WorldWideScience

Sample records for study high energy

  1. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contact AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March of 1989 to February of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a precision study of the A-dependence of massive muon-pion production and a study of low-multiplicity decay modes of charm. We are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. Finally, a minor effort is being given to analyzing data from Fermilab of particles with lifetime between 10 -12 and 10 -13 seconds. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group can be found in the narrative accompanying our grant renewal proposal. 10 refs

  2. High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.

  3. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  4. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  5. Studies in theorectical high energy particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Panigrahi, P.; Sukhatme, U.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the research being done at the University of Illinois in theoretical high energy physics. Some areas discussed are string models, collider physics, symmetries in gauge theories, sigma model, radiative decay of mesons, supersymmetry, superconducting, and hydroproduction of charm

  6. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March--December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  7. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March through December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  8. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract FG02-91ER40641 during the period from March 1991 to December 1991. Our group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, we are also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  9. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  10. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from July of 1990 to June of 1991 and from February to March 1992. Our group has three main efforts which will be discussed in this paper. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789 which involved detection of meson decays. Finally, we discuss our work with the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  11. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1984-09-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower.

  12. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections

  13. Surface studies with high-energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensgaard, Ivan [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Physics

    1992-07-01

    High-energy ion scattering is an extremely useful technique for surface studies. Three methods for surface composition analysis (Rutherford backscattering, nuclear-reaction analysis and elastic recoil detection) are discussed. Directional effects in ion-beam surface interactions (shadowing and blocking) form the basis for surface structure analysis with high-energy ion beams and these phenomena are addressed in some detail. It is shown how surface relaxation and reconstruction, as well as positions of adsorbed atoms, can be determined by comparison with computer simulations. A special technique called transmission channelling is introduced and shown to be particularly well suited for studies of adsorption positions, even of hydrogen. Recent developments in the field are demonstrated by discussing a large number of important (experimental) applications which also include surface dynamics and melting, as well as epitaxy and interface structure. (author).

  14. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  15. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  16. A detector for use in high energy bremsstrahlung shielding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, O.J.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The design, development and calibration of a detector based on the principle of the Moxon-Rae detector is discussed. It is ideally suited to the measurement of the energy fluence of photons transmitted through a thick shield which has been irradiated with high energy bremsstrahlung. The detection sensitivity is 10 4 to 10 5 times that of the P2 ion chamber

  17. Monte Carlo studies of high-transverse-energy hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    A four-jet Monte Carlo calculation has been used to simulate hadron-hadron interactions which deposit high transverse energy into a large-solid-angle calorimeter and limited solid-angle regions of the calorimeter. The calculation uses first-order QCD cross sections to generate two scattered jets and also produces beam and target jets. Field-Feynman fragmentation has been used in the hadronization. The sensitivity of the results to a few features of the Monte Carlo program has been studied. The results are found to be very sensitive to the method used to ensure overall energy conservation after the fragmentation of the four jets is complete. Results are also sensitive to the minimum momentum transfer in the QCD subprocesses and to the distribution of p/sub T/ to the jet axis and the multiplicities in the fragmentation. With reasonable choices of these features of the Monte Carlo program, good agreement with data at Fermilab/CERN SPS energies is obtained, comparable to the agreement achieved with more sophisticated parton-shower models. With other choices, however, the calculation gives qualitatively different results which are in strong disagreement with the data. These results have important implications for extracting physics conclusions from Monte Carlo calculations. It is not possible to test the validity of a particular model or distinguish between different models unless the Monte Carlo results are unambiguous and different models exhibit clearly different behavior

  18. Study of high energy emissions from stellar mass accreting holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadolle-Bel, Marion

    2006-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of various X-ray binary Systems harbouring accreting stellar mass black holes (or candidates) associated in X-ray binary Systems mainly through the spectral and timing properties of the high energy 3 keV"-"1 MeV emission, sometimes completed by observations performed in radio, near-infrared and optical. The first part is devoted to accretion physics phenomena and the challenges of understanding the X-ray/gamma emission produced with the modeling of such high energy processes. Then I will define in a second part the instruments on board INTEGRAL and the way coded masked aperture is employed. In a third part, I will develop the standard data reduction analysis and my own contribution in improving the usual software before detailing the specific informatics tools I have developed for my own analysis. In the fourth part I will turn towards the deep analysis and interpretations I have performed on several black hole X-ray binary Systems chosen properly: the persistent black hole source Cygnus X-1 which has been studied since several years and surprised us by a high-energy excess detected; two new transient sources which provide interesting information, XTE J1720-318 located in the galactic bulge and SWIFT J1753.5-0127, probably situated in the halo. I will also detail my work on H 1743-322, recently identified by INTEGRAL as the HEAO source discovered in 1977, and on three (almost) persistent micro-quasars with superluminal jets, 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GRS 1915+105. I will analyze for each source spectral parameter evolutions and their links with each other during state transitions. I will then discuss the presence of two different X/gamma-ray emitting media with a relatively changing geometry. While establishing a cyclic order for the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 observed during ten years, I will propose an interpretation for such behaviour, compatible with the theoretical predictions of the

  19. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  20. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-30

    This is the final report of a program of research on "Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate

  1. Study of multiparticle jet production using calorimeters, high energy channeling, and other high energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanofsky, A.S.

    1990-10-01

    During this period, work was started on the construction of the backward gamma chambers to be used in experiment E683 at Fermilab. Work also is proceeding on various auxiliary experiments that can be performed with the experimental set-up. Work on the SSC accelerator and experiments began in 1984 with the participation of the principal investigator in the Snomass summer studies and continues with the funding of the accelerator and the location of its site in Texas. We are working with the large EMPACT/TEXAS collaboration on a large detector that the group has proposed. As well, the principal investigator is working on smaller experiments that can be executed at the SSC with less resources. Also, we are working on detector development and radiation tolerance of detectors such as scintillating fibers and data acquisition electronics. Experiments continue at Lehigh on growing ''whiskers'' in wire chambers. These whiskers affect the performance of wire chambers by providing corona discharge points within the chambers. We are able to study the growth of the whiskers in the laboratory and measure the whisker composition using Auger and ESCA spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. We are further developing results that were obtained earlier from various Monte-Carlo programs, including the effects of various momentum energy conservation methods on results, extrapolations to higher transverse momentum, granularity of detectors, and resolution of previous discrepancies. Results of radiation effects on various electronic devices were obtained. Work continued on new accelerator devices and concepts

  2. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author) [pt

  3. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4π detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented

  4. Report of the 1985 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel Study of the US High Energy Physics Program, 1985-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The present study was motivated by the desire to examine the US High Energy Physics Program in depth, to reassess the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) goal in light of recent scientific and technical developments, and to understand how this project would affect and interact with the US high energy program in the period before it becomes operational. It is recommended that the SSC research and development be given highest priority in the US High Energy Physics Program so that the project can proceed to an early construction start and rapid completion. A limited number of programs are identified as ''forefront programs'' - those which enter a new experimental regime in such a way as to have clear promise for new fundamental discoveries - and it is recommended that these proceed with priority. Research opportunities available during the next ten years are explored, including proton-antiproton colliders, electron-proton collider, electron-positron colliders, fixed-target experiments, and non-accelerator experiments

  5. High energy laser optics manufacturing: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents concepts and methods, major conclusions, and major recommendations concerning the fabrication of high energy laser optics (HELO) that are to be machined by the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of concepts and methods proposed for metrological operations, polishing of reflective surfaces, mounting of optical components, construction of mirror substrates, and applications of coatings are included

  6. High energy physics studies progress report. Part I. Experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The experimental program of research, including Assembly of an experiment at Fermilab E-351 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion, of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos will continue. A data-taking run will take place in the coming fiscal year. Participation in the neutrino experiment E-310, Fermilab-Harvard-Pennsylvania-Rutgers-Wisconsin, will also continue. Data analysis from several experiments performed in the recent past at the ZGS ANL is in progress and will be pursued. These experiments are, E-397, E-420 and E-428 performed with the Charged and Neutral Spectrometer, and E-347 with the Σ/sub β/ Spectrometer. Plans are in the making to collaborate with a polarized proton experiment at the ZGS. New approaches to ''third generation'' neutrino experiments at Fermilab are being discussed by the whole high energy group. Ideas of pursuing experiments at the AGS-BNL with the Σ/sub β/ Spectrometer are explored. The theoretical research program covers topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year; namely, the role of instantons in quantum chromodynamics, Higgs Lagrangian involving scalar fields, phenomenology of neutrino physics and in particular the nature of trimuon production, higher order symmetries like SU(3) x U(1) SU(5) and SU(6), dynamics of high energy diffractive scattering, classical solutions to the gauge field theories

  7. High energy fast neutrons from the Harwell variable energy cyclotron. II. Biologic studies in mammalian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; Bance, D.A.; Barnes, D.W.H.; Cox, R.; Goodhead, D.T.; Sansom, J.M.; Thacker, J.

    1977-01-01

    A high energy fast neutron beam potentially suitable for radiotherapy has been described in a companion paper. Its biologic effects have been studied in the following experimental systems: clonal survival and mutation induction after irradiation in vitro in Chinese hamster cells and human diploid fibroblasts; survival of reproductive capacity in vivo of murine hemopoietic colony-forming cells and murine intestinal crypts after irradiation in vivo; survival of reproductive capacity in vivo after irradiation in vitro or in vivo of murine lymphocytic leukemia cells; acute intestinal death following total body irradiation of mice and guinea pigs; and hemopoietic death following total body irradiation of mice and guinea pigs. The relative biologic effectiveness of these high energy neutrons varied among the different biologic systems, and in several cases varied with the size of the radiation dose. The oxygen enhancement ratio was studied in murine lymphocytic leukemia cells irradiated under aerobic or hypoxic conditions in vitro and assayed for survival of reproductive capacity in vivo. Compared with x-rays, the potential therapeutic gain factor for these neutrons was about 1.5. This work represents a ''radiobiologic calibration'' program which it is suggested should be undertaken before new and unknown fast neutron spectra are used for experimental radiotherapy. The results are compared with biologic studies carried out at high energy fast neutron generators in the United States

  8. Proceedings of the Ninth High Energy Heavy Ion Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, A.D.; Justice, M.; Ritter, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: di-lepton production; multifragmentation; collective effects and flow; beam and radioactive beam studies; and scattering and particle production. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  10. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  11. Studies of QCD structure in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolsky, Pavel M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-26

    Studies of QCD structure in high-energy collisions” is a research project in theoretical particle physics at Southern Methodist University funded by US DOE Award DE-SC0013681. The award furnished bridge funding for one year (2015/04/15-2016/03/31) between the periods funded by Nadolsky’s DOE Early Career Research Award DE-SC0003870 (in 2010-2015) and a DOE grant DE-SC0010129 for SMU Department of Physics (starting in April 2016). The primary objective of the research is to provide theoretical predictions for Run-2 of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC physics program relies on state-of-the-art predictions in the field of quantum chromodynamics. The main effort of our group went into the global analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs) employed by the bulk of LHC computations. Parton distributions describe internal structure of protons during ultrarelivistic collisions. A new generation of CTEQ parton distribution functions (PDFs), CT14, was released in summer 2015 and quickly adopted by the HEP community. The new CT14 parametrizations of PDFs were obtained using benchmarked NNLO calculations and latest data from LHC and Tevatron experiments. The group developed advanced methods for the PDF analysis and estimation of uncertainties in LHC predictions associated with the PDFs. We invented and refined a new ’meta-parametrization’ technique that streamlines usage of PDFs in Higgs boson production and other numerous LHC processes, by combining PDFs from various groups using multivariate stochastic sampling. In 2015, the PDF4LHC working group recommended to LHC experimental collaborations to use ’meta-parametrizations’ as a standard technique for computing PDF uncertainties. Finally, to include new QCD processes into the global fits, our group worked on several (N)NNLO calculations.

  12. Studies of QCD structure in high-energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadolsky, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    ''Studies of QCD structure in high-energy collisions'' is a research project in theoretical particle physics at Southern Methodist University funded by US DOE Award DE-SC0013681. The award furnished bridge funding for one year (2015/04/15-2016/03/31) between the periods funded by Nadolsky's DOE Early Career Research Award DE-SC0003870 (in 2010-2015) and a DOE grant DE-SC0010129 for SMU Department of Physics (starting in April 2016). The primary objective of the research is to provide theoretical predictions for Run-2 of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC physics program relies on state-of-the-art predictions in the field of quantum chromodynamics. The main effort of our group went into the global analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs) employed by the bulk of LHC computations. Parton distributions describe internal structure of protons during ultrarelivistic collisions. A new generation of CTEQ parton distribution functions (PDFs), CT14, was released in summer 2015 and quickly adopted by the HEP community. The new CT14 parametrizations of PDFs were obtained using benchmarked NNLO calculations and latest data from LHC and Tevatron experiments. The group developed advanced methods for the PDF analysis and estimation of uncertainties in LHC predictions associated with the PDFs. We invented and refined a new 'meta-parametrization' technique that streamlines usage of PDFs in Higgs boson production and other numerous LHC processes, by combining PDFs from various groups using multivariate stochastic sampling. In 2015, the PDF4LHC working group recommended to LHC experimental collaborations to use 'meta-parametrizations' as a standard technique for computing PDF uncertainties. Finally, to include new QCD processes into the global fits, our group worked on several (N)NNLO calculations.

  13. [Studies of elementary particles and high energy phenomena: [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumalat, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of work under this contract is unclassified and shall consist of experimental, theoretical, and phenomenological research on the fundamental properties of high energy subnuclear particles at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the SSC laboratory, and the University of Colorado with emphasis on photon beam experiments, electron-positron interactions, charmed particles, production of new vector bosons, advanced data acquisition systems, two photon physics, particle lifetimes, supergravity, supersymmetry, superstrings, quantum chromodynamics, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, cosmology, phase transitions, lattice gauge theory, anomaly-free theories, gravity and instrumentation development. These topics are covered in this report

  14. Computer simulation studies of high energy collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1991-07-01

    A modified binary collision approximation allowing the proper order of the collisions in time was used to study cascades in Cu and Au at primary kinetic energies up to 100 keV. Nonlinearities were approximated by letting already-stopped cascade atoms become targets in later collisions, using an improved method of locating potential targets to extend the calculations to energies much higher than heretofore. Beside the effect of the approximate nonlinearity, the effect of thermal disorder in the targets was examined. Target redisplacements reduce the damage in Cu by 3% at most, but in Au they reduce it by amounts up to 20% at 100 keV. Thermal disorder is also important: by disrupting crystal effects, the damage is reduced significantly. 11 refs., 4 figs

  15. Studies of high energy lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, G.

    1982-05-01

    The first part of this thesis is related to the problem of detecting charmed particles. A new technique for observing very short decay paths in nuclear emulsions is developed and applied on a sample of neutrino induced reactions. Techniques for producing thick pellicles of nuclear track emulsion are also developed. In the second part, phenomenological investigations of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are made. Monte Carlo computer programs, based on the parton model and perturbative QCD for the initial hard process and the Lund model for the following soft hadronization, are used to simulate these reactions and thereby obtain explicit results. Generally good agreement is found when comparing these with experimental data, thus supporting this basic framework. Predictions to test QCD are made. Transverse momentum properties are studied in detail, in particular effects from soft gluon emission. The properties of a model for baryon production, both from the target remnant and the colour force field, are discussed and the results found to agree with data. It is shown that, at the presently available energies, the observable energy flow is not due to QCD, but arises from the baryon production in the target fragmentation. In a model to explain the observed Λ polarization, a connection between the confinement of quarks and these polarization phenomena is suggested. (Auth.)

  16. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract DE-FG02-91ER40641.A000 during the period from 1992 to 1995, and is the final report for this award. The group had three main efforts. The first was the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, the authors were members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. The group consisted of four faculty members, three research associates, and undergraduate and graduate students. The D0 experiment at Fermilab is one of two (the other is CDF) general purpose experiments operating at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Starting in the Fall of 1992, the first data collection occurred at D0. Physics publications are tabulated in the Appendix, with the discovery of the top quark in 1995 being the most prominent. Members of the NIU group worked on a variety of physics topics: Hedin on B-physics and the top-quark search, Fortner on Drell-Yan and other QCD topics, Green on di-Boson production, and Markeloff on excited-quark states. Hedin was also co-coordinator of the B-physics group during this period. The primary emphasis of the NIU D0 group was the muon system. NIU had particular responsibilities for data acquisition; chamber calibration; the Level-2 trigger; and the reconstruction. Hedin also was coordinator of muon software and had the responsibility for muon identification. Work on these items is summarized in a series of D0 Notes listed in the Appendix. Willis, Sirotenko, Hedin and Fortener were also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. NIU was a key participant in the calculation of low-energy neutron and photon backgrounds in the SDC experiment, and in designing shielding for the proposed muon system

  17. Studies of high energy hadron-hadron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maansson, O.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this thesis concerns the possibility of obtaining a quantity that reveals more of the primary scattering of partons, than the single particle spectra for high-p(sub)T reactions. K -K is shown to be such a quantity for 90degree scattering. A p(sub)T-dependence of P(sub)t(sup)-5.4 is data from FNAL and ISR. A model for low-p(sub)T baryon production is presented. This one-dimensional string model gives longitudinal single particle spectra in good agreement with exp. data. A model for polarization of inclusively produced hyperons is presented. A baryon is pictured as a Y-shaped string with quarks at the ends. One of the quarks is kicked out in the reaction, leading to a basically one-dim. string system. The motion of the string junction is shown to be important for the understanding of polarization phenomena. Lowest order QCD is studied with respect to color factors in the production amplitude in order to find final string configurations in high-p(sub)T events. The basis for a Monte Carlo program for complete high-p(sub)T events is discussed. (author)

  18. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the past year, our research program encompassed four major areas: the UA-6 experiment at CERN, the CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) experiment at Fermilab, the SDC (Solenoidal Detector Collaboration) experiment of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), and an R ampersand D project for the development of High Pressure Gas Calorimetry for high luminosity colliders. The UA-6 experiment studies direct-γ and J/ψ production in pp and bar pp interactions at √s = 22.5 GeV. In the CDF experiment we have concentrated in the plug calorimeter upgrade program, which involves replacing the plug and forward calorimetry with a more compact calorimeter based on scintillator tiles being readout with wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers. In the SDC experiment, we have taken primary responsibility for the Preshower/Shower-Maximum detectors. We wrote the original shower-maximum proposal for the SDC and have contributed to detector simulations, scintillator/WLS-fiber light yield measurements, building prototype preshower and shower-maximum detectors and measuring their performance in a test beam, and developing novel photosensitive devices to read out the fibers. The High Pressure Gas Calorimeter project has been very successful. A prototype parallel plate iron based electromagnetic calorimeter was designed, constructed and tested in an electron beam at Fermilab. The results were very encouraging. We are presently working on a new design, which would be more suitable for the construction of economical, large scale calorimeters, such as those needed for the forward region of SDC and FAD

  19. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-p t jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  20. [Theoretical studies in high energy physics]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, E.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities that were supported by this grant were focused primarily on low energy quantum chromodynamics. Significant progress was made in the Skyrme model for baryons, string models for color flux tubes, hadronic decays of the /tau/ lepton, technicolor models of the electroweak interactions, and meson form factors in perturbative QCD

  1. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We report here on the considerable progress that we made for the year beginning November 1, 1989, for DOE Contract No. AS05-76ERO5096. One of our Fermilab experiments, E704 -- polarization studies with 200 GeV protons, was run from February through August of this year. This experiment has been in the planning, construction, and commissioning stages for over ten years. In this report we detail just what measurements we managed to complete during the run. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 -- photoproduction of jets, has had parasitic test beam during most of the same period. There was also a one week engineering test run in June. The schedule calls for a three month data run beginning in January, 1991. We also had three test runs for our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) -- spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. We are in the midst of major apparatus construction for this experiment. More of our plans for the future are included in the accompanying Renewal Proposal. As in recent years, the format we follow in both the Progress Report and the Renewal Proposal is to have a brief writeup on each individual experiment and to include in the appendices copies of published papers which provide much greater detail. For manuscripts that have been submitted for publication and experimental proposals, we provide only the cover and abstract page. The aim is to concentrate on the physics goals, results and their significance in the main body of the report. For our two Fermilab experiments and the SMC experiment, exhaustive reports of the physics goals have been provided in previous years and are not repeated here

  2. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  3. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  4. High-energy photoemission studies of oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures can host novel quantum phases not existing in the bulk of the constituents, with the high-mobility 2D electron system (2DES) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) representing a prominent example. Despite extensive research the origin of the 2DES and its unusual properties - including the supposed coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism - are still a matter of intense debate. Photoelectron spectroscopy, recently extended into the soft (SX-ARPES) and hard (HAXPES) X-ray regime, is a powerful method to provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of these heterostructures and, in particular, of the buried interface. This includes the identification of the orbital character of the 2DES as well as the determination of vital band structure information, such as band alignment, band bending, and even k-resolved band dispersions and Fermi surface topology. Moreover, resonant photoemission at the Ti L-edge reveals the existence of two different species of Ti 3d states, localized and itinerant, which can be distinguished and identified by their different resonance behavior. The role of oxygen vacancies is studied by controlled in-situ oxidation, which allows us to vary the composition from fully stoichiometric to strongly O-deficient. By comparison to free STO surfaces we can thus demonstrate that the metallicity of the heteointerfaces is intrinsic, i . e . it persists even in the absence of O defects. I will discuss our photoemission results on LAO/STO heterostructures in both (100) and (111) orientation as well as on the related system γ-Al2O3/STO(100), which also hosts a 2DES with an even higher mobility. Work in collaboration with J. Mannhart (MPI-FKF, Stuttgart), N. Pryds (TU Denmark), G. Rijnders (U Twente), S. Suga (U Osaka), M. Giorgoi (BESSY, HZB), W. Drube (DESY Photon Science), V.N. Strocov (Swiss Light Source), J. Denlinger (Advanced Light Source, LBNL), and T.-L. Lee (Diamond Light Source). Support by

  5. Studies of the deuteron at high energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the tensor analyzing power T 20 are in progress at the 2-GeV electron storage ring (VEPP-3) in Novosibirsk. Preliminary results from the second phase of this experiment will be presented along with a discussion of the theoretical implications of the existing data. Measurements of the γd → pn reaction at photon energies above ∼ 1 GeV were performed at SLAC during experiments NE8 and NE17. The results for experiment NE8 are final while those for NE17 are preliminary. The results appear to be consistent with the constituent scaling law near θ CM =90 degrees, but inconsistent with the rule at a forward angle

  6. Study on a drift chamber for high energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Maria Augusta Constante

    1993-01-01

    This work deals with the studies of a multiwire gaseous detector operating as a drift chamber, which will be part of the SELEX spectrometer of the experiment Fermilab E781. A prototype was designed to be built and tested at IFUSP. Results are shown of the analysis of data taken with another similar detector whose construction and test were done at Fermilab, with the aim of studying its characterization and performance. (author)

  7. Amorphous silica studied by high energy x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Neuefeind, J.; Neumann, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    -ray and neutron data. A feasibility study of amorphous silica has been performed at 95 keV, using a wiggler synchrotron beam-line at HASYLAB and a cylindrical sample, 3 mm in diameter. The range of Q between 0.8 and 32 Angstrom(-1) was covered. A thorough discussion of the experimental challenges is given...

  8. Study of high energy physics underground. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector consists of 140 tons of liquid scintillator in a hollow 8 m x 8 m x 16 m box surrounding the Brookhaven 37 Cl solar neutrino detector. The experiment is located at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine. Half of the detector is currently running; the full detector will be taking data by the fall of 1984. An extensive air shower array is also currently under construction on the earth's surface above the underground detector, consisting of 100 scintillators, each 3 m 2 , covering approximately 0.8 km 2 ; the first portion of the surface array will also be providing data this fall. Together, the new Homestake detectors will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. The underground device and its capabilities as a monopole detector are described, followed by the surface array and the cosmic ray studies

  9. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  10. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W.; Markert, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or 'decay' into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  11. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeger, Karsten M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  12. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta . Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  13. A study of vorticity formation in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Inghirami, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rolando, V.; Pagliara, G. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Nardi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Del Zanna, L. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy); Chandra, V. [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujrat (India)

    2015-09-15

    We present a quantitative study of vorticity formation in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV by using the ECHO-QGP numerical code, implementing relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics in the causal Israel-Stewart framework in 3 + 1 dimensions with an initial Bjorken flow profile. We consider different definitions of vorticity which are relevant in relativistic hydrodynamics. After demonstrating the excellent capabilities of our code, which proves to be able to reproduce Gubser flow up to 8 fm/c, we show that, with the initial conditions needed to reproduce the measured directed flow in peripheral collisions corresponding to an average impact parameter b = 11.6 fm and with the Bjorken flow profile for a viscous Quark Gluon Plasma with η/s = 0.1 fixed, a vorticity of the order of some 10{sup -2} c/fm can develop at freeze-out. The ensuing polarization of Λ baryons does not exceed 1.4 % at midrapidity. We show that the amount of developed directed flow is sensitive to both the initial angular momentum of the plasma and its viscosity. (orig.)

  14. STATUS REPORT ON THE SIX-MONTH STUDY ON HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KING, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The structure, study topics, straw-man muon collider parameter sets and technical challenges for ''Six-Month Study on High Energy Muon Colliders: Oct'00-Apr'0l'' have been summarized at one month from completion of the study. The extremely high constituent particle energies and luminosities of the parameter sets presented in table 1 continue to suggest that muon colliders could play a central role in exploring and extending the HEP energy frontier. The study has already resulted in encouraging progress in areas such as the final focus lattice design and cost-efficient acceleration

  15. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  16. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  17. Study on the behaviour of high energy electrons in REPUTE-1 ULQ plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.; Nihei, H.; Nakajima, T.; Ozawa, D.; Ohno, M.; Suzuki, T.; Himura, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morita, S.; Shirai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In REPUTE-1 Ultra-Low-q (ULQ) plasmas, behaviors of high energy electrons have been studied through a low-Z pellet injection experiment, in addition to the measurements of soft-X ray PHA and Electron Energy Analyzer (EEA). The high energy tail has been measured in the soft-X ray spectrum, and EEA signal has shown a strong anisotropy of the electron distribution function (i.e., the electron flux to the electron drift side is dominant). To study temporal and spatial information on these high energy electrons, a low-Z pellet injection experiment has been conducted. A small piece of plastic pellet is injected from the top of the REPUTE-1 device, and the trajectory of the pellet inside the plasma is measured by CCD camera. We have observed a large deflection of the pellet trajectory to the toroidal direction opposite to the plasma current (i.e., the electron drift side). This suggests that a pellet is ablated selectively only from one side due to the high energy electrons with a large heat flux. We have calculated the heat flux carried by high energy electrons. Since the repulsion force to the pellet can be calculated with the 2 nd derivative of the pellet trajectory, we have estimated the heat flux of high energy electrons to be a few tens MW/m 2 around the plasma center. Experimental data by EEA measurement and low-Z pellet ablation show the large population of the high energy electrons at the core region in comparison with the edge region, suggesting a MHD dynamo mechanism for the production of the high energy electrons. (author)

  18. High frequency, high amplitude and low energy earthquake study of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.; Lee, A.J.H.; Sobel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic input spectrum based on U.S. acceleration time histories. However, data recorded near several earthquakes, mostly in the Eastern U.S., are richer in high frequency energy. This paper focuses on the evaluation of one of these events, i.e., the 1986 Ohio earthquake approximately 10 miles from the Perry nuclear power plant. The Perry Seismic Category I structures were reanalyzed using the in-structure recorded earthquake motions. The calculated in-structure response spectra and recorded response spectra have the same general trends, which shows the buildings are capable of responding to high frequency earthquake motion. Dynamic stresses calculated using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions are substantially lower than the design stresses. The seismic qualification of a wide sample of equipment was reassessed using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions and the margins were found to be larger than one. The 1986 Ohio earthquake was also shown to possess much lower energy content and ductility demand than the design spectra. For the Perry case, the seismic design was shown to have adequate safety margins to accommodate the 1986 Ohio earthquake, even though the design spectra were exceeded at about 20 Hz. The NRC is evaluating the need to generically modify design spectra in light of the recent high frequency recordings. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical studies of hadronic calorimetry for high luminosity, high energy colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future are going to demand optimization of the state of the art of calorimetry design and construction. During the past few years, the understanding of the basic phenomenology of hadron calorimeters has advanced through paralleled theoretical and experimental investigations. The important underlying processes are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, e/h approx. 1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. 62 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Theoretical studies of hadronic calorimetry for high luminosity, high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future are going to demand optimization of the state of the art of calorimetry design and construction. During the past few years, the understanding of the basic phenomenology of hadron calorimeters has advanced through paralleled theoretical and experimental investigations. The important underlying processes are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, e/h ∼ 1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. 62 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Special Colloquium : Looking at High Energy Physics from a gender studies perspective

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Human actors, workplace cultures and knowledge production: Gender studies analyse the social constructions and cultural representations of gender. Using methods and tools from the humanities and social science, we look at all areas, including the natural sciences and technology, science education and research labs. After a short introduction to gender studies, the main focus of my talk will be the presentation of selected research findings on gender and high energy physics. You will hear about an ongoing research project on women in neutrino physics and learn about a study on the world of high energy physicists characterised by "rites of passage" and "male tales" told during a life in physics. I will also present a study on how the HEP community communicates, and research findings on the naming culture in HEP. Getting to know findings from another field on your own might contribute to create a high energy physics culture that is fair and welcoming to all genders.

