy omgewing, geskiedenis en tradisies, maar veral van die algemene menslike kondisie wat binne hierdie referensiekader vergestalt word. Hy gebruik 'n bekende historiese slagveld as bundeltitel (en ...

  9. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  10. DIE KONINGSBEDE AS ELEMENT IN DIE KRONINGSRITUEEL. By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Die offerfees te Gibeon was 'n plegtigheid, waaraan geheel Israel deelgeneem het. Die duisend. "brandoffers" wat sowel Kon. as Kron. vermeld, sal wel opgevat moet word as „brandoffers en dankoffers", sodat daar vir die aanwesiges. *n groot feesmaaltyd aangerig is, vgl. I Kon. 3:15. n Sodanige maal- tyd verbind vors en ...

  11. Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner in die saw. R Erasmus. Abstract. Since 1978 regional and town planners are employed in the SADF on a permanent basis as well as in the capacity of national service men. These men are all academically qualified and as such satisfy a need that developed ...

  12. n opinie oor die behaviouristiese siening versus die fenomenologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verband die eksperimente van Pavlov, Thorndike,. Skinner, Tolmann en Hull.) Fenomenologie. Die fenomenologie is 'n essensie-openbarende denkrigting. Dit impliseer'n denkende soektog na dit wat 'n besondere verskynsel of werklikheid maak juis dit wat dit is en nie iets anders nie. In die fenomenologiese antropologie ...

  13. Die Vier Typen von Projektmanagern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Bevor Sie einem Mitarbeiter die Leitung eines Projekts anvertrauen, sollten Sie sich über dessen Managementstil klar werden. Passt dieser nicht zur Art des Vorhabens, wird er scheitern. So treffen Sie die richtige Wahl....

  14. Die historiese Jesus as wondenverker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical Association, te wete 'The social sciences and second Testament exegesis'. John Pilch is die leier van die Society of Biblical Literature se 'Social sciences and ..... Hollenbach, P 1982. ... Stauffer, E 1982. Jesus ... London: Collins.

  15. Die Rolle von RANK-Ligand und Osteoprotegerin bei Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofbauer LC

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB ligand (RANKL, sein zellulärer Rezeptor RANK und der Decoy-Rezeptor Osteoprotegerin (OPG stellen ein essentielles Zytokinsystem für die Zellbiologie von Osteoklasten dar. Verschiedene Untersuchungen belegen die Bedeutung von Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei der Pathogenese metabolischer Knochenerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit werden die wichtigsten Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei verschiedenen Osteoporoseformen dargestellt. Östrogenrezeptor- (ER- Agonisten wie 17 β-Östradiol, Raloxifen und Genistein stimulieren die osteoblastäre Produktion von OPG durch Aktivierung von ER- α in vitro, während Lymphozyten von Patientinnen mit Östrogenmangel RANKL überexprimieren. Die parenterale Gabe von OPG vermag den mit Östrogenmangel assoziierten Knochenverlust im Tiermodell und in einer kleineren klinischen Studie zu verhindern. Glukokortikoide und Immunsuppressiva steigern gleichzeitig die RANKL-Expression und hemmen die OPG-Produktion in osteoblastären Zellen in vitro. Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Dagegen hemmen biomechanische Reize in vitro die RANKL-Produktion und steigern die OPG-Produktion. Ein Fehlen dieser biomechanischen Reize bei längerer Immobilisierung kann daher den RANKL/OPG-Quotienten steigern, während die tierexperimentelle Immobilisierungs-Osteoporose durch die parenterale Gabe von OPG gemildert werden kann.

  16. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  17. Die Dokter-Pasient Rolverwantskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Aug 1974 ... en as sodanig 'n ral sped in die persoon se siektegedrag en uiteindelike patroon van hulpsoeke. SIEKEROL EN SOSIALISERING IN DIE. PASIENTROL ..... more cumulative, resulting in a more gradual social and professional maturation.' Vit die voorafgaande word dit duidelik dat Dewy se pragmatiese ...

  18. prosesseringsmetodes op die voedingswaarde van

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gebring is, kon geen betekenisvolle verskille tussen die drie monsters gevind word nie. Volgens Opstvedt (1976) kan ME waardes ook dien as 'n kriteria van proteien- kwaliteit, hoofsaaklik a.g.v. die verhoogde stikstofuit- skeiding in die urine wat sal plaasvind a.g.v. beskadiging van aminosure. De Groote (1968) het gevind ...

  19. DIE SAW SE ROL IN SWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wei die verdediging van die landsgrense teen 'n vyand wat die orde, gesag, vrede, stabiliteit en welvaart in Suidwes-Afrika en die Republiek van. Suid-Afrika wil vernietig. Hierdie oorlog moet nie ge'lsoleerd gesien word nie, maar in perspektief geplaas word teen die agtergrond van 'n nag groter konflik, naamlik die van die ...

  20. Die Subjektiewe en Objektiewe doelwitte van Arbeid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Veldsman

    1982-11-01

    Die artikel gee aandag aan die subjektiewe en objektiewe doelwitte van arbeid. Hul plek en funksie binne 'n voorgestelde geïntegreerde motiveringsmodel word eerstens aangedui. Vervolgens word die verwantskap tussen die twee doelwitte uitgelig, gevolg deur 'n bespreking van die aard van die objektiewe doel. Laastens word die invloed van moderne arbeid op hierdie doelwitte uitgestippel.

  1. DIE EKSISTENSIEFILOSOFIE VAN KARL JASPERS. ENKELE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Kierkegaard en Nietzsche, Max Weber en Dilthey, om maar enkeles te noem, en 5.) Jaspers se persoonlike beskouing oor die roe ping en die taak van die Filosofie, sy aanvoeling van die filosofiese problematiek en sy grondhouding teenoor die eksistensiële verbonden- hede. Die woord van Fichte, naamlik dat die Filosofie ...

  2. ’n Vergelyking van die Mollusca-diversiteit in die Mooirivier (Noordwes-Provinsie soos gevind met opnames wat gemaak is in 1963 en weer 50 jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius T. Wolmarans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die hoogste getal gedokumenteerde uitsterwings van enige belangrike taksonomiese groepword aan die Mollusca toegedig. Faktore wat hoofsaaklik hiervoor verantwoordelik is, sluitonder meer omgewingsveranderinge en antropogeniese impakte in wat tot die tot niet gaanvan die habitat aanleiding gee. Daarbenewens is die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van dieongeveer 7000 molluskspesies wêreldwyd bekend tot dusver nog nie behoorlik geassesseernie. Die doel van die huidige ondersoek wat in 2014 uitgevoer is, was om die molluskdiversiteitvan die Mooirivier met die resultate van 1963 te vergelyk. Dit is gedoen deur ’n opnameuit te voer van die molluskdiversiteit by dieselfde lokaliteite as in 1963. Twee opnames isgemaak tydens ’n vroeë- en laatlaagvloeiperiode in 2014 by agt lokaliteite wat met dié vandie 1963-opnames ooreenstem. Die pH, elektriese geleiding (EG en temperatuur is ook byelk van die lokaliteite gemeet. Die identiteit van die 14 slakspesies wat in 1963 gevind is, hetooreengestem met 14 van die 15 in 2014. Die uitheemse indringerspesie Physa acuta is tydensdie 2014-opname vir die eerste keer in hierdie rivier gevind, waarskynlik weens ’n toename inorganiese verryking. In die 1963-opname is Burnupia mooiensis en Pisidium langlyanum by diemeeste lokaliteite gevind, en in 2014 Gyraulus connollyi en Ferrissia cawstoni. Die meeste van diemolluske uit hierdie gebied wat voorheen op rekord gestel is, is in 2014 gevind. Die pH watin 2014 ’n geringe tot aansienlike verlaging getoon het, word aan mynversuring toegeskryfen het nie ’n merkbare invloed op die molluskdiversiteit gehad nie. Die hoër elektriesegeleiding wat tydens die 2014-opname gemeet is, het vanweë die verdraagsaamheid vanvarswatermolluske in hierdie verband, ook geen verandering in die molluskdiversiteit teweeggebring nie. Die temperatuur was in die laatlaagvloei deurgaans hoër. Ondanks die feit dathierdie studies vyf dekades uitmekaar gedoen is en antropogeniese impakte

  3. Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica - Review and a clinical-radiological study with special emphasis on SAPHO syndrome; Die Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica: Nosologische Studie mit klinischer und radiologischer Darstellung innerhalb des SAPHO-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)]|[Zentrum fuer Rheuma-Pathologie, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica (Spond.hyp.pp-Schilling), corresponding nosologically to pustulotic arthroosteitis, is a dermato-skeletal `double system` disease of adults. It consists of the triad (a) palmo-plantar pustulosis (Ppp) or, alternatively, Koenigsbeck-Barber-type psoriasis, (b) sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH), and (c) truncal-skeletal changes with syndesmophite-like, hyperostotic and/or parasyndesmophite-like ossifications of layers of the anterior vertebral ligament taken together in the sense of a desmophytal hyperostosis. There is also a potential for sclerosing inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of peripheral joints. Thus, the pustulo-psoriatic terrain seems to have a decisive influence on osseous pathology. A total of 38 cases from a study during the years 1982 to 1992 is analysed with regard to morphological characteristics. Rare cases with diaphyseal and pelvic hyperostotic lesions subsequent to bland sclerosing osteomyelitis constitute an overlapping region to chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and illustrate the relationship between hyperostotic spondarthritis and CRMO. The syndromes of `acquired hyperostosis` and `SAPHO`, the former more radiologically oriented and the latter more clinically oriented, together with mainly CRMO and hyperostotic spondarthritis and its forms, constitute the `Spond.hyp.pp.`. Although hyperostosis is a guidepost for the radiologist and SAPHO symptoms are one for the clinician, the syndrome does not represent a diagnosis by itself and requires further differentiation. In this report the entity `Spond.hyp.pp.` is considered and requires contributions from rheumatologically and osteologically oriented radiologist. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Uebersicht beschreibt unter vorwiegend radiologischen Gesichtspunkten das Krankheitsbild der Spondarthritis hyperostatica

  4. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  5. Die oorsake van en bydraende faktore tot eensaamheid: 'n literatuuroorsig

    OpenAIRE

    Doman, LCH; le Roux, A

    2010-01-01

    'n Groot deel van die bevolking ervaar gereeld eensaamheid en dit word as 'n algemene verskynsel in die menslike bestaan beskou. Verskeie studies dui daarop dat jong mense veral vatbaar is vir eensaamheid. Eensaamheid word ook beskou as 'n risiko-faktor vir 'n wye verskeidenheid probleme wat 'n potensiële gevaar vir die mens se gesondheid inhou. Verskeie faktore wat 'n invloed op die mate van eensaamheid het, is ook kenmerkend van die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Rokach se model van eensaamheidsv...