  2. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Suzuya, Kentaro

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of the latest generation of synchrotron sources and the introduction of advanced insertion devices (wigglers and undulators), the high-energy (E≥50 keV) X-ray diffraction technique has become feasible, leading to new approaches in the quantitative study of the structure of disordered materials. High-energy X-ray diffraction has several advantages: higher resolution in real space due to a wide range of scattering vector Q, smaller correction terms (especially the absorption correction), reduction of truncation errors, the feasibility of running under extreme environments, including high-temperatures and high-pressures, and the ability to make direct comparisons between X-ray and neutron diffraction data. Recently, high-energy X-ray diffraction data have been combined with neutron diffraction data from a pulsed source to provide more detailed and reliable structural information than that hitherto available

  3. Energy Concept Understanding of High School Students: A Cross-Grade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoglu, Zeynep Baskan

    2018-01-01

    Energy is a difficult concept to be understood by students of all levels. Thus, the aim of the study is to determine how high school students at different levels perceive the energy and related concepts. In line with this purpose, 173 students in total of which 57 ones of the 9th grade, 94 ones of the 10th grade and 22 ones of the 11th grade…

  4. Studies on the dose distribution and treatment technique of high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Chu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Some important properties of high energy electron beams from the linear accelerator, LMR-13, installed in the Yonsei Cancer Center were studied. The results of experimental studies on the problems associated with the 8, 10, and 12 MeV electron beam therapy were as followings; The ionization type dosemeters calibrated by 90 Sr standard source were suitable to the measurements of the outputs and the obsorbed doses in accuracy point of view, and dose measurements using ionization chambers were difficult when measuring doses in small field size and the regions of rapid fall off. The electron energies were measured precisely with an energy spectrometer, and the practical electron energy was calculated within 5% error in the maximum range of the high energy electron beam in water. The correcting factors of perturbated dose distributions owing to radiation field, energy, and materials of the treatment cone were checked and described systematically and thus the variation of dose distributions due to the non-homogeneities of tissues and slopping skin surfaces were completely compensated. The electron beams were adequately diffused using the scatterers, and minimized the bremsstrahlung, irradiation field size, and materials of scatterers. Thus, the therapeutic capacity with the limited electron energy could be extended by improving the dose distributions. (author)

  5. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H; Morita, Y; Ohshima, T

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  6. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  8. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics: Technical progress report [February 1987-February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Kovacs, E.

    1988-02-01

    This is a technical progress report for grant No. FG02-84ER40173 for the period February 1987 to February 1988. Our research on supersymmetric quantum mechanics has yielded many interesting results. In particular, a systematic approach to the tunneling problem in double well potentials has been developed. Higgs boson related physics at the high energy hadron colliders has been extensively studied

  9. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  10. Explanatory Resources on Energy in High School Physics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and reflects on the explanatory resources that are used in high school physics classes for studying the topic of energy. Explanatory resources are a means of constructing and negotiating meaning. The research is an instrumental case study focusing on four years of high school physics classes on energy. The theoretical principles of sociocultural approaches and conversation analysis are taken as benchmarks for understanding how we construct and reconstruct meanings (on energy. The identification of the resources used in the process of meaning construction is of importance for understanding certain scientific phenomena addressed in the curricula. Among the resources most commonly employed to enhance explanation were definitions and the causes of phenomena. We also found that teachers’ interventions, either through verbal explanations or instructional proposals, were crucial for certain kinds of explanations and for the presence or absence of other resources associated with explanations.

  11. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  12. Proactive control for solar energy exploitation: A german high-inertia building case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, Iakovos T.; Baldi, Simone; Pichler, Martin F.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Santiago, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar gains exploitation by utilizing large glass facades and concrete core thermal energy storing capacity. • Efficient Building Energy Management in a well-insulated modern building construction. • Energy consumption reduction by maintaining user comfort. • High inertia large scale office building test case, located in Germany. - Abstract: Energy efficient passive designs and constructions have been extensively studied in the last decades as a way to improve the ability of a building to store thermal energy, increase its thermal mass, increase passive insulation and reduce heat losses. However, many studies show that passive thermal designs alone are not enough to fully exploit the potential for energy efficiency in buildings: in fact, harmonizing the active elements for indoor thermal comfort with the passive design of the building can lead to further improvements in both energy efficiency and comfort. These improvements can be achieved via the design of appropriate Building Optimization and Control (BOC) systems, a task which is more complex in high-inertia buildings than in conventional ones. This is because high thermal mass implies a high memory, so that wrong control decisions will have negative repercussions over long time horizons. The design of proactive control strategies with the capability of acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting to current conditions, is of crucial importance for a full exploitation of the capabilities of a high-inertia building. This paper applies a simulation-assisted control methodology to a high-inertia building in Kassel, Germany. A simulation model of the building is used to proactively optimize, using both current and future information about the external weather condition and the building state, a combined criterion composed of the energy consumption and the thermal comfort index. Both extensive simulation as well as real-life experiments performed during the unstable German

  13. Numerical study on increasing mass flow ratio by energy deposition of high frequency pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Diankai; Hong Yanji; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The mass flow ratio (MFR) of air breathing ramjet inlet would be decreased, when the Mach number is lower than the designed value. High frequency pulsed laser energy was deposited upstream of the cowl lip to reflect the stream so as to increase the MFR. When the Mach number of the flow was 5.0, and the static pressure and temperature of the flow were 2 551.6 Pa and 116.7 K, respectively, two-dimensional non-stationary compressible RANS equations were solved with upwind format to study the mechanisms of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition. The laser deposition frequency was 100 kHz and the average power was 500 W. The crossing point of the first forebody oblique shock and extension line of cowl lip was selected as the expected point. Then the deposition position was optimized by searching near the expected point. The results indicate that with the optimization of laser energy deposition position, the MFR would be increased from 63% to 97%. The potential value of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition was proved. The method for selection of the energy deposition position was also presented. (authors)

  14. The CLIC stability study on the feasibility of colliding high energy nanobeams

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Guignard, Gilbert; Leros, Nicolas; Redaelli, S; Schulte, Daniel; Wilson, Ian H; Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study at CERN proposes a linear collider with nanometer-size colliding beams at an energy of 3 TeV c.m. ("colliding high energy nanobeams"). The transport, demagnification and collision of these nanobeams imposes magnet vibration tolerances that range from 0.2 nm to a few nanometers. This is well below the floor vibration usually observed. A test stand for magnet stability was set-up at CERN in the immediate neighborhood of roads, operating accelerators, workshops, and regular office space. It was equipped with modern stabilization equipment. The experimental setup and first preliminary results are presented. (10 refs).

  15. Long-Pulse Operation and High-Energy Particle Confinement Study in ICRF Heating of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Takashi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Seki, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    Long-pulse operation and high-energy particle confinement properties were studied using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating for the Large Helical Device. For the minority-ion mode, ions with energies up to 500 keV were observed by concentrating the ICRF heating power near the plasma axis. The confinement of high-energy particles was studied using the power-modulation technique. This confirmed that the confinement of high-energy particles was better with the inward-shifted configuration than with the normal configuration. This behavior was the same for bulk plasma confinement. Long-pulse operation for more than 2 min was achieved during the experimental program in 2002. This was mainly due to better confinement of the helically trapped particles and accumulation of fewer impurities in the region of the plasma core, in conjunction with substantial hardware improvements. Currently, the plasma operation time is limited by an unexpected density rise due to outgassing from the chamber materials. The temperature of the local carbon plates of the divertor exceeded 400 deg, C, and a charge-coupled device camera observed the hot spots. The hot spot pattern was well explained by a calculation of the accelerated-particle orbits, and those accelerated particles came from outside the plasma near the ICRF antenna

  16. Study of the high energy emission of accreting compact objects with SPI/INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulans, R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the high energy emission is essential for understanding the radiative processes inherent to accretion flows onto compact objects (black holes and neutron stars). The X/γ-ray continuum of these systems is successfully interpreted in terms of two components. The first component corresponds to blackbody emission from a geometrically thin optically thick accretion disk while the second component is generally associated to Compton scattering of the thermal disk flux off hot electrons. Despite considerable advances throughout the years, the heating mechanisms as well as the structure of the hot Comptonizing plasma remain poorly understood. In order to shed light on the physical processes that govern the innermost regions of the accretion flow, we take advantage of the data archive accumulated by the SPI instrument, a high energy spectrometer (20 keV - 8 MeV) developed at the CESR (now IRAP, Toulouse, France) for the INTEGRAL mission. Above 150 keV, SPI combines a unique spectral resolution with unequalled sensitivity, being thus an ideal tool to study the high energy emission of accreting compact objects. The thesis manuscript reports on the results of timing and spectral studies of three particular systems. First, I address the high energy emission of the enigmatic micro-quasar GRS 1915+105, a source characterized by colossal luminosity and strong chaotic variability in X-rays. On a timescale of about one day, the photon index of the 20 - 200 keV spectrum varies between 2.7 and 3.5; at higher energies (≥150 keV), SPI unveils the systematic presence of an additional emission component, extending without folding energy up to ∼ 500 keV. Second, I study the high energy emission of GX 339-4, a source whose spectral properties are representative of black hole transients. The spectrum of the luminous hard state of this system shows a variable high energy tail (≥150 keV), with significant flux changes on a short timescale (several hours). I explain the

  17. AIP study of multi-institutional collaborations: Phase 1, high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnow-Blewett, J.; Weart, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Although the multi-institutional collaboration is increasingly the organizational framework for scientific research, it has received only incidental attention from scholars. Without a dedicated effort to understand the process of collaborative research, even the records necessary for efficient administration, for historical and: studies, and for posterity, will be largely scattered or destroyed. The Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) is working to redress this situation with a multi-stage investigation. The aim is to identify patterns of collaborations, define the scope of the documentation problems, field test possible solutions, and recommend future actions. The first phase of the study addressed high-energy physics. The two-year study of high-energy physics research focused on experiments approved between 1973 and 1984 at five of the world's major accelerator laboratories. A broad-scale picture of changes in the structure of collaborations was obtained by using databases on high energy physics experiments and publications, At a more detailed level, the project conducted interviews on 24 selected experimental collaborations. Still more detailed ''probes'' of some highly significant collaborations featured historical research as well as many additional interviews and work to preserve records. Some 300 interviews were analyzed to identify patterns of collaborative research and records creation, retention, and location. Meanwhile project staff surveyed the records-keeping practices of key physicists and made numerous site visits to accelerator facilities and university archives to discuss archival issues and records policies

  18. Development of High Energy Particle Detector for the Study of Space Radiation Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Bok Jo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1 is scheduled to launch in 2017 and Instruments for the Study of Space Storm (ISSS is planned to be onboard the NEXTSat-1. High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD is one of the equipment comprising ISSS and the main objective of HEPD is to measure the high energy particles streaming into the Earth radiation belt during the event of a space storm, especially, electrons and protons, to obtain the flux information of those particles. For the design of HEPD, the Geometrical Factor was calculated to be 0.05 to be consistent with the targets of measurement and the structure of telescope with field of view of 33.4° was designed using this factor. In order to decide the thickness of the detector sensor and the classification of the detection channels, a simulation was performed using GEANT4. Based on the simulation results, two silicon detectors with 1 mm thickness were selected and the aluminum foil of 0.05 mm is placed right in front of the silicon detectors to shield low energy particles. The detection channels are divided into an electron channel and two proton channels based on the measured LET of the particle. If the measured LET is less than 0.8 MeV, the particle belongs to the electron channel, otherwise it belongs to proton channels. HEPD is installed in the direction of 0°,45°,90° against the along-track of a satellite to enable the efficient measurement of high energy particles. HEPD detects electrons with the energy of 0.1 MeV to several MeV and protons with the energy of more than a few MeV. Thus, the study on the dynamic mechanism of these particles in the Earth radiation belt will be performed.

  19. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  20. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  1. The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron as a tool to study high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Brugger, M; Assmann, R; Shutov, A V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov3, V E

    2008-01-01

    An experimental facility named HiRadMat, will be constructed at CERN to study the impact of the 450 GeV c−1 proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) on solid targets. This is designed to study damage caused to the equipment including absorbers, collimators and others in case of an accidental release of the beam energy. This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations of target behavior irradiated by the SPS beam. These numerical simulations have shown that the target will be completely destroyed in such an accident, thereby generating high energy density (HED) matter. This study therefore suggests that this facility may also be used for carrying out dedicated experiments to study HED states in matter.

  2. High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high intensity (10 19 O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10 22 O-atoms/cm 2 in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO 2 laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O 2 mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm 2 have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H 2 O, NO, CO 2 ). Teflon reacts with ∼0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs

  3. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  4. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  5. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  6. The study of multi-institutional collaborations in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since World War II, the organizational framework for scientific research is increasingly the multi-institutional collaboration, especially in high-energy physics. A broad preliminary survey, into the functioning of research collaborations involving three or more institutions is described. The study is designed to identify patterns of collaborations, define the scope of the documentation problems, field-test possible solutions, recommend future actions, and build an archives of oral history interviews and other resources for scholarly use. Once the study is completed, its findings will be used to promote systems to document significant collaborative research

  7. The study of multi-institutional collaborations in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnow-Blewett, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Since World War II, the organizational framework for scientific research is increasingly the multi-institutional collaboration, especially in high-energy physics. A broad preliminary survey, into the functioning of research collaborations involving three or more institutions is described. The study is designed to identify patterns of collaborations, define the scope of the documentation problems, field-test possible solutions, recommend future actions, and build an archives of oral history interviews and other resources for scholarly use. Once the study is completed, its findings will be used to promote systems to document significant collaborative research.

  8. Study of Isospin Correlation in High Energy Heavy Ion Interactions with the RHIC PHENIX. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the research work performed under the support of the DOE research grant E-FG02-97ER4108. The work is composed of three parts: (1) Visual analysis and quality control of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PHENIX experiments carried out of Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2) Continuation of the data analysis of the EMU05/09/16 experiments for the study of the inclusive particle production spectra and multi-particle correlation. (3) Exploration of a new statistical means to study very high-multiplicity of nuclear-particle ensembles and its perspectives to apply to the higher energy experiments

  9. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  10. Development of a fragment detector system for the study of peripheral collisions at high beam energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, H.

    1992-06-01

    In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR of the Society for Heavy-Ion research in Darmstadt one of the essential research aims of the LAND collaboration is the study of high-lying collective states after electromagnetic excitation in heavy-ion collisions at nearly relativistic beam energies. By the exchange of virtual photons with high energy giant resonances are excited with high probabilities. The main decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons as well as below the particle threshold the emission of γ radiation. For the study of these states a detector system was developed, which makes the kinematically complete measurement of all reaction partners possible. For the determination of the neutron energy serves the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND, a time-of-flight spectrometer for high-energetic neutrons. For the measurement of the γ radiation emitted by the excited projectile the target is surrounded by an array of 48 BaF 2 crystals. A radiation detector system consisting of 6 single detectors and further 5 help detectors allows together with the magnetic spectrometer ALADIN the identification of the heavy projectile fragments by charge, momentum, and mass. Four position-sensitive plastic scintillators serve for the measurement of the trajectory of the projectile respectively the projectile fragments in front and behind the deviating magnet. Additionally with these detectors the velocity is measured. For the determination of the nuclear charge of the projectile fragments serve a multiple-ionization chamber and a Cherenkov detector. In this thesis the development and taking into operation of the LAND radiation detector system is described. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  12. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N G; Gudage, Y G; Ghosh, A; Vyas, J C; Singh, F; Tripathi, A; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au 8+ ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10 -4 Ω cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications

  13. High energy x-ray scattering studies of strongly correlated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Peter D; Wilkins, S B; Spencer, P D; Zimmermann, M v; D'Almeida, T

    2003-01-01

    Many transition metal oxides display strongly correlated charge, spin, or orbital ordering resulting in varied phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions etc. X-ray scattering is one of the principle techniques for probing the structural response to such effects. In this paper, we discuss and review the use of synchrotron radiation high energy x-rays (50-200 keV) for the study of transition metal oxides such as nickelates (La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 ) and manganites (La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 ). High energy x-rays have sufficient penetration to allow us to study large flux-grown single crystals. The huge increase in sample scattering volume means that extremely weak peaks can be observed. This allows us to study very weak charge ordering. Measurements of the intensity, width and position of the charge ordering satellites as a function of temperature provide us with quantitative measures of the charge amplitude, inverse correlation length and wavevector of the charge ordering

  14. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  15. Comparative study between hadron and heavy ion dissociation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, Y.M.N.; Abd-Elhalim, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with the dissociation of hadrons and heavy ions at high energies. In investigating hadron nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, it is important to classify the experimental data, into two main classes; the coherent. and incoherent reactions. The coherent production is the main of our study. This process called electromagnetic dissociation (ED) and can be differentiate into coulomb dissociation (CD) and diffraction dissociation (DD). This work explains the experimental data of collisions of hadrons K± (70 GeV/c) and π(340 Gc V/c) and heavy ions 6 L i, 7 L i, 1 2C and1 6O at Dubna energies (3-4.5 A GeV/c)with emulsion target, in the frame of some models and theories which describe the mechanism of ED dissociation

  16. The influence of the observatory latitude on the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rita C. dos [Departamento de Engenharias e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Pioneiro, 2153, Palotina, PR, 85950-000 Brazil (Brazil); De Souza, Vitor [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 Brazil (Brazil); De Almeida, Rogerio M. [EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Edivaldo M., E-mail: ritacassia@ufpr.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: rmenezes@id.uff.br, E-mail: emoura@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão trav. R 187, São Paulo, 05508-090 Brazil (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Recent precision measurements of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) arrival directions, spectrum and parameters related to the mass of the primary particle have been done by the HiRes, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array (TA) Observatories. In this paper, distributions of arrival directions of events in the nearby Universe are assumed to correlate with sources in the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey, Palermo Swift-BAT and Swift-BAT catalogs, and the effect of the latitude of the observatory on the measurement of the energy spectrum and on the capability of measuring anisotropy is studied. The differences between given latitudes on the northern and southern hemispheres are quantified. It is shown that the latitude of the observatory: a) has an influence on the total flux measured and b) imposes an important limitation on the capability of measuring an anisotropic sky.

  17. Study of the effects of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Gordillo, N.; Maira, A.; Moreno-Cerrada, D.; Ramos, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a material with a great technological and industrial interest because of its exceptional chemical, physical and structural properties. At modest boron concentrations, insulating diamond becomes a p-type semiconductor and at higher concentrations a superconducting metal at low temperature. The most conventional preparation method used so far, has been the homogeneous incorporation of boron doping during the diamond synthesis carried out either with high-pressure sintering of crystals or by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of films. With these methods, high boron concentration can be included without distorting significantly the diamond crystalline lattice. However, it is complicated to manufacture boron-doped microstructures. A promising alternative to produce such microstructures could be the implantation of focused high-energy boron ions, although boron fluences are limited by the damage produced in diamond. In this work, the effect of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in single crystals of diamond is studied under different irradiation fluences and conditions. Micro-Raman spectra of the sample were measured before and after annealing at 1000 °C as a function of irradiation fluence, for both superficial and buried boron implantation, to assess the changes in the diamond lattice by the creation of vacancies and defects and their degree of recovery after annealing.

  18. X-Ray diffraction studies of silicon implanted with high energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    The character of lattice deformation in silicon implanted with high energy alpha-particles and protons was studied using a number of X-ray methods. The experiments included double-crystal spectrometer method as well as single crystal section and projection topography realised both with conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. All observed diffraction patterns were reasonably explainable assuming the lattice parameter distribution proportional to the vacancy-interstitial distribution coming from the Biersack-ziegler theory. The theoretical rocking curves and distribution in back-reflection double-crystal and section topographs well corresponding to the experimental results were calculated using numerical integration of the takagi-taupin equations

  19. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)

  20. Studies of high-level radioactive waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Mitamura, Hisayoshi

    1992-02-01

    The recent studies of high-level radioactive waste form at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute can be classified into the following three categories; (1) Study on the leaching behavior of the nuclear waste glass placing the focus on the alteration layer and the chemical composition of leachant for the prediction of the long-term corrosion of the waste glass. (2) Study on the radiation (alpha-radiation) effects which have relation to the long-term stability of the nuclear waste glass. (3) Study on the long-term self-irradiation damage of a SYNROC waste form using a curium-doped sample. In the present report, the recent results corresponding to the above categories are described. (author)

  1. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  2. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  3. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  4. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  5. Guided transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in PET. Study of the energy dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helhammer, R.; Pesic, Z.D.; Sobocinski, P.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Stolterfoht, N.; Sulik, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently we reported experiments in which slow highly charged ions are transmitted through nanocapillaries of 100nm diameter in an insulating PET foil of 10μm thickness [1]. The results of this work differ significantly from previous studies, which have been focused on capillaries in metals [2]. We measured the transmission of 3 keV Ne 7+ ions through the capillaries and focused the attention on ions whose charge has not changed during the passage through the capillary. The observation that the angular distribution for PET has a peak maximum whose position is equal to the tilt angle indicates a guiding of the Ne 7+ ion within the capillary. This guiding shows that the inner walls of the capillaries are charged up in a self-organizing process and collisions with the surface are finally prevented. We studied the time evolution of the capillary guiding as well as dependencies on the tilt angle [3]. Our most recent measurements were focussed on the investigation of the energy dependency for the guiding of Ne 7+ through capillaries. The measurements were done in an energy range from 2 keV up to 10 keV.We measured higher guiding efficiency for lower energies consistent with a previously developed model, which predicted an increase of the guiding efficiency with decreasing projectile energy [3]. In addition we found the effect of a narrower width of the angular distribution of transmitted ions. This effect is also well described by the model. However, further work is needed to explain the amount of charges to build up the deflection field at the end of the capillaries

  6. Feasibility study of radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter postal dose intercomparison for high energy photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Siyong; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Chung, Jin-Beom; Shin, Dong-Oh; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2009-01-01

    A radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. In this study we evaluated whether the GRD would be suitable for external dosimetric audit program in radiotherapy. For this purpose, we introduced a methodology of the absorbed dose determination with the GRD by establishing calibration coefficient and various correction factors (non-linearity dose response, fading, energy dependence and angular dependence). A feasibility test of the GRD postal dose intercomparison was also performed for eight high photon beams by considering four radiotherapy centers in Korea. In the accuracy evaluation of the GRD dosimetry established in this study, we obtained within 1.5% agreements with the ionization chamber dosimetry for the 60 Co beam. It was also observed that, in the feasibility study, all the relative deviations were smaller than 3%. Based on these results, we believe that the new GRD system has considerable potential to be used for a postal dose audit program

  7. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  8. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  9. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  10. Study on High energy efficiency photovoltaic facility agricultural system in tropical area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic facility agriculture is developing rapidly in recent years, but there are many problems brought out, even in some important demonstration projects, due to the lack of standards. In order to solve some of these problems, we set up a photovoltaic facilities agricultural system in Guilinyang University City, Haikou, China and make an in-depth study on the photovoltaic facility agricultural system and its related problems. In this paper we disclose some of the experimental results. We plant corianders under two kinds of solar cell panels and general double glass assembly already sold on the market. Experiments showed that the square format cell panels are much better than row type, and the next one is general double glass assembly sold on the market, the last is the case without any shelter. 30 days after planting, the height of coriander plants are 50mm, 30mm, 23mm and 20mm correspondingly. The two typical solar cell panels have gaps between cells, and can save much more energy and improve power generation efficiency, we arrange the panels at optimum tilted angle, and design the system as open structure to save more energy. The photovoltaic facilities agricultural system we set up in Guilinyang University City can achieve much high solar energy efficiency than others and has broad application prospects.

  11. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  12. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  13. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons: Progress report, January 1987-February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of muons for detection systems in high energy physics experiments. Discussed are DO detectors, muon data acquisition and electronics, muon software, heavy quark physics, chamber fabrication and superconductor super collider related work. 11 refs

  14. Study of high energy ion loss during hydrogen minority heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    High energy ion loss during hydrogen minority ICRF heating is measured and compared with the loss of the D-D fusion products. During H minority heating a relatively large loss of high energy ions is observed at 45 degrees below the outer midplane, with or without simultaneous NBI heating. This increase is most likely due to a loss of the minority tail protons, a possible model for this process is described

  15. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M. [Catholic Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, L. Mokhtari [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness.

  16. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S.; Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Oranj, L. Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness

  17. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  18. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  19. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  20. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  1. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  2. Proactive control for solar energy exploitation : A german high-inertia building case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidis, IT; Baldi, S.; Pichler, MF; Kosmatopoulos, EB; Santiago, JR

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficient passive designs and constructions have been extensively studied in the last decades as a way to improve the ability of a building to store thermal energy, increase its thermal mass, increase passive insulation and reduce heat losses. However, many studies show that passive thermal

  3. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  4. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  5. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztrókay, A; Schlossbauer, T; Bamberg, F; Reiser, M F; Coan, P; Diemoz, P C; Brun, E; Bravin, A; Mayr, D

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm 2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation. (paper)

  6. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  7. Preliminary energy demand studies for Ireland: base case and high case for 1980, 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W

    1981-01-01

    The framework of the Base Case and the High Case for 1990 for Ireland, related to the demand modules of the medium-term European Communities (EC) Energy Model, is described. The modules are: Multi-national Macre-economic Module (EURECA); National Input-Output Model (EXPLOR); and National Energy Demand Model (EDM). The final results of the EXPLOR and EDM are described; one set related to the Base Case and the other related to the High Case. The forecast or projection is termed Base Case because oil prices are assumed to increase with general price inflation, at the same rate. The other forecast is termed High Case because oil prices are assumed to increase at 5% per year more rapidly than general price inflation. The EXPLOR-EDM methodology is described. The lack of data on energy price elasticities for Ireland is noted. A comparison of the Base Case with the High Case is made. (MCW)

  8. High linear energy transfer degradation studies simulating alpha radiolysis of TRU solvent extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jeremy [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Miller, George [Department of Chemistry- University of California Irvine, 2046D PS II, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Nilsson, Mikael [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of used nuclear fuel through solvent extraction separation processes is hindered by radiolytic damage from radioactive isotopes present in used fuel. The nature of the damage caused by the radiation may depend on the radiation type, whether it be low linear energy transfer (LET) such as gamma radiation or high LET such as alpha radiation. Used nuclear fuel contains beta/gamma emitting isotopes but also a significant amount of transuranics which are generally alpha emitters. Studying the respective effects on matter of both of these types of radiation will allow for accurate prediction and modeling of process performance losses with respect to dose. Current studies show that alpha radiation has milder effects than that of gamma. This is important to know because it will mean that solvent extraction solutions exposed to alpha radiation may last longer than expected and need less repair and replacement. These models are important for creating robust, predictable, and economical processes that have strong potential for mainstream adoption on the commercial level. The effects of gamma radiation on solvent extraction ligands have been more extensively studied than the effects of alpha radiation. This is due to the inherent difficulty in producing a sufficient and confluent dose of alpha particles within a sample without leaving the sample contaminated with long lived radioactive isotopes. Helium ion beam and radioactive isotope sources have been studied in the literature. We have developed a method for studying the effects of high LET radiation in situ via {sup 10}B activation and the high LET particles that result from the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction which follows. Our model for dose involves solving a partial differential equation representing absorption by 10B of an isentropic field of neutrons penetrating a sample. This method has been applied to organic solutions of TBP and CMPO, two ligands common in TRU solvent extraction treatment processes. Rates

  9. Study of measurement method of tritium induced in concrete of high-energy proton accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, N.; Ishihama, S.; Kunifuda, T.; Hayasaka, N.; Miura, T.

    2001-01-01

    Various long-loved radionuclides, 3 H, 7 Be, 22 Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Co, 57 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu and 154 Eu, have been produced in the shielding concrete of high energy proton accelerator facility through both nuclear spallation reactions and thermal neutron capture reactions of concrete elements, during machine operation. Tritium is the most important nuclide from the radiation protection. There were, however, few measurements of tritium concentration induced in the shielding concrete. In this study, the conditions of measurement method of tritium concentration induced in shielding concrete have been investigated using the activated shielding concrete of the 12 GeV proton beam-line tunnel at KEK and the standard rock (JG-1) irradiated of thermal neutron at the reactor. And the depth profiles of tritium induced in the shielding concrete of slow extracted proton beam line at KEK were determined using this method. (author)

  10. X-ray diffraction studies of silicon implanted with high energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieteska, K [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk, (Poland); Wierzchowski, W [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, (Poland); Graeff, W [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg, (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The character of lattice deformation in silicon in implanted with high energy {alpha} particles and protons was studied with a number of X-ray methods. The experiments included double crystal spectrometer method as well as single crystal section and projection topography realised both with conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. All observed diffraction patterns were reasonably explainable assuming the lattice parameter depth distribution proportional to the vacancy-interstitial distribution coming from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. The theoretical rocking curves and density distribution in back-reflection double-crystal and section topography well corresponding to experimental results were calculated using numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. 9 figs.

  11. High-energy x-ray scattering studies of battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, Matthew P. B.; Okasinski, John S.; Almer, Jonathan D.; Ren, Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-energy x-ray (HEX) scattering is a sensitive and powerful tool to nondestructively probe the atomic and mesoscale structures of battery materials under synthesis and operational conditions. The penetration power of HEXs enables the use of large, practical samples and realistic environments, allowing researchers to explore the inner workings of batteries in both laboratory and commercial formats. This article highlights the capability and versatility of HEX techniques, particularly from synchrotron sources, to elucidate materials synthesis processes and thermal instability mechanisms in situ, to understand (dis)charging mechanisms in operando under a variety of cycling conditions, and to spatially resolve electrode/electrolyte responses to highlight connections between inhomogeneity and performance. Such studies have increased our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying battery performance. Here, by deepening our understanding of the linkages between microstructure and overall performance, HEXs represent a powerful tool for validating existing batteries and shortening battery-development timelines.

  12. Inhomogeneities in high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy. Experimental and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.

    1986-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the influence of the human body inhomogeneities on the dose distribution for high energy photons beams used in Radiotherapy. It consists in an experimental part and a theoretical analysis leading to original models of calculation. We study essentially, - the beam quality of the machines used and its influence on some basic dosimetric quantities and on the response of an ionization chamber. - The dose perturbation due to off-axis heterogeneous volumes at off-axis points of measurement; a model is suggested to take into account the perturbation of the multiple scatter. The perturbation of the dose in the transition region, between water equivalent medium and heterogeneous medium (air) is also investigated. The last part is devoted to computer applications of the proposed correction methods and to a comparison between the different computerized treatment planning systems which take into account of inhomogeneities [fr

  13. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  14. Studies of high coverage oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using low energy positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Weiss, A. H.

    2012-02-01

    The study of oxidation of single crystal metal surfaces is important in understanding the corrosive and catalytic processes associated with thin film metal oxides. The structures formed on oxidized transition metal surfaces vary from simple adlayers of chemisorbed oxygen to more complex structures which result from the diffusion of oxygen into subsurface regions. In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. Calculations are performed for various high coverage missing row structures ranging between 0.50 and 1.50 ML oxygen coverage. The results of calculations of positron binding energy, positron work function, and annihilation characteristics of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons as function of oxygen coverage are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES).

  15. In operando spectroscopic studies of high temperature electrocatalysts used for energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Melissa Dawn

    Solid-state electrochemical cells are efficient energy conversion devices that can be used for clean energy production or for removing air pollutants from exhaust gas emitted by combustion processes. For example, solid oxide fuel cells generate electricity with low emissions from a variety of fuel sources; solid oxide electrolysis cells produce zero-emission H2 fuel; and solid-state DeNOx cells remove NOx gases from diesel exhaust. In order to maintain high conversion efficiencies, these systems typically operate at temperatures ≥ 500°C. The high operating temperatures, however, accelerate chemical and mechanical cell degradation. To improve device durability, a mechanistic understanding of the surface chemistry occurring at the cell electrodes (anode and cathode) is critical in terms of refining cell design, material selection and operation protocols. The studies presented herein utilized in operando Raman spectroscopy coupled with electrochemical measurements to directly correlate molecular/material changes with device performance in solid oxide cells under various operating conditions. Because excessive carbon accumulation with carbon-based fuels destroys anodes, the first three studies investigated strategies for mitigating carbon accumulation on Ni cermet anodes. Results from the first two studies showed that low amounts of solid carbon stabilized the electrical output and improved performance of solid oxide fuel cells operating with syn-gas (H 2/CO fuel mixture). The third study revealed that infiltrating anodes with Sn or BaO suppressed carbon accumulation with CH4 fuel and that H2O was the most effective reforming agent facilitating carbon removal. The last two studies explored how secondary phases formed in traditional solid oxide cell materials doped with metal oxides improve electrochemical performance. Results from the fourth study suggest that the mixed ion-electron conducting Zr5Ti7O24 secondary phase can expand the electrochemically active region

  16. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  17. A study of the diffusion pattern in N=4 SYM at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporale, F.; Chachamis, G.; Madrigal, J.D.; Murdaca, B.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of evolution equations and scattering amplitudes in the high energy limit of the N=4 super Yang–Mills theory we investigate in some detail the BFKL gluon Green function at next-to-leading order. In particular, we study its collinear behavior in terms of an expansion in different angular components. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the different final states contributing to such a Green function and construct the diffusion pattern into infrared and ultraviolet modes and multiplicity distributions, making emphasis in separating the gluon contributions from those of scalars and gluinos. We find that the combined role of the non-gluonic degrees of freedom is to improve the collinear behavior and reduce the diffusion into ultraviolet regions while not having any effect on the average multiplicities or diffusion into the infrared. In terms of growth with energy, the non-zero conformal spin components are mainly driven by the gluon terms in the BFKL kernel. For zero conformal spin (Pomeron) the effect of the scalar and gluino sectors is to dramatically push the Green function towards higher values

  18. Studies on the production of high energy densities in matter by intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-08-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopical amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities in the target matter are produced. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A KR + -ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focussed by a fine-focusing lens to a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time resolved taken up by a spectrometer as well as by a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam was observed. The free electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The temperature could be determined by different methods (shock-wave velocity, degree of ionization, line ratios). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipe to kT ≅ 0.75 eV. For the opacity of the target by which the emitted light power is determined under the assumption of the two-dimensional model (equilibrium between emitted and absorbed energy) the value κ p ≅ 7700 cm 2 /g resulted. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Dynamic aperture ampersand extraction studies for the SSC High-Energy Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Sen, T.; Yan, Y.

    1990-09-01

    The final booster in the injector chain for the Superconducting Super Collider is a machine approximately twice the size of the Tevatron. Its design includes approximately 450, 15+ m superconducting dipoles. The original designs specified dipoles with a 7 cm coil-winding diameter and an inner horizontal beam-pipe aperture of 55 mm. This dipole design was chosen in order to provide an adequately large good-field aperture for both the beam injection process and for the slow-extraction of high-energy test beams. With the recent decision to increase the Collider dipole coil-winding diameter to 5 cm, the question of the needed HEB aperture was raised. An argument for dipole commonality between the HEB and Collider was developed, and a preliminary examination of a 5 cm HEB dipole was undertaken. This paper reports the results of a detailed study of the injection dynamic aperture for magnet errors corresponding to both a 5 cm and 7 cm dipole. Also studied and reported are preliminary results of the resonant-extraction process for the two magnet designs in question. These studies are in the form of multiparticle computer simulations. The results of the studies indicate that the 7 cm dipole design is consistent with the desired performance requirements for the HEB, while the 5 cm dipole design is marginal. We have not studied intermediate aperture values. 8 refs., 11 figs

  20. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  1. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  2. The 14N(p, γ)15O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The 14 N(p,γ) 15 O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in 15 O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at E p = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the 14 N(p,γ) 15 O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range E p = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states at 5181, 6172, and 6792 keV in 15 O have been

  3. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  4. A study of high field quantum electrodynamics in the collision of high energy electrons with a terawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton-Smith, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order

  5. A study of high field quantum electrodynamics in the collision of high energy electrons with a terawatt laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton-Smith, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order.

  6. Study of proton-nucleus collisions at high energies based on the hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, N.; Weiner, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    We study proton-nucleus collisions at high energies using the one-dimensional hydrodynamical model of Landau with special emphasis on the effect of the size of the target nucleus and of the magnitude of velocity of sound of excited hadronic matter. We convert a collision problem of a proton and a nucleus with a spherical shape into that of a proton and a one-dimensional nuclear tunnel whose length is determined from the average impact parameter. By extending the methods developed by Milekhin and Emelyanov, we obtain the solutions of the hydrodynamical equations of proton-nucleus collisions for arbitrary target tunnel length and arbitrary velocity of sound. The connection between these solutions and observable physical quantities is established as in the work of Cooper, Frye, and Schonberg. Extensive numerical analyses are made at E/sub lab/ = 200 GeV and for the velocity of sound u = 1/√3 of a relativistic ideal Bose gas and u = 1/(7.5)/sup 1/2/ of an interacting Bose gas. In order to compare proton-nucleus collisions with proton-proton collisions, all the analyses are made in the equal-velocity frame. We find the following results. (1) In comparing the number of secondary particles produced in p-A collisions N/sub p/A with those in p-p collisions N/sub p/p, while most of the excess of N/sub p/A over N/sub p/p is concentrated in the backward rapidity region, there exists also an increase of N/sub p/A with A in the forward rapidity region. This result is at variance with the predictions of the energy-flux-cascade model and of the coherent-production model. (2) The excess energies are contained exclusively in the backward region. We also find evidence for new phenomena in proton-nucleus collisions. (3) The existence of an asymmetry of average energies of secondary particles between forward and backward regions, in particular, >> for larger nuclear targets. Thus, energetic particles are predominantly produced in the backward region

  7. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Sigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Sato, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results being made in the study on the role of Very High Temperature Reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy system, which is aimed at zero emission. In the former part of the report, the modeling of the reference energy system, main characteristics of energy technologies, and scenario indicators as well as system behavioral objectives for optimization are explained. In the latter part, analytical results such as the time-period variation of overall energy utilization efficiency, energy supply/demand structure in long-terms, energy contribution and economic competition of new energy technologies, environmental effluents released through verious energy activities, impacts to and from national economy, and some sensitivity analyses, are reviewed. (author)

  8. Contribution to the phenomenological study of meson-baryon reactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, Georges.

    The report is divided into two sections corresponding to the two approaches used in the study of 2-body reactions. Part one is devoted to the building of a new phenomenological model, calling on a wide range of theoretical concepts such as duality, quark diagrams, SU(3) symmetry etc... The model thus established is compared with experimental results and seems to resolve certain difficulties which other models cannot avoid. In part two the approach adopted is more typically phenomenological, involving analyses in amplitudes which amounts to the consultation of experience, avoiding, as far as possible, the use of over-specific theoretical concepts. The various results obtained certain regularities in the amplitudes, evidence of underlaying physical laws as yet little understood. From this study an empirical relationship is proposed for two-body scattering amplitudes. This relationship, which considerably simplifies the formulation of phenomenological models, has already been used successfully to study certain processes. The results of these two approaches are shown to agree, which points up the relevance of the physical images used and helps in the understanding of high-energy hadron interactions [fr

  9. Study and realization of pixelated APD Geiger photodetectors of very high sensitivity for Very High Energy gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jradi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Very High Energy gamma ray astronomy uses till now exclusively as detector the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to collect weak light flux of atmospheric showers. But an alternative is now emerging: Avalanche Photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode called 'Geiger-APD'. The PMT is a detector designed in the 70's which presents many advantages but also suffers from several drawbacks: size, weight, cost, sensitivity to magnetic field but especially difficulty to realize its pixelation in matrix. Geiger-APDs are semi-conductor devices made of PN junction integrated in a special technology to detect very low light flux, thanks to the polarization beyond the avalanche voltage. Geiger-APD presents very high photoelectron gain (∼106) strongly dependant on the polarization voltage beyond avalanche. These photodiodes present many advantages with respect to PMT, mainly as concerns miniaturization for applications based on imaging, such as the detection of Cerenkov flashes in gamma ray astronomy. In this thesis, we present the study, the design and the realization of a technological structure, based on Silicon. This structure has shown reliability to detect weak luminous flux with breakdown voltage at 12 V and dark current below 10 pA at breakdown. We also developed several models, physical and electrical, necessary to the technological optimization, as well to the development of control and readout circuits, i.e. the basis of any imaging technology. The work presented here consists in the study, the design and the realization of a matrix of high sensitivity pixels. A project of a Cerenkov telescope based on this innovative technology is also presented. (author)

  10. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, M; Soares, C G [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA)

    1981-08-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams.

  11. Testing an MCM for high-energy physics experiments a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Benso, A; Prinetto, P; Giovannetti, S; Mariani, R; Motto, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the test strategy adopted at different hierarchical abstraction levels (from board to die level) during the development of a multichannel data acquisition and signal processing MCM, designed for the new generation experiments of high-energy physics on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. (10 refs).

  12. Study on the forward-feed neural network used for the classification of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guangxuan; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    Neural network has been applied in the field of high energy physics experiment for the classification of particles and gained good results. The author emphasizes the systematic analysis of the fundamental principle of the forward-feed neural network and discusses the problems and solving methods in application

  13. Study of high energy ion implantation of boron and oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, P.

    1991-06-01

    Three aspects of high energy (0.5-3 MeV) light ions ( 11 B + and 16 O + ) implantation in silicon are examined: (1)Spatial repartition; (2) Target damage and (3) Synthesis by oxygen implantation of a buried silicon oxide layer

  14. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  15. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  16. Pilot study for the implantation of a high-energy neutrons field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Jose Julio de O.; Mendes, Adriane C.; Federico, Claudio A.; Passaro, Angelo; Gaspar, Felipe de B.; Pazianotto, Mauricio T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work a theoretical study is presented for the implementation of a high-energy neutron field (14.1 MeV) produced by a neutron generator type DT (deuterium-tritium), to be installed in the premises of the Laboratorio de Radiacoes Ionizantes (LRI) of the Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv). This evaluation was performed by means of computer simulation by Monte Carlo method, using the computer code MCNP5 (Monte Carlo N-Particle). The neutron spectra were simulated computationally for pre-selected points of the installation, allowing to estimate the beam quality in the positions provided for use of the direct beam. These simulations also allow assist the basement of a project to install the consistent D-T generator with the guidelines for radiation protection and radiation safety standards determined by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), by estimating the dose rates provided in accessible points to Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOE) in the facility. The computational determination of spectra, fluxes and doses produced in different positions previously selected within and outside the laboratory, will serve as guidance from previous studies for the future installation of this generator in the physical facilities of the LRI

  17. New graphite/salt materials for high temperature energy storage. Phase change properties study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.

    2007-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (≥200 C). The aim is to analyse and to understand the influence of both graphite and composite microstructure on the phase change properties of salts. This PhD is carried out within the framework of two projects: DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French). The major contributions of this work are threefold: 1) An important database (solid-liquid phase change properties) is provided from the DSC analysis of six salts and the corresponding composites. 2) Rigorous modeling of salts melting in confined media in several geometries are proposed to understand why, during the first melting of the compression elaborated composites, problems of salt leakage are observed. These models show that the materials morphology is responsible for these phenomena: the graphite matrix restrains the volume expansion due to salt melting: salt melts under pressure, which leads to a melting on a large temperature range and to a loss of energy density. Sensitivity analysis of parameters (geometric and physic) shows that matrix rigidity modulus is the parameter on which it is necessary to act during the composites elaboration to blur this phenomenon. 3) Finally, this work proposes a thermodynamic formulation of both surface/interface phenomena and the presence of dissolved impurities being able to explain a melting point lowering. It seems that the melting point lowering observed (∼ 5 C) are mainly due to the presence of dissolved impurities (brought by graphite) in the liquid, along with an additional Gibbs-Thomson effect (∼ 1 C, related to the size of the clusters crystals). (author)

  18. Study of Creep of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, Natalie Petrovna

    To withstand the high temperature (>700°C) and pressure demands of steam turbines and boilers used for energy applications, metal alloys must be economically viable and have the necessary material properties, such as high-temperature creep strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance, to withstand such conditions. One promising class of alloys potentially capable of withstanding the rigors of aggressive environments, are alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels (AFAs) alloyed with aluminum to improve corrosion and oxidation resistance. The effect of aging on the microstructure, high temperature constant-stress creep behavior and mechanical properties of the AFA-type alloy Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb-5Al (at.%) were investigated in this study. The alloy's microstructural evolution with increased aging time was observed prior to creep testing. As aging time increased, the alloy exhibited increasing quantities of fine Fe2Nb Laves phase dispersions, with a precipitate-free zone appearing in samples with higher aging times. The presence of the L1 2 phase gamma'-Ni3Al precipitate was detected in the alloy's matrix at 760°C. A constant-stress creep rig was designed, built and its operation validated. Constant-stress creep tests were performed at 760°C and 35MPa, and the effects of different aging conditions on creep rate were investigated. Specimens aged for 240 h exhibited the highest creep rate by a factor of 5, with the homogenized sample having the second highest rate. Samples aged for 2.4 h and 24 h exhibited similar low secondary creep rates. Creep tests conducted at 700oC exhibited a significantly lower creep rate compared to those at 760oC. Microstructural analysis was performed on crept samples to explore high temperature straining properties. The quantity and size of Fe2Nb Laves phase and NiAl particles increased in the matrix and on grain boundaries with longer aging time. High temperature tensile tests were performed and compared to room temperature results. The

  19. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  20. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  1. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  2. Studies on the high electronic energy deposition in polyaniline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Gudage, Y.G.; Vyas, J.C.; Singh, F.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    We report here the physico-chemical changes brought about by high electronic energy deposition of gold ions in HCl doped polyaniline (PANI) thin films. PANI thin films were synthesized by in situ polymerization technique. The as-synthesized PANI thin films of thickness 160 nm were irradiated using Au 7+ ion of 100 MeV energy at different fluences, namely, 5 x 10 11 ions/cm 2 and 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 , respectively. A significant change was seen after irradiation in electrical and photo conductivity, which may be related to increased carrier concentration, and structural modifications in the polymer film. In addition, the high electronic energy deposition showed other effects like cross-linking of polymer chains, bond breaking and creation of defect sites. AFM observations revealed mountainous type features in all (before and after irradiation) PANI samples. The average size (diameter) and density of such mountainous clusters were found to be related with the ion fluence. The AFM profiles also showed change in the surface roughness of the films with respect to irradiation, which is one of the peculiarity of the high electronic energy deposition technique

  3. A study of build-up effects in high-energy radiation fields using a TEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M; Stevenson, G R [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Geneva (Switzerland); Aroua, A [IAR, Institute for Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sannikov, A V [IHEP, Institute for High-Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-04

    A dose of 2 mSv close to the body surface of a pregnant woman is considered by ICRP to assure a dose limit of 1 mSv to the foetus. Such an assumption depends on the energy spectrum and composition of the external radiation field and it was tested in radiation fields containing high-energy particles similar to those found around high-energy particle accelerators and in air-craft. Measurements of dose and dose equivalent were performed as a function of wall thickness using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in radiation fields at the CERN-EU Reference Radiation Facility. Results are presented both with respect to integral quantities and event size spectra. The decrease in dose and dose equivalent at a depth equivalent to that of the foetus was typically 10% in a high-energy stray radiation field and in the case of PuBe source neutrons amounted to only 30%. It is concluded that it would be prudent under such exposure conditions to limit the dose of a pregnant woman to 1 mSv in order to assure that the dose to the foetus remains below the same limit. (author)

  4. A study of build-up effects in high-energy radiation fields using a TEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.; Aroua, A.; Sannikov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    A dose of 2 mSv close to the body surface of a pregnant woman is considered by ICRP to assure a dose limit of 1 mSv to the foetus. Such an assumption depends on the energy spectrum and composition of the external radiation field and it was tested in radiation fields containing high-energy particles similar to those found around high-energy particle accelerators and in air-craft. Measurements of dose and dose equivalent were performed as a function of wall thickness using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in radiation fields at the CERN-EU Reference Radiation Facility. Results are presented both with respect to integral quantities and event size spectra. The decrease in dose and dose equivalent at a depth equivalent to that of the foetus was typically 10% in a high-energy stray radiation field and in the case of PuBe source neutrons amounted to only 30%. It is concluded that it would be prudent under such exposure conditions to limit the dose of a pregnant woman to 1 mSv in order to assure that the dose to the foetus remains below the same limit. (author)

  5. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the systems analysis study on ''The Role of High Temperature Nuclear Heat in Future Energy Systems'' under the cooperative research program between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are to analyze the effect and the impact of introduction of high temperature nuclear heat in Japanese long-term energy systems aiming at zero environmental emissions from view points of energy supply/demand, economy progress, and environmental protection, and to show the potentials of involved technologies and to extract the associated problems necessary for research and developments. This report describes the results being obtained in these three years from 1985. The present status of our energy system are explained at first, then, our findings concerning on analytical approach, method for analysis, view points to the future, scenario state space, reference energy systems, evolving technologies in it, and results analyzed are described. (author)

  6. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  7. Long-term outcome of high-energy open Lisfranc injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyananth, Manasseh; Boopalan, Palapattu R J V C; Titus, Vijay T K; Sundararaj, Gabriel D; Lee, Vernon N

    2011-03-01

    The outcome of open Lisfranc injuries has been reported infrequently. Should these injuries be managed as closed injuries and is their outcome different? We undertook a retrospective study of high-energy, open Lisfranc injuries treated between 1999 and 2005. The types of dislocation, the associated injuries to the same foot, the radiologic and functional outcome, and the complications were studied. There were 22 patients. Five patients died. One had amputation. Of the remaining 16 patients, 13 men were followed up at a mean of 56 months (range, 29-88 months). The average age was 36 years (range, 7-55 years). According to the modified Hardcastle classification, type B2 injury was the commonest. Ten patients had additional forefoot or midfoot injury. All patients were treated with debridement, open reduction, and multiple Kirschner (K) wire fixation. All injuries were Gustilo Anderson type IIIa or IIIb. Nine patients had split skin graft for soft tissue cover. Mean time taken for wound healing was 16 days (range, 10-30 days). Ten patients (77%) had fracture comminution. Eight patients had anatomic reduction, whereas five had nonanatomic reduction. Ten of 13 (77%) patients had at least one spontaneous tarsometatarsal joint fusion. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 82 (range, 59-100). Nonanatomic reduction, osteomyelitis, deformity of toes, planus foot, and mild discomfort on prolonged walking were the unfavorable outcomes present. In open Lisfranc injuries, multiple K wire fixation should be considered especially in the presence of comminution and soft tissue loss. Although anatomic reduction is always not obtained, the treatment principles should include adequate debridement, maintaining alignment with multiple K wires, and obtaining early soft tissue cover. There is a high incidence of fusion across tarsometatarsal joints. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  8. High energy x-ray and neutron studies of disordered energy-related materials at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, John

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental scientific accomplishments are: (1) advances in a general description of the liquid state by employing structural models constrained by measurements to interpret experimental results and extend them to liquids in general, with special emphasis on (2) The structure of the high-temperature crystal and molten UO_2 and 3) water. Specifically, samples of UO_2 and water were probed using high-energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source. The high Z of UO_2, and the 2-3mm diameter droplet shape of the molten sample, means that >100keV X-rays are required to minimize absorption and multiple scattering, which can distort the measured structure factor. A high flux of x-rays is also required to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy in short (a few seconds) measurement times. The scattered x-ray data were analyzed and pair distribution functions, extracted that characterize the local and long-range atomic structure of the material. The measurements of the hot UO_2 solid show a substantial increase in oxygen disorder and, upon melting, the average U-O coordination was found to decrease from 8 to 6.7±0.5. The research incorporated development of diffraction techniques, sample environment optimization and state-of-the-art simulation techniques. The symbiotic nature of the advances in simulation and experiment allowed for a more focused and informed development of future experiments, effective use of expensive beam time and generated new research agendas for the growing number of research groups, within the US and internationally, that focus on the structure of liquids. Molecular dynamics (MD) provided detailed information when combined with high-quality XN data including addressing key issues in liquids; the relationship between cooling path, structure and fictive temperature, and the trade-offs between network over connectedness in liquids containing low-coordination cations.

  9. High energy x-ray and neutron studies of disordered energy-related materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, John [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-05-16

    The fundamental scientific accomplishments are: (1) advances in a general description of the liquid state by employing structural models constrained by measurements to interpret experimental results and extend them to liquids in general, with special emphasis on (2) The structure of the high-temperature crystal and molten UO2 and 3) water. Specifically, samples of UO2 and water were probed using high-energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source. The high Z of UO2, and the 2-3mm diameter droplet shape of the molten sample, means that >100keV X-rays are required to minimize absorption and multiple scattering, which can distort the measured structure factor. A high flux of x-rays is also required to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy in short (a few seconds) measurement times. The scattered x-ray data were analyzed and pair distribution functions, extracted that characterize the local and long-range atomic structure of the material. The measurements of the hot UO2 solid show a substantial increase in oxygen disorder and, upon melting, the average U-O coordination was found to decrease from 8 to 6.7±0.5. The research incorporated development of diffraction techniques, sample environment optimization and state-of-the-art simulation techniques. The symbiotic nature of the advances in simulation and experiment allowed for a more focused and informed development of future experiments, effective use of expensive beam time and generated new research agendas for the growing number of research groups, within the US and internationally, that focus on the structure of liquids. Molecular dynamics (MD) provided detailed information when combined with high-quality XN data including addressing key issues in liquids; the relationship between cooling path, structure and fictive temperature, and the trade-offs between network over connectedness in liquids containing low-coordination cations.

  10. Studies on the production of high energy density in matter with intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopic, amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities are produced in the target matter. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A Kr + ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focused by a fine-focusing lens on a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time-resolved taken up with a spectrometer as well a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam were consecuted. The free-electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark-broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipelet kT ≅ 0.75 eV. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  12. High energy physics studies. Progress report. Part I. Experimental program. Part II. Theoretical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, T.A.; Tanaka, K.; Wada, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Program: assembly of an experiment as Fermilab E-531 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos was finished, and data taking now is in progress. An experiment to measure prompt neutrino production at Fermilab, E-613, was approved and detailed design of it is continuing. Search for parity violation in scattering of polarized protons, an experiment E-446-ZGS at ANL, was performed with the sensitivity of 10 -6 for detection of that process and yielded null results. Another run with improved sensitivity of 10 -7 is in preparation. Data analysis of the neutrino experiment E-310 at Fermilab will continue. Trimuon events, a new discovery, were identified in those data. Analysis of data on meson production from experiments performed at the ZGS--ANL, E-397, E-420 and E-428, with charged and neutral spectrometer will continue. A new relatively broad resonance (T approx. 70 MeV) with quantum numbers IJ/sup P/ = 00 -1 was discovered in the data from E-397. Analysis of beta decay of polarized Σ - hyperons is in progress. Participation in the design of the experimental areas for the Isabelle colliding proton beam accelerator will continue. Theoretical Program: topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year are: the instanton-anti-instanton QCD gauge fields, discrete symmetries which may determine quark masses in the SU(2) x U(1) model, calculation of charmed meson production in e + e - collisions and formation of gluon jets, Higgs boson production in pp collisions, calculation of Higgs boson mass in terms of vector boson mass, study of Lagrangians with gauge and Higgs scalar fields, investigation of Faddeev--Popov determinants as related to quantum chromodynamics, a study of quantum flavor dynamics and anomalies in the axial vector Ward identity and a study of super symmetry as a part of a realistic model of leptonic interactions

  13. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Kratz, H.R.; Keough, D.D.; Duganne, D.A.; Ruffner, D.J.; Swift, R.P.; Baum, D.

    1979-01-01

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  14. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  15. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, M.; Soares, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams. (author)

  16. Phenomenological study of helicity amplitudes of high energy exclusive leptoproduction of the ρ meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Besse, A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a previously developed scheme to consistently include the twist-3 distribution amplitudes for transversely polarized ρ mesons in order to evaluate, in the framework of k T factorization, the helicity amplitudes for exclusive leptoproduction of a light vector meson, at leading order in α s . We compare our results with high energy experimental data for the ratios of helicity amplitudes T 11 /T 00 and T 01 /T 00 and get a good description of the data.

  17. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  18. Study of the effects of high-energy proton beams on escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious risks to public health care today. However, discouragingly, the development of new antibiotics has progressed little over the last decade. There is an urgent need for alternative approaches to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel methods, which include photothermal therapy based on gold nano-materials and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, have been reported. Studies of the effects of high-energy proton radiation on bacteria have mainly focused on Bacillus species and its spores. The effect of proton beams on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been limitedly reported. Escherichia coli is an important biological tool to obtain metabolic and genetic information and is a common model microorganism for studying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. In addition, E. coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal tract of mammals. In this research, the morphological and the physiological changes of E. coli after proton irradiation were investigated. Diluted solutions of cells were used for proton beam radiation. LB agar plates were used to count the number of colonies formed. The growth profile of the cells was monitored by using the optical density at 600 nm. The morphology of the irradiated cells was observed with an optical microscope. A microarray analysis was performed to examine the gene expression changes between irradiated samples and control samples without irradiation. E coli cells have observed to be elongated after proton irradiation with doses ranging from 13 to 93 Gy. Twenty-two were up-regulated more than twofold in proton-irradiated samples (93 Gy) compared with unexposed one.

  19. Mechanisms of defect production and atomic mixing in high energy displacement cascades: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Guinan, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics computer simulation studies of displacement cascades in Cu at low temperature. For 25 keV recoils we observe the splitting of a cascade into subcascades and show that cascades in Cu may lead to the formation of vacancy and interstitial dislocation loops. We discuss a new mechanism of defect production based on the observation of interstitial prismatic dislocation loop punching from cascades at 10 K. We also show that below the subcascade threshold, atomic mixing in the cascade is recoil-energy dependent and obtain a mixing efficiency that scales as the square root of the primary recoil energy. 44 refs., 12 figs

  20. Study of dose distribution in high energy photon beam used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaravavy, R.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Bridier, A.