  6. Die Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers - Experte oder notwendiges Übel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Die Zahl der gedolmetschten Gerichtsverhandlungen steigt weiterhin in vielen Rechtssystemen, weshalb es immer wichtiger wird, dass Rechtssysteme über qualifizierte Dolmetscher verfügen. In Dänemark begegnen Richter, die Rezipienten von Gerichtsdolmetschleistungen sind, sowohl professionellen als...... auch nicht- oder semi-professionellen Gerichtsdolmetschern. Dies lässt vermuten, dass die Richter in der Praxis Dolmetschleistungen von sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität erleben und vermutlich kein einheitliches Bild von der Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers haben. Ziel der Studie, die ich in diesem Beitrag...

  7. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter shows how careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Presents 3 systems that utilize critical periods to study low-level effects: 1) cell kinetics as an indicator of nervous-system maldevelopment; 2) oocyte depletion; and 3) homeotic shifts in the skeleton. Discusses application of the sensitive systems to the testing of chemicals and the role of sensitive stages in estimating risk. Suggests that tests such as the 3 discussed in this paper, which are developed with strict attention to specific critical periods, can provide rapid and sensitive means for revealing whether an agent is capable of causing developmental interference. Concludes that epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the endpoints being studied

  8. Dying with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  10. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om verskeie redes het dit van die allergrootste belong geword dot 'n his- tories korrekte, wetenskaplike weerga- we van bogenoemde gebeure opge- teken moet word. Die sluier, in sommige gevalle am logiese redes toegepas, moes eenvoudig gelig word am gebeure wat die gewone man op stroot in Suid-Afrika dikwels ...

  11. Die debat rondom die vertolking van die amptelike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... Debate around the interpretation of the official language policy principles of the ... Any discussion of language planning must first take into account the underlying orientation.

  12. Influence of olive oil on alveolar bone response during orthodontic retention period: rabbit model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdany, Afrah K; Al-Khatib, Ali R; Al-Sadi, Hafidh I

    2017-08-01

    This study attempted to evaluate clinically and histologically the effects of olive oil (Ol) consumption on orthodontic relapse after the retention period. Thirty apparently healthy female albino rabbits, weight more than 1000 g each was used in this study. The animals were grouped randomly into six groups of five animals each: two control and four experimental groups. In control groups, the relapse was estimated either at zero day, or at the end of the fourth week after orthodontic retention period. In the experimental groups, the animals' groups received Ol, 7.7, or 15.4 ml/kg b.w. per day during the orthodontic retention period. The relapse was estimated either at zero day, or at the end of the fourth week after orthodontic retention period for each concentration. Modified fixed orthodontic appliances were attached to the rabbits' lower central incisors. Each rabbit received orthodontic intervention for one week, followed by six weeks retention period. At the end of the experiments, the clinical and histological investigations were conducted. Data analyses were performed at the level of p orthodontic retention period, especially at 15.4 ml/kg b.w. per day concentration, clinically reduced orthodontic relapse on rabbit model. Histologically, Ol increased osteoblasts and osteocytes counts and the relative amount of bone mineralization of connective tissue layer forming alveolar bone (AB) at the end of four weeks after the orthodontic retention period.

  13. A STUDY OF THE VARIED AETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF NEW ONSET SEIZURES IN POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Sudarsi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Seizures in the postpartum period are the major cause of mortality and morbidity. A variety of neurological disorders causing seizures may be encountered during pregnancy and puerperium. These disorders may be unrelated to pregnancy (e.g. Meningitis or peculiar to pregnancy (e.g. Eclampsia or. Pregnancy may affect the course of the pre-existing neurological disorders such as epilepsy. So, keeping in mind the varied aetiology of postpartum seizures and its response to appropriate treatment, our study has been conducted to find out the most common causes in our setup to guide the optimal therapy. AIM OF THE STUDY To study the varied aetiology and clinical presentation of new onset seizures in the postpartum period over a period of two years. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients who developed first episode of seizures in postpartum period (that is after delivery to 6 weeks admitted to Osmania General Hospital on random selection. All women complaining of new onset seizure with in postpartum period up to 6 weeks. All those women who are known epileptics and who had seizures in the antenatal period were excluded from the study. The selected patients were studied in detail with history and physical examination. RESULTS Different causes for first episode of seizures in postpartum period are enlisted here. Cavernous sinus thrombosis in 17 patients, late postpartum eclampsia accounted for 13 patients, intracranial haemorrhage in 6 patients, ischaemic stroke in 5 patients, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in 4 patients, CNS infections in 6 patients, glioma in 1 patient, viral hepatitis in one patient, idiopathic in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS Cavernous sinus thrombosis and late postpartum eclampsia constitute the major aetiology of first onset of seizes occurring in the postpartum period.

  14. A study of mandibular fractures over a 5-year period of time: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare with the existing literature on the etiology, pattern, gender, and anatomical distribution of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: The data of 225 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years between March 2009 and November 2013. Of this 110 were unilateral, 23 bilateral, 18 symphysis and 74 multiple fractures. Results: Males are more affected than females.The peak incidence rate is occurring in 30-35 years of age group. The most common fracture site is parasymphysis and least common site is ramus of mandible. The most common etiological factor is road traffic accident (RTA (45.3% followed by falls (42.6%, assaults (8.9%, sport injuries (2.2%, and gunshot wounds (0.89%. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that RTA is the leading cause of mandibular fractures and males are more affected. The most common site is parasymphysis fracture in association with angle fracture. We observed that gender was significantly associated with body and angle fracture (P = 0.04 and significant relationship between etiology with multiple site fracture such as (parasymphysis-angle, (body-condyle, (body-angle, and (symphysis-condyle was observed (P ≤ 0.05.

  15. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  16. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries le Roux du Plooy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas. The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  17. Measuring viability of pacs during reform period in Maharashtra: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    The study showed a reduction in the operational efficiency of the selected PACS during the post-economic reform period as against the pre-economic reform period. The operational efficiency was measured in respect of various liquidity ratio, profitability ratios and financial leverage ratios. Not only the selected societies showed a decline in their current ratio, rate of return on assets, return on owner’s equity and Marginal Efficiency of Capital (MEC) but also showed higher dependency on le...

  18. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  19. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, Per Bruno

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market

  20. Retrospective study of acute epiglottitis in Cantabria in the period 1992-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia CASTAÑEDA-CURTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Acute epiglottitis is an inflammation of the epiglottis and other adjacent structures that can produce severe obstruction of the airway. Our objective is to know the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of acute epiglottitis in a Region of the north of Spain. Method: Retrospective descriptive study of all patients diagnosed with acute epiglottitis from January 1992 to April 2015 in the Region of Cantabria (Spain. Results: Fifty patients were included in our study, aged between 1 and 80 years, of whom 40 were men and 10 were women. Only one of them was a pediatric patient. 2.7 cases / year were diagnosed, with an incidence of 0.5 cases per 100000 habitants per year. Two patients had Down syndrome. The main symptom was odynophagia (88% followed by dyspnea (56% and voice alteration (52%. Nine patients required a stay in Intensive Care. Four patients required orotracheal intubation; five needed an emergency tracheotomy. Seven patients had serious complications, one of them with severe neurological damage. None of them died because of epiglottitis. Conclusions: Acute epiglottitis is a rare but serious disease and, therefore, requires early treatment to avoid complications. We have observed an almost total disappearance of epiglottitis in pediatric patients in our region, which is explained by the introduction in the vaccination calendar of immunization against Haemophilus influenzae.

  1. Die veranderende rol van die man in die dubbelinkomstegesin

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. In recent research studies that have been done within the cadre of family sociology, researchers have emphasised the fact that the role of the man in the family is an important topic. This interest in the role of the husband/father has been facilitated by significant trends and changes of our time, manifesting world-wide, as well as in South Africa. These trends, such as the continuous rise in the rate of married women entering the labour market and the accompanying issues...

  2. In-service monitoring of piping and vessels in nuclear power plants. Report on BMU-study SR 2218; Betriebsueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern in Kernkraftwerken. Bericht ueber die BMU-Studie SR 2218

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstoetter, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany); Dittmar, S. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Maile, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Metzner, K.J. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-11-01

    On behalf of the BMU, the authors carried out a study intended to give an overview of and evaluate current practice and methods applied in fatigue monitoring of pipes and vessels of nuclear power plants. The authors on the one hand present fundamentals relating to typical load cases, monitoring and measuring techniques and fatigue computation methods, as well as the relevant legal provisions, and on the other hand describe the monitoring practice, tools and techniques referring to available literature, own experience, and interviews with operators/owners and manufacturers of existing power plants. The locations selected for examinations, measuring techniques, data acquisition and evaluation as well as measuring protocols are explained. The monitoring and inspection methods applied are assessed in a critical review which is the basis of proposals for improvement, relating to the measured data acquisition and especially to data analysis and evaluation. The paper focuses on the essential results of the study, excluding those parts of the study dealing with the calculation of fatigue in components, which will be the subject of another paper to be published. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Auftrag ders BMU erarbeiteten die Verfasser eine Studie zur Darstellung und Bewertung der heute in Kernkraftwerken ueblichen Ermuedungsueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern. Dazu wurden einerseits die Grundlagen zur Beanspruchung, Messtechnik und Ermuedungsberechnung zusammengestellt sowie geltende Vorschriften aufgefuehrt. Andererseits wurde auf der Basis der verfuegbaren Literatur, eigener Erfahrungen sowie einer Befragung von Betreibern und Herstellern der heute ueblichen Anlagen die Messstellen, Messverfahren, Messwerterfassungsanlagen und Auswertungsmethoden sowie bisherige Ergebnisse der Messungen dargestellt. Das derzeitige Vorgehen wurde kritisch bewertet. Daraus resultierten Verbesserungsvorschlaege zur Messwerteerfassung, vor allem aber zur Auswertung und Bewertung der

  3. Effects of MRI on the electrophysiology of the motor cortex: a TMS study; Auswirkungen der Magnetresonanztomografie auf die Elektrophysiologie des motorischen Kortex: eine Studie mit transkranieller Magnetstimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlamann, Marc; Pietrzyk, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Yoon, M.S.; Gerwig, M.; Kastrup, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Maderwald, S.; Forsting, M.; Ladd, S.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz; Bitz, A.; Ladd, M.E. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz

    2009-03-15

    The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field MRI scanners encouraged a new discussion on safety aspects of MRI examinations. Earlier studies report altered acoustically evoked potentials. This finding was not able to be confirmed in later studies. In the present study transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evaluate whether motor cortical excitability may be altered following MRI examination even at field strength of 1.5 T. In 12 right-handed male volunteers individual thresholds for motor responses and then the length of the post-excitatory inhibition (silent period) were determined. Subsequently the volunteers were examined in the MRI scanner (Siemens Avanto, 1.5 T) for 63 minutes using gradient and spin echo sequences. MRI examination was immediately followed by another TMS session and a third 10 minutes later. As a control condition, the 12 subjects spent one hour in the scanner without examination and one hour on a couch without the presence of a scanner. After MRI examination, the silent period was significantly lengthened in all 12 subjects and then tended to the initial value after 10 min. Motor thresholds were significantly elevated and then normalized after 10 minutes. No significant effects were found in the control conditions. (orig.)