    2007-01-01

    The dose distribution in a medium traversed by a photon beam depends on beam energy, field size and medium nature. Percent depth dose (PDD), Dose Profile (DP) and Opening Collimator Factor (OCF) curves will be established to study this distribution. So, the PDD curves are composed by tree parts: the build-up region, the maximal dose and the quasi-equilibrium region. The maximum dose depth and the dose in depth increase with increasing photon beam energy but the dose surface decreases. The PDD increases with increasing field size.

  1. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  2. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  3. Studies on a modular high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyto, D.

    1994-04-01

    Aim of the present thesis is the optimization of components for the construction of a high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI for the detection of the neutral pseudoscalar mesons π 0 , η, and η' at COSY. These mesons are distinguished by their decay into two γ quanta and can therefore be detected by means of a photon spectrometer. A concept of a 2-arm shower counter of pure CsI is presented. Conclusions on the energy resolution of such a calorimeter shall yield a test module, which is constructed of 5.5 CsI(pure) pyramide trunk, each of which possesses a length of 30 cm and an angular acceptance of 6 .6 . The geometry of the moduls is formed in such a way that its extension to a 2-arm shower counter is possible at any time. Hitherto 14 by teflon foils wrapped up crystals for the test module were tested. Their energy resolution varies at 0.66 MeV between 20 and 25 % FWHM. Furthermore a method was found, which allows to trim the position dependence to the required values. So for the position dependence of a crystal even a value of 1.1 % could be reached. The energy resolution amounted thereby to 22 % FWHM. A measurement of the energy resolution with 20 MeV protons yielded a value of 7 %. For the energy calibration of the single detector elements in a dynamic range between 1 MeV and 12 GeV with low-energy γ sources the charge response function of the photoelectron multiplier to be applied in the test module was determined in dependence on the light intensity. The measurement resulted that the photomultiplier at 40 MeV (related to a CsI(pure) reference crystal with an about twofold so high efficiency of the detectable light in comparison to the long pyramide trunks) deviates by 4 % and at 300 MeV by 38 % from the linear behaviour, while it at 500 MeV shows a deviation of 50 %

  4. The study of amplification circuit characteristics of photocurrent signal of high-energy industrial CT detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Tan Hui; Wang Xin; Chen Jiaoze

    2011-01-01

    According to characteristics of the Photocurrent signal from detection system of high energy industrial CT, sets up the integral amplifier circuit test platform based ACF2101, through the study of this amplifier circuit, a integral capacitor using air as dielectric is proposed in order to get high-gain. After experimental tests, results are good. (authors)

  5. Beam dynamics studies of the ISOLDE post-accelerator for the high intensity and energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  6. Beam Dynamics Studies of the ISOLDE Post-accelerator for the High Intensity and Energy Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Matthew Alexander; Pasini, M

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  7. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  8. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-08

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  9. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  10. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu

    2017-11-01

    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  11. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  12. Study of high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with the enlarged NA10 dimuon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Dimuon production is studied in $^{16}$0 - $^{238}$U and $^{32}$S - $^{238}$U collisions at the maximum possible luminosity of $\\sim10^{7}$ interactions per pulse using the NA10 spectrometer to which beam counters, an active segmented target and an electromagnetic calorimeter have been added. Thermal dimuons are expected to be emitted from a quark-gluon plasma at a detectable rate in the 1-3 GeV/c$^{2}$ transverse mass range, and to differ from ordinary dimuons by their $P_{T}$ and rapidity distribution. Particular emphasis is put on the $J/\\psi$ meson whose $\\mu\\mu$ decays are studied in detail. It is expected to be suppressed when a quark-gluon plasma is formed (Debye screening of the colour field). The correlations of the dimuon variables with charged multiplicity and neutral energy flow distributions are studied event by event. The energy density is estimated from the measured transverse neutral energy. Also $p$ - $^{228}$U collisions are studied in the same apparatus with the purpose of establishing a da...

  13. Study of genetic effects of high energy radiations with different ionizing capacities on extracellular phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, S E; Kalinin, V L; Kopylova, Y U; Krivisky, A S; Rybchin, V N; Shelegedin, V N

    1975-07-01

    The inactivating and mutagenic action of high-energy radiations with different ionizing capacities (gamma-rays, protons, alpha-particles and accelerated ions of 12C and 20Ne) was studied by using coliphages lambda11 and SD as subjects. In particular the role of irradiation conditions (broth suspension, pure buffer, dry samples) and of the host functions recA, exrA and polA was investigated. The dose-response curve of induced mutagenesis was studied by measuring the yield of vir mutants in lambda11 and plaque mutants in SD. The following results were obtained. (1) The inactivation kinetics of phages under the action of gamma-rays and protons was first order to a survival of 10(-7). Heavy ions also showed exponential inactivation kinetics to a survival of 10(-4). At higher doses of 20Ne ion bombardment some deviation from one-hit kinetics was observed. For dry samples of phages the dimensions of targets for all types of radiation were approximately proportional to the molecular weights of phage DNA's. For densely ionizing radiation (heavy ions) the inactivating action was 3-5 times weaker than for gamma-rays and protons. (2) Mutagenesis was observed for all types of radiation, but heavy ions were 1-5-2 times less efficient than gamma-rays. For both phages studied the dose-response curve of mutagenesis was non-linear. The dependence on the dose was near to parabolic for lambda11. For SD a plateau or maximum of mutagenesis was observed for the relative number of mutants at a survival of about 10(-4). (3) Host-cell functions recA and exrA were practically indifferent for survival of gamma-irradiated phage lambda11, but indispensable for mutagenesis. Mutation recAI3 abolished induced vir mutations totally and exrA- reduced them significantly. The absence of the function polA had a considerable influence on phage survival, but no effect on vir mutation yield (if compared at the same survival level). (4) In conditions of indirect action of gamma-rays no vir mutations were

  14. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  15. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.; Christenson, M.; Curreli, D.; Bryniarski, C.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m 2 and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m 2 . A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed

  16. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S., E-mail: jung73@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Christenson, M.; Curreli, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Bryniarski, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m{sup 2}. A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed.

  17. High-energy-physics studies. Progress report, Part I. Experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics program at Ohio State University for 1982 is described. The following topics are discussed: a search for neutrino oscillations at LAMPF; measuring charm and beauty decays via hadronic production in a hybrid emulsion spectrometer; prompt neutrino production experiment; search for long-lived particles from neutrino interactions in a tagged emulsion spectrometer; electron-positron interactions at CESR-CLEO; a search for exotic forms of stable matter; and development of computer systems for data processing and for development of detectors

  18. Structural studies of metal nanoparticles using high-energy x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumara, L. S. R., E-mail: KUMARA.Rosantha@nims.go.jp; Yang, Anli; Song, Chulho [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Sakata, Osami, E-mail: SAKATA.Osami@nims.go.jp [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Group, Quantum Beam Unit, NIMS, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J3-16, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Group, Quantum Beam Unit, NIMS, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Kitagawa, Hiroshi [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 Japan (Japan); INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 Japan (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The XRD patterns of nanoparticles exhibit broad Bragg peaks because of small size, where the contribution of diffuse component provides us with inherent structural information. Therefore, pair distribution function obtained from a Fourier transformation of high-energy XRD data and structure modeling on the basis of diffraction data becomes an essential tool to understand the structure of nanoparticles. This promising tool was utilized to obtain structural information of Pd/Pt bimetallic core/shell and solid-solution nanoparticles, which show much attention due to their improved hydrogen storage capacity and catalytic activity.

  19. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  20. Application of high energy accelerator to study of single event burn-out (SEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Takashi; Aoki, Shiro; Nakamura, Masao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirose, Takayuki; Ohira, Hideharu; Nagai, Yuki

    1996-12-01

    Hitherto, as nuclear fission fragments of 252-Cf, one of radioactive matters have been used for elucidation of single event mechanism, this method has a limit for analysis of power MOSFET with long charge collection region (generally, empty layer) and is difficult to form the experiment simulating the space environment, because of their wide LET (Linear Energy Transfer) range and of short flying distance of about 15 micrometer. As a result, some irradiation experiments using an accelerator capable of forming charged particle beam with long flying distance and single energy became essential to elucidate the SEB mechanism. In this paper, an experiment result of SEB phenomenon using high energy accelerator was reported. As a result, following items were found: (1) With increase of impressed charge, collected charge shows two peaks, and also increases, (2) commercial power MOSFET shows about 280 V in SEB resistance, and power MOSFET developed for the space use shows about 320 V, which is improved about 40 V for the commercial one, and so forth. (G.K.)

  1. Study of crosslinking onset and hydrogen annealing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Ford

    1997-09-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is used extensively in hip and knee endoprostheses. Radiation damage from the sterilization of these endoprostheses prior to surgical insertion results in polymer crosslinking and decreased oxidative stability. The motivation for this study was to determine if UHMW-PE could be crosslinked by low dose proton irradiation with minimal radiation damage and its subsequent deleterious effects. I found that low dose proton irradiation and post irradiation hydrogen annealing did crosslink UHMW-PE and limit post irradiation oxidation. Crosslinking onset was investigated for UHMW-PE irradiated with 2.6 and 30 MeV H+ ions at low doses from 5.7 × 1011-2.3 × 1014 ions/cm2. Crosslinking was determined from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene sol fractions and increased with dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed irradiation resulted in increased free radicals confirmed from increased carbonyl groups. Radiation damage, especially at the highest doses observed, also showed up in carbon double bonds and increased methyl end groups. Hydrogen annealing after ion irradiation resulted in 40- 50% decrease in FTIR absorption associated with carbonyl. The hydrogen annealing prevented further oxidation after aging for 1024 hours at 80oC. Hydrogen annealing was successful in healing radiation damage through reacting with the free radicals generated during proton irradiation. Polyethylenes, polyesters, and polyamides are used in diverse applications by the medical profession in the treatment of orthopedic impairments and cardiovascular disease and for neural implants. These artificial implants are sterilized with gamma irradiation prior to surgery and the resulting radiation damage can lead to accelerated deterioration of the implant properties. The findings in this study will greatly impact the continued use of these materials through the elimination of many problems associated with radiation

  2. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  3. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  4. Interdisciplinary design study of a high-rise integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s market in micro-wind turbines is in constant development introducing more efficient solutions for the future. Besides the private use of tower supported turbines, opportunities to integrate wind turbines in the built environment arise. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System (IRWES presented in this work is a modular roof structure integrated on top of existing or new buildings. IRWES is build up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels used for both wind inlet and outlet. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in the center-top of the roof unit for the generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The scope of this research aims to make an optimized structural design of IRWES to be placed on top of the Vertigo building in Eindhoven; analysis of the structural performance; and impact to the existing structure by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM. Results show that the obvious impact of wind pressure to the structural design is easily supported in different configurations of fairly simple lightweight structures. In particular, the weight addition to existing buildings remains minimal.

  5. A Case Study: The Potential of Energy Efficiency in Senior High School of Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustika, Ana; Purwanto; Hermawan, H.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing of energy supply trend in Indonesia seems to be a serious problem in the implementation of sustainable development. This study case research aimed to determine the potential of energy efficiency in school environment. The subject of this research was SMA N 1 Ambarawa, located on Semarang Regency of Central Java, Indonesia. The data collection was done by used documentation, observation and interview method. The results showed that the average of electrical energy consumption in this school reached 11022.008 kWh/month, which resulted in the emergence of secondary emissions of CO2 by 9644.257 kg CO2/month. Overall, the consumption of electrical energy in this school was very efficient, with an Intensity of Energy Consumption (IEC) average 1.7957 kWh/m2/month. In this case, the implementation of short-term no cost, long-term no cost, middle-cost, short-term high cost and long-term high-cost recommendation could save electricity energy sequent by 3.159%; 7.536%; 9.499%; 35.278% - 36.626%; and 42.084%. In conclusion, the school environment had a big potential of energy efficiency that could reduce the energy consumption and CO2 gas emissions.

  6. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Inter-Institute Centre for High Energy Physics, which was formed by an agreement between the UMM, the JU and the INP to honour the late Prof. Marian Miesowicz, the founder and the long-time leader of the high energy physics community in Cracow. Since the modern high energy physics experiments require enormous technical, man-power and financial efforts, the research is mainly carried out in large international collaborations. These are listed at proper places in the following text. They were formed at the leading laboratories: the European CERN in Geneva (SPS, LEP, LHC), DESY in Hamburg (HERA), Brookhaven RHIC, Fermilab TEVATRON, and KEK B-Factory in Tsukuba. The work in 1998 resulted in the publication of interesting results from the e + e - experiment DELPHI at LEP, the e + /e - p experiments H1 and ZEUS at HERA, and on heavy ion collisions from BNL and CERN. Short reviews of some of these can be found in the following pages together with important results obtained in other experiments, like e.g. the cosmic ray experiment JACEE, and also with those published by theorists. Close research contacts in some projects such as the DELPHI, ZEUS, NA49 and LHC experiments are being maintained with the A. Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies in Warsaw and the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Warsaw University. In 1998 the division organized the Cracow Epiphany Conference on Spin Effects in Particle Physics. The titles of Honorary Professors of the Institute were bestowed on two outstanding high-energy physicists from DESY: Prof. Johann Bienlein and Prof. Bjorn Wiik

  7. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  8. Ab-initio study of the dielectric response of high-permittivity perovskites for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Amaral-De-Andrade-Sophia, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Many of materials based on transition metals have a wide range of applications, such as the storage of energy, due to their peculiar properties (high-dielectric constants, ferro-electricity,...). The knowledge of their bulk properties is essential in designing targeted devices with high performance. For instance, ABO 3 perovskites are peculiarly interesting for their atomic structural flexibility, allowing high number of atoms substitution and giving them specific chemical and electrical properties compared to the pure compounds. In this context, first principles calculations can be useful to understand the structural and electronic properties of these materials. The pressure-induced giant dielectric anomaly of ABO 3 perovskites has been investigated at the ab initio level. Its mechanism has been analyzed in terms of thermodynamic phase stability, structural and phonon contributions and Born effective charges. It is shown that the IR-active soft phonon is responsible for the anomaly. This mode always involves a displacement and a deformation of the oxygen octahedra, while the roles of A and B ions vary among the materials and between high- and low-pressure phase transitions. A sharp increase in the phonon amplitude near the phase transition gives rise to the dielectric anomaly. The use of hybrid functionals is required for agreement with experimental data. The calculations show that the dielectric anomaly in the pressure-induced phase transitions of these perovskites is a property of the bulk material. (author)

  9. High energy neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  10. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  11. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R ampersand D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z 0 decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka's program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino

  12. A molecular dynamics study of high-energy displacement cascades in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooding, S.J.; Howe, L.M.; Gao, F.; Calder, A.F.; Bacon, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The damage produced in α-zirconium at 100 K by displacement cascades with energy, E p , up to 20 keV has been investigated by molecular dynamics using a many-body interatomic potential. The results are compared with similar data for cascades of energy up to 10 keV in α-titanium. The production efficiency of Frenkel pairs falls to about 25% of the NRT value as E p rises above 10 keV in zirconium, and to about 30% at 10 keV in titanium. The power-law dependence of the number of Frenkel pairs, N F , on E p found previously is obeyed, i.e., N F = A(E p ) m . Interstitial and vacancy clusters with sizes of the same order are created in the cascade process, and clusters containing up to 25 interstitials and 30 vacancies were formed in zirconium by 20 keV cascades. Two thirds of the SIAs are produced in clusters in zirconium at high cascade energy. Most interstitial clusters have dislocation character with perfect Burgers vectors of the form 1/3(11 2 - 0), but a few metastable clusters are formed and are persistent over the timescale of MD simulations. Collapse of the 30-vacancy cluster to a faulted loop on the prism plane was found to occur over a period of more than 100 ps. Annealing over this timescale has a stronger effect on the number and clustering of defects in cascades that are dispersed over a large region of crystal than in cascades that form a compact region of damage. (author)

  13. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  14. Study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Watari, Hiroshi

    1982-12-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by /sup 31/P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by /sup 31/P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium.

  15. In-beam PET at high-energy photon beams: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.; Enghardt, W.

    2006-04-01

    For radiation therapy with carbon ion beams, either for the stable isotope 12C or for the radioactive one 11C, it has been demonstrated that the β+-activity distribution created or deposited, respectively, within the irradiated volume can be visualized by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The PET images provide valuable information for quality assurance and precision improvement of ion therapy. Dedicated PET scanners have been integrated into treatment sites at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (HIMAC), Japan, and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, to make PET imaging feasible during therapeutic irradiation (in-beam PET). A similar technique may be worthwhile for radiotherapy with high-energy bremsstrahlung. In addition to monitoring the dose delivery process which in-beam PET has been primarily developed for, it may be expected that radiation response of tissue can be detected by means of in-beam PET. We investigate the applicability of PET for treatment control in the case of using bremsstrahlung spectra produced by 15-50 MeV electrons. Target volume activation due to (γ, n) reactions at energies above 20 MeV yields moderate β+-activity levels, which can be employed for imaging. The radiation from positrons produced by pair production is not presently usable because the detectors are overloaded due to the low duty factor of medical electron linear accelerators. However, the degradation of images caused by positron motion between creation and annihilation seems to be tolerable.

  16. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena

    2017-11-01

    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  17. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of short- and intermediate-range structure in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    The feature of high-energy X-ray diffraction method is explained. The oxide glasses studies by using BL04B2, high-energy X-ray diffraction beam line of SPring-8, and the random system materials by high-energy monochromatic X-ray diffraction are introduced. An advantage of third generation synchrotron radiation is summarized. On SPring-8, the high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments of random system are carried out by BL04B2 and BL14B1 beam line. BL04B2 can select Si (111)(E=37.8 keV, λ=0.033 nm) and Si(220)(E=61.7 keV, λ=0.020 nm) as Si monochromator. The intermediate-range structure of (MgO) x (P 2 O 5 ) 1-x glass ,MgP 2 O 6 glass, B 2 O 3 glass, SiO 2 and GeO 2 are explained in detail. The future and application of high-energy X-ray diffraction are stated. (S.Y.)

  18. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G.F.; Salamone, S.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Palumbo, G. Parasiliti; Russo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  19. Design study for remotely piloted, high-altitude airplanes powered by microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A design study has been conducted for unmanned, microwave-powered airplanes that must fly with long endurance at high altitude. They are proposed to conduct communications-relay, observation, or various scientific missions above approximately 55,000 feet altitude. The special characteristics of the microwave-power system and high-altitude, low-speed vehicle are reviewed. Examples of both sizing and performance analysis are used to suggest design procedure guidelines.

  20. Renewable Energy Riding High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is putting greater emphasis on green energy as it tries to clean up industry and meet target for cuts in carbon emissions over the past two years, China has already leapfrogged competitors from Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States to become the world's largest maker of wind turbines and solar panels. At the same time, the country is also taking steps to build more nuclear reactors and energy-efficient coal power plants.

  1. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  2. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  3. Study of Muon Pairs and Vector Mesons Produced in High Energy Pb-Pb Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Karavicheva, T; Atayan, M; Bordalo, P; Constans, N P; Gulkanyan, H; Kluberg, L

    2002-01-01

    %NA50 %title\\\\ \\\\The experiment studies dimuons produced in Pb-Pb and p-A collisions, at nucleon-nucleon c.m. energies of $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 18 and 30 GeV respectively. The setup accepts dimuons in a kinematical range roughly defined as $0.1$ $1 GeV/c$, and stands maximal luminosity (5~10$^{7}$~Pb ions and 10$^7$ interactions per burst). The physics includes signals which probe QGP (Quark-Gluon Plasma), namely the $\\phi$, J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi^\\prime$ vector mesons and thermal dimuons, and reference signals, namely the (unseparated) $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons, and Drell-Yan dimuons. The experiment is a continuation, with improved means, of NA38, and expands its study of {\\it charmonium suppression} and {\\it strangeness enhancement}.\\\\ \\\\The muons are measured in the former NA10 spectrometer, which is shielded from the hot target region by a beam stopper and absorber wall. The muons traverse 5~m of BeO and C. The impact parameter is determined by a Zero Degree Calorimeter (Ta with silica fibres). Energy dissipation ...

  4. Response of CR-39 SSNTD to high energy neutrons using zirconium convertors - a Monte Carlo and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sapra, B.K.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Biju, K.; Suryanarayana, S.V.; Nayak, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron dosimetry in ion accelerators is a challenging field as the neutron spectrum varies from thermal, to fast and high-energy neutrons usually extending beyond 20 MeV. Solid-state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been increasingly used in numerous fields related to nuclear physics. Extensive work has also been carried out on determining the response characteristics of such detectors as nuclear spectrometers. In nuclear reaction studies, identification of reaction products according to their type and energy is frequently required. For normally incident particles, energy-dispersive track-diameter methods have become useful scientific tools using CR-39 SSNTD. CR-39 along with 1 mm polyethylene convertor can cover a neutron energy range from 100 keV to 10 MeV. The neutron interacts with the hydrogen in CR-39 producing recoil protons from elastic collisions. This detectable neutron energy range can be increased by modification in the radiator/convertor used along with CR-39. CR39 detectors placed in conjunction with judiciously chosen thicknesses of a polyethylene radiator and a lead absorber (or degrader) are used to increase energy range upto 19 MeV. A portable neutron counter has been proposed for high-energy neutron measurement with 1 cm thick Zirconium (Zr) as the converter outside a spherical HDPE shell of 7 inch diameter. Zr metal has been found to show (n,2n) cross section for energies above 10 MeV starting from 0.01 barns for 8 MeV upto 1 barns for 22 MeV. Above these energies, the experimental data is scarce. In this paper, Zr was used in conjunction with CR-39 which showed an enhancement of track density on the CR-39. This paper demonstrates the enhancement of neutron response using Zr on CR-39 with both theoretical and experimental studies

  5. [Study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with a Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been analyzing 200 GeV/n S + Pb collision events with a Magnetic-Interactive-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC). The objectives of the research are to learn the nature of nuclear matter at high density of particles and to develop an all-particle tracking system for very high particle densities. To advance the study further, the detector capability has been improved so as to allow the best utilization of all-particle measurements. A design study for Pb + Pb interactions at 160 GeV/n was made for planned experiments in 1993

  6. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  7. Feasibility Study for High Power RF – Energy Recovery in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When dealing with particle accelerators, especially in systems with travelling wave structures and low beam loading, a substantial amount of RF power is dissipated in 50Ω termination loads. For the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at Cern this is 69 % of the incident RF power or about 1 MW. Different ideas, making use of that otherwise dissipated power, are presented and their feasibility is reviewed. The most feasible one, utilizing an array of semiconductor based RF/DC modules, is used to create a design concept for energy recovery in the SPS. The modules are required to operate at high power, high efficiency and with low harmonic radiation. Besides the actual RF rectifier, they contain additional components to ensure a graceful degradation of the overall system. Different rectifier architectures and semiconductor devices are compared and the most suitable ones are chosen. Two prototype devices were built and operated with up to 400 W of pulsed RF power. Broadband measurements – capturing all harmonics up ...

  8. High energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of the dielectric properties of bulk and nanoparticle LaB6 in the near-infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami; Mukai, Masaki; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu; Adachi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The dielectric properties of LaB 6 crystals and the plasmonic behavior of LaB 6 nanoparticles, which have been applied to solar heat-shielding filters, were studied by high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS). An EELS spectrum of a LaB 6 crystal showed a peak at 2.0 eV, which was attributed to volume plasmon excitation of carrier electrons. EELS spectra of single LaB 6 nanoparticles showed peaks at 1.1-1.4 eV depending on the dielectric effect from the substrates. The peaks were assigned to dipole oscillation excitations. These peak energies almost coincided with the peak energy of optical absorption of a heat-shielding filter with LaB 6 nanoparticles. On the other hand, those energies were a smaller than a dipole oscillation energy predicted using the dielectric function of bulk LaB 6 crystal. It is suggested that the lower energy than expected is due to an excitation at 1.2 eV, which was observed for oxidized LaB 6 area. -- Highlights: → The dielectric properties of LaB 6 nanoparticles applied to solar heat-shielding filters were studied by HR-EELS. → Plasmon peak energies of the LaB 6 nanoparticles were almost equal to optical absorption energy of a heat-shielding filter. → From this result, near-infrared optical absorption of the filter is due to the surface dipole mode of the nanoparticles.

  9. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  10. High energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piroue, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e + e - interactions and Z 0 physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e + e - pair creation by light at SLAC; R ampersand D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and γ-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R ampersand D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way

  11. Study on Differentiation Management of Grid Energy Metering Device under High Permeability by Distributed Energy and Smart Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyuan; Huang, Rui; Yang, Maotao; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-01

    At present, the electric energy metering device is classified according to the amount of electric energy and the degree of importance of the measurement object. The measuring device is also selected according to the characteristics of the traditional metering object.With the continuous development of smart grid, the diversification of measurement objects increasingly appear, the traditional measurement object classification has been unable to meet the new measurement object of personalized, differentiated needs.Withal, this paper constructs the subdivision model based on the object feature-system evaluation, classifies according to the characteristics of the measurement object, and carries on the empirical analysis with some kind of measurement object as the research object.The results show that the model works well and can be used to subdivide the metrological objects into different customer groups, which can be reasonably configured and managed for the metering devices. The research of this paper has effectively improved the economy and rationality of the energy metering device management, and improved the working efficiency.

  12. The Use Of High Speed Photography In Reactor Safety Studies At The Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, R. J.

    1985-02-01

    The investigation of certain areas of nuclear reactor safety involves the study of high speed phenomena with timescales ranging from microseconds to a few hundreds of milliseconds. Examples which have been extensively studied at Winfrith are firstly, the thermal interaction of molten fuel and reactor coolant which can generate high pressures on the 100 msec timescale, and which involves phenomena such as vapour film collapse which takes place on the microsecond timescale. Secondly, there is the response of reactor structures to such pressures, and finally there is the response of structural materials such as metals and concrete to the impulsive loading arising from the impact of heavy, high velocity missiles. A wide range of experimental techniques is used in these studies, many of which have been developed specially for this type of work which ranges from small laboratory scale to large field scale experiments. There are two important features which characterise many of these experiments:- i) a long period of meticulous preparation of very heavily instrumented, short duration experiments and; ii) the destructive nature of the experiments. Various forms of High Speed photography are included in the inventory of experimental techniques. These include the use of single and double exposure, short duration, spark photography; the use of an Image Convertor Camera (IMACON 790); and a number of rotating prism cine cameras. High Speed Photography is used both in a primary experimental role in the studies, and in a supportive role for other instrumentation. Because of the sometimes violent nature of these experiments, cameras are often heavily protected and operated remotely; lighting systems are sometimes destroyed. This has led to the development of unconventional techniques for camera operation and subject lighting. This paper will describe some of the experiments and the way in which High Speed Photography has been applied as an essential experimental tool. It will be

  13. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  14. Design Studies and Optimization of High-Field Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Magnets for a Future Very High Energy PP Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    High filed accelerator magnets with operating fields of 15-16 T based on the $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor are being considered for the LHC energy upgrade or a future Very High Energy pp Collider. Magnet design studies are being conducted in the U.S., Europe and Asia to explore the limits of the $Nb_3Sn$ accelerator magnet technology while optimizing the magnet design and performance parame-ters, and reducing magnet cost. The first results of these studies performed at Fermilab in the framework of the US-MDP are reported in this paper.