  4. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Claire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions

  5. Die vangnet van die woord: forensies-linguistiese getuienis in 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Een van die redes daarvoor is waarskynlik die gepaardgaande sleurwerk verbonde aan die verwerking van die betrokke taaldata — iets wat egter deur die onlangse meteoriese vooruitgang in tegnologiese tegnieke op die agtergrond geskuif is en nuwe moontlikhede na vore laat kom het. In die lig van die kompleksiteit van ...

  6. het om die Woord van God aan die gemeente te bedien. A. D. P ont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sizoo vertel met die vlotheid van die ervare skrywer en die ver antwoordelikheid van die wetenskaplike ... Maar in stiptelike trou aan die feitelikheid, verlaat die skrywer hom uitsluitlik op die outentieke bronne om ... de leser; in sy rykdom van gegewens en wetenskaplike betroubaarheid kan dit met vrug gelees word deur die ...

  7. Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults : A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, M.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I J M; Tymstra, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Population surveys have documented increasing public support for euthanasia and assisted suicide but have not focused on the population of chronically ill older persons, obtained detailed sociocultural or health status information, or performed repeat assessments. This study seeks to

  8. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Prediking en spiritualiteit : 'n homiletiese studie oor die verband tussen prediking en geestelike groei / Jan Andries Erasmus

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, Jan Andries

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how preaching can stimulate spiritual growth and intensify the spirituality of Listeners. The working method for the study has been based on the mode[ formulated by Zerfass (1974) for Practical Theology and follows a Reformatory angle. • In the first place, basis-theoretical principles regarding preaching, spirituality and spiritual growth have been researched, as well as the relationship between preaching and spiritual growth. To do this, exege...

  10. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  11. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  12. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  13. Versoening tussen leerders: Is parallelmediumskole die antwoord op die rassismeprobleem?

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Elize; Marais, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet stel dit duidelik dat enige vorm van diskriminasie nie toegelaat mag word nie. In ons skole beteken dit dat elke leerder ʼn reg het op goeie opvoeding en ʼn veilige skoolomgewing. Die fokus van hierdie navorsing is gerig op bestaande parallelmediumskole. Die uiteindelike vraagstuk is dus hoe multikulturele onderwys bevorder word en hoe rassisme aangespreek kan word? As teoretiese raamwerk is Kohlsberg se kognitiewe ontwikkelingsbenadering en Whitehouse se univerele ...

  14. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    2 Yarbro Collins (1983) bied tans nog die beste agtergrond vir 'n besinning oor geweld in ..... John's grammatical howlers are intentionally designed to alert listerners ..... 26 In die Nuwe Testament word Paul se snydende opmerking teenoor die Korintiërs as ..... rnt g0r`m nh8 ldfhrs`}m du sg}u fg}u + n2sh d/m sg>}} e`ql`jdh.

  15. "Perhaps I will die young." Fears and worries regarding disease and death among Danish adolescents and young adults with cancer. A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Timm, Helle U; Graugaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    worries about death; hereof, more than half of them expressed quite a bit or very much. The analysis showed significant gender differences, whereas age and duration of disease did not have any significant impact on such thoughts. Q2: One third had not talked to anybody about his or her worries. Q3...... about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3. METHODS: A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed...... dying, but one third of them had not talked to anybody about those thoughts. It is an important clinical point that young age does not preclude fears and worries about dying in AYAs with cancer....

  16. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  17. Die beroepsoriëntasie van professioneel-rekeningkundiges tydens die vroeë beroepsjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available The career orientation of professional accountants during the early career stage. The purpose with this study was to conduct research into the career orientations of aspiring and qualified persons in the accounting profession. Schein's Career Orientation Inventory was administered to 221 respondents in the early career stage and in different phases of Involvement in the profession. Managerial skill featured as the most prominent career orientation. It was also evident that respondents who had had occupational experience measured highest on the same orientation, i.e. managerial skill, irrespective of their phase within the early career stage. Furthermore, there were indications that career orientation differentiation increased in accordance with occupational experience. Opsomming Die doel met hierdie studie was om die beroepsoriëntasies van aspirant en gekwalifiseerde persone in die rekenmeesterprofessie na te vors. Schein se Beroepsorientasievraelys is afgeneem op 221 proefpersone in hul vroee beroepsjare en in verskillende fases van betrokkenheid in die professie. Bestuursbedrewenheid is as die mees kenmerkende beroepsorientasie geidentifiseer. Dit het ook aan die lig gekom dat proefpersone wat oor beroepsondervinding beskik, ongeag hul fase van betrokkenheid in die vroee beroepsjare, dieselfde orientasie naamlik bestuursbedrewenheid, realiseer. Aanduidings is verder verkry dat beroepsorientasie-differensiasie na gelang van beroepsblootstelling toeneem.

  18. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  19. Die pastorale sielkundige as diakonale pastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Smuts

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In die bedieningspatroon van die Ned. Geref. Kerk het die pastorale sielkundige die afgelope aantal jare steeds meer op die voorgrond begin tree. Hy is egter 'n problematiese figuur, wie se identiteit van meer as een kant onder bespreking is. In ander lande, selfs in die VSA waar die kerk veel gebruik maak van die sielkunde, is dit moeilik om 'n presiese parallel vir hom te vind. Sowel binne as buite die kerk word hy deur sommige bevraagteken. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om vanuit die teologie te kyk na die werk wat hy doen.

  20. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozess : eine theoretisch-empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. In a broader context it aims to explain how the winners and losers of transformation processes as in East Germany emerge. The explanation of occupational success is

  1. The study of the evolution of squares in 3 periods of Safavid, Qajar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the evolution of squares in 3 periods of Safavid, Qajar and Pahlavi with historical – evolutionary and form approach (Isfahan and Tehran styles) case study of Naqshe Jahan square in Isfahan, Ganjalikhan square in Kerman, Sabze Meydan and Toop.

  2. Die dialektiek in die waardes van die 1996 Grondwet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Swanepoel

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available In his paper The Dialectics in the Values of the 1996 Constitution Jan Swanepoel discusses various value statements in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and focuses the attention on indications of a lack of coherence as far as these value statements are concerned.He does this against the background of some introductory perspectives on the 1996 Constitution. In this regard he points out that the 1996 Constitution, as successor to the 1993 Constitution with its set of thirty four constitutional principles, can be regarded as a document of political and ideological compromise. He points out that constitutions (and in particular the value statements in Bills of Rights generally tend to be formulated rather broadly in order to promote flexibility and adaptability. He also focuses the attention on the fact that such a dialectic of values point to the variety of interests that has to be harmonized in a modern state, something which is unmistakably the case in South Africa with its heterogeneous society.The 1996 Constitution contains a variety of "value terms". A closer study of these terms does, however, indicate that these terms (value, principle, foundation, and the like are not used in a very systematic or technical fashion.The problems regarding the value statements are, however, not only of a terminological nature. There are also some substantive problems, as becomes clear from a discussion of value terms in the Preamble and in Sections 1 and 7 of the 1996 Constitution. Swanepoel indicates that a tension exists between what can be called the "process" formulation in section 1(a and the "state of affairs" formulation of the values in section 7(1. . While section 1(a speaks of "the achievement of equality" and "the advancement of human rights and freedoms", section 7(1 simply makes mention of "equality" and "freedom". The dialectic between these two formulations is discussed with reference to other relevant sections of the 1996

  3. POLITICAL MONETARY CYCLES IN COALITION AND SINGLE PARTY GOVERNMENT PERIODS: A CASE STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMET EMRAH TAYYAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of political monetary cycles, the government manipulates monetary policy during election periods in order to be re-elected. According to the said theory, expansionary monetary policies are implemented before the elections with opportunistic objective, while the contractionary monetary policies are implemented to stabilize the economy immediately after the elections. The use of monetary policy instruments for political purposes depends on the presence of a non-autonomous central bank, flexible exchange rate regime in the country, and the coordination between fiscal and monetary policies. Thus, the changes in the monetary policy indicators in election periods during coalition and single party governments in Turkey between 1990 and 2016 were examined in the present study. The money in circulation (M0, M1 money supply, domestic loans and inflation series were analyzed with the seasonal Box-Jenkins method for the above mentioned periods. Based on the findings of the study, political monetary cycles were not observed during the 1990-2000 coalition governments. It was determined that there were political monetary cycles during the single party government period between 2000 and 2016.Furthermore, although it could be expected that the political monetary cycles would be removed with the liberalization of the Turkish central bank on 25 April 2001, the existence of political monetary cycles during the period of 2000-2016 indicates that central bank independence was not fully achieved in Turkey. Based on another finding of the present study, the lack of political monetary cycles during the coalition government periods could lead to the failure in financing the budget deficit that increase due to political reasons with monetary policies. However, due to the existence of political monetary cycles during the single party government period, it could be argued that politically induced budget deficits changed in consistence with the

  4. Die skrifbeskouing van feministiese teoloë, in die besonder dié van Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – beoordeel in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta E. Swart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dit wil voorkom asof die feministiese Skrifbeskouing op die beginsel van selektiewe Skrifgesag berus. Dit beteken dat slegs dié dele in die Bybel wat met die feministiese ideologie ooreenstem, as gesaghebbend aanvaar word. Dit is veral die sogenaamde androsentriese taalgebruik wat dit vir aanhangers van hierdie benadering moeilik maak om die hele Skrif as gesaghebbend te erken. Hermeneuties vertoon hierdie benadering groot ooreenkomste met die Postmodernisme, waarin geen vaste reëls bestaan om die betekenis van tekste te bepaal nie. Gesien in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie, soos veranker in die Woord en belydenisskrifte, vertoon die feministiese teologie ernstige leemtes. Die bydraes (Skrifbeskouing van drie prominente feministiese teoloë – Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – word onder die loep geneem en teologies-krities geëvalueer ten einde hierdie leemtes uit te wys. It appears that the feminist view of Scripture is based on the principle of selective authority of the Scriptures, which means that only the parts of the Bible corresponding with the feminist ideology are accepted as authoritative. The use of androcentric language, in particular, makes it difficult for followers of feminism to accept the whole Bible as authoritative. Hermeneutically, their approach resembles Postmodernism, interpreting without any rules. Viewed from the paradigm of the reformed theology, which is anchored in Scripture and the articles of faith, feminist theology shows serious shortfalls. The contributions of three prominent feminist theologians – Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes – are studied closely and evaluated critically in the light of the reformed theology, to underline these shortfalls.

  5. HISTORIESE OORSIG VAN DIE ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1933 belas Rykskanselier. Hitler vir. Goering, Minister van Lugvaart, in die geheim met die skepping van die Luftwaffe. Die basis in Rusland is gesluit en toekomstige vlieeniers is nou in die geheim na Italie waar hulle elke aspek van moderne oorlog- voering oefen en die Blitzkrieg-gedagte, deur op ondersteuning van 'n.

  6. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  7. Voedingpraktyke en behoeftes van hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe deur die oë van laerskoolonderwysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel bespreek ons die persepsies van onderwysers (n = 45 wat betref die voedingpraktyke van ’n steekproef laerskoolleerders en hul gesinne in ’n hulpbron-arm gemeenskap. Ons fokus spesifiek op die behoeftes, praktyke en verwagtings ten opsigte van die gebruik van voedsel, wat die produksie, keuse en voorbereiding van voedsel impliseer. Ons studie vorm die eerste deel van ’n groter institusionele navorsingprojek. Vir die doel van ons studie het ons deelnemende refleksie en aksie-gebaseerde werkwinkels gehou om data te genereer en tydens die interpretasie van bevindinge op interpretivisme staatgemaak. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoeftes van hulpbron-arm en werklose gemeenskapslede wat dikwels genoodsaak is om teen verlaagde pryse voedsel te koop waarvan die kwaliteit nie optimaal is nie. ’n Verskraalde ontbyt, middagete of aandete waarvan die keuse algemeen beperk is tot swart tee, pap en een of twee snye ou brood, bevestig die manifestasies van armoede in hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe. Maaltye is dikwels beperk tot groot hoeveelhede koolhidrate, min groente, ingelegde vis, pap met inkomazi en marog. Hoenderpote en afval vul soms die spyskaart aan. Onderwysers beklemtoon die feit dat gemeenskapslede tipies op skenkings van werkgewers, kerke en kruidenierswinkels staatmaak om hul voedselbegroting aan te vul. Onderwysers fokus verder op die behoeftes aan opleiding vir gemeenskapslede. Na hulle mening moet gemeenskappe ingelig word oor voedselproduksie, groentetuine, die wyses waarop die kwaliteit van grond bepaal kan word, besproeiing en die toepassing van volhoubare wisselbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met uitvoerbare en leersame wenke vir die opleiding van landelike gemeenskappe. Op grond van dié navorsingsbevindinge word ’n intervensieprogram tans ontwikkel, met die doel om dit in die onderskeie deelnemende skole te implementeer ter bevordering van gesonde voedselverwante gedrag en welsyn.

  8. Die Transition zur pflegenden Tochter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dräger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch aus der Reihe „Studien zur Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaft“ beschreibt den theoretischen Hintergrund, das methodische Vorgehen und die Ergebnisse einer biografischen Untersuchung, die sich dem Übergang von der Tochter zur pflegenden Tochter widmete. Grundlage der Publikation ist die Dissertation (2002 der Autorin. Mit der Berücksichtigung biographischer und familiärer Hintergründe wird eine neue Perspektive in der Forschung zu pflegenden Angehörigen eingenommen.

  9. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  10. Study of the influence in crystallization period in MCM-22 zeolite synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.S.; Santos, E.R.F.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of MCM-22 is accomplished by hydrothermal treatment and long periods needed for crystallization, with the gradual growth of crystals of 10-14 days. MCM-22 catalyst is studied intensively as promising, with high thermal stability. As part of a line of research focused on the development of zeolite with lowest cost, this study aimed to examine the effect in decreasing the period of crystallization in the synthesis of zeolite MCM-22. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform (FT-IR). By XRD it was observed that the hydrothermal treatment used in the synthesis was effective during periods of crystallization and EDX was observed that the samples have a high percentage of silica and low alumina content, which gives them a high ratio SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 characteristic of the MWW structure. (author)

  11. A case study exploring the ethical and policy dimensions of allocating acute care resources to a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Mary; Hurley, Ciarán

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to identify policy, process and ethical issues related to allocation of National Health Service resources when patients with end-of-life illness are referred to acute care services. Sharing healthcare decisions denotes a different partnership between professionals and patients when patients are empowered to define their needs. Implementation of a transition from professional to patient decision-making appears to be dependent upon its interpretation by personnel delivering care using the local trust policy. The outcome of this is a reformation of responsibility for budget allocation, choice of acute care provider and selecting services, currently in the realm of primary care; be it the general practitioner, community practitioners, or the patient. We used a 'lens' approach to case study analysis in which the lens is constructed of a model of policy analysis and four principles of biomedical ethics. A patient's decision to decline care proposed by an Accident and Emergency department nurse and the nurse's response to that decision expose a policy that restricts the use of ambulance transport and with that, flexibility in responses to patients' decisions. End-of-life care partnership decisions require sensitivity and flexibility from all healthcare practitioners. We found that policy-based systems currently used to deliver care across the primary care - hospital care border are far from seamless and can lead to foreseeable problems. Health professionals responsible for the care of a patient at the end of life should consider the holistic outcomes of resource allocation decisions for patients. Government and health professional agenda suggest that patients should be given a greater element of control over their healthcare than has historically been the case. When patients take responsibility for their decisions, healthcare personnel should recognize that this signals a shift in the nature of the professional-patient relationship to one of partnership.

  12. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Johan J.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal-holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  13. Energy-resolved photoemission studies of Be-containing surfaces for fusion; Energievariierte Photoemissionsstudien an berylliumhaltigen Oberflaechen fuer die Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppen, Martin

    2013-02-04

    . Oxygen diffusion is observed and attributed to diffusion of BeO. Further, the influence of a BeO-interlayer on the carbidisation in the system C-W is investigated. Already at RT small amounts of carbidised W are visible. At 1280 K further carbidisation of W is observed. No reaction between BeO and W is visible. Carbidisation of W shows, that BeO does not serve as a diffusion barrier for C, even at RT. Using energy-resolved XPS and the newly developed quantitative model allows detailed studies of multi-component surface reactions considering the evolution of the depth distribution.

  14. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-05

    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  15. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...

  16. die geskiedenis van die saw gedenkteken te fort klapperkop militere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As gevolg van enige optrede, op enige plek, te enige tyd, deur enige vyand van die RSA of deur enige terroris(te), insurgent(e) of ander persoon of persone wat die RSA en sy volkere kwaadgesind is. h. Binne twee jaar (vyfhondred-en-dertig dae) nadat hy/sy met 'n ongeskiktheids- pensioen uit diens getree het agv siekte,.

  17. Die adversatiewe stelsel van bewyslewering en die beste belang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    weeg. Hierdie vraag word teen die agtergrond daarvan beoordeel dat veral dispute ..... restructuring family into the highly polarized positions of court-based dispute resolution.16. Talle alternatiewe om tekortkominge in die adversatiewe proses te ..... De Jong M "Mediation and Other Appropriate Forms of Alternative Dispute.

  18. Die teologiese debat: Die waarde of betekenis daarvan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ego vero hoc libro non contuli sed asservi et assero, ac penes nullum vo- lo esse iudicium, sed omnibus suadeo, ut praestent obsequium. (M Luther, De servo arbitrio, 1525). 1. INLEIDING. In ons dae is dit hoe mode om oor alles debat te voer. Een van die towerwoorde van ons tyd, veral op die politiek-staatkundige terrein, ...

  19. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    70. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde beroepsvroue *. Martha Kok en Priscilla Botha. ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research is to understand and describe the context in which career women choose, purchase and use convenience food (CF). A person is rarely isolated from or unaffected by.

  20. Die vlugtige taal van vergeet: Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From his first book of poetry, die ysterkoei moet sweet (“the iron cow must sweat”, 1964), till his most recent one, die windvanger (“the windcatcher”, 2007), metaphor has been a central means towards the creation of meaning for Breytenbach. This article will investigate the use of metaphor particularly in this recent book.

  1. Bestuur van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram in hulpbronarm skole in Limpopo – praktyk, suksesse en uitdagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eberlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie stel ondersoek in na die wyse waarop die implementering van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram (NSVP bestuur word deur skoolhoofde in hulpbronarm laerskole in die Waterberg-distrik van die Limpopo-provinsie. Dit vorm deel van ’n groter gesamentlike studie van die Universiteit van Pretoria en Northeast Normal University (UP en NENU wat fokus op die stand van prinsipaalskap in beide stedelike en landelike omgewings in SuidAfrika en in China. Data vir hierdie kwalitatiewe studie is met behulp van onderhoude en waarneming verkry binne die raamwerk van die vier bestuursfunksies soos omskryf deur Van Deventer en Kruger: beplanning; organisasie; leiding en rigtinggewing; asook kontrole en evaluering. Die primêre bevinding van die studie is dat hoewel skoolhoofde bewus is van riglyne en praktyke vir die implementering van die NSVP wat deur die Departement van Basiese Onderwys voorgeskryf word, hulle byna volledig op ander rolspelers op skoolvlak staatmaak om die program te bestuur, sonder enige daaglikse betrokkenheid by die proses of enige erkenning van hul eie rol en verantwoordelikhede in hierdie verband.

  2. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  3. The Economics of Tourism in Jordan: A statistical Study during the Period 1990-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Kreishan, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the development in the Jordanian tourism sector, while pointing out the major changes in this sector and its impact on economic development during the period (1990-2011. The study revealed that the tourism market has become a vital and dynamic sector in Jordan and witnessed significant growth in both demand and supply sides. The study showed that the supply side response was compatible with the level of demand for tourism. Moreover, the study also concluded that the tourism industry makes a substantial contribution to the Jordanian economy. During the study period, it accounted for (11.2% of the GDP, employment in the tourism cluster, including indirect employment was estimated at around (10% of the work force. Finally, the contribution of the tourism sector alone in export earnings amounted to an average of (38% of the total exports.

  4. Pylstertmotte (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. van den Berg

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available 'n Totaal van 42 spesies van pylstertmotte is in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin versamel. Die bekendste hiervan is die patatrusper (Herse convolvuli (L en die dood-skedelmot (Acherontia atropos (L. Die volgende spesies wat versamel is, se voorkoms is nog nie voorheen vir die Republiek van Suid-Afrika aangemeld nie nl. Pemba flavillacea (Walk., Praedora plagiata (R. &J., Leptoclanis basalis (Walk., Polyptychus calcareus (R. &J., Polyptychus compar (R. &J., Nephele aequivalens (Walk., Nephele peneus (Cram., Hippotion roseipennis (Butler en Xenosphingia jansei (Jord.. Die verspreiding van Oligographa juniperi (Bsd. wat langs die kusgebiede van Natal en die Oos-Kaap aangetrefword, is op verskeie plekke in die Krugerwildtuin versamel.