  15. Comparative study of speed estimators with highly noisy measurement signals for Wind Energy Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, O. [Escuela Superior de Computo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz S/N, Col. Lindavista, Del. Gustavo A. Madero 7738, D.F. (Mexico); Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, 7F, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, L.G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of several speed estimators to implement a sensorless speed control loop in Wind Energy Generation Systems driven by power factor correction three-phase boost rectifiers. This rectifier topology reduces the low frequency harmonics contents of the generator currents and, consequently, the generator power factor approaches unity whereas undesired vibrations of the mechanical system decrease. For implementation of the speed estimators, the compared techniques start from the measurement of electrical variables like currents and voltages, which contain low frequency harmonics of the fundamental frequency of the wind generator, as well as switching frequency components due to the boost rectifier. In this noisy environment it has been analyzed the performance of the following estimation techniques: Synchronous Reference Frame Phase Locked Loop, speed reconstruction by measuring the dc current and voltage of the rectifier and speed estimation by means of both an Extended Kalman Filter and a Linear Kalman Filter. (author)

  16. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  17. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z degrees resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e + e - → ν bar νγ. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R ampersand D work on BaF 2 by joining the GEM collaboration

  18. Remaining life case history studies for high energy piping systems using equivalent stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the development of plant life extension for high energy piping systems is progressing, conventional piping system design methodologies are also being reevaluated. Traditional guidelines such as American National Standard Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.1 (ANSI/ASME) were developed for plants having design lives in the 25- to 30-year regime based upon relatively short-term base metal creep data. These guidelines use a simplified approach for the piping analysis. Two types of stress criteria must be satisfied. The first type is longitudinal plus torsion stress checks for several types of loading conditions versus the material allowable stresses. The second type is an independent minimum wall thickness check which considers the hoop stress versus the material allowable stress. Seven case histories have been evaluated to estimate the minimum piping system creep life based on the current ANSI/ASME B31.1 finite element type of analysis, which is a traditional approach, versus a multiaxial stress state type of analysis. In nearly every case, the equivalent stress methodology predicted significantly higher stresses. Consequently, the equivalent stress methodology resulted in 11 to 96% lower time to rupture values as compared to the values predicted using ANSI/ASME B31.1 stresses

  19. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  20. High resolution medium energy ion scattering study of silicon oxidation and oxy nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.P.; Lu, H.C.; Garfunkel, E.; Gustafsson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Silicon oxide is likely to remain the material of choice for gate oxides in microelectronics for the foreseeable future. As device become ever smaller and faster, the thickness of these layers in commercial products is predicted to be less than 50 Angstroms in just a few years. An understanding of such devices will therefore likely to be based on microscopic concepts and should now be investigated by atomistic techniques. With medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using an electrostatic energy analyzer, depth profiling of thin (<60 Angstroms) silicon oxide films on Si(100) with 3 - 5 Angstroms depth resolution in the near region has been done. The growth mechanism of thin oxide films on Si(100) has been studied, using sequential oxygen isotope exposures. It is found that the oxide films are stoichiometric to within approx. 10 Angstroms of the interface. It is also found that the oxidation reactions occur at the surface, in the transition region and at interface, with only the third region being included in the conventional (Deal-Grove) model for oxide formation. Nitrogen is sometimes added to gate oxides, as it has been found empirically that his improves some of the electrical properties. The role, location and even the amount of nitrogen that exists in such films are poorly understood, and represent interesting analytical challenges. MEIS data will be presented that address these questions, measured for a number of different processing conditions. We have recently demonstrated how to perform nitrogen nano-engineering in such ultrathin gate dielectrics, and these results will also be discussed

  1. Dosimetry study comparing NCS report-2 versus IAEA TRS-398 protocol for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalaa, E.M.; Khaled, N.E.; Abou Elenein, H.S.; Elsayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a dosimetry study is presented in which the results of absorbed dose determined at reference condition according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol and the NCS report-2 are compared. The IAEA TRS-398 protocol for absorbed dose calibration is based on ionization chamber having absorbed dose to water calibration factor N d w, while the NCS-2 dosimetry report for absorbed dose calibration is based on an ionization chamber having air- kerma calibration factor N k . This study shows that the absorbed dose which is calculated with The IAEA TRS-398 formalisms is higher than that calculated with NCS report-2 formalisms within range from 0.4 to 0.9% in cobalt-60 beam as sensed by different ionization chambers, and from 0.2 to 1.1% for different higher energy photon beams of 6, 8 and 18 MV. The chambers used are PTW 30001, 30004, and NE-2571; which have calibration factors N k and N d w traceable to the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)

  2. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  3. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  4. Response study of fission track detectors using two different moderator designs in a high-energy radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuerstner, M.; Wernli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Fission track detectors in the center of moderating spheres are routinely used to measure the ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons in the environmental dosimetry at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Originally, the system was designed to cope with neutrons from skyshine effects. Later, the system was also adapted behind the shielding of PSI's accelerators. Nowadays, as a consequence of continuously upgrading accelerator energies and intensities, the neutron energy behind thick shielding can range from fractions of eV to about 1 GeV (e.g. at CERN). For this reason a measurement campaign in a high-energy stray radiation field at CERN's High-Energy Reference Field Facility (CERF) was initiated to study and compare the response of the already existing detector-moderator configuration and a new design, the 'GSI ball'. Employing an additional lead layer in a moderator sphere of 32.5 cm diameter, the GSI ball was primarily designed for the use with thermoluminescent based dosimeters in its center in order to optimize the response for the measurement of H*(10) to higher neutron energies. In this work, the measurement results for fission track detectors using two different radiator materials in the PSI and the GSI moderator are presented. Based on these studies, on the one hand, field calibration factors for the use in presumably similar high-energy fields around accelerators could be deduced. On the other hand, it could be shown that there is no need to replace the established PSI moderator by the GSI moderator since the combination of fission track detector and GSI moderator does not result in a significant sensitivity improvement

  5. Response study of fission track detectors using two different moderator designs in a high-energy radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: Sabine.Mayer@psi.ch; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Fuerstner, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wernli, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-02-15

    Fission track detectors in the center of moderating spheres are routinely used to measure the ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons in the environmental dosimetry at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Originally, the system was designed to cope with neutrons from skyshine effects. Later, the system was also adapted behind the shielding of PSI's accelerators. Nowadays, as a consequence of continuously upgrading accelerator energies and intensities, the neutron energy behind thick shielding can range from fractions of eV to about 1 GeV (e.g. at CERN). For this reason a measurement campaign in a high-energy stray radiation field at CERN's High-Energy Reference Field Facility (CERF) was initiated to study and compare the response of the already existing detector-moderator configuration and a new design, the 'GSI ball'. Employing an additional lead layer in a moderator sphere of 32.5 cm diameter, the GSI ball was primarily designed for the use with thermoluminescent based dosimeters in its center in order to optimize the response for the measurement of H*(10) to higher neutron energies. In this work, the measurement results for fission track detectors using two different radiator materials in the PSI and the GSI moderator are presented. Based on these studies, on the one hand, field calibration factors for the use in presumably similar high-energy fields around accelerators could be deduced. On the other hand, it could be shown that there is no need to replace the established PSI moderator by the GSI moderator since the combination of fission track detector and GSI moderator does not result in a significant sensitivity improvement.

  6. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Propellants used in rockets, pyrotechnics used in festivities, explosives used for .... In World War II, Wernher von Braun designed the. V-2 rockets which were ... A. Solid Propellants. A solid propellant is made from low or diluted high explosives.

  7. Probability of detection - Comparative study of computed and film radiography for high-energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, R.; Venugopal, M.; Prasad, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Suitability of computed radiography with Ir-192, Co-60 and up to 9 MeV x-rays for weld inspections is of importance to many heavy engineering and aerospace industries. CR is preferred because of lesser exposure and processing time as compared to film based radiography and also digital images offers other advantages such as image enhancements, quantitative measurements and easier archival. This paper describes systemic experimental approaches and image quality metrics to compare imaging performance of CR with film-based radiography. Experiments were designed using six-sigma methodology to validate performance of CR for steel thickness up to 160 mm with Ir- 192, Co-60 and x-ray energies varying from 100 kV up to 9 MeV. Weld specimens with defects such as lack of fusion, penetration, cracks, concavity, and porosities were studied for evaluating radiographic sensitivity and imaging performance of the system. Attempts were also made to quantify probability of detection using specimens with artificial and natural defects for various experimental conditions and were compared with film based systems. (authors)

  8. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  9. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  10. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    the academic community in Cracow at M.Sc. and Ph.D. level. Joint research, teaching and academic training in high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz Inter Institute Centre for High Energy Physics, which was formed by an agreement between the University of Mining and Metallurgy, the Jagiellonian University and our Institute to honour the late Prof. Marian Miesowicz, the founder and the long-time leader of the high energy physics community in Cracow. Since the modern high energy physics experiments require enormous technical, man-power and financial efforts, our research is mainly carried out in large international collaborations. These are listed at proper places in the following text. They were formed at the leading laboratories where large accelerators have been or will be constructed: the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN in Geneva (SPS, LEP, LHC), DESY in Hamburg (HERA, TESLA), Brookhaven National Laboratory (RHIC), Fermilab in Batavia, USA (TEVATRON) and KEK in Tsukuba, Japan (KEK- B). Our Institute also participates in the international Pierre Auger Project aimed at the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays. Our work in 1999 resulted in the publication of very interesting results from the e + e - experiment DELPHI at LEP, the e ± p experiments H1 and ZEUS at HERA, and on heavy ion collisions from BNL and CERN. Short reviews of some of these can be found in the following pages together with results obtained in other experiments, like e.g., the cosmic ray experiment JACEE, and also with those published by our theorists. Our computing facilities allow the application of the most advanced Monte-Carlo methods both for solving theoretical problems and for modelling the conditions of experiments. A good computer link permits e.g. a nearly on-line control of data quality in running experiments. Close research contacts in some projects such as the DELPHI, ZEUS, NA49 and LHC experiments are being maintained with the A. Soltan Institute

  11. New stage in high-energy gamma-ray studies with GAMMA-400 after Fermi-LAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topchiev N.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermi-LAT has made a significant contribution to the study of high-energy gamma-ray diffuse emission and the observations of 3000 discrete sources. However, one third of all gamma-ray sources (both galactic and extragalactic are unidentified, the data on the diffuse gamma-ray emission should be clarified, and signatures of dark matter particles in the high-energy gamma-ray range are not observed up to now. GAMMA-400, the currently developing gamma-ray telescope, will have angular (∼0.01∘ at 100 GeV and energy (∼1% at 100 GeV resolutions in the energy range of 10–1000 GeV which are better than Fermi-LAT (as well as ground gamma-ray telescopes by a factor of 5–10. It will observe some regions of the Universe (such as the Galactic Center, Fermi Bubbles, Crab, Cygnus, etc. in a highly elliptic orbit (without shading the telescope by the Earth continuously for a long time. It will allow us to identify many discrete sources, to clarify the structure of extended sources, to specify the data on the diffuse emission, and to resolve gamma rays from dark matter particles.

  12. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  13. Study on the erosion of refractory metals in interaction with low energy ions at high temperatures of a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulin, E.P.; Georgieva, N.E.; Martynenko, T.P.; Feoktistov, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study on the erosion of a polycrystalline tungsten by argon ions with 50-100 eV energy in the temperature range 1000-1900 K is carried out and a theoretical analysis of sputtering rate under these conditions is given. It is shown that the sputtering rate is determined not only by ion energy but depends essentially on surface temperature. On the basis of the thermal spot'' model a semiempiric formula is obtained for dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion energy and target temperature. The estimation of cathode specific errosion in high-current discharges due to the sputtering and evaporation is performed. It is shown that depending on cathode temperature, cathode potential jump value as well as on relation of ion and electron current on a cathode the specific erosion due to individual ions shock can be higher and much higher than the specific erosion for account of evaporation [ru

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  15. High-energy communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Communication Group

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday at 10.40 a.m., the LHC operators declared “stable beams” after two years of technical stop and a few months of commissioning. It was an exciting day for all the teams involved, including those who worked on communicating the news to the public and the media on multiple platforms.   CERN’s most successful tweet on 3 June featured collision images from ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb and was shared 800 times by the Twitter audience. Live blogging, social media posts, a live webcast, and a constant outpouring of photos and videos: Wednesday morning was a crazy time for the communication teams from CERN, the experiments and various institutes around the world. Even though the event started very early in the morning (the live CCC blog started at 7 a.m. and the live webcast at 8.20 a.m.), the public and the media tuned in to follow and generously cover the start of the LHC’s physics run at an unprecedented energy of 13 TeV. The statistics showed th...

  16. Systematical study on superconducting radio frequency elliptic cavity shapes applicable to future high energy accelerators and energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemelin, Valery; Zadeh, Shahnam Gorgi; Heller, Johann; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Elliptic cavities at medium- and high-β range are receiving broader use in the particle accelerator applications. Optimizing the shape of these cavities is a complex and demanding process. In this paper we propose an optimization approach to minimize the ratio of peak magnetic field to the acceleration field Hpk/Eacc while keeping the ratio of peak surface electric field to the accelerating field Epk/Eacc, aperture radius and wall slope angle α at some permitted values. We show that it is possible to substantially vary the cavity geometry without violating the constraints or deteriorating the objective of the optimization. This gives us freedom in designing the geometry to overcome problems such as multipactor while maintaining the minimal Hpk/Eacc . The optimization is then performed to find a set of optimized geometries with minimum Hpk/Eacc for different β 's ranging from 0.4 to 1, different peak surface electric fields, wall slope angles and aperture radii. These data could be generally used as a suitable starting point in designing elliptic cavities.

  17. Systematical study on superconducting radio frequency elliptic cavity shapes applicable to future high energy accelerators and energy recovery linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Shemelin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic cavities at medium- and high-β range are receiving broader use in the particle accelerator applications. Optimizing the shape of these cavities is a complex and demanding process. In this paper we propose an optimization approach to minimize the ratio of peak magnetic field to the acceleration field H_{pk}/E_{acc} while keeping the ratio of peak surface electric field to the accelerating field E_{pk}/E_{acc}, aperture radius and wall slope angle α at some permitted values. We show that it is possible to substantially vary the cavity geometry without violating the constraints or deteriorating the objective of the optimization. This gives us freedom in designing the geometry to overcome problems such as multipactor while maintaining the minimal H_{pk}/E_{acc}. The optimization is then performed to find a set of optimized geometries with minimum H_{pk}/E_{acc} for different β’s ranging from 0.4 to 1, different peak surface electric fields, wall slope angles and aperture radii. These data could be generally used as a suitable starting point in designing elliptic cavities.

  18. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research: Search for a Quark-Gluon Plasma; CDF Research; Research at the SSC (SDC); SSC Tracking Detector R ampersand D; Studies of Direct Photons, Charmonium; Study of Beauty Production; Research at the SSC (SFT); Particle-nucleus Collsions; Hadronic Charm Particle Production; Photo of Mesons; Computers; and, Detector R ampersand D Laboratory

  19. Degradation study of trichloroethylene and perchloric ethylene using high energy electron beam generated in industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.L.R.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Avolio, R.M.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Vieira, J.M.; Rela, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The pollution of potable water with chlorinated hydrocarbons, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloric ethylene (PCE), is seriously increasing the problem of contamination of water, specially in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies show that depuration by ionizing radiation has been considered a possible alternative to the control of water pollution, wherein the process by ionizing radiation converts TCE and PCE into approximately 100% carbon dioxide ions. Water samples containing TCE e PCE were submitted to radiation in the pilot plant installed in the industrial electron accelerator at IPEN from Radiation Dynamics, Dynamitron II, of 1,5 MeV - 25 m A, with doses varying from 2 kGy to 8 kGy, being its parameters analyzed before and after irradiation TCE and PCE concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography method by liquid-liquid extraction using a gas chromatograph, model CG 90, with an electron capture detector. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  20. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  1. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  2. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  3. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  4. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  5. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  6. Status Report of the DPHEP Study Group: Towards a Global Effort for Sustainable Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akopov, Zaven [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Amerio, Silvia [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padova (Italy); Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Avetisyan, Eduard [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Barring, Olof [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Beacham, James [New York Univ., NY (United States); Bernardi, Gregorio [Lab. Nuclear Physics and High Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Bethke, Siegfried [Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPI), Munich (Germany); Boehnlein, Amber [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brooks, Travis [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Browder, Thomas [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brun, Rene [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cartaro, Concetta [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cattaneo, Marco [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chen, Gang [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Corney, David [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Cranmer, Kyle [New York Univ., NY (United States); Culbertson, Ray [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Denisov, Dmitri [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2013-03-27

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. An inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened as a panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The group was formed by large collider-based experiments and investigated the technical and organisational aspects of HEP data preservation. An intermediate report was released in November 2009 addressing the general issues of data preservation in HEP. This paper includes and extends the intermediate report. It provides an analysis of the research case for data preservation and a detailed description of the various projects at experiment, laboratory and international levels. In addition, the paper provides a concrete proposal for an international organisation in charge of the data management and policies in high-energy physics.

  7. Status Report of the DPHEP Study Group: Towards a Global Effort for Sustainable Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, Zaven; Asner, David; Avetisyan, Eduard; Barring, Olof; Beacham, James; Bellis, Matthew; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bethke, Siegfried; Boehnlein, Amber; Brooks, Travis; Browder, Thomas; Brun, Rene; Cartaro, Concetta; Cattaneo, Marco; Chen, Gang; Corney, David; Cranmer, Kyle; Culbertson, Ray; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Denisov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; Dodonov, Vitaliy; Doyle, Tony; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Ernst, Michael; Gasthuber, Martin; Geiser, Achim; Gianotti, Fabiola; Giubellino, Paolo; Golutvin, Andrey; Gordon, John; Guelzow, Volker; Hara, Takanori; Hayashii, Hisaki; Heiss, Andreas; Hemmer, Frederic; Hernandez, Fabio; Heyes, Graham; Holzner, Andre; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Iijima, Toru; Incandela, Joe; Jones, Roger; Kemp, Yves; van Dam, Kerstin Kleese; Knobloch, Juergen; Kreincik, David; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Le Diberder, Francois; Levonian, Sergey; Levy, Aharon; Li, Qizhong; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Maggi, Marcello; Malka, Janusz; Mele, Salvatore; Mount, Richard; Neal, Homer; Olsson, Jan; Ozerov, Dmitri; Piilonen, Leo; Punzi, Giovanni; Regimbal, Kevin; Riley, Daniel; Roney, Michael; Roser, Robert; Ruf, Thomas; Sakai, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Takashi; Schnell, Gunar; Schroeder, Matthias; Schutz, Yves; Shiers, Jamie; Smith, Tim; Snider, Rick; South, David M.; St. Denis, Rick; Steder, Michael; Van Wezel, Jos; Varnes, Erich; Votava, Margaret; Wang, Yifang; Weygand, Dennis; White, Vicky; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wolbers, Stephen; Yamauchi, Masanori; Yavin, Itay; von der Schmitt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. An inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened as a panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The group was formed by large collider-based experiments and investigated the technical and organisational aspects of HEP data preservation. An intermediate report was released in November 2009 addressing the general issues of data preservation in HEP. This paper includes and extends the intermediate report. It provides an analysis of the research case for data preservation and a detailed description of the various projects at experiment, laboratory and international levels. In addition, the paper provides a concrete proposal for an international organisation in charge of the data management and policies in high-energy physics.

  8. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  9. Numerical study of finned heat pipe-assisted thermal energy storage system with high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system is studied. • The effects of heat pipes spacing and fins geometrical features are investigated. • Smaller heat pipes spacing and longer fins improve the melting rate. • The optimal heat pipe and fin arrangements are determined. - Abstract: In the present study, the thermal characteristics of a finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system are investigated numerically. A transient two-dimensional finite volume based model employing enthalpy-porosity technique is implemented to analyze the performance of a thermal energy storage unit with square container and high melting temperature phase change material. The effects of heat pipe spacing, fin length and numbers and the influence of natural convection on the thermal response of the thermal energy storage unit have been studied. The obtained results reveal that the natural convection has considerable effect on the melting process of the phase change material. Increasing the number of heat pipes (decreasing the heat pipe spacing) leads to the increase of melting rate and the decrease of base wall temperature. Also, the increase of fin length results in the decrease of temperature difference within the phase change material in the container, providing more uniform temperature distribution. It was also shown that number of the fins does not have a significant effect on the performance of the system

  10. Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Łusakowski, A., E-mail: lusak@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Szuszkiewicz, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, ul. S. Pigonia 1, PL-35959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions. - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O is mainly due to anisotropy of single cobalt ion. • The magnetic anisotropy of (Zn,Co)O strongly depends on the nearest neighborhood of magnetic ion including local lattice deformations. • For (Zn,Co)O the energy of magnetic anisotropy is described by second order terms in magnetization.

  11. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  12. Conceptual market potential framework of high temperature aquifer thermal energy storage - A case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Maxim; Liu, Wen; Koornneef, Joris; van den Broek, Machteld

    2018-01-01

    High temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) can contribute to the integration of renewable energy sources in the energy system, the replacement of fossil fuel-based heat supply and the utilization of surplus heat from industrial sources. However, there is limited understanding on the

  13. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  14. Numerical study of the electron and muon lateral distribution in atmospheric showers of high energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Atreidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral distribution of an atmospheric shower depends on the characteristics of the high energy interactions and the type of the primary particle. The influence of the primary particle in the secondary development of the shower into the atmosphere, is studied by analyzing the lateral distribution of electron and muon showers having as primary particle, proton, photon or iron nucleus. This study of the lateral distribution can provide useful conclusions for the mass and energy of the primary particle. This paper compares the data that we get from simulations with CORSIKA program with experimental data and the theoretical NKG function expressing lateral electron and muon distribution. Then we modify the original NKG function to fit better to the simulation data and propose a method for determining the mass of the original particle started the atmospheric shower.

  15. Study of particle size distribution and formation mechanism of radioactive aerosols generated in high-energy neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Noguchi, H; Tanaka, S; Iida, T; Furuichi, S; Kanda, Y; Oki, Y

    2003-01-01

    The size distributions of sup 3 sup 8 Cl, sup 3 sup 9 Cl, sup 8 sup 2 Br and sup 8 sup 4 Br aerosols generated by irradiations of argon and krypton gases containing di-octyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols with 45 MeV and 65 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were measured in order to study the formation mechanism of radioactive particles in high energy radiation fields. The effects of the size distribution of the radioactive aerosols on the size of the added DOP aerosols, the energy of the neutrons and the kinds of nuclides were studied. The observed size distributions of the radioactive particles were explained by attachment of the radioactive atoms generated by the neutron-induced reactions to the DOP aerosols. (author)

  16. The study of multi-institutional collaborations in high-energy physics. Progress report, January 1989--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Since World War II, the organizational framework for scientific research is increasingly the multi-institutional collaboration, especially in high-energy physics. A broad preliminary survey, into the functioning of research collaborations involving three or more institutions is described. The study is designed to identify patterns of collaborations, define the scope of the documentation problems, field-test possible solutions, recommend future actions, and build an archives of oral history interviews and other resources for scholarly use. Once the study is completed, its findings will be used to promote systems to document significant collaborative research.

  17. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  18. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Work being done with respect to the CERN S anti ppS Collider experiment UA-6, which seeks to measure direct photon production, neutral pion and neutral eta inclusive cross sections from proton-antiproton interactions, is reported. Also reported is data analysis for alpha-alpha and p-p collisions performed at ISR. Work is being performed on the small angle silicon detector system of CDF. An experiment is described to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few electron volts by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint

  19. Studying the high energy cosmic radiation: contributions to its detection and to the exploration of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Astro-particle Physics is a discipline where scientists from both the astrophysics and the particle physics communities meets to investigate the Universe aiming to answer to fundamental questions in the field of physics, cosmology and astrophysics. The high energy astrophysics domain, which explores the extremes sources where the larger collective transfer of energy take place, studies the most energetic cosmic radiation as privileged messengers of the history of the Universe. My research path, summarized in this work, is made of personal contributions in the development of new detection technologies, in the data analysis, perspectives and phenomenological studies about the scientific purposes of large experiments: e.g. AMS, ANTARES, HESS, CTA, POLAR. My contributions are the results of research activities in coherence with two main scientific goals in the context of the astro-particle physics domain: - The implication of the high energy cosmic radiation measurement for the investigation on the nature and distribution of the dark matter; - The investigation of the origin of the galactic cosmic radiation for the understanding of the most energetic processes in the Universe. (author)

  20. Report of the International Study Group on future accelerators and high energy physics Serpukhov, 17-25 may 1976

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1976-01-01

    regional facilities. This complex is likely to be of such a cost as to be beyond the capabilities of any single region. Examples include facilities such as a proton acceleratoro of energy higher than 10 TeV and an electron-positron colliding beam facility of more than 200 GeV in the center-of-mass. In this connection several conceptual designs of that kind were presented and discussed. In seeking to attain the more intensive internationl collaboration which is a fundamental prerequisite for progress toward the stated objectives, the Study Group recommends that the Internantional Union of Pure and Applied Physcis (Particles and Fields Division) be asked to initiate appropriate activities to this end. The seminar "Perspectives in High Energy Physics" held in New Orleans, March 1975, established a Study Group to discuss the long-range requirements for facilities in High Energy Physics. A sub-group met in CERN, October 1975, and planned an Agenda for a meeting which was held in Serpukhov, U.S.S.R. in May, 1976. I...

  1. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  3. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  4. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  5. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  6. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  8. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  9. Study of the proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies through eikonal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Alvaro Favinha

    1995-01-01

    The proton-proton elastic scattering in the center of mass energy region 23 to 63 GeV is investigated through a multiple diffraction model. As an introduction to the subject, a detailed review of the fundamental basis of the Multiple Diffraction Formalism and a survey of the multiple diffraction models (geometrical) currently used are presented. The goal of this investigation is to reformulate one of these models, which makes use of an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude purely imaginary and is not able to predict the ρ-parameter (the ratio of the forward real and imaginary parts of the hadronic amplitude). Introducing a real part for the elementary amplitude proportional to the imaginary part, improvements in the formalism are obtained. It is shown that this new approach is able to reproduce all experimental data on differential and integrated cross sections (total, elastic and inelastic), but not the ρ-parameter as function of the energy. Then, starting from fitting of this parameter an overall reproduction of the physical observables is obtained, with the exception of the dip region (diffractive minimum in the differential cross section) overall description are also not firmly reached in all these models. Finally, alternatives to improve the results in a future research are suggested and discussed. (author)

  10. Techno-economic study of hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis and coupling with different thermal energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.

    2009-03-01

    This work focuses on the techno-economic study of massive hydrogen production by the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process and also deals with the possibility of producing the steam needed in the process by using different thermal energy sources. Among several sources, those retained in this study are the biomass and domestic waste incineration units, as well as two nuclear reactors (European Pressurised water Reactor - EPR and Sodium Fast Reactor - SFR). Firstly, the technical evaluation of the steam production by each of these sources was carried out. Then, the design and modelling of the equipments composing the process, specially the electrolysers (Solid Oxides Electrolysis Cells), are presented. Finally, the hydrogen production cost for each energy sources coupled with the HTE process is calculated. Moreover, several sensibility studies were performed in order to determine the process key parameter and to evaluate the influence of the unit size effect, the electric energy cost, maintenance, the cells current density, their investment cost and their lifespan on the hydrogen production cost. Our results show that the thermal energy cost is much more influent on the hydrogen production cost than the steam temperature at the outlet stream of the thermal source. It seems also that the key parameters for this process are the electric energy cost and the c ells lifespan. The first one contributes for more than 70% of the hydrogen production cost. From several cell lifespan values, it seems that a 3 year value, rather than 1 year, could lead to a hydrogen production cost reduced on 34%. However, longer lifespan values going from 5 to 10 years would only lead to a 8% reduction on the hydrogen production cost. (author)

  11. Processing of Bi-2212 and Nb$_3$Sn studied in situ by high energy synchrotron diffraction and micro-tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Julian

    Next generation superconducting wires have been studied to obtain more information on the evolution of phase growth, crystallite size and strain state during wire processing. The high energy scattering beam line ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility provides a very high flux of high energy photons for very fast in situ X-ray diffraction and micro-tomography studies of Bi-2212/Ag and Nb$_3$S/Cu wire samples. The typical wire processing conditions could be imitated in the X-ray transparent furnace at ID15 for diffraction and tomography studies. Efficient data analysis is mandatory in order to handle the very fast data acquisition rate. For this purpose an Excel-VBA based program was developed that allows a semi-automated fitting and tracking of peaks with pre-set constraints. With this method, more than one thousand diffraction patterns have been analysed to extract d-spacing, peak intensity and peak width values. X ray absorption micro tomograms were recorded simultaneously with the X-ray diffrac...

  12. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  13. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  14. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  15. Born order study of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {rho}{rho} at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We calculate the cross-section for the diffractive exclusive process {gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) {yields} {rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}, in view of its study in the future high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider. The Born order approximation of the amplitude is completely calculable in the hard region Q{sub 1}{sup 2},Q{sub 2}{sup 2} >> {lambda}{sup 2}(QCD). The resulting cross-section is large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q{sub 1}{sup 2} and Q{sub 2}{sup 2} in the range of a few GeV{sup 2}. (authors)

  16. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  17. Studies on High Energy Density Reactions for Development of Nanostructured Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    supercapacitors (SCs), also known as electrochemical capacitors, have attracted considerable attention over the past decade due to their high power...gel was heated for 1 h at 55 °C on a magnetic stirrer to form the paste which gradually became light blue in colour . The resulting gel was aged for 2-3

  18. Structural studies of disordered materials using high-energy x-ray diffraction from ambient to extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inamura, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2007-12-19

    High-energy x-rays from a synchrotron radiation source allow us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to extreme conditions, which is necessary for revealing the detailed structures of glass, liquid and amorphous materials. We introduced high-energy x-ray diffraction beamlines and a dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid and amorphous materials at SPring-8 and report the recent developments of ancillary equipment. Furthermore, the structures of liquid and amorphous materials determined from the high-energy x-ray diffraction data obtained at SPring-8 are discussed.