  5. [Study on dynamic accumulation of index components from Bupleurum chinense in various collecting periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-shuai; Li, Xiao-kun; Yang, Yun; Xiao, Gong-sheng; Feng, Wei-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To study the dynamic change law of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract from Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan province, and to explore the optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense. With the contents of saikosaponin a and d, absorbance of volatile oil and percentage of alcohol-extract as indexes, HPLC-ELSD and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were successively used to analyze them. There are obvious differences among the contents of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract in various collecting periods sample, the absorption of volatile oil in distillation was the highest in October, the content of saikosaponin a was the highest in September, the saikosaponin d in December and the percentage of alcohol-extract in October. The optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan is identified, which can provide scientific basis for crude drug production and processing.

  6. Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkovic, Rade [Laboratorium fuer Thermalhydraulics PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, OVGA 415, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rade.milenkovic@psi.ch; Sigg, Beat [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, George [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-12-15

    Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period.

  7. Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Rade; Sigg, Beat; Yadigaroglu, George

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period

  8. Die invloed van grootgroeponderrig op die selfgereguleerde leer van tersiêre wiskundeleerders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available elfregulering is belangrik in die ontwikkeling van lewenslange leerders, veral by voordiensonderwysers wat op hul beurt modelleerders van selfregulering in hul eie klaskamers gaan wees. Onderrig op tersiêre vlak word grootliks gekenmerk deur tradisionele onderrigmetodes vanweë die groot groepe leerders betrokke. In hierdie studie is vasgestel of ’n bepaalde grootgroeponderrigstrategie ’n invloed het op lede van groot klasgroepe se selfregulering, al dan nie. ’n Kwantitatiewe voortoets-natoets-ontwerp is gebruik waarin die studiegewoontesveld van die Studie-Oriëntasievraelys in Wiskunde aan die begin en einde van die semester ingesluit is. In ’n tweede vraelys het leerders hul belewenis van die grootgroeponderrigstrategie volgens ’n vyfpunt-Likertskaal beoordeel en ’n oopeindevraag voltooi wat ingesluit is om moontlike addisionele verklarings te bied vir die resultate wat verkry is uit die geslote vrae van die vraelys oor grootgroeponderrig. Beskrywende statistiek is gebruik om die data te interpreteer. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat daar nie ’n verbetering in leerders se selfregulering was nie. By ontleding van die oopeindevraag het dit aan die lig gekom dat verskeie aspekte van selfregulering by leerders ontbreek, soos tydsbestuur en goeie studiegewoontes, asook die bereidwilligheid om meer as net die voorgeskrewe probleme te doen.The influence of a large group teaching strategy on the self-regulated learning of tertiary mathematics learners. Self-regulation is important in developing lifelong learners, especially in the case of pre-service teachers who will soon be models of self-regulation in their own classrooms. In many instances, teaching at tertiary level is characterised by traditional teaching methods in large classes. In this study a particular large group instructional strategy was examined to determine whether it had an influence on learners’ self-regulation. A quantitative pre-test post-test design was used which

  9. DIE ERFORSCHUNG DER VEGETATIONSDYNAMIK IN DEN NORDWESTEN DES BANATS (KREIS TEMESCH, RUMÄNIEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fizitea

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Evolution und Aufeinanderfolge der Vegetationsvereine erfolgte in enger Verbindung mit den pädoklimatischen und zooantropischen Faktoren. Die Periode der antropogenen Vegetation wird charakterisiert durch die Vorherrschaft der gezüchteten Arten, welche zur Verbreitung der Agrophytozönosen sowie der ruderolen und segetalen Vegetation führte und somit die vorherigen Phytozönosen ersetzt.

  10. Die verband tussen voeding en die leesprestasie van graad 4-leerders in Suid-Afrika: Bevindinge van prePIRLS 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surette van Staden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Die effek van voeding op leerderprestasie was al die onderwerp van menige studie. Bewyse wat die oorsaaklike verhouding tussen voeding en prestasie staaf, bestaan egter nie. Op nasionale vlak belê die Departement van Basiese Onderwys tyd, moeite en geldelike hulpbronne in ’n Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram in ’n poging om die gesondheid van SuidAfrika se armste leerders te beskerm en om ’n bydrae tot hul opvoeding te maak. Teen hierdie agtergrond ondersoek die huidige studie patrone in die leesgeletterd van graad 4-leerlinge, wat geassosieer word met die response van onderwysers oor leerdervoeding, deur gebruik te maak van die Suid-Afrikaanse data van die Pre-Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (prePIRLS 2011. Volledige verslae van onderwysers oor die mate waartoe onderrig beϊnvloed word deur leerders se gebrek aan basiese voeding word aangebied, terwyl verslae van onderwysers volgens taalgroep ook oorweeg word in ’n poging om beter insig te verkry in patrone van prestasie op ’n gedisaggregeerde vlak. Resultate vir die huidige studie bevestig bestaande literatuur, naamlik dat ’n oorsaaklike verband tussen voeding en leesprestasie nie sonder twyfel vasgestel kan word nie. Nieteenstaande die gebrek aan oorsaaklike bewyse, behoort nasionale skoolvoedingsprogramme egter nie gediskrediteer of gestaak te word nie. Sulke programme kan moontlik juis van waarde wees wanneer realistiese doelwitte gestel word met die oog op verbeterde ondersteuning vir leerders.

  11. Demokrasi Di Malaysia: Studi Perbandingan Periode Pemerintahan Tiga Perdana Menteri Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the historical descriptive-interpretative effect general election implementation and socio-economic and cultural conditions of democracy and democratic process in Malaysia during the government period of Tunku Abdul Rahman to Mahathir Mohamad. The research based on the secondary data study-method. Based on the research, the general election implementation and socio-economic and cultural condition do not significant effect on democracy and the democratic process in ...

  12. Experience in cochlear reimplantation. Descriptive study of a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salazar, Andrés; Cop, Constanze; Osorio-Acosta, Ángel; Borkoski-Barreiro, Silvia; Falcón-González, Juan C; Ramos-Macías, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The cochlear implant is a surgical procedure that has increased substantially, because the paediatric population is diagnosed and implanted early and because there are increased potential indications. This device has the inherent risk of failure in performance, as dies any active medical device, which is the most common cause of implant removal. Our goal was to understand what the causes that produced removal in our series were, and confirm if these conformed to reality as reviewed in the literature. This was a retrospective, descriptive, observational study of 859 cochlear implant surgeries carried out between October 1991 and May 2011. The causes of implant removal were classified according to the European Consensus Statement on Cochlear Implant Failures and Explantations. The reimplantation rate was 6.16% (n=51). The most common reason for removal was technical device failure (45.5%), followed by infection/rejection (23.6%) and upgrade (12.7%). Less common causes: there were 3 cases (5.6%) of electrode misplacement, 2 cases (3.6%) of labyrinthine ossification, 2 (3.6%) as a result of head trauma, 2 (3.6%) from need for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and 1 case (1.8%) from psychiatric illness. Cochlear reimplantation is a safe procedure, with a low complication rate. In our centre, it reaches an overall rate of 6.16%. Technical device failure remains the most common cause of this procedure, although there is a significant percentage of reimplantation for device update. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    aus diversen Parteien bestehende Oppositionsbündnis erfuhr überraschend eine klare Stärkung. Während die aus der UMNO und 13 weiteren Koalitionären bestehende BN unter dem Motto „Sicherheit, Frieden, Wohlstand” für Premier Badawi warb, führten die Oppositionsparteien DAP, PAS und PRK – letztere unter...

  14. In diens van die Kompanjie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was ook siektes WQl Jit onvoldoende of ondoel- treffende voeding, eentonige kos en ontoerei- kende geneesmiddels voortgespruit het, terwyl behoorlike versorging dikwels ontbreek he!. Doodsoorsake tydens die seereis het voartge- vloei uit ongelukke aan boord, beperkte ruimte vir die bemanning en geringe vars lug, ...

  15. Die Mythen von der Globalisierung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip; Schmitt, Jan; Decreton, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Der Wissensstand über den Grad und die Art der Globalisierung ist viel niedriger als angenommen. Daraus entstehen Fehleinschätzungen.......Der Wissensstand über den Grad und die Art der Globalisierung ist viel niedriger als angenommen. Daraus entstehen Fehleinschätzungen....

  16. n hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biografie van die dominee (pastor?), spreek om verskeie redes boekdele. Die gebruik van die onbepaalde lidwoord is eerstens 'n bevestiging dat die artikel slegs 'n verdere bydrae (hoofstuk) tot die bestaande en steeds voortgaande gesprek (boek) oor die biografie van die dominee is (Heitink 2001). Tweedens plaas ek ...

  17. die krag van simbole en rites in die liturgie 1. probleemstelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uitroepe vervang met die drie keer Kyrie eleison, die drie maal Christe eleison en die drie keer Kyrie eleison-uitroepe (Albrecht 1989:43). Op die lang duur het die uitroep dus heeltemal losgeraak van die gebede en het dit 'n selfstandige liturgiese element geword (Van Rongen. 1990:35). Die Reformasie met sy nadruk op ...

  18. Vanaf die Fermat-punte na die De Villiers-punte van ’n driehoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael de Villiers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontdekking van die sogenaamde De Villiers-punte van ’n driehoek die bewyse wat betrokke is, en trek die historiese oorsprong terug na die Fermat-punte van ’n driehoek, die swaartepunt van ’n driehoek, en ’n nuttige veralgemening van die Fermat-punte van ’n driehoek.

  19. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  20. Die benutting van bestuurstalent met verwysing na die invloed van leierskapstyl en tydspan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A field and Laboratory study were conducted to determine the relationship between Leadership style, time-span of discretion and group performance. The results of this research support the prediction that situational variables such as time-span of discretion tend to moderate the relationship between Leadership style and group performance. Implications for future theory development, research and applications are discussed. Opsomming In 'n gekontroleerde laboratorium- en kontrolestudie is die verband tussen leierskapstyl en bestuursdoeltreffendheid onder verskillende tydspantoestande bepaal. Resultate toon aan dat beide leierskapstyl en tydspan 'n invloed uitoefen op bestuursdoeltreffendheid. Doeltreffendheid kan beskou word as 'n funksie van die aanpassing van basiese leierskapstyl by die betrokke situasie. Die gevolge wat hierdie bevindings vir verdere navorsing en bestuursontwikkeling mag inhou, word bespreek.

  1. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  2. Mediamonitering in die bestuur van korporatiewe beeld

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Die waarde van hierdie ondersoek hou verband met die bemarking van 'n onderneming en die handhawing van 'n mededingende voordeel deur die projektering van 'n positiewe beeld (Anon., 1995a:92; Bateman & Zeithaml, 1993:75; Caminiti, 1992:50; Kotler & Armstrong, 1991:240). Hierdie aspek neem toe in belangrikheid soos wat die besigheidsmilieu in Suid-Afrika verander, veral wat betref die toetrede van buitelandse maatskappye tot die Suid-Afrikaanse mark.