  19. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  20. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  1. A study on the influence of High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation on Stabilities of IGZO Based TTFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hye Ji; Oh, Hye Ran; Jung, So Hyun; Bae, Byung Seong; Yun, Eui Jung; Ryu, Min Ki; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Ionizing has been used as an active layer in applications of transparent thin film transistors and the stabilities of TTFTs become the curricula issue. High-performance, stable IGZO-based TTFTsare also required in a high radiation environment, such as X-rays, gamma-rays, electron beams, etc., which suggests that studies on the variations in the electrical properties in a radiation environment are of critical importance for space applications of IGZO-based materials and devices. Hence, in this study we investigated the influence of high-energy electron beam irradiation on optical and gate-bias stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs. The TTFTs has a top gate structure, which used IGZO and Al 2 O 3 films for the active layer and the gate dielectric, respectively. The W/L of the TTFTs was 10μm/10μm. The TTFTs were treated with Hubbub in air at room temperature at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and a dose for 1 Χ 10 14 electrons/cm 2 . We developed TTFTs with excellent device properties and conclude that the Hubbub can improve the stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs

  2. A study of the interactions of high energy electron-neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuis, C.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes an analysis of electron-neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions with nuclei. The data were collected with the calorimeter of the Amsterdam-CERN-Hamburg-Moscow-Rome (CHARM) group in a beam dump exposure to 400 GeV/c protons from the CERN SPS in 1982. The predictions of the Standard Model for the quantities measured in this experiment are given. The results of the analysis of events without a primary muon in the final state are given in the form of an experimental y-distribution. The measured quantities are compared with the predictions of the theory and the measurements of other experiments. Presented are the cross-section ratio of neutral current and charged current electron-neutrino induced events, the prompt CC ν(anti ν) e interaction rate, the prompt (ν e +anti ν e )/(ν μ +anti ν μ ) flux ratio, the energy dependence of the prompt electron-neutrino flux and a measurement of the DantiD cross-section times semileptonic branching ratio based on prompt electron-neutrino interactions. (Auth.)

  3. A Rotational and Axial Motion System Load Frame Insert for In Situ High Energy X-Ray Studies (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Paul A. Shade, Jay C. Schuren, and Todd J. Turner AFRL/RX Basil Blank PulseRay Peter Kenesei, Kurt Goetze, Ulrich Lienert, and Jonathan Almer...AFRL/RX 2) Basil Blank – PulseRay (continued on page 2) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER 0001 5f...2015) A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies Paul A. Shade,1,a) Basil Blank,2 Jay C. Schuren,1,b

  4. High energy density physics studies at the facility for antiprotons and ion research: the HEDgeHOB collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Stoehlker, T.; Geissel, H.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Fortov, V.E.; Piriz, A.R.; Redmer, R.; Deutsch, C.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, is going to be a unique accelerator facility that will deliver high quality, strongly bunched, well focused, intense beams of heavy ions that will lead to unprecedented specific power deposition in solid matter. This will generate macroscopic samples of High Energy Density (HED) matter with fairly uniform physical conditions. These samples can be used to study the thermophysical and transport properties of HED matter. Extensive theoretical work has been carried out over the past decade to design numerous dedicated experiments to study HED physics at the FAIR, which has provided the basis for the HEDgeHOB (High Energy Density Matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams) scientific proposal. This work is still in progress as the feasibility studies for more experimental schemes are being carried out. Another, very important research area that will benefit tremendously from the FAIR facility, is the production of radioactive beams. A superconducting fragment separator, Super-FRS is being designed for the production and separation of rare radioactive isotopes. Unlike the HED targets, the Super-FRS production target should not be destroyed or damaged by the beam, but should remain intact during the long experimental campaign. However, the high level of specific power deposited in the production target by the high intensity ion beam at FAIR, could cause serious problems to the target survival. These HED issues related to the Super-FRS production target are also discussed in the present paper (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  6. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, Ana; Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo; Kacperek, Andrzej; Vondracek, Vladimir; Royle, Gary; Palmans, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  7. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Ana, E-mail: am.lourenco@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Kacperek, Andrzej [National Eye Proton Therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Vondracek, Vladimir [Proton Therapy Center, Budinova 1a, Prague 8 CZ-180 00 (Czech Republic); Royle, Gary [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Palmans, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  8. A Study of Mutation Breeding of High-Yielding Tryptophanase Escherichia coli by Low-Energy N+ Ion Beam Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Min; Yao Jianming; Wang Dongmei

    2009-01-01

    Low energy ion beam has been widely applied in microbe breeding, plant breeding, gene transfer and cell modification. In this study, the Escherichia coli (E.coli) strain producing tryptophanase was irradiated by a low energy nitrogen ion beam with an energy of 10 keV at a fluence of 13 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 when glycerin at a 15% concentration was used as a protector. The effect on the biomass of E. coli after N + implantation was analyzed in detail by statistic methods. The screening methods used in this study were proven to be effective. After continuous mutagenicity, a high-yield tryptophanase strain was selected and both its biomass and enzymatic activity were higher than those of the parent strain. The results of scale-up production showed that the biomass could reach wet weight 8.2 g/L and 110 g L-tryptophan could be formed in the volume of the 1l enzymatic reaction system.

  9. Beamline electrostatic levitator for in situ high energy x-ray diffraction studies of levitated solids and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Lee, G.W.; Kelto, K.F.; Rogers, J.R.; Goldman, A.I.; Robinson, D.S.; Rathz, T.J.; Hyers, R.W. (WU); (UAB); (NASA); (UMASS, Amherst)

    2010-07-19

    Determinations of the phase formation sequence, crystal structures and the thermo-physical properties of materials at high temperatures are hampered by contamination from the sample container and environment. Containerless processing techniques, such as electrostatic (ESL), electromagnetic, aerodynamic, and acoustic levitation, are most suitable for these studies. An adaptation of ESL for in situ structural studies of a wide range of materials using high energy (30-130 keV) x rays at a synchrotron source is described here. This beamline ESL (BESL) allows the in situ determination of the atomic structures of equilibrium solid and liquid phases, undercooled liquids and time-resolved studies of solid-solid and liquid-solid phase transformations. The use of area detectors enables the rapid acquisition of complete diffraction patterns over a wide range (0.5-14 {angstrom}{sup -1}) of reciprocal space. The wide temperature range (300-2500 K), containerless processing environment under high vacuum (10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} Torr), and fast data acquisition capability, make BESL particularly well suited for phase stability studies of high temperature solids and liquids. An additional, but important, feature of BESL is the capability for simultaneous measurements of a host of thermo-physical properties including the specific heat, enthalpy of transformation, solidus and liquidus temperatures, density, viscosity, and surface tension, all on the same sample during the structural measurements.

  10. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  11. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables

  12. A study of energy-size relationship and wear rate in a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Dashtbayaz, Samira

    This study is focused on two independent topics of energy-size relationship and wear-rate measurements on a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR). The first part of this study has been aimed to investigate the influence of the operating parameters and the feed characteristics on the particle-bed breakage using four different ore samples in a 200 mm x 100 mm lab-scale HPGR. Additionally, multistage grinding, scale-up from a lab-scale HPGR, and prediction of the particle size distributions have been studied in detail. The results obtained from energy-size relationship studies help with better understanding of the factors contributing to more energy-efficient grinding. It will be shown that the energy efficiency of the two configurations of locked-cycle and open multipass is completely dependent on the ore properties. A test procedure to produce the scale-up data is presented. The comparison of the scale-up factors between the data obtained on the University of Utah lab-scale HPGR and the industrial machine at the Newmont Boddington plant confirmed the applicability of lab-scale machines for trade-off studies. The population balance model for the simulation of product size distributions has shown to work well with the breakage function estimated through tests performed on the HPGR at high rotational speed. Selection function has been estimated by back calculation of population balance model with the help of the experimental data. This is considered to be a major step towards advancing current research on the simulation of particle size distribution by using the HPGR machine for determining the breakage function. Developing a technique/setup to measure the wear rate of the HPGR rolls' surface is the objective of the second topic of this dissertation. A mockup was initially designed to assess the application of the linear displacement sensors for measuring the rolls' weight loss. Upon the analysis of that technique and considering the corresponding sources of

  13. Studies of high-level waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Kamizono, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Inagaki, Yahohiro

    1998-02-01

    The JAERI studies on the properties of the glass and ceramic waste forms, which have been done in the last several years, are described briefly. For the long-term evaluation of glass waste form performance under repository condition, leachability has studied from the standpoints of understanding of alteration layers, effects of groundwater and effects of redox condition using the radioactive or non-radioactive glass samples. The studies revealed that (1) the reactions in the alteration layers, such as crystal growth, continue after the apparent release of elements from the glass almost ceases, (2) under somewhat reducing conditions, Fe dissolves easily into leachates, and hydrated silicate surface layer tends to dissolve more easily with Fe in reduced synthetic groundwater than in deionized water, (3) precipitation of PuO{sub 2}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(am) is controlling the leaching of soluble species of Pu under both redox conditions, and the dominant soluble species is Pu(OH){sub 4}{sup 0} under reducing condition. Ceramics are considered as most promising materials for the actinide-rich wastes arising from partitioning and transmutation processes because of their outstanding durability for long term. In the present study, {alpha}-decay damage effects on the density and leaching behavior of perovskite (1 of 3 main minerals forming Synroc) were investigated by an accelerated experiment using the actinide doping technique. A decrease in density of Cm-doped perovskite reaches 1.3% at a dose of 9x10{sup 17} {alpha}-decays{center_dot}g{sup -1}. The leach rate of perovskite increases with an increase in accumulated {alpha}-decay doses. Application of zirconia- and alumina-based ceramics for incorporating actinides was also investigated by inactive laboratory tests with an emphasis on crystallographic phase stability and chemical durability. The yttria-stabilized zirconia is stable crystallographically in the wide ranges of Ce and/or Nd content and have excellent

  14. Studies of high-level waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yahohiro.

    1998-02-01

    The JAERI studies on the properties of the glass and ceramic waste forms, which have been done in the last several years, are described briefly. For the long-term evaluation of glass waste form performance under repository condition, leachability has studied from the standpoints of understanding of alteration layers, effects of groundwater and effects of redox condition using the radioactive or non-radioactive glass samples. The studies revealed that (1) the reactions in the alteration layers, such as crystal growth, continue after the apparent release of elements from the glass almost ceases, (2) under somewhat reducing conditions, Fe dissolves easily into leachates, and hydrated silicate surface layer tends to dissolve more easily with Fe in reduced synthetic groundwater than in deionized water, (3) precipitation of PuO 2 ·xH 2 O(am) is controlling the leaching of soluble species of Pu under both redox conditions, and the dominant soluble species is Pu(OH) 4 0 under reducing condition. Ceramics are considered as most promising materials for the actinide-rich wastes arising from partitioning and transmutation processes because of their outstanding durability for long term. In the present study, α-decay damage effects on the density and leaching behavior of perovskite (1 of 3 main minerals forming Synroc) were investigated by an accelerated experiment using the actinide doping technique. A decrease in density of Cm-doped perovskite reaches 1.3% at a dose of 9x10 17 α-decays·g -1 . The leach rate of perovskite increases with an increase in accumulated α-decay doses. Application of zirconia- and alumina-based ceramics for incorporating actinides was also investigated by inactive laboratory tests with an emphasis on crystallographic phase stability and chemical durability. The yttria-stabilized zirconia is stable crystallographically in the wide ranges of Ce and/or Nd content and have excellent chemical durability. (author)

  15. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  16. Study of dielectric liquids at room temperature for high energy x ray Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepert, S.

    1989-09-01

    The detection of X rays by means of a dielectric liquid detector system, at room temperature, is discussed. The physico-chemical properties of a dielectric liquid, the construction of a cleaning device and of two electrode configurations, and the utilization of different amplifier models are studied. The results allowed the analysis and characterization of the behavior of the dielectric liquid under X ray irradiation. Data obtained is confirmed by computerized simulation. The choice of Tetramethyl-germanium for the X ray tomography, applied in nondestructive analysis, is explained. The investigation of the system parameters allowed the setting of the basis of a prototype project for a multi-detector [fr

  17. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  18. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Radiation tolerance study of a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology for high energy physics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lili, E-mail: lili03.ding@gmail.com [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an (China); Gerardin, Simone [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bagatin, Marta [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bisello, Dario [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mattiazzo, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Paccagnella, Alessandro [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the radiation tolerance study of a commercial 65 nm technology, which is a strong candidate for the Large Hadron Collider applications. After exposure to 3 MeV protons till 1 Grad dose, the 65 nm CMOS transistors, especially the pMOSFETs, showed severe long-term degradation mainly in the saturation drain currents. There were some differences between the degradation levels in the nMOSFETs and the pMOSFETs, which were likely attributed to the positive charges trapped in the gate spacers. After exposure to heavy ions till multiple strikes, the pMOSFETs did not show any sudden loss of drain currents, the degradations in the characteristics were negligible.

  20. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K.F.; Schneider, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A visual diagnostic technique has been developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false-color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real-time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position). 3 refs., 5 figs

  1. Study of new scaling of direct photon production in pp collisions at high energies using MC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarev, M.V.; Potrebenikova, E.V.

    1998-01-01

    The new scaling, z scaling, of prompt photon production in pp collisions at high energies is studied. The scaling function H(z) is expressed via the inclusive cross section of photon production Ed 3 σ / dq 3 and the multiplicity density of charged particles, ρ (s), at pseudorapidity η = 0. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation based on the PYTHIA code is used to calculate the cross section and to verify the scaling. The MC technique used to construct the scaling function is described. The H (z) dependence on the scaling variable z, the center-of-mass energy √ s at a produced angle of θ = 90 deg is investigated. The predictions of the Ed 3 σ / dq 3 dependence on transverse momentum q at a colliding energy of √ s = 0.5, 5.0 and 14.0 TeV are made. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data and can be of interest for future experiments at RHIC (BNL). LHC (CERN), HERA (DESY) and Tevatron (Batavia)

  2. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  3. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  4. Studies of absorbed dose determinations and spatial dose distributions for high energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    Absolute dose determinations were made with three types of ionization chamber and a Faraday cup. Methane based tissue equivalent (TE) gas, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air were used as an ionizing gas with flow rate of 10 ml per minute. Measurements were made at the entrance position of unmodulated beams and for a beam of a spread out Bragg peak at a depth of 17.3 mm in water. For both positions, the mean value of dose determined by the ionization chambers was 0.993 +- 0.014 cGy for which the value of TE gas was taken as unity. The agreement between the doses estimated by the ionization chambers and the Faraday cup was within 5%. Total uncertainty estimated in the ionization chamber and the Faraday cup determinations is 6 and 4%, respectively. Common sources of error in calculating the dose from ionization chamber measurements are depend on the factors of ion recombination, W value, and mass stopping power ratio. These factors were studied by both experimentally and theoretically. The observed values for the factors show a good agreement to the predicted one. Proton beam dosimetry intercomparison between Japan and the United States was held. Good agreement was obtained with standard deviation of 1.6%. The value of the TE calorimeter is close to the mean value of all. In the proton spot scanning system, lateral dose distributions at any depth for one spot beam can be simulated by the Gaussian distribution. From the Gaussian distributions and the central axis depth doses for one spot beam, it is easy to calculate isodose distributions in the desired field by superposition of dose distribution for one spot beam. Calculated and observed isodose curves were agreed within 1 mm at any dose levels. (J.P.N.)

  5. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Test study of boron nitride as a new detector material for dosimetry in high-energy photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D.; Halbur, J.; Lemmer, S.; Delfs, B.; Harder, D.; Looe, H. K.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high-energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its constituents, its density (2.0 g cm-3) similar to silicon and its commercial availability, h-BN appears as possibly suitable for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Five h-BN plates were contacted to triaxial cables, and the detector current was measured in a solid-state ionization chamber circuit at an applied voltage of 50 V. Basic dosimetric properties such as formation by pre-irradiation, sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity and temporal resolution were measured with 6 MV photon irradiation. Depth dose curves at quadratic field sizes of 10 cm and 40 cm were measured and compared to ionization chamber measurements. After a pre-irradiation with 6 Gy, the devices show a stable current signal at a given dose rate. The current-voltage characteristic up to 400 V shows an increase in the collection efficiency with the voltage. The time-resolved detector current behavior during beam interrupts is comparable to diamond material, and the background current is negligible. The measured percentage depth dose curves at 10 cm  ×  10 cm field size agreed with the results of ionization chamber measurements within  ±2%. This is a first study of boron nitride as a detector material for high-energy photon radiation. By current measurements on solid ionization chambers made from boron nitride chips we could demonstrate that boron nitride is in principle suitable as a detector material for high-energy photon-beam dosimetry.

  7. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

  8. Study of the aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide through thermal analysis experiments and high energy milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Parra De Lazzari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide was studied through thermal analysis techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetry (TG as well as through high energy milling processing. Reactants mixtures were composed by powders of Nb2O5 and Al. In the case of DTA-TG experiments, different molar ratios Nb2O5:Al were heated in a dynamic atmosphere of synthetic air under controlled conditions. The high energy milling runs were carried out via SPEX vibratory mill under argon atmosphere and with milling power equal to 7:1 (ratio of mass of balls to mass of mixture with 10 pct excess of Al over the stoichiometric mass of aluminum necessary. In both kinds of experiments, X ray diffraction was used in order to identify the products of reaction. From DTA-TG experiments, it was possible to determine the experimental value of the enthalpy change (-595.9 kJ.mol-1, which is near to the theoretical one. From the milling experiments, it was possible to verify the possibility of the occurance of aluminothermic reducion of niobium pentoxide via this kind of processing.

  9. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  10. Caging in high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot 18 F with the CF 3 CH 3 system seem to provide evidence for caging, with 18 F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H 2 S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H 2 S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,γ) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies

  11. A study of existing experimental data and validation process for evaluated high energy nuclear data. Report of task force on integral test for JENDL High Energy File in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Baba, Mamoru; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    1998-11-01

    JENDL High Energy File (JENDL-HE) is being produced by Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC) to provide common fundamental nuclear data in the intermediate energy region for many applications concerning a basic research, an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation, a fusion material study, and medical applications like the radiation therapy. The first version of JENDL-HE, which contains the evaluated nuclear data up to 50 MeV, is planned to release in 1998. However, a method of integral test with which we can validate the high-energy nuclear data file has not been established. The validation of evaluated nuclear data through the integral tests is necessary to promote utilization of JENDL-HE. JNDC set up a task force in 1997 to discuss the problems concerning the integral tests of JENDL-HE. The task force members have surveyed and studied the current status of the problems for a year to obtain a guideline for development of the high-energy nuclear database. This report summarizes the results of the survey and study done by the task force for JNDC. (author)

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 1. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of element technology and comprehensive adjustment which are related to the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the study of the high efficiency energy utilization technology, and the results of FY 2000, the final fiscal year, were summed up. As to the R and D of the exhaust heat reforming/recovery system, the internal heat exchange type distillation tower was developed which has a good energy conservation effect and enables the heat supply outside. Concerning the R and D of the cogeneration system using low calorie exhaust gas, the following were conducted for further improvement of the performance of electrothermic elements: evaluation of the thermoelectric performance using bulk elements, development of new elements and evaluation of the energy balance at the time of combustion, etc. Relating to the R and D of the low temperature exhaust heat utilization cogeneration system, conducted were the development of thermoelectric materials and the fabrication/evaluation study of module. Moreover, WATT20A equipped with the original power generation module developed in this study was fabricated, and the data on the operation at the temperature of 150 degrees C were obtained by WATT-20HT. (NEDO)

  13. Study of the Energy Dependence of the Anomalous Mean Free Path Effect by Means of High-energy ($\\geq$12 GeV/nucleon) Helium Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal concerns an extension to higher energies of previous experiments which have provided evidence for anomalously short reaction mean free paths among projectile fragments from heavy ion interactions.\\\\ \\\\ It is intended to provide information on the interaction properties of projectile fragments, mainly 3He, P, D, T as well as of scattered 4He nuclei in passive detectors exposed to beams of energies exceeding those available in previous experim factor of about 7. \\\\ \\\\ Interaction mean free paths and event topologies will be measured in a nuclear emulsion stack (LBL) of 7.5~cm~x~5~cm~x~25~cm dimensions. Decay effects will be recorded by comparing the activity of spallation residues in dense and diluted copper target assemblies (Marburg). Target fragmentation will be studied in a stack of silverchloride crystal foils (Frankfurt) of about 7~cm~x~6~cm~x~1~cm dimensions. The \\alpha beam ejected at EJ~62 will be used to provide both exposures at high intensity of 10|1|2 alphas on th and at low intensity ...

  14. Experimental device for the study of elastic and inelastic diffusion at high-energy He+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnac, R.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Baudon, J.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental device for studying heavy particle collisions in the energy range 5 to 40 keV is described. Differential inelastic cross sections are measured by means of an energy loss analysis at scattering angles ranging from 0.5 to 4 0 . Typical energy loss spectra obtained at 6.5 keV and 40 keV are given for two diffusion angles. (author)

  15. High-energy X-ray study of short range order and phase transformations in titanium-vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsteiner, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a study of configurational correlations and phase transformations in the binary alloy Ti-V, using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The experiments have been performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. The high-energy (60-100 keV) technique developed recently allows in-situ measurements on bulk material in transmission geometry. The first part of the thesis discusses multiple scattering effects which might occur with this method. These effects are experimentally verified and discussed. Special emphasis is put on the questions, whether they affect the results obtained with this method, and how they can be avoided. Understanding alloys on the most fundamental level requires knowledge about the atomic interaction potentials. Competing with entropy, these potentials determine the configurational short range order in a disordered alloy, which generates together with static and dynamic distortions the diffuse scattering. The thesis presents measurements and calculations of the diffuse scattering patterns of Ti-V. The calculations, taking into account configurational correlations, static distortions induced by atomic size mismatch and thermal diffuse scattering, agree with the experimental data. Structural transformations in Ti-V are carefully characterized using high-energy x-ray diffraction in combination with the complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM). While the first technique allows to study the phenomena in-situ and time-resolved, TEM yields real space images and chemical information about the phases. Ti-V near the equiatomic composition is a beta-Ti-alloy. The body centered cubic beta phase is retained at room temperature by fast quenching. Aging the material below the phase transformation temperature, however, leads to the precipitation of hexagonal alpha titanium. Another transformation process confusing earlier works is identified as TiC formation from carbon impurities in the material. In addition

  16. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  17. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  18. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  19. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  20. A study on radiation safety measures for the use of high-energy beta-ray sources in medical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Woo; Yang, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyeon Jo [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : an investigation of the current application status of medical radioisotopes, Sr-90, Ho-166, Re-188, which emit beta-rays of energy greater than 1.5 Mev, analyses of the environments under which the above isotopes are used, estimation of personal radiation doses by using the MCNP-4C computer code for the situations in which high radiation doses might be probable, review of the USA's regulations related to safe use of the radioisotopes, investigation of past over-expose cases reported in the internet, analysis of the current domestic regulations, suggestion of safety measures necessary for the use of the radioisotopes.

  1. Study of the sintering behavior of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-CO mixtures obtained by high energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, M. D.; Bonache, V.; Amigo, V.; Busquets, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the sintering behaviour of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-12Co mixtures obtained by high energy milling, as well commercial nano powders, have been studied, in order to evaluate the effect of the particle size and the powder processing, in the densification, microstructural development and mechanical properties of the final product. The consolidation of the mixtures has been made by uniaxial pressing and sintering in vacuum, and by hot isostatic pressing. The sintered materials have been evaluated by measures of density, hardness and indentation fracture toughness, and micro structurally characterized by optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results show the improvements in resistant behaviour of the materials obtained from nanocrystalline powders, in spite of the grain growth experienced during the sintering. The best results were obtained for the milling nanocrystalline material, which presents values of hardness higher than 180 HV. (Author) 46 refs

  2. Study of Sequential Dexter Energy Transfer in High Efficient Phosphorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Single Emissive Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; You, Seung Il; Kim, Nam Ho; Yoon, Ju-An; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhu, Fu Rong; Kim, Woo Young

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report our effort to realize high performance single emissive layer three color white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) through sequential Dexter energy transfer of blue, green and red dopants. The PHOLEDs had a structure of; ITO(1500 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/mCP:Firpic-x%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-y%(300 Å)/TPBi(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å). The dopant concentrations of FIrpic, Ir(ppy)3 and Ir(piq)3 were adjusted and optimized to facilitate the preferred energy transfer processes attaining both the best luminous efficiency and CIE color coordinates. The presence of a deep trapping center for charge carriers in the emissive layer was confirmed by the observed red shift in electroluminescent spectra. White PHOLEDs, with phosphorescent dopant concentrations of FIrpic-8.0%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-0.5% in the mCP host of the single emissive layer, had a maximum luminescence of 37,810 cd/m2 at 11 V and a luminous efficiency of 48.10 cd/A at 5 V with CIE color coordinates of (0.35, 0.41).

  3. Intercomparison of high energy neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Akabani, G.; Loesch, R.M.

    1993-03-01

    An intercomparison of high-energy neutron personnel dosimeters was performed to evaluate the uniformity of the response characteristics of typical neutron dosimeters presently in use at US Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities. It was necessary to perform an intercomparison because there are no national or international standards for high-energy neutron dosimetry. The testing that is presently under way for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is limited to the use of neutron sources that range in energy from about 1 keV to 2 MeV. Therefore, the high-energy neutron dosimeters presently in use at DOE accelerator facilities are not being tested effectively. This intercomparison employed neutrons produced by the 9 Be(p,n) 9 B interaction at the University of Washington cyclotron, using 50-MeV protons. The resulting neutron energy spectrum extended to a maximum of approximately 50-MeV, with a mean energy of about 20-MeV. Intercomparison results for currently used dosimeters, including Nuclear Type A (NTA) film, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo, and track-etch dosimeters (TEDs), indicated a wide variation in response to identical doses of high-energy neutrons. Results of this study will be discussed along with a description of plans for future work

  4. Study of magnetic properties of nano-powders prepared by pyrite -> troilite transformation via high energy milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Alacova, A.; Godocikova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of nanocrystalline troilite by high-energy milling of FeS2 sulphide with elemental Fe acting as reducing element is reported. X-ray difractometry was used in order to determine the presence of different phases in investigated samples. This technique allowed us to identify the form......-->troilite transformation is almost finished already after 25 minutes of high-energy milling.......The preparation of nanocrystalline troilite by high-energy milling of FeS2 sulphide with elemental Fe acting as reducing element is reported. X-ray difractometry was used in order to determine the presence of different phases in investigated samples. This technique allowed us to identify...

  5. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  6. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  7. The {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Michele

    2012-07-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in {sup 15}O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at E{sub p} = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range E{sub p} = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states

  8. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  9. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  10. A high energy physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional open-quotes Hidden Symmetries close quotes are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover open-quotes New Physicsclose quotes associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given

  11. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  12. High Energy Physics in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A thorough survey of the present and possible future activities and resources in high energy physics in the CERN Member States has been carried out by a Working Group of ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) under the Chairmanship of John Mulvey. The aim has been to obtain a view of the present European scene and to see whether it looks well adapted to the effective exploitation of possible future machines in Europe (particular LEP) and the rest of the world

  13. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  14. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  15. High energy overcurrent protective device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  16. Geological exploration for a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system: a case study from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, Gerd; Schütz, Felina; Huenges, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    A collaborative research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is underway, which aims to develop and implement an innovative concept of a sustainable thermally driven cooling system in combination with a HT-ATES in northern Oman. The system will use an absorption chiller for cold supply, which nominally requires water of around 100°C as energy source. Solar collectors will provide this thermal energy and energy surpluses during daytimes will be stored to ensure a continuous operation of the cooling system. An integral part of this project is, therefore, the development of an efficient HT-ATES (100°C), which is based on temporary storage and recovery of thermal energy through hot water injection in subsurface aquifer horizons. Thus, an accurate thermal and fluid flow characterisation of potential reservoir horizons is essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area is located in the Al Khwad area, approximately 40 km to the west of Muscat. The area is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We use a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES exploration and development phase, including traditional geological fieldwork dovetailed with virtual outcrop geology, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting analyses. Our first results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate-dominated sequence. The alluvial fan system is characterised by a more than 300 m thick, coarse-clastic succession of coalesced individual fans. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are favourable for gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates

  17. A Molecular dynamics study of helium bubble stability during high-energy displacement cascades in alpha-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Jin; Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2007-01-01

    The interactions of high-energy displacement cascades with helium bubbles in a-Fe are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Initial bubbles with the volumes of 212 and 636 (angstrom)3 are considered, and the helium-to-vacancy (He/V) ratio in the bubbles varies from 0.5 to 3. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy, Ep, is up to 40 keV. The results show that the change of nm-sized He bubbles due to displacement cascade does not depend much on the bubble size, but rather on the He/V ratio and the recoil energy. For the initial He/V ratio less than 1, the size of the bubbles decreases with increasing PKA energy, but the He/V ratio increases. However, for the initial He/V ratio of 3, the size of the bubbles increases, and the He/V ratio decreases with PKA energy. For the initial He/V ratio of 1, the ratio of the small bubble decreases slightly, but the ratio of the large bubble remains unchanged for lower PKA energy, and increases slightly for higher PKA energy. The reasons for these observed phenomena have been explained

  18. Effects of high- and low-energy radial shock waves therapy combined with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangzheng; Li, Zhongli; Liu, Zhengsheng; Shi, Teng; Xue, Chao

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high- and low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy patients. Data from rotator cuff tendinopathy patients received high- or low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone were collected. The Constant and Murley score and visual analog scale score were collected to assess the effectiveness of treatment in three groups at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. In total, 94 patients were involved for our retrospective study. All groups showed remarkable improvement in the visual analog scale and Constant and Murley score compared to baseline at 24 weeks. The high-energy radial shock waves group had more marked improvement in the Constant and Murley score compared to the physiotherapy group at 4 and 8 weeks and at 4 weeks when compared with low-energy group. Furthermore, high-energy radial shock waves group had superior results on the visual analog scale at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared to low-energy and physiotherapy groups. This retrospective study supported the usage of high-energy radial shock waves as a supplementary therapy over physiotherapy alone for rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving the symptoms rapidly and maintaining symptoms at a satisfactory level for 24 weeks. Implications for Rehabilitation High-energy radial shock waves can be a supplemental therapy to physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy. We recommend the usage of high-energy radial shock waves during the first 5 weeks, at an interval of 7 days, of physiotherapy treatment. High-energy radial shock waves treatment combined with physiotherapy can benefit rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving symptoms rapidly and maintain these improvements at a satisfactory level for quite a long time.