  3. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  4. Filosofiese tendense in die wordinggeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. M. Strauss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Die ontstaan van ’n lang tradisie van natuurwetenskaplike denke is in antieke Griekeland te vind – die bakermat van die Westerse beskawing en die bron van geartikuleerde rasionele besinning. Die vroegste fases van die Griekse kultuur het reeds geboorte geskenk aan ’n teoretiese nadenke oor die heelal. Die Pythagoreërs is veral bekend vir hul klem op die verklaringskrag van getalsverhoudinge. In hul tese dat “alles getal is” het hulle egter slegs rasionale getalle (breuke erken en gevolglik uiteindelik vasgeloop in die ontdekking van irrasionale getalle wat tot die geometrisering van die Griekse wiskunde gelei het en tegelyk die bedding gevorm het van waaruit ’n magtige tradisie van ruimte-metafisika gegroei het wat die hele middeleeuse tydperk omspan het. Die vermeende statiese syn is in die mees ekstreme geval – die skool van Parmenides en die argumente van Zeno teen veelheid en beweging – tot in die uiteindelike antinomiese konsekwensies daarvan deurdink. Dit was egter eers die vroeg-moderne tyd – die voorgangers en nakomelinge van Galilei – wat naas getal en ruimte ’n waardering ontwikkel het vir die verklaringskrag van beweging (vergelyk die klassieke meganistiese wêreldbeeld van die heelal as ’n meganisme van stofdeeltjies in beweging. Maar ook hierdie meganistiese reduksie (waardeur alle fisiese verskynsels herlei is tot die beweging van al of niegelade massapunte sou uiteindelik misluk omdat dit nie van die onomkeerbaarheid van fisiese prosesse rekenskap kon gee nie. Gevolglik beliggaam eers die fisika van die 20ste eeu ’n erkenning van die deurslaggewend-stempelende rol van energie-werking (dus van die fisiese aspek in die aard van stoflike dinge en prosesse. Die artikel word afgesluit met ’n vlugtige verduideliking van die implikasies van die voorafgaande argumentasie vir ’n benadering van die misterie van die bestaan van materie.

  5. Die invloed van doelwitstelling op prestasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. A. Louw

    1985-11-01

    Ofskoon die meeste navorsing Locke se doelwitstellingsteorie ondersteun, is bepaalde afwykings teengekom wat nie op 'n bevredigende wyse verklaar kan word nie. Die resultate van hierdie studie dui daarop dat 'n toename in doelwitmoeilikheidsgraad nie altyd tot ‘n ooreenstemmende toename in prestasie lei nie. Hierdie resultaat kon ook nie op grond van 'n gebrek aan doelwitaanvaarding verklaar word nie. Daar is voorts gevind dat die wyse waarop 'n nie-spesifieke doelwit gestel word, 'n beduidende invloed op prestasie kan hê. Finansiële aansporings blyk ook 'n onafhanklike invloed op prestasie te hê. Bepaalde aspekte van Locke se teorie word dus deur bogenoemde resultate bevraagteken. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word ten slotte gedoen.

  6. Study on The Extended Range Weather Forecast of Low Frequency Signal Based on Period Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Although many studies have explored the MJO and its application for weather forecasting, low-frequency oscillation has been insufficiently studied for the extend range weather forecasting over middle and high latitudes. In China, low-frequency synoptic map is a useful tool for meteorological operation department to forecast extend range weather. It is therefore necessary to develop objective methods to serve the need for finding low-frequency signal, interpretation and application of this signal in the extend range weather forecasting. In this paper, method of Butterworth band pass filter was applied to get low-frequency height field at 500hPa from 1980 to 2014 by using NCEP/NCAR daily grid data. Then period analysis and optimal subset regression methods were used to process the low frequency data of 150 days before the first forecast day and extend the low frequency signal of 500hPa low-frequency high field to future 30 days in the global from June to August during 2011-2014. Finally, the results were test. The main results are as follows: (1) In general, the fitting effect of low frequency signals of 500hPa low-frequency height field by period analysis in the northern hemisphere was better than that in the southern hemisphere, and was better in the low latitudes than that in the high latitudes. The fitting accuracy gradually reduced with the increase of forecast time length, which tended to be stable during the late forecasting period. (2) The fitting effects over the 6 key regions in China showed that except filtering result over Xinjiang area in the first 10 days and 30 days, filtering results over the other 5 key regions throughout the whole period have passed reliability test with level more than 95%. (3) The center and scope of low and high low frequency systems can be fitted well by using the methods mentioned above, which is consist with the corresponding use of the low-frequency synoptic map for the prediction of the extended period. Application of the

  7. How do young people evaluate nuclear energy at nuclear power plant sites? An empirical study; Wie bewerten junge Menschen an Standorten von Kernkraftwerken die Kernenergie? Eine empirische Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretz, Simon [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie und Geooekologie; Kramer, Caroline [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Professur fuer Humangeographie

    2014-12-15

    How does the younger generation evaluate nuclear power at sites with nuclear power plants? This has been examined at four sites with different decommissioning stages, as the presence of a nuclear power plant in young people's daily life represents a potential employer as well as a potential risk factor. The attitude of this generation will expectedly and sustainably influence the development of communities. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is currently, optimistically estimated by different energy supplying companies with a time period of 15 to 20 year. Thus the resident population will deal with this topic until the year 2040. Furthermore the decision on a repository exploration has been sighted for the year 2013. As a final repository will not be ready for operation at that time, communities will have to deal with the storage of radioactive waste in local interim-storage facilities. The next generation has the opportunity to shape their future as well as the future of their community. Nevertheless the preconditions are to stay at the side as well as the political and social engagement of these young people. n order to study this aspect and the opportunities of action of young people, data was gathered by carrying out a standardised survey, interviewing 762 pupils in February 2014.

  8. Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.

  9. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos

  10. Die toepassing van die K3-model op die televisieteks Colour TV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “OIL's approach to investigating the coloured market took place in the form of ethnographic research which ... communication strategies” (Botha 2010: 14). ... Op grond van die waarnemings, onderhoude en vraelyste het OIL tot die volgende ..... hold onto your nearest and dearest because this is going to be a kwaai mix bag.

  11. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  12. Application of the X-ray diffractometer DRON to the study of long period structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelij, V.I.; Lushchikov, V.I.; Syrykh, A.G.; Cherezon, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the stock-produced X-ray diffractometer DRON can be adapted for the study of long period structures up to ∼150 A. The experimental data on small-angle diffraction spectra, measured on it, from both lamellar and lateral structures of biological and lipid membranes are reported. The data show that lattice constants of these structures could be determined within the accuracy of 1 A. 15 refs.; 7 figs

  13. A study on the competitiveness improvement of the OPR1000 through reduction of the construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuck Soo

    2009-02-01

    Current world's nuclear power plant markets change will provide variety opportunities to the Korean nuclear power plant industries. The economic competitiveness is the most significant issue to utilize the forthcoming 'Renaissance of Nuclear Power' as a chance of exporting OPR1000. To improve the competitiveness of the OPR1000, the capital cost which is the key factor of the generating cost of the nuclear power plant should be reduced. Reduction of the construction period is more important than the design improvement or facility change regarding capital cost perspectives. The aim of this study, therefore, is to introduce the parallel installation method for reducing the construction period to achieve the economic competitiveness. The parallel installation path was selected among critical paths by analyzing the construction schedules of the nuclear power plants built in Korea. Reactor Coolant Loop Installation and Reactor Vessel Internal Installation were selected for the parallel installation method in this study. Conventional installation method installs reactor vessel internal after finishing reactor coolant loop installation. Therefore it needs about twenty (20) months from the reactor vessel settings to the completion of the reactor vessel internal installation. The parallel installation methodology proposed in this study can reduce the construction period about two (2) months by installing reactor vessel internals in parallel with the welding process of the cross-over leg between the steam generator and the reactor coolant pump. ANSYS Codes was utilized to show the deformation impacts on the reactor vessel caused by the shrinkage force imposed by the welding process of the cross-over leg. The code analysis results lead the deformation impact is negligible. And it confirms the parallel installation of the reactor vessel internal with the cross-over leg can be applied for the OPR1000 construction. The economic improvement by the parallel installation was also

  14. Fusion reactor technology studies. Final report for period August 1, 1972 - October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Maynard, C.W.

    1984-04-01

    Major accomplishments for the period August 1, 1972 - October 31, 1978 include the publishing of four comprehensive fusion reactor conceptual design studies; experimental studies in the areas of radiation damage, plasma-wall interactions, superconducting magnets and 14-MeV neutron cross sections; development of the concepts of carbon curtains and ISSEC's for use in fusion reactors; development of a neutron and gamma heating computer code, a radioactivity and afterheat computer code and a neutral transport computer code; and studies in the areas of RF heating for tokamaks and resource assessment for fusion reactors

  15. Retrospective study on radiotherapy efficacy in case of painful heel spur; Retrospektive Studie ueber die Wirksamkeit der Strahlentherapie beim schmerzhaftem Fersensporn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klossok-Niethammer, Ruth Giuliana

    2011-07-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy in context of a plantar fasciitis in order to reduce pain was evaluated in this retrospective study. Patients and methods: The data of 188 patients who suffered of heel spur pain and who were irradiated in the period from 1994 to 2009 were evaluated in this study. All of them had at least one follow up examination after radiatiotherapy. The mean age amounted to 57 years. 76.5% of the patients were female. All patients described a local pain which was the basis for the indication. 74.4 % of the patients described pain especially under stress. The duration of anamnesis was averaged as follows: 15 % of the patients had pain for some weeks to 3 months, 43 % for 4 to 6 months, 28% even for 7 to 12 months. The period of medical history was longer than 12 months for 12 % of the patients in this study. 122 of 188 patients received orthopedic arch support (shoe inlays) as first therapy method. Most of the patients were irradiated using regular lateral opposing fields with photons of the energy 4 MV and 6 MV of a linear accelerator, applying a total dose of 6Gy in 6 fractions to 1,0Gy twice weekly. Only one patient was irradiated using a Co{sup 60} machine. The acquisition of data regarding the effect was performed on the last day of the radiotherapy and in 3 to 6 monthly follow ups. Additionally the doctors who attended the patients beyond the radiotherapy received a special questionnaire about the pain reduction, so that the follow up data could be completed. Results: On the last day of radiotherapy 120/188 patients (63,8%)reported an improvement of pain reduction, 7/188 patients (3,7%) absence of pain. For 52/188 patients (27.6 %) pain remained constant. At the second follow up examination after in the median 100 days the effect of radiotherapy of 165 patients could be evaluated, 43/165 patients (26 %) were pain free, 79/165 patients (47,8 %) reported an obvious pain reduction, and for 33/165 patients there was no pain improvement. At

  16. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  17. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  18. Hospice assist at home : does the integration of hospice care in primary healthcare support patients to die in their preferred location - A retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Everlien; Zweers, Daniëlle; Valkenburg, Anna Ch; Uyttewaal, Allegonda; Teunissen, Saskia Ccm

    BACKGROUND: A majority of patients prefer to die at home. Specialist palliative care aims to improve quality of life. Hospice assist at home is a Dutch model of general/specialised palliative care within primary care, collaboratively built by general practitioners and a hospice. AIM: The aims of

  19. No negative impact of Palliative sedation on relatives' experience of the dying phase and their wellbeing after the patient's death: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bruinsma (Sophie); A. van der Heide (Agnes); M. Van Der Lee; Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient's perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention

  20. Effect of palliative care nurse champions on the quality of dying in the hospital according to bereaved relatives: A controlled before-and-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. Witkamp (Frederika); L. van Zuylen (Lia); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, hospitals increasingly appoint palliative care nurse champions. Aim: We investigated the effect of nurse champions on the quality of life during the last 3 days of life and the quality of dying as experienced by bereaved relatives.

  1. Die kliniese kindersielkundige as diagnostikus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strümpfer

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die benaming „Kliniese Kindersielkunde” is nog onbekend en gevolglik betreklik onbemind. Dit is in 1951 die eerste keer gebruik. Die werk van die Kliniese Kindersielkunde is egter so oud as die werk van die algemene Kliniese Sielkunde, waarvan die geskiedenis gewoonlik teruggevoer word tot die begin van sielkundige toetsing vroeg in die tagtigerjare. Tot ’n aansienlike mate is hierdie vroeë werk op kinders uitgevoer, bv. dié van Galton en later die van Binet en Simon. Witmer het in 1896 die eerste sielkundige kliniek geopen en het ook die term „Kliniese Sielkunde” ingevoer; die meerderheid van sy pasiënte was egter ook kinders. Tot voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was klinies-sielkundige werk hoofsaaklik op kinders toegespits. Sedertdien het die kliniese sielkundige tot ’n belangrike mate toegetree tot die gebied van die diagnose en terapie van psigiese afwykings by volwassenes, tot so ’n mate dat in die gedagtes en geskrifte van baie werkers die terrein van die Kliniese Sielkunde byna tot werk met volwassenes beperk word.

  2. DIE NAAM “NEDERDUITSE GEREFORMEERDE KERK”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.J. Strauss. DIE NAAM “NEDERDUITSE. GEREFORMEERDE KERK”. ABSTRACT. An investigation into the name of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) reveals that it is a reformed church in the ... P.J. Strauss, Fakulteit Teologie, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Suid‑Afrika. ..... Dit is so omdat die staat en sy howe die reg in die ...

  3. Abstraksie en veralgemening in die Wiskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Strydom

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer ek tot u spreek oor abstraksie en veralgemening in die Wiskunde, wil ek u aandag vestig op die belangrikheid daarvaan vir die Wiskunde, maar u terselfdertyd daarop wys dat die wiskundige hom nie langs hierdie weg heeltemal van die werklikheid kan losmaak nie.

  4. Live and Let Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    undertaken abroad. Over the 20 year period, 42 per cent of the R&D units had been closed down. As hypothesized, the hazard for closure declines with age and is greater for R&D units added through mergers and acquisitions than for greenfield establishments, but was smaller for strongly locally embedded units...

  5. Live and Let Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Kappen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    of foreign R&D laboratories. During the investigated period, more than 40% of the R&D units in the sample had been terminated. The results substantiate earlier research regarding the negative effects of mergers and acquisitions on R&D in acquired units but show that these effects are not immediate...

  6. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  7. Where is God in My Dying?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased focus on the role of spiritual care in palliative care, there is limited knowledge about spirituality / religiosity among dying patients in secularized cultures such as Denmark. This study aims through semi-structured interviews with Danish hospice patients and participant obser......, important faith although it was not something they knew much about, let alone discussed or practiced much....

  8. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study (J-HOPE Study): views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okishiro, Nao; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Tsuneto, Satoru; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    There has been a debate in appropriateness of legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia in Japan. To clarify views about these issues, we conducted a large nationwide study of the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units. The percentages of 429 bereaved family members (response rate 65%) who affirmed legal authorization were 52 for death with dignity and 45 for euthanasia and who affirmed assignment at the discretion of the physician involved were 37 for death with dignity and 38 for euthanasia. In conclusion, views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved are inconsistent. No consensus is reached as to legislation of these issues.

  9. Author: T Bekker DIE MOONTLIKE REGSHERVORMING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    So ver terug as die vroeë twintigste eeu het die Appèlhof in Cassiem v Standard. Bank of SA Ltd,1 .... 838; Capital Building Society v De Jager 1963 3 SA 381 (T); Smit v Walles 1985 2 SA 189 (T). 196-198. 18 ...... moeilik kon regverdig.97. Ons howe het tot op hede gehuiwer om 'n algemene plig van goeie trou ten aansien.

  10. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiong; Zhang Hong; Tong Qin-Ye; Chen Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented. (general)

  11. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  12. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  13. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  14. Critical Periods after Stroke Study: Translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Dromerick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 795,000 Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 hours of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2-3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test at one year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial.

  15. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type I) within the product group: small cogeneration plants; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen in Anlehnung an ISO 14024 (Type I) fuer die Produktgruppe: Kleine Blockheizkraftwerk-Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Hirschl, B.; Kaliske, J. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Reese, I.; Grimpe, T. [Hamburg Gas Consult (HGC) GmbH (Germany)

    2000-11-02

    available data, it is not possible at the moment to derive concrete criteria for an ecolabel in this field. After the introduction of initial products onto the market, corresponding requirements for plants based on this new technology should be specified. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer kleine BHKW-Module gerechtfertigt ist, und welche Anforderungen diese im Vergabefall erfuellen sollten. Im Rahmen der Untersuchung wurde zunaechst eine umfassende Marktanalyse durchgefuehrt, um daraus die Anlagen zu identifizieren, die fuer ein Umweltzeichen in Frage kommen. Im Hauptteil der Studie ging es um die vertiefende Analyse der Umweltrelevanz der ausgewaehlten Anlagen. Hierzu wurde eine Herstellerbefragung durchgefuehrt und ausgeaehlte BHKW anhand eines Systemvergleiches mit Gas- und Oelheizkesseln verglichen. Auf der Basis dieser Analyse wurden Anforderungskataloge fuer Gas- und Diesel-BHKW-Module abgeleitet, die in einem Fachgespraech in einer breiten Runde von Experten und Herstellern vorgestellt und diskutiert wurden. Aus der Studie und dem Fachgespraech konnte ein deutliches Votum fuer ein Umweltzeichen fuer die untersuchten BHWK-Module abgeleitet werden. Die vorgeschlagenen Vergabegrundlagen umfassen Anforderungen an Richtlinienkonformitaet, rationelle Energienutzung (Elektrischer und Gesamtwirkungsgrad bei Nennlast und Teillast, Angabe des Hilfsstrombedarfes), Emissionswerte von CO, NO{sub x}, Staub und organischen Stoffen, Schallemissionen, Angebot von Wartungsvertraegen, Ruecknahmeverpflichtung sowie Anforderungen an die Bedienungsanleitung. Als moegliche Umschrift eines Zeichens fuer kleine BHKW-Module wird empfohlen: 'Umweltzeichen... weil energieefizient'. Neben motorischen BHKW wurden auch kleine Brennstoffzellen-BHKW untersucht. Diese befinden sich zur Zeit noch in einer Feldtest- und Erprobungsphase. Sie weisen deutliche oekologische

  16. Racism, Ethnicity and the Media in Africa: Reflections Inspired by Studies of Xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa Rassismus, Ethnizität und die Medien in Afrika: Reflektionen angeregt durch Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the extent to which the media and belonging in Africa are torn between competing and often conflicting claims of bounded and flexible ideas of culture and identity. It draws on studies of xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa, inspired by the resilience of the politicization of culture and identity, to discuss the hierarchies and inequalities that underpin political, economic and social citizenship in Africa and the world over, and the role of the media in the production, enforcement and contestation of these hierarchies and inequalities. In any country with liberal democratic aspirations or pretensions, the media are expected to promote national citizenship and its emphasis on large-scale, assimilationist and territorially bounded belonging, while turning a blind eye to those who fall through the cracks as a result of racism and/or ethnicity. Little wonder that such an exclusionary articulation of citizenship is facing formidable challenges from its inherent contradictions and closures, and from an upsurge in the politics of recognition and representation by small-scale communities claiming autochthony at a historical juncture where the rhetoric espouses flexible mobility, postmodern flux and discontinuity. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, inwieweit die Medien und gesellschaftliche Bindungen in Afrika zwischen konfligierenden Ansprüchen abgegrenzter und sich wandelnder kultureller Identitäten zerrissen sind. Angeregt durch die Erfahrung der kontinuierlichen Politisierung kultureller und sozialer Identitäten zieht der Autor Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika heran, um die Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten zu diskutieren, auf denen politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Staatsbürgerschaft in Afrika und darüber hinaus basiert, sowie die Rolle der Medien bei der Entstehung, Verstärkung und im Wettstreit dieser Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten. In jedem liberal-demokratisch ausgerichteten Staat

  17. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    modern buildings of Eskisehir as a medium-size city of Turkey will be examined in this study within the scope of the early modern architectural period of Turkey.

  18. A laser-based study of kerosine evaporation and -mixing for lean prevaporized combustion at elevated pressure; Lasermesstechnische Untersuchung der Kerosinverdampfung und -mischung fuer die magere Vormischverbrennung unter erhoehtem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, M.

    1999-05-01

    The evaporation and mixing of a kerosine spray in the turbulent airstream of a prevaporizer is investigated at conditions prevailing in the combustion chamber of gas turbines. An experiment is described that allows to study an evaporating fuel spray downstream a prefilming airblast atomizer with Phase-Doppler anemometry, laser-induced fluorescence and an infrared light absorption technique. At an air pressure of 9 bars, an air temperature of 750 K, a mean air velocity of 120 m/s and a fuel flow rate of 1 g/s the kerosine spray evaporates completely without autoignition. At this operating condition the parameters air pressure, air temperature and air turbulence are varied. The influence of these parametric variations on the dropsize distribution, the evaporation rate and the concentration profiles of liquid and evaporated fuel is presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Verdampfung und Vermischung eines Kerosinsprays in der turbulenten Luftstroemung eines Vorverdampfers wird unter Bedingungen untersucht, die in Brennkammern fuer Gasturbinen vorherrschen. Ein Experiment wird vorgestellt, welches es erlaubt, ein verdampfendes Kraftstoffspray stromab eines ebenen Luftstromzerstaeubers mit Filmleger mittels der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie, Laser-induzierter Fluoreszenz und einer Infrarotabsorptionsmesstechnik zu untersuchen. Bei einem Luftdruck von 9 bar, einer Vorwaermetemperatur der Luft von 750 K, einer mittleren Luftgeschwindigkeit von 120 m/s und einem Kraftstoffmassenstrom von 1 g/s verdampft das Kerosinspray vollstaendig, ohne die Selbstzuendungszeit zu erreichen. Bei dieser Betriebsbedingung werden die Parameter Luftdruck, Lufttemperatur und Turbulenzgrad variiert. Der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf das Tropfengroessenspektrum, den Verdampfungsgrad und die Konzentrationsprofile des fluessigen sowie des verdampften Kraftstoffs wird dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig.)