  19. High energy injury is a risk factor for preoperative venous thromboembolism in the patients with hip fractures: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Sup; Jang, Jae Hoon; Park, Ki Young; Moon, Nam Hoon

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE), and determine if high energy hip fracture affects preoperative VTE occurrence. Three-hundred nine patients (244 low and 61 high energy injuries) treated between March 2015 and March 2017 were included in this study. Indirect multidetector computed tomographic venography for the detection of preoperative VTE was performed at admission. The incidence of preoperative VTE was compared between high and low energy injury hip fractures. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for preoperative VTE. The overall incidence of preoperative VTE was 18.4% (56 of 305 patients). Preoperative VTE was identified in 17 (27.9%) and 39 (16.0%) patients in the high and low energy injury groups, respectively (p = 0.034). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high energy injury, history of VTE, and myeloproliferative disease were significant predictive factors of preoperative VTE (OR = 2.451; 95% CI = 1.227-4.896, OR = 11.174; 95% CI = 3.500-35.673, OR = 6.936; 95% CI = 1.641-29.321, respectively) CONCLUSION: Because high energy hip fracture is significantly associated with preoperative VTE occurrence, preoperative evaluation and proper thromboprophylaxis should be performed for patients with a high-energy hip fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of nonorthogonality in the Born theory used for study of electron capture in high energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.

    1989-01-01

    We show the complete removal of the nonorthogonality of wave functions between initial and final states in the Born theory. Hence, this treatment offers more realistic electron capture cross sections in high energy ion-atom collisions. Representative results for resonant electron capture in H + + H collision are discussed in conjunction with other perturbative results. 10 refs., 1 fig

  1. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.; Ruddick, K.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: The Soudan enterprise; study of strange quarks at Fermilab; direct photons at Fermilab; the Brookhaven programs; AMY and CLEO: studies of e + e - annihilations; cosmic ray studies with the DO muon chamber; progress report on HEP computer upgrade; muon triggering and reconstruction at SSC; and, theoretical high energy physics

  2. IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented

  3. Cosmic physics: the high energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies 10 8 times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic γ-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violations of Lorentz invariance as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity. (topical review)

  4. Developments in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Roy, Probir

    2009-01-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics background, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the standard model, and proposals - including the radical paradigm of string theory - have been made to go beyond the standard model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors. (author)

  5. Distorted wave models applied to electron emission study in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es

  6. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  7. A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, Paul A., E-mail: paul.shade.1@us.af.mil; Schuren, Jay C.; Turner, Todd J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Blank, Basil [PulseRay, Beaver Dams, New York 14812 (United States); Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Suter, Robert M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lind, Jonathan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability.

  8. Thermal and hydrodynamic studies for micro-channel cooling for large area silicon sensors in high energy physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaschel, Nils; Ariza, Dario; Diez, Sergio; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Tackmann, Kerstin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gerboles, Marta; Jorda, Xavier; Mas, Roser; Quirion, David; Ullan, Miguel [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-01-15

    Micro-channel cooling initially aiming at small-sized high-power integrated circuits is being transferred to the field of high energy physics. Today's prospects of micro-fabricating silicon opens a door to a more direct cooling of detector modules. The challenge in high energy physics is to save material in the detector construction and to cool large areas. In this paper, we are investigating micro-channel cooling as a candidate for a future cooling system for silicon detectors in a generic research and development approach. The work presented in this paper includes the production and the hydrodynamic and thermal testing of a micro-channel equipped prototype optimized to achieve a homogeneous flow distribution. Furthermore, the device was simulated using finite element methods.

  9. Thermal and hydrodynamic studies for micro-channel cooling for large area silicon sensors in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaschel, Nils; Ariza, Dario; Diez, Sergio; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Tackmann, Kerstin; Gerboles, Marta; Jorda, Xavier; Mas, Roser; Quirion, David; Ullan, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Micro-channel cooling initially aiming at small-sized high-power integrated circuits is being transferred to the field of high energy physics. Today's prospects of micro-fabricating silicon opens a door to a more direct cooling of detector modules. The challenge in high energy physics is to save material in the detector construction and to cool large areas. In this paper, we are investigating micro-channel cooling as a candidate for a future cooling system for silicon detectors in a generic research and development approach. The work presented in this paper includes the production and the hydrodynamic and thermal testing of a micro-channel equipped prototype optimized to achieve a homogeneous flow distribution. Furthermore, the device was simulated using finite element methods.

  10. Electronic structure of the Ga1-xCrxN studied by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Makino, H.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M.W.; Yao, T.; Takata, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Shin, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Ikenaga, E.; Yabashi, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is predicted based on hole-mediated ferromagnetism (FM) that GaMnN may have Curie temperature (Tc) higher than room temperature if doped with high hole concentration (ca 10 20 cm -3 ). The hole-mediated ferromagnetism (FM) can produce reliable estimate of Tc for diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) such as GaMnAs due to the shallow Mn-associated energy states in the GaAs system. Since the energy states of doped transition metals exist as a deep level in a wide band semiconductor like GaN and carriers are localized in these states, different mechanisms for magnetism will play a role in GaN rather than the hole-mediated one. This conjecture is partly supported by the recent report of FM in n-type GaN doped with Cr, although the mechanism of the observed FM has not been elucidated yet. In order to get insight into the mechanism of the FM, we have studied the electronic structure of GaN doped with Cr exploiting bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy at a photon energy of 5.95keV at SPring-8. We have observed that Cr-doping does introduce new electronic levels in the band gap and causes some change in the valence band structure. Based on the first principle calculation, the Cr-associated electronic levels in the band gap are assigned to nonbonding and anti-bonding d states, the latter of which pins the Fermi level, while the change of the valence band suggests that the Ga 4s originated states are significantly modified through hybridization with the Cr 3d orbital. The present result evidences that the Ga valence electrons are considerably modified through the interaction with second neighbor Cr atoms. Such hybridization between Ga 4s and Cr 3d may play a significant role in the observed ferromagnetism in Ga 1-x Cr x N

  11. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  12. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  13. 2nd Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill; HKUST 2016; HKUST IAS Program on High Energy Physics Conference; Future of high energy physics : some aspects

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  14. A simulation tool to study high-frequency chest compression energy transfer mechanisms and waveforms for pulmonary disease applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2010-07-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) can be used as a therapeutic intervention to assist in the transport and clearance of mucus and enhance water secretion for cystic fibrosis patients. An HFCC pump-vest and half chest-lung simulation, with 23 lung generations, has been developed using inertance, compliance, viscous friction relationships, and Newton's second law. The simulation has proven to be useful in studying the effects of parameter variations and nonlinear effects on HFCC system performance and pulmonary system response. The simulation also reveals HFCC waveform structure and intensity changes in various segments of the pulmonary system. The HFCC system simulation results agree with measurements, indicating that the HFCC energy transport mechanism involves a mechanically induced pulsation or vibration waveform with average velocities in the lung that are dependent upon small air displacements over large areas associated with the vest-chest interface. In combination with information from lung physiology, autopsies and a variety of other lung modeling efforts, the results of the simulation can reveal a number of therapeutic implications.

  15. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  16. An (e, 2e + ion) study of low-energy electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran with high mass and energy resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueguang; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yoon; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    We study the low-energy (E0 = 26 eV) electron-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran using a reaction microscope. All three final-state charged particles, i.e., two outgoing electrons and one fragment ion, are detected in triple coincidence such that the momentum vectors and, consequently, the kinetic energies for charged reaction products are determined. The ionic fragments are clearly identified in the experiment with a mass resolution of 1 amu. The fragmentation pathways of tetrahydrofuran are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy spectra and the binding energy spectra where an energy resolution of 1.5 eV has been achieved using the recently developed photoemission electron source. Here, we will discuss the fragmentation reactions for the cations C4H8O+, C4H7O+, C2H3O+, C3H_6^+, C3H_5^+, C3H_3^+, CH3O+, CHO+, and C2H_3^+.

  17. Spinoff from high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This year the CERN Courier is featuring the spinoff and technological benefits arising from research in fundamental physics. After initial illustrations in applied data processing sectors, this article by Hans Hoffman of CERN examines the rationale and underlying objectives of the 'new awareness' of the market value of basic science. He is the Chairman of a new panel on the subject set up recently by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The other members are: Oscar Barbalat of CERN, Hans Christian Dehne of DESY, Sin-ichi Kurakawa of KEK, Gennady Kulipanov of the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk), Anthony Montgomery, formerly of the SSC, A. H. Walenta of Siegen, Germany, and Zhongqiang Yu of IHEP Beijing. High energy physics - the quest to find and understand the structure of matter - is mainly seen as an essential part of human culture. However this basic science increasingly has to jostle for funding attention with other branches of science. Applied sciences aim for a rapid transformation of investment cash into viable market products. In times of economic difficulties this is attractive to funding agencies and governments, and economic usefulness and technological relevance also become criteria for a basic science like high energy physics.

  18. Renewable energy at high altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltramo, R.; Cuzzolin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Improving environmental performance by paying greater attention to the environment factor is becoming the prime objective of many companies and organizations in general. But not theirs alone. Even the tourism sector is making a number of efforts in this direction. This is the case, for example, of the Regina Margherita Refuge located on Point Gnifetti on the Monte Rosa massif, where a research project called Crest was conducted. This was a study on the feasibility of meeting the refuge's energy sources, that is, by using a photovoltaic or hybrid (wind-based and photovoltaic) energy production system. A plant thus able to exploit the landscape and meteorological characteristics typical of a mountain refuge, saving money and reducing the pollution load [it

  19. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Imery & Co, High-performance Bungalow, Roswell, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning custom for buyer home in the mixed-humid climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 41 without PV or HERS 6 with PV.

  20. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  1. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Design and construction of a multi-layer CsI(Tl) telescope for high-energy reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Sun, Z.Y.; Yue, K.; Wang, S.T.; Zhang, X.H.; Yu, Y.H.; Chen, J.L.; Tang, S.W.; Fang, F.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Z.M.; Sun, Y.Z.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of a new CsI(Tl) telescope, which will be used in the reaction studies of light isotopes with energy of several hundred AMeV, was constructed and tested at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope has a multi-layer structure, and the range information was obtained to improve the particle identification performance. This prototype has seven layers of different thickness. An energy resolution of 5.0% (FWHM) was obtained for one of the layers in a beam test experiment. Positive improvement for the identification of 14 O and 15 O isotopes was achieved using the range information.

  4. Design and construction of a multi-layer CsI(Tl) telescope for high-energy reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, D.; Sun, Z.Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yue, K., E-mail: yueke@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, S.T.; Zhang, X.H.; Yu, Y.H.; Chen, J.L.; Tang, S.W.; Fang, F. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Z.M.; Sun, Y.Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-01-21

    A prototype of a new CsI(Tl) telescope, which will be used in the reaction studies of light isotopes with energy of several hundred AMeV, was constructed and tested at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope has a multi-layer structure, and the range information was obtained to improve the particle identification performance. This prototype has seven layers of different thickness. An energy resolution of 5.0% (FWHM) was obtained for one of the layers in a beam test experiment. Positive improvement for the identification of {sup 14}O and {sup 15}O isotopes was achieved using the range information.

  5. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  6. A phenomenological study of the π- p → π0 n charge exchange reaction at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the behaviour of the proton-proton elastic scattering, for mass center energies around 10 GeV, and more especially to study the charge exchange reaction π - p → π 0 n for mass center energies between 3 and 20 GeV. A formalism based on the Glauber model has been used, and a Regge trajectory exchange term was introduced in the model in order to enable the description of the lower energy domain (inferior to 10 GeV) that is characterized by a large contribution of meson exchanges at the scattering amplitude. The Glauber model is then applied to the charge exchange reaction and the differential cross section is analyzed for a center mass energy comprised between 3 and 20 GeV, together with the polarization at 40 GeV/c. The approach is then validated through the study of the π - p → η n reaction. The size of the kernel of proton and pion components implied in the π - p → π 0 n reaction, is also investigated. 90 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs., 5 appends

  7. Dynamics of high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    During last several years, a new framework to describe strong interaction physics has emerged, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is the simplest field theory which incorporates color-dependent force among quarks. This force is generated by the exchange of colored vector gluons coupled to the quarks in gauge-invariant manner. The theory is closely related to the most successful quantum field theory, QED, and the only but very important difference is the gauge group involved. Although the theory is well defined, precisely what it predicts is not yet clearly known. However, at very high energy or momentum transfer Q, the effective coupling between quarks and gluons decreases toward zero with increasing Q 2 , and the calculation of a process involving high Q 2 is possible by the use of perturbation theory. In this paper, many applications of QCD to the processes involving high momentum transfer are examined. The effective coupling resulting from strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the scale violation in deep inelastic lepton scattering, large mass muon pair production, quark and gluon fragmentation functions, large transverse momentum meson and jet production in hadron-hadron collision, and the search for three-jet events are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  8. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  9. Assessing high shares of renewable energies in district heating systems - a case study for the city of Herten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ali; Popovski, Eftim; Bellstädt, Daniel; Fleiter, Tobias; Büchele, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many earlier studies have assessed the DH generation mix without taking explicitly into account future changes in the building stock and heat demand. The approach of this study consists of three steps that combine stock modeling, energy demand forecasting, and simulation of different energy technologies. First, a detailed residential building stock model for Herten is constructed by using remote sensing together with a typology for the German building stock. Second, a bottom-up simulation model is used which calculates the thermal energy demand based on energy-related investments in buildings in order to forecast the thermal demand up to 2050. Third, solar thermal fields in combination with large-scale heat pumps are sized as an alternative to the current coal-fired CHPs. We finally assess cost of heat and CO2 reduction for these units for two scenarios which differ with regard to the DH expansion. It can be concluded that up to 2030 and 2050 a substantial reduction in buildings heat demand due to the improved building insulation is expected. The falling heat demand in the DH substantially reduces the economic feasibility of new RES generation capacity. This reduction might be compensated by continuously connecting apartment buildings to the DH network until 2050.

  10. Electronic structure of the Ga1-xCr xN studied by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Makino, H.; Yao, T.; Takata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M.W.; Ikenaga, E.; Yabashi, M.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Shin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Valence band spectra of Ga 1-x Cr x N have been investigated by high-energy photoemission spectroscopy at the photon energy of 5.95 keV. Cr doping does introduce a novel electronic structure in the bandgap and causes some change in valence band structure. Based on the first-principle calculation, Cr-associated electronic levels in the bandgap are assigned to nonbonding and antibonding d states while the change of the valence band suggests that the Ga 4s originated states are significantly modified through hybridization with the Cr 3d orbital. The present result evidences that the Ga valence electrons are considerably modified through the interaction with the second nearest-neighbour Cr atoms

  11. Publication of the proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF summer study on new directions for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, L.T.

    1997-10-01

    Production of the Proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF Summer Study in High-Energy Physics built on the methods, lessons, and technology of the production process used for the Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC95). The Snowmass proceedings project started with a much smaller budget and a shorter production schedule, resulting in a much more ambitious plan. The goal was, as for PAC95, to produce both a paper and a CD version of the proceedings. This time, the goal was to complete the project in only 6 months, using half of a staff person from the SLAC Technical Publications Department (responsible for technical design and implementation as well as project management), along with 6 months of a full-time temporary employee to answer the phone and coordinate author support. The conference editors and the author decided on a strategy using the World Wide Web for submission and quality assurance testing. The resulting procedure allowed authors to check the quality of their own PDF files, prevented random browsing of papers before publication of the proceedings, and required minimal human intervention (though they easily could have used a few more bodies manning the help lines). To this end, they set up a Power Macintosh running FileMaker Pro 3.0 (a relational database application), WebSTAR (Macintosh Web server software), WEB/FM (CGI package for FileMaker Pro/WebSTAR interface), and NetPresenz (Macintosh ftp server) and created a gatewayed mailing list and newsgroup for authors needing technical support

  12. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs

  13. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Ruddick, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses experimental and theoretical work in High Energy Physics. Some topics discussed are: quantum field theory; supersymmetry; cosmology; superstring model; relic photinos; inflationary universe; dark matter; standard model; supernovae; semileptonic decay; quantum Langevin equation; underground neutrino detection at Soudan; strange quark systems; cosmic ray detection; superconducting super collider detectors; and studies of direct photon production

  14. An economic perspective on the reliability of lighting systems in building with highly efficient energy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, F.; Lieto Vollaro, A. de; Ferraro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper design of efficient lighting systems. • The reliability and durability of the light sources. • Maintenance of lighting systems. • Quality standards of LED lamps. • Optimum economic choice of light sources. - Abstract: The performance of lighting system must be calculated in order to determine the energy requirements of the building. In the normative [EN 12464-1] are established lighting requirements which have effects on energy needs. The European standard [EN 15193] provides guidance on that evaluation. The easiest way to comply with reduction of energy requirements leads to the replacement of traditional lamps with LED ones, but if we calculate also the reliability parameters, the economic return is not guaranteed. Using bibliographic data, we have compared lighting’s results for a museum (LED lamps versus CFL and halogen lamps). The objective function of the study is to optimize the energy consumption of lighting systems, but at the same time to assess the reliability (MTTF of the lamps) of these systems. Without accurate information about this last parameters, the right choice of the lamps cannot be done successfully

  15. High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies neutrino interactions in iron at the highest available energies using the narrow-band neutrino beam N3 and the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The basis of the detector is a massive target-calorimeter in which the energy deposited by a neutrino (or antineutrino) is measured by electronic techniques and the momentum of outgoing muons is determined by magnetic deflection. The detector is constructed in the form of a 20 m long iron-cored toroidal magnet, composed of modules of length 70~cm and 90~cm, and of 3.75~m diameter. Drift chambers placed in between each module measure the trajectory of muons from the neutrino interactions. The modules are of three types. The first ten modules are constructed of 2.5~cm iron plates with 20~scintillator planes inserted between the plates. The next five modules are constructed of 5~cm plates with 15~planes of scintillator and the last six modules are constructed of 15~cm plates with 5~planes of scintillators. The total mass of the detector is @=~1400 tons...

  16. Study of the experimental data of multifragmentation of gold and krypton nuclei on interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Z.A.; Abdel-Hafez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results from EMU-01/12 collaboration for the experimental data on multifragmentation of gold residual nuclei created in the interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at the energy of 10.7 GeV/nucleon are presented together with the experimental data on multifragmentation of krypton created on the interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at energy of 0.9 GeV/nucleon. The data are analyzed in the frame of the statistical model of multifragmentation. It is obvious that there are two regimes for nuclear multifragmentation: the former is when less than one-half of nucleons of projectile nucleus are knocked out, the later is when more than one-half of nucleons are knocked out. Residual nuclei with masses close to each other created at different reactions are fragmented practically simultaneously when more than one-half of nucleons of original nuclei are knocked out. These results give an indication that projectiles other than Gold and Krypton may give the same characterization on interaction with emulsion nuclei at high energies

  17. Multiple relaxation processes in high-energy ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide: Thermally stimulated depolarization current study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Maneesha; Quamara, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy ion irradiation effects on the thermally stimulated depolarization current (Tdc) behaviour of kapton-H samples (12.5 μm) irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (fluence 5 x 10 4 , 10 5 and 5 x 10 5 ions/cm 2 ) have been investigated. The TSDC spectra of the irradiated samples reveal that the β-peak (appearing around 80-110 deg. C) associated with dipolar relaxation has been significantly affected owing to the demerization of carbonyl groups due to irradiation. The TSDC spectra also reveal a new relaxation process (termed as γ-relaxation) around 30 deg. C, due to increased water absorptivity in irradiated samples. The peak around 200 deg. C (α-peak) associated with space charge relaxation process also shows a behavioural change with ion irradiation. The peak not only shifts towards the higher temperature with increasing fluence but also show an increase in its activation energy (0.33-0.99 eV) with increasing polarizing field. The creation of new deep energy trap centers due to the formation of conjugated bonds after irradiation is responsible for this modification. The Cole-Cole distribution curves show the formation of new sub-polar group with different characteristic relaxation time

  18. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy studies of clean and hydrogen-covered tungsten (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution (10-meV FWHM) low-energy (≤ 100eV) electrons are scattered from the tungsten (100) surface. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) selection rules are utilized to identify vibrational modes of the surface tungsten atoms. A 36-meV mode is measured on the c(2 X 2) thermally reconstructed surface and is modeled as an overtone of the 18-meV mode at M in the surface Brillouin zone. The superstructure of the reconstructed surface allows this mode to be observed in specular scattering. The surface tungsten atoms return to their bulk lateral positions with saturated hydrogen (β 1 phase) adsorption; and a 26-meV mode identified is due to the perpendicular vibration of the surface tungsten layers. The clean-room temperature surface does not display either low-energy vibrations and the surface is modeled as disordered. The three β 1 phase hydrogen vibrations are observed and a new vibration at 118 meV is identified. The 118-meV cross section displays characteristics of a parallel mode, but calculations show this assignment to be erroneous. There are two hydrogen atoms for each surface tungsten atom in the β 1 phase, and lattice-dynamical calculations show that the 118-meV mode is due to a hydrogen-zone edge vibration. The predicted breakdown of the parallel hydrogen vibration selection rule was not observed

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  20. Quantum Sensing for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; et al.

    2018-03-29

    Report of the first workshop to identify approaches and techniques in the domain of quantum sensing that can be utilized by future High Energy Physics applications to further the scientific goals of High Energy Physics.

  1. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The μ + μ - collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged

  2. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  3. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, February 16, 1993--April 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of low energy, highly charged ions with other atomic species requires an advanced ion source such as an electron beam ion source, EBIS or an electron cyclotron ion source, ECRIS. Five years ago we finished the design and construction of the Cornell superconducting solenoid, cryogenic EBIS (CEBIS). Since then, this source has been in continuous operation in a program whose main purpose is the experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. This progress report for the period February 16, 1993 to April 15, 1994 describes the work accomplished during this time in the form of short abstracts

  4. The JEM-EUSO mission: a space observatory to study the origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Parizot, E. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France)

    2014-11-15

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) is an innovative space-based mission with the aim of detecting Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from the ISS, by using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter viewed by a fluorescence telescope. An observatory able to produce an arrival direction map with more than several hundreds events above 5 × 10{sup 19} eV would give important information on the origin of the UHECRs and identify structures in the sky map that contain information about the source density and/or distribution. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms with a high potential for producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The scientific motivations of the mission as well as the current development status of the instrument and its performance are reviewed.

  5. The JEM-EUSO mission: a space observatory to study the origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Parizot, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) is an innovative space-based mission with the aim of detecting Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from the ISS, by using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter viewed by a fluorescence telescope. An observatory able to produce an arrival direction map with more than several hundreds events above 5 × 10 19 eV would give important information on the origin of the UHECRs and identify structures in the sky map that contain information about the source density and/or distribution. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms with a high potential for producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The scientific motivations of the mission as well as the current development status of the instrument and its performance are reviewed

  6. Development of High Energy Particle Detector for the Study of Space Storms onboard Next Generation Small Satellite-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, J. D.; Min, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, D. Y.; Yi, Y.; Kang, K.; Shin, G. H.; Jo, G. B.; Lee, S. U.; Na, G.

    2017-12-01

    We reports the development of the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD), one of the radiation detectors on board the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 to be launched into a low-Earth polar orbit in late 2017. The HEPD consists of three telescopes, each with a field of view of 33.4°, that are mounted on the satellite to have an angle of 0°, 45°, and 90° to the geomagnetic field during observations in the Earth's sub-auroral regions. The detection system of each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors (SSDs), with the capability of measuring electrons from 300 keV to 2 MeV at 32 Hz that precipitate into the polar regions from the Earth's radiation belts when space storms occur. The successful operation of the HEPD in orbit will help us understand the interaction mechanisms between energetic electrons and plasma waves such as whistler and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves that are believed to be responsible for the energization and loss of high energy electrons in the Earth's radiation belts.

  7. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies: Progress report for period May 15, 1985-February 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1987-01-01

    Interest in interactions of low energy highly charged ions with electrons, atoms or ions is due to their importance to controlled thermonuclear fusion research and the interesting nature of the fundamental processes involved. Studies of such interactions have long been hampered by a lack of suitable ions sources. A superconducting solenoid, cryogenic Electron Beam Ion Source, CEBIS, has been constructed at Cornell University to produce low energy very highly charged ions. At present, using a pulsed 0.5A,8.5 keV electron beam, the source is capable of producing highly charged ions of C,N,O, including bare nuclei, and ions of Ar up to charge state 11 + in 1 millisecond of confinement time. The source is being used in experiments to investigate charge transfer and accompanying processes in low energy, highly charged ion-atom collisions

  8. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  9. Baryon number violation in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Meng, R.

    1990-08-01

    We study the phenomenology of baryon number violation induced by electroweak instantons. We find that if the naive-instanton amplitudes were valid for arbitrarily high energies, the event rate at the SSC would be a few per hour, with a typical event consisting of 3 'primary' antileptons and 7 'primary' antiquark jets, accompanied by ≅ 85 electroweak gauge bosons, having a sharp threshold in the total sub-energy at about 17 TeV. We describe how to establish their electroweak-instanton-induced origin. The naive instanton approximation is known to overestimate the rate for these processes, so this work focusses attention on the need for more accurate calculations, and for a calculational method which is appropriate when the energy of the initial particles is above the sphaleron energy. (orig.)

  10. Hadron dynamics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrow, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nine lectures give a very brief introduction to hadron dynamics at high energies. They concentrate on basic concepts such as Regge poles, duality and geometrical ideas, and simple applications of these ideas to the problem of understanding data. To some extent two body phenomenology is emphasized at the expense of multiparticle final states and when the latter have been considered they have concentrated on inclusive reactions. One lecture discussed data on 2-2 reactions in order to provide the motivation for Regge pole theory, then two lectures are devoted to basic concepts. Then duality is introduced and shown to provide reasonable restrictions on a pole model. A lecture is then devoted to discussing geometrical ideas i.e. the t-dependence of data is looked at from an s-channel point of view. The section on two-body phenomenology is then concluded by discussing applications of the above ideas to two reactions-pion-nucleon scattering and np charge exchange scattering. The remaining three lectures are devoted to multiparticle reactions. Exclusive reactions are considered briefly and then the remainder of the course is concerned with inclusive reactions. The concepts of scaling and limiting fragmentation are discussed and Mueller's generalised optical theorem introduced and then applied in various kinematic limits. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on New Directions in High-energy Physics (Snowmass 96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyhrauch, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Production of the Proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF Summer Study in High-Energy Physics built on the methods, lessons, and technology of the production process used for the Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC95). For PAC95, authors were asked to submit PostScript, source files, and hard copy. Producing the proceedings took 16 months of official FTE in addition to countless hours of volunteer work by two additional people--the entire production process was accomplished in just under 9 months. In that time, the PAC95 production team quality checked every file (1099 submissions, totaling 3429 pages) and rebuilt about two thirds of them to fix problems with fonts and figures, and various other problems. Needless to say, this was an expensive process. The Snowmass proceedings project started with a much smaller budget and a shorter production schedule, resulting in a much more ambitious plan. The goal was, as for PAC95, to produce both a paper and a CD version of the proceedings. This time, the goal was to complete the project in only 6 months, using half of a staff person from the SLAC Technical Publications Department (responsible for technical design and implementation as well as project management), along with 6 months of a full-time temporary employee to answer the phone and coordinate author support. The conference editors and I decided on a strategy using the World Wide Web for submission and quality assurance testing. The resulting procedure allowed authors to check the quality of their own PDF files, prevented random browsing of papers before publication of the proceedings, and required minimal human intervention (though we easily could have used a few more bodies manning the help lines). To this end, we set up a Power Macintosh running FileMaker Pro 3.0 (a relational database application), WebSTAR (Macintosh Web server software), WEB/FM (CGI package for FileMaker Pro/ WebSTAR interface), and NetPresenz (Macintosh ftp server) and created

  12. Pneumatic Performance Study of a High Pressure Ejection Device Based on Real Specific Energy and Specific Enthalpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In high-pressure dynamic thermodynamic processes, the pressure is much higher than the air critical pressure, and the temperature can deviate significantly from the Boyle temperature. In such situations, the thermo-physical properties and pneumatic performance can’t be described accurately by the ideal gas law. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the pneumatic performance of a high-pressure air catapult launch system, in which esidual functions are used to compensate the thermal physical property uncertainties of caused by real gas effects. Compared with the Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility charts, the precision of the improved virial equation of state is better than Soave-Redlich-Kwong (S-R-K and Peng-Robinson (P-R equations for high pressure air. In this paper, the improved virial equation of state is further used to establish a compressibility factor database which is applied to evaluate real gas effects. The specific residual thermodynamic energy and specific residual enthalpy of the high-pressure air are also derived using the modified corresponding state equation and improved virial equation of state which are truncated to the third virial coefficient. The pneumatic equations are established on the basis of the derived residual functions. The comparison of the numerical results shows that the real gas effects are strong, and the pneumatic performance analysis indicates that the real dynamic thermodynamic process is obviously different from the ideal one.

  13. High energy physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  14. High energy physics at UCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world's highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t bar t decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-μ-τ universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices

  15. Perspectives in high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1983-08-01

    This report gives an overview of some aspects of hadronic physics relevant for the conception of a research facility devoted to the study of high energy nuclear collisions. Several concepts to be studied in nuclear collisions are selected, with emphasis placed on the properties and nature of the quark-gluon plasma, the formation of the plasma state in the central region and its anticipated lifetime, and the observability, through strangeness content of this new form of nuclear matter. (orig.)

  16. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  17. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-12-06

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  18. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  19. A study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watari, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by 31 P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by 31 P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Dental plaque pH variation with regular soft drink, diet soft drink and high energy drink: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Bendgude, Vikas; Mahuli, Amit V; Dave, Bhavana; Kulkarni, Harshal; Mittal, Simpy

    2012-03-01

    A high incidence of dental caries and dental erosion associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH response of dental plaque to a regular, diet and high energy drink. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects were between the ages of 20 and 25 and had at least four restored tooth surfaces present. The subjects were asked to refrain from brushing for 48 hours prior to the study. At baseline, plaque pH was measured from four separate locations using harvesting method. Subjects were asked to swish with 15 ml of the respective soft drink for 1 minute. Plaque pH was measured at the four designated tooth sites at 5, 10 and 20 minutes intervals. Subjects then repeated the experiment using the other two soft drinks. pH was minimum for regular soft drink (2.65 ± 0.026) followed by high energy drink (3.39 ± 0.026) and diet soft drink (3.78 ± 0.006). The maximum drop in plaque pH was seen with regular soft drink followed by high energy drink and diet soft drink. Regular soft drink possesses a greater acid challenge potential on enamel than diet and high energy soft drinks. However, in this clinical trial, the pH associated with either soft drink did not reach the critical pH which is expected for enamel demineralization and dissolution.

  1. The two-proton halo nucleus {sup 17}Ne studied in high-energy nuclear breakup reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Chulkov, Leonid [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Savran, Deniz [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    We report on exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of highly-energetic (500 MeV) unstable {sup 17}Ne beams impinging on light targets in an experiment at the R{sup 3}B-LAND complete-kinematics reaction setup at GSI. Focusing on the properties of beam-like {sup 15}O-p (={sup 16}F) systems produced in one-proton-removal reactions, we are presenting a comprehensive analysis of the s-/d-wave configuration mixing of the {sup 17}Ne valence-proton pair that is used to quantify its halo-nature. The results include the {sup 15}O-p relative-energy spectrum, {sup 16}F momentum distributions, and their corresponding momentum profile.

  2. Particle energy loss spectroscopy and SEM studies of topography development in thin aluminium films implanted with high doses of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfoot, K.M.; Webb, R.P.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    Development of topography in thin (55.5 μg cm -2 ) self-supporting aluminium films, caused by high fluence (approx. 10 17 ions cm -2 ) irradiation with 5 keV helium ions, has been observed. This has been achieved by measuring the topography-enhanced energy straggling of 0.40 MeV 4 He + ions transmitted through the foils and detected with an electrostatic analyser of resolution 0.2 keV. Features, about 0.7 μm in width, are observed with scanning electron microscopy. TRIM Monte Carlo calculations of the implantation processes are performed in order to follow the helium implantation and damage depth distributions. It is deduced that a form of thin film micro-wrinkling has occurred which is caused by the relief of stress brought about by the implantation of helium. (author)

  3. Contribution to the phenomenological study of two-body reactions at high energy; Contribution a l'etude phenomenologique des reactions a deux corps a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A phenomenological model suited for the description of arbitrary two-body reactions at high energies is presented and applied to the analysis of {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon scattering.The idea is that the Regge-pole model does not take into account the whole content of the unitarity relation and has to be modified, as is currently done in one-particle exchange models, so that it may include absorptive corrections.In terms of a rather economical set of free parameters,we obtain a satisfactory agreement with all available data, including the recent evidence for a nonvanishing polarization in {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n reaction. We then reinterpret our parametrization of the amplitudes in terms of poles and branch points in the complex angular-momentum plane for the crossed channel. (author) [French] Un modele phenomenologique adapte a la description des reactions a deux corps a haute energie est presente et applique a l'analyse des diffusions {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon. L'idee essentielle est que le modele d'echange de poles de Regge ne tient pas compte du contenu total de la relation d'unitarite et doit etre modifie, comme cela a ete propose dans le cas de l'echange de particules, de facon a tenir compte de corrections de type absortif. Au moyen d'un ensemble relativement economique de parametres libres nous obtenons un accord satisfaisant avec tous les resultats disponibles, y compris l'existence recemment mise en evidence d'une polarisation non nulle dans la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n. Nous interpretons notre fa n d'ecrire les amplitudes au moyen de poles et de points de branchement dans le plan complexe du moment angulaire pour la voie croisee. (auteur)

  4. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  5. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  6. Models of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-06-01

    The discussion covers nuclear collisions at relativistic energies including classes of high energy nucleus--nucleus collisions, and the kinetics of a central collision; and the asymptotic hadron spectrum including known and unknown hadrons, the relevance of the spectrum and the means of its study, thermodynamics of hadronic matter, examples of hadronic spectra, the temperature, composition of the initial fireball and its expansion, isoergic expansion with no pre-freezeout radiation, isentropic expansion of the fireball, the quasi-dynamical expansion, and finally antinuclei, hypernuclei, and the quark phase. 28 references

  7. Interleaved MRI/MRS study of muscle perfusion, oxygenation and high energy phosphate metabolism in normal subjects and Becker's myopathic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, J.F.; Brillault-Salvat, C.; Giacomini, E.; Bloch, G.; Duboc, D.; Jehenson, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the first results of a study comparing patients suffering from Becker's myopathy and normal volunteers. We simultaneously assessed perfusion, oxygenation and high-energy phosphate metabolism using an interleaved NMR/NMRS approach. Muscle metabolism does not seem to differ in Becker's patients, except for myoglobin reoxygenation rates. (authors)

  8. Differences in Classification Between Mono- and Polytrauma and Low- and High-Energy Trauma Patients With an Ankle Fracture : A Retrospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick Marijn; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Verleisdonk, Egbert Jan M M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hietbrink, Falco

    2017-01-01

    Although fracture type and treatment options for ankle fractures are well defined, the differences between mono- and polytrauma patients and low- and high-energy trauma have not been addressed. The aim of the present study was to compare the fracture type and trauma mechanism between mono- and

  9. Differences in Classification Between Mono- and Polytrauma and Low- and High-Energy Trauma Patients With an Ankle Fracture: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick Marijn; Smeeing, Diederik P. J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Verleisdonk, Egbert Jan; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Hietbrink, Falco

    2017-01-01

    Although fracture type and treatment options for ankle fractures are well defined, the differences between mono- and polytrauma patients and low- and high-energy trauma have not been addressed. The aim of the present study was to compare the fracture type and trauma mechanism between mono- and

  10. Study of events with a high transverse momentum particle at proton-proton interactions with 63 GeV c.m. energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panter, M.

    1982-01-01

    In proton-proton interactions at a c.m. energy of 63 GeV events with an identified high transverse momentum particle were studied. The inclusive invariant cross section for the production of charged pions was measured in the transverse momentum range from 3 to 13 GeV/c. (orig.) [de

  11. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  12. Effect of high energy electrons on the skin and on the underlying tissues of the rabbit. A clinical and histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Vialettes, H.; Adnet, J.J.; Court, L.; Masse, R.

    1967-01-01

    The authors consider in this report the effects of high-energy electrons on rabbit teguments and on the underlying tissues after a single high dose irradiation. After briefly considering the mechanism of interaction between the electrons and matter as a function of their energy, the authors describe the dosimetry carried out, as a function of the irradiation device. The animal received surface doses of 5700 to 22100 rads in the thigh; the electron energy varied from 21 to 30 MeV. A clinical study was carried out over a period of nine months with a view to following the evolution of the damage and the functional degradation of the underlying tissues. A histological study of the induced damage was made after a second irradiation using 30 MeV electrons to produce doses of 16400 rads. Interesting observations were made concerning the damage caused to muscular and nerve tissues. (authors) [fr

  13. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  14. States of high energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O 16 and S 32 incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O 16 on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dσdN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dσdE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations

  15. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, D.

    1988-01-01

    We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled us to make the world's most accurate determination of the composition of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have the only detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10--15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detectors will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques are also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15--200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab

  16. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e + e - annihilation. The geometrical description of high-energy elastic scattering developed earlier is still in general agreement with experiments at the CERN-S bar ppS energies. A simple one-parameter expression for the blackness of bar pp system has been proposed recently which describes very well all existing data from ISR to S bar ppS energies. The geometrical description has also been extended to include processes of fragmentation and diffraction dissociation and other phenomena. In the past five years, a unified physical picture for multiparticle emission in hadron-hadron and e + e - collisions was developed. It focuses on the idea of the wide range of values for the total angular momentum in hadron-hadron collisions. An extension of this consideration yields a theory for the momentum distribution of the outgoing particles which agrees with bar pp and e + e - collision experiments. The results and conclusions of this theory have been extrapolated to higher energies and yielded many predictions which can be experimentally tested. 37 refs

  17. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  18. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms

  19. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  20. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  1. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews

  2. A high-energy nuclear database proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Vogt, R.; UC Davis, CA

    2006-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews. (author)

  3. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, they propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews

  4. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  5. High education and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie; Stefanescu, Petre

    1998-01-01

    The Faculty of Energy of the University 'Politecnica' in Bucharest is the only faculty in Romania in the field of nuclear energy education. With an experience of more than 29 years, the Faculty of Energy offers the major 'Nuclear Power Plants', which students graduate after a 5-year education as engineers in the Nuclear Power Plant major. Among the principal objectives of the development and reshape of the Romanian education system was mentioned the upgrading of organizational forms by introducing the transfer credit system, and starting in the fall '97 by accrediting Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Master education. As a result of co-operation and assistance offered by TEMPUS-SENECA program, the new major is shaped and endowed with a modern curriculum harmonized with UE and IAEA requirements and a modern and performing laboratory. This way the Romanian higher education offers a fully correct and concordant structure with UE countries education. (authors)

  6. Very High Energy Neutron Scattering from Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R A; Stock, C; Bennington, S M; Taylor, J; Gidopoulos, N I

    2010-01-01

    The neutron scattering from hydrogen in polythene has been measured with the direct time-of flight spectrometer, MARI, at the ISIS facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with incident neutron energies between 0.5 eV and 600 eV. The results of experiments using the spectrometer, VESUVIO, have given intensities from hydrogen containing materials that were about 60% of the intensity expected from hydrogen. Since VESUVIO is the only instrument in the world that routinely operates with incident neutron energies in the eV range we have chosen to measure the scattering from hydrogen at high incident neutron energies with a different type of instrument. The MARI, direct time-of-flight, instrument was chosen for the experiment and we have studied the scattering for several different incident neutron energies. We have learnt how to subtract the gamma ray background, how to calibrate the incident energy and how to convert the spectra to an energy plot . The intensity of the hydrogen scattering was independent of the scattering angle for scattering angles from about 5 degrees up to 70 degrees for at least 3 different incident neutron energies between 20 eV and 100 eV. When the data was put on an absolute scale, by measuring the scattering from 5 metal foils with known thicknesses under the same conditions we found that the absolute intensity of the scattering from the hydrogen was in agreement with that expected to an accuracy of ± 5.0% over a wide range of wave-vector transfers between 1 and 250 A -1 . These measurements show that it is possible to measure the neutron scattering with incident neutron energies up to at least 100 eV with a direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer and that the results are in agreement with conventional scattering theory.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  8. Study of the Elasto-plastic Properties of Mineralized Biomaterials via Synchrotron High-energy X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier-Black, Alix Christine

    Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and mineralized collagen fibrils in bovine dentin and cortical bone. The HAP and the fibrillar apparent moduli, defined as the applied stress divided by the phase strain, in dentin were measured as 27+/-7.2 and 16+/-4.9 GPa. The HAP apparent modulus ( EHAPapp ) is less than the lower bound calculated for EHAPapp from the Voigt model. This discrepancy is probably due to stress concentrators or decreases in the HAP Young's modulus due to size or composition effects. EHAPapp and Efibapp in dentin vary significantly within a single tooth in both the apical-cervical direction and the buccal-lingual direction. However, the variation between teeth is minimal. The HAP and fibrillar apparent moduli are not affected by freezing in dentin or by X-ray irradiation in bone and dentin. X-ray irradiation causes a decrease in HAP residual strain in bone. This decrease suggests the presence of HAP-collagen interfacial damage. It was determined from the HAP 00.2 peak broadening that irradiation damage mostly affects the HAP unit cells which are under the highest strain. From this it was theorized that irradiation may damage highly-strained bonds at stress concentrators and/or calcium-mediated electrostatic bonds. The fact that the apparent modulus does not change with irradiation suggests that the interfacial damage must be reversible. Bone and dentin both undergo creep when loaded to high stresses. At low irradiation doses, both the fibrillar and HAP strains increase with creep time indicating that load is being transferred from the matrix to the HAP. However, at high doses, the strain on the HAP decreases with creep time. This supports the interfacial damage theory which would allow the HAP to release its elastic load upon interfacial debonding. At -80 MPa, beyond a dose of 50 kGy, the rate of change in HAP strain with time begins to increase, becoming positive at

  9. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  10. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  11. Magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing for studies on the energy distribution of a high-current relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosteva, T.S.; Zablotskaya, G.R.; Ivanov, B.A.; Kolyubakin, S.A.; Chernobrovin, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    Specific features of a magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing are described; the spectrograph has been designed to study, using the REP-5 pulsed accelerator, the energy spectra of electrons with a current of 50 kA, pulse duration of 20 ns in the energy range 0.2 to 3 MeV. The beam has been transported in a drift chamber where the air pressure varies from 10 -3 to 40 torr. The chamber is 50 cm long and 12 cm in diameter. The spectrograph vacuum chamber is made in the form of a plane rectangular box with a degassing fitting. The uniform magnetic field in the spectrograph gap is provided with permanent magnets (ferrite-barium plates). The collimator and the chamber walls on which the magnets are located, are made of low-carbon electrotechnical steel. The diameters of the collimator entrance and exit windows are 2 and 0.2 mm, respectively. To screen the photofilm in the spectrograph chamber from x-radiation, there are three disks on the spectrograph flange on the part of the drift chamber, they are made of lead, steel, and aluminium. The steel disk, besides, screens the space in front of the collimator entrance window from the scattered magnetic field. During the experiments the pressure in the spectrograph chamber has varied from 7x10 -3 to 10 -1 torr. Electrons are registered using the RT-1 and RT-5 x-ray films 1x18 cm in size. The spectrograph described makes it possible to have well-resolved electron spectrum during a pulse. The electron spectra obtained by means of the spectrograph at a pressure of 4.10 -1 torr in the drift chamber and a charge voltage of 3.2 MV in the line, are shown [ru

  12. Application of a three-dimensional model for a study of the energy transfer of a high-pressure mercury horizontal lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K. [Unite d' Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.

  13. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  14. Experimental microdosimetry in high energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.-F.; Molokanov, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine microdosimetric characteristics in the beams and fields of high energy panicles with the goal, also, to compare the classical method of experimental microdosimetry, a tissue equivalent low pressure proportional counter (TEPC) with the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrometer based on a chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate as a track etched detector (TED). To test the use of TED LET spectrometer in the conditions, where the use or TEPC is not possible (high energy charged particle beams at high dose rates). The results obtained with the TEPC NAUSICAA were used in this work to compare them with other data. This TEPC measures directly the linear energy in the interval between 0.15 and 1500 keV/μm in tissue, the low gas pressure (propan based TE mixture) permits to simulate a tissue element of about 3 μm. It can be used in the fields with instantaneous dose equivalent rates between 1 μSv/hour and 1 mSv/ hour. TED LET spectrometer developed to determine LET spectra between 10 and 700 keV/μm in tissue. Primarily, track-to-bulk etch rate ratios are determined through the track parameters measurements, the spectra of these ratios are convened to LET spectra using the calibration curve established by means of heavy charge panicles. The critical volume of thi spectrometer is supposed to be a few nm. There is no limit of use for the dose rate, the background tracks limit the lowest threshold to about 1 mSv, the overlapping of tracks (the highest one) to 100 mSv. Both experimental microdosimetry methods have been used in on board aircraft radiation fields, in on-Earth high energy radiation reference fields, and in the beams of protons with energies up to 300 MeV (Dubna, Moscow, Loma Linda). First, it should be emphasized, that in all high energy radiation fields studied, we concentrated our analysis on the region, where both methods overlap, i.e. between 10 and 1000 keV/μm in tissue. It should be also stressed, that the events observed in this region

  15. High-energy proton scattering on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K

    1973-01-01

    High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).

  16. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  17. Origin of the universe and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Z, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this book it is briefly exposed what it is done in the world in relation with the high energy physics. Also, it is presented a brief historical description of the earth evolution, the universe and physics in general. This book counts with eight chapters. The first chapter deals with the relationship of man with science. The second chapter speaks about the origin of universe. The third chapter comments about the stars and galaxies formation. The fourth chapter treats how the scientists and researchers continue to studying the subnuclear world. The fifth chapter deals with subjects and models of nuclear physics. In the sixth chapter it is described the function of the particles accelerator. The seventh chapter comments about the multidisciplinary aspects of the research of elementary particles. Finally, the eighth chapter deals with the advances of high energy physics in the andean region of Latin America. (author)

  18. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  19. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  20. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given

  1. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  2. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops

  3. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  5. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  6. Experimental study of high-energy resolution lead/scintillating fiber calorimetry in the 600-1200 MeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, V.; Bianco, S.; Capogni, M.; Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Ghio, F.; Giardoni, M.; Girolami, B.; Hu, L.; Levi Sandri, P.; Moricciani, D.; Nobili, G.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.; Schaerf, C.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the properties of electromagnetic shower detectors, composed of a uniform array of plastic scintillating fibers and lead (50:35 by volume ratio) for photons in the energy range 600-1200 MeV. When the photon's incidence angle to the fiber axis is within ±2 circle an energy resolution of σ E /E(%)=5.12/√(E[GeV])+1.71 has been observed. (orig.)

  7. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  8. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  9. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  10. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  11. Cerenkov-ΔE-Cerenkov detector for high-energy cosmic-ray isotopes and an accelerator study of 40Ar and 56Fe fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis has two major parts. The first part of the thesis will describe a high energy cosmic ray detector - the High Energy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope (HEIST). HEIST is a large area (0.25 m 2 sr) balloon-borne isotope spectrometer designed to make high-resolution measurements of isotopes in the element range from neon to nickel (10 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) at energies of about 2 GeV/nucleon. The instrument consists of a stack of 12 NaI(Tl) scintillators, two Cerenkov counters, and two plastic scintillators. The second part of this thesis presents an experimental measurement of the isotopic composition of the fragments from the breakup of high energy 40 Ar and 56 Fe nuclei. Cosmic ray composition studies rely heavily on semi-empirical estimates of the cross-sections for the nuclear fragmentation reactions which alter the composition during propagation through the interstellar medium. Experimentally measured yields of isotopes from the fragmentation of 40 Ar and 56 Fe are compared with calculated yields based on semi-empirical cross-section formulae

  12. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  13. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  14. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  15. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  16. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  17. 2002 Industry Studies: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Information technologies have facilitated the rapid growth of electronic market places across the energy industry for trading energy commodities, such as...and information technology industry has further increased the importance of abundant, low-cost, and reliable electric power. Recently, public...California, the country has recently slowed its efforts to make electricity markets more competitive. Recommendations. Unless some technological “silver bullet

  18. URBox : High tech energy and informal housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Y.J.; Smets, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance. First the

  19. Responding to high energy prices: energy management services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid growth in the number and sophistication of energy management companies has been observed in the wake of rising energy prices. These companies offer energy-efficiency consulting services to utilities, government and industry with the promise of improved cost efficiency, marketplace competitiveness and environmental commitments. The environmental benefits result from the reduction in emissions and pollutants associated with power production and natural gas used for space heating. In general, the stock in trade of these energy management companies is the energy audit involving evaluation of existing equipment in buildings and facilities and the resulting recommendations to install energy-efficient equipment such as lighting retrofits, boiler replacement, chiller replacement, variable speed drives, high-efficiency motors, improved insulation and weather proofing, water heaters and piping. The North American market for energy management services was estimated in 1997 at $208 billion (rising to $350 billion by 2004). Current market penetration is less than two per cent

  20. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  1. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  2. Differences in Classification Between Mono- and Polytrauma and Low- and High-Energy Trauma Patients With an Ankle Fracture: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick Marijn; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Verleisdonk, Egbert Jan; Leenen, Luke P H; Hietbrink, Falco

    Although fracture type and treatment options for ankle fractures are well defined, the differences between mono- and polytrauma patients and low- and high-energy trauma have not been addressed. The aim of the present study was to compare the fracture type and trauma mechanism between mono- and polytrauma and low- and high-energy trauma patients with an ankle fracture. We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study. Fractures were classified according to the Lauge-Hansen classification and a descriptive classification. High-energy trauma (HET) was defined using triage criteria. All other patients were classified as having experienced low-energy trauma (LET). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the injury severity score (ISS). Monotrauma patients were defined as patients with an ISS of 4 to 11 with an isolated ankle fracture or an ankle fracture with a minor contusion or laceration. Polytrauma patients were defined as patients with an ISS of ≥16 with ≥2 body regions involved. Patients with an ISS from 12 to 15 were excluded. A total of 96 patients were eligible for analysis. Of the 96 patients, 62 had experienced monotrauma and 34 had experienced polytrauma. A significant difference was found between the mono- and polytrauma patients in the Lauge-Hansen classification (p polytrauma patients. The same pattern was observed for ankle fractures after HET compared with LET (p polytrauma patients sustain different types of ankle fractures than patients with an isolated ankle fracture. This difference likely results from the high-energy transfer associated with polytrauma, because pronation abduction and supination adduction injuries were only observed after HET. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of lead tungstate crystal matrices in high energy beams for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G; Baillon, Paul; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Bateman, E; Bell, K W; Benhammou, Ya; Bloch, P; Bomestar, D; Borgia, B; Bourotte, J; Burge, S R; Cameron, W; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Connolly, J; Dafinei, I; Denes, P; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; El-Mamouni, H; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Finger, M H; Flügel, T; Gautheron, F; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, B W; Kirn, T; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Ma, D; Martin, F; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newbold, D; Newman, H; Oukhanov, M; Pacciani, L; Peigneux, J P; Pirro, S; Popov, S; Puljak, I; Purves, C; Renker, D; Rondeaux, F; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Schwenke, J; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Shevchenko, S; Shi, X; Sillou, D; Simohand, D; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Smith, B; Stephenson, R; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    Using matrices of lead tungstate crystals energy resolutions better than 0.6% at 100 GeV have been achieved in the test beam in 1995. It has been demonstrated that a lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter read out by avalanche photodiodes can consistently achieve the excellent energy resolutions necessary to justify its construction in the CMS detector. The performance achieved has been understood in terms of the properties of the crystals and photodetectors.

  4. Incidence of low and high-energy fractures in persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Obel, Niels

    2012-01-28

    To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV infection and to examine the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation on risk of fracture. Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time to first low-energy and high-energy fracture in HIV-infected patients (n = 5306) compared with a general population control cohort (n = 26 530) matched by sex and age during the study period 1995-2009. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture [IRR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.7] compared with population controls. The relative risk was lower in HIV-monoinfected patients (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4) than in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients (IRR 2.9, 95% CI 2.5-3.4).Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of low-energy fracture, IRR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.4-1.8) and 3.8 (95% CI 3.0-4.9). However, only HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of high-energy fracture, IRR of 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.9). Among HIV-monoinfected patients the risk of low-energy fracture was only significantly increased after HAART exposure, IRR of 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.1). The increased risk in HAART-exposed patients was not associated with CD4 cell count, prior AIDS, tenofovir or efavirenz exposure, but with comorbidity and smoking. HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture compared with population controls. Among HIV-monoinfected patients the increased risk was observed for low-energy but not for high-energy fractures, and the increased risk of low-energy fracture was only observed in HAART-exposed patients.

  5. Prompt High Energy Dipole γ Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, A.; Giaz, A; Bracco, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the collective properties of a nuclear system is a powerful tool to understand the structure which lies inside the nucleus. A successful technique which has been used in this field is the measurement of the γ-decay of the highly collective Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). In fact, GDR can be used as a probe for the internal structure of hot nuclei and, in addition, constitutes a clock for the thermalization process. Using the fusion-evaporation reaction, it has been recently possible to study (i) the yield of the high-energy γ-ray emission of the Dynamical Dipole which takes place during the fusion process and (ii) the degree of isospin mixing at high temperature in the decay of 80 Zr. In the first case it is important to stress the fact that the predictions of the theoretical models might differ depending on the type of nuclear equation of state (EOS) and on the N-N in-medium cross-section used in the calculations while, in the second physics case, the data are relative to the heaviest N = Z nucleus which has been possible to populate in the I = 0 channel using fusion-evaporation reaction. Both experiments were performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro using the HECTOR-GARFIELD array. The high-energy γ-rays were measured in coincidence with light charged particles and fusion-evaporation residues. (author)

  6. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  7. Interferometry of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The interferometry is used for determining large space time dimensions of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed in high energy nuclear collisions or in high multiplicity fluctuations in p-barp collisions. (M.C.K.)

  8. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  9. High energy physics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1985-01-01

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range

  10. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collica, Laura [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Paris Diderot Univ. (France)

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  11. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  12. An Exploratory Study on a High-Energy Flux (HEF) Calorimeter to Characterize Flammability of Advanced Engineered Polymers: Phase 1 - Ignition and Mass Loss Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tewarson, A

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a newly designed high-energy flux (HEF) calorimeter for the flammability evaluation of high fire resistant plastics exposed to high heat flux typical of combat field scenarios and large-scale fires...

  13. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author)

  14. CAMAC high energy physics electronics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1977-01-01

    CAMAC hardware for high energy physics large spectrometers and control systems is reviewed as is the development of CAMAC modules at the High Energy Laboratory, JINR (Dubna). The total number of crates used at the Laboratory is 179. The number of CAMAC modules of 120 different types exceeds 1700. The principles of organization and the structure of developed CAMAC systems are described. (author)

  15. Expectations for ultra-high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Strong interactions at ultra-high energies are discussed with emphasis on the hadrons produced in high energy collisions. Evidence is considered that quantum chromodynamics might be the right theory, and also some estimates are given of quantum chromodynamics asymptotic-freedom phenomena, the work under discussion being very preliminary. 6 references

  16. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Feasibility of High Energy Lasers for Interdiction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS FEASIBILITY OF HIGH ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES by Carlos Abel Javier Romero... ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carlos Abel Javier Romero Chero 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...the people or cargo. High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons are an effective way to deliver energy precisely from a relative long range. This thesis studies

  18. How partnership accelerates Open Science: High Energy Physics and INSPIRE, a case study of a complex repository ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079501; Hecker, Bernard Louis; Holtkamp, Annette; Mele, Salvatore; O'Connell, Heath; Sachs, Kirsten; Simko, Tibor; Schwander, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Public calls, agency mandates and scientist demand for Open Science are by now a reality with different nuances across diverse research communities. A complex “ecosystem” of services and tools, mostly communityDdriven, will underpin this revolution in science. Repositories stand to accelerate this process, as “openness” evolves beyond text, in lockstep with scholarly communication. We present a case study of a global discipline, HighDEnergy Physics (HEP), where most of these transitions have already taken place in a “social laboratory” of multiple global information services interlinked in a complex, but successful, ecosystem at the service of scientists. We discuss our firstDhand experience, at a technical and organizational level, of leveraging partnership across repositories and with the user community in support of Open Science, along threads relevant to the OR2013 community.

  19. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams: A multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Pasler, Marlies; Wegener, Sonja; Hoffman, David; Talamonti, Cinzia; Qian, Jianguo; Mendez, Ignasi; Brojan, Denis; Perrin, Bruce; Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard; Pallotta, Stefania; Peterlin, Primoz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1×1cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 , the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD 20,10 values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4×4cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 . The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (pphoton energies except for 18MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20×20cm 2 field and 10MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6MV to 0.9578 for 18MV and 0.9440 for 6MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.