  19. "Sometimes I've gone home feeling that my voice hasn't been heard": a focus group study exploring the views and experiences of health care assistants when caring for dying residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Susan; Bellamy, Gary; Morgan, Tessa; Gott, Merryn

    2016-08-19

    In most developed countries, Health Care Assistants comprise a significant, and growing, proportion of the residential aged care workforce. Despite the fact that they provide the majority of direct care for residents, little is known about a key care aspect of their work, namely their experience of caring for dying residents. Twenty-six Health Care Assistants working in aged residential care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand participated in six focus group discussions. Focus groups were designed to explore the experiences of Health Care Assistants caring for imminently dying residents in aged care facilities and to identify barriers and facilitators to their work in this area. The focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a general inductive approach. Participants confirmed that Health Care Assistants provide the majority of hands on care to dying residents and believed they had a valuable role to play at this time due to their unique 'familial' relationship with residents and families. However, it was apparent that a number of barriers existed to them maximising their contribution to supporting dying residents, most notably the lack of value placed on their knowledge and experience by other members of the multidisciplinary team. Whilst a need for additional palliative and end of life care education was identified, a preference was identified for hands on education delivered by peers, rather than the didactic education they currently receive. Given ageing populations internationally coupled with a constrained health budget, the role of Health Care Assistants in most developed countries is likely to become even more significant in the short to medium term. This study makes a unique contribution to the international literature by identifying the barriers to caring for dying residents experienced by this valuable sector of the aged care workforce. These data have the potential to inform new, innovative, interventions to address

  20. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ehlers

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  1. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  2. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  3. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, S; Chawla, H S; Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Mohanty, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier calliper. After 3 years follow-up, the impressions were recorded again and dental casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured again at this stage and were compared with the baseline data using the paired t-test and the chi square test. There is a significant increase in the intercanine (3.93 + 1.70 mm) and intermolar width (1.49 + 1.77 mm) during the transition period from primary to early mixed dentition in both the arches and both the sexes. The gender-wise comparison showed a greater increase in males than in females, but this was not statistically significant. A thorough knowledge of growth changes during various stages of the mixed dentition period are important for a pediatric dentist to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment planning during preventive and interceptive orthodontics.

  4. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution. 2011 FRAME.

  5. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  6. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier calliper. After 3 years follow-up, the impressions were recorded again and dental casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured again at this stage and were compared with the baseline data using the paired t-test and the chi square test. Results: There is a significant increase in the intercanine (3.93 + 1.70 mm and intermolar width (1.49 + 1.77 mm during the transition period from primary to early mixed dentition in both the arches and both the sexes. The gender-wise comparison showed a greater increase in males than in females, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A thorough knowledge of growth changes during various stages of the mixed dentition period are important for a pediatric dentist to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment planning during preventive and interceptive orthodontics.

  7. pastorale begeleiding aan die persoon met dissosiatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychological or pastoral by nature. Effective assistance to the person ... INLEIDING. Volgens die kriteria in die DSM-IV2 (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition) van die APA (American Psychiatric. Association 1995) ...

  8. Die verband tussen werknemertevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. S. Pretorius

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational commitment. The primary goal of the study is to determine whether a relationship exists between employee satisfaction and organisational commitment. A secondary goal is to determine whether any biographical variables mediate this relationship. Standardised instruments were used for operationalising these two contructs. A sample of convenience yielded 167 respondents out of a sampling frame of 300 employees from a financial organisation. Only 145 respondents returned fully completed questionnaires that were used for final analysis. Responses from both questionnaires were subjected to a factor and item analysis. A statistically significant relation between employee satisfaction and organisational commitment was found. The implications of the findings are discussed further. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie is om vas te stel of daar ’n verband bestaan tussen werknemertevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid. ’n Sekondêre oogmerk is om te bepaal of enige biografiese veranderlikes hierdie verband medieer. Gestandaardiseerde instrumente is gebruik om hierdie twee konstrukte te operasionaliseer. ’n Gerieflikheidsteekproef het 167 respondente uit ’n steekproefraamwerk van 300 werknemers van ’n finansiële instelling opgelewer. Slegs 145 respondente het volledig voltooide vraelyste terugbesorg, wat vir finale ontleding gebruik is. Response op albei vraelyste is aan ’n faktor- en itemontleding onderwerp. ’n Statisties-beduidende verband tussen werknemertevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid is gevind. Die implikasies van die bevindinge word verder bespreek.

  9. Plasma adiponectin and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana R; Struchiner, Claudio J; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    Some authors have described an inverse association between adiponectin and depression, but this association has not yet been investigated during the perinatal period. To evaluate the association between the plasma adiponectin levels and symptoms of depression in women from early pregnancy to 30-45 days postpartum. A prospective cohort of 235 women was analyzed, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, and 30-36th gestational weeks and 30-45 days postpartum. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; cutoff ≥ 11). The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The statistical analyses included linear mixed effects regressions to model the association between these time-dependent variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 35.5%, 22.8%, 21.8%, and 16.9% and the median (µg/mL) adiponectin levels were 4.8, 4.7, 4.4, and 7.5 in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters and the postpartum period, respectively. Women who remained non-depressed throughout the study tended to have higher values of adiponectin throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period compared to those who had depressive symptoms at least once, but this difference was not statistically significant (β=-0.14; p=0.071). There was no statistically significant association between the plasma adiponectin levels and the EPDS scores in the multiple model (β=-0.07; p=0.320). Losses to follow-up, different procedures for the blood draws at the prenatal and postpartum visits, and the presence of a nested clinical trial with omega-3 supplementation. The plasma adiponectin levels were not associated with depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The depression in women in pregnancy and postpartum period: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Acemoglu, Hamit; Daloglu, Ali Gokhan

    2015-06-01

    This was a follow-up study to determine postpartum depression (PPD) and its causes in a population previously evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study sample consisted of pregnant women who were evaluated in the first trimester and 360 women who were re-evaluated in the postpartum period. Detailed sociodemographic data were obtained from the women, and depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale (EPDS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). In this follow-up study, the prevalence of PPD was 35% (n = 126). A depressive disorder in the first trimester of pregnancy, previous mental disorder, somatic disorder, exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, baby's staying in the incubator and not breastfeeding were predictors of PPD. Exposure to violence and a history of previous depression predicted depression both in pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Depression rates are high in Eastern Turkey. Exposure to violence during pregnancy and the existence of a previous mental disorder were risk factors for perinatal depression in this study. Performing screening tests can identify women at risk of pregnancy-related depression. Prevention programs should be established in areas where the prevalence of depression is high. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  12. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-07-13

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  13. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  14. The efficient ones; Die Leistungsfaehigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-06-01

    The increase of output of a solar system where vacuum tube collectors replace flatbed collectors is difficult to calculate exactly. The formula for the calculation of efficiency is the basis of such calculations. Due to evacuation and better insulation the heat loss of vacuum tube collectors is smaller than that of flatbed collectors. This is also evident in the fact that the efficiency curve decreases less steeply as the temperature difference increases. Efficiency remains relatively high. Up to now vacuum tube collectors have been a niche product but more and more companies now sell these efficient collectors.(orig.). [German] Wie stark sich die Leistung der Solaranlage verbessert, wenn man Vakuumroehrenkollektoren (VRK) statt Flachkollektoren einsetzt, laesst sich nur schwer berechnen. Grundlage ist stets die Wirkungsgradformel. Aufgrund der Evakuierung und dadurch besseren Isolierung weisen die VRK deutlich geringere Waermeverluste auf als Flachkollektoren. Dies drueckt sich auch dadurch aus, dass die Wirkungsgradkurve mit wachsender Temperaturdifferenz {delta}{theta} deutlich flacher abfaellt. Der Wirkungsgrad bleibt relativ hoch. Als Hightech-Produkt hatte der Vakuumroehrenkollektor bisher eine typische Marktnische besetzt. Doch immer mehr Anbieter entscheiden sich fuer die Vermarktung dieser leistungsfaehigen Kollektoren. (orig.)

  15. Reparation of damaged forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Lazić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The forging dies are in exploitation exposed to elevated temperatures and variable impact loads, both compressive and shear. Steels for manufacturing of these tools must endure those loads while maintaining mechanical properties and being resistant to wear and thermal fatigue. For those reasons, the alloyed steels are used for making the forging dies, though they have less weldability, because alloying increases proneness to hardening. Any reparatory hard facing (HF of the damaged dies would require the specially adjusted technology to the particular piece. In this paper reparatory hard facing of dies used for forging pieces in the automobile industry is considered. Prior to reparatory hard facing of the real tools, numerous experimental hard facings on models were performed. All the model hard facings were done on the same steels which were used for production of the real forging dies. To define the optimal hard facing technology one needs to derive the optimal combination of the adequate heat treatment(s, to select the proper filler metals and the welding procedure. The established optimal HF technology was applied to real forging dies whose service life was further monitored in conditions of exploitation

  16. Project study for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep-lying geological formations and for intermediate storage. Projektstudie fuer die Endlagerung von hochaktiven Abfaellen in tiefliegenden geologischen Formationen sowie fuer die Zwischenlagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The present report has been written to show the feasibility of construction and the operational suitability of different intermediate and final storage concepts for high-level radioactive wastes. It summarizes the information from a project study given under contract by Nagra. The report should orient a broader public about the possible construction of such intermediate and final repositories. The work presented here refers to radioactive wastes which need an extremely long isolation time. Important information from a separate study concerning different aspects of the drilling of deep boreholes, has been integrated into the present report.

  17. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  18. TEENOOR DROEVOEDING EN PROTEiENPEIL OP DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brith to 136 kg with two planes of nutrition from 53 to 136 kilograms. J. Anim. Sci. 37,683. SIEBRITS, F.K., 1979. Die kwantifisering van effekte van oat teenoor droe voeding op die spekvark. M.Sc. (Agric) verhandeling. Universiteit van Pretoria. THORBEK, GRETE, 1975. Studies on energy metabolism in growing pigs.

  19. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  20. die kasteel••de goede hoop" (1921.1923): die verhaal van in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. TWEE. KOMITEE-VERGADERINGS. BESLUITE a. Doel en samestelling van die komitee. Op 12 Desember 1921 stuur die Sekretans yap Verdediging uitnodigings aan sekere amptelike instansies en ander behingstd1endes waarin hy die redes vir die wenslikheid van 'n komitee en die werksaamhede uitecnsit en die ge-